Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Punishment of the Pillory, for stealing pork and fowls.
48 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book G. fol. cccxxvi. (Latin.)
Robert Colyer, of the County of York, was brought before the Mayor and Aldermen on Tuesday after the Feast of St. Hilary [13 January], in the 48th year etc., with a fillet of pork and two fowls, which on the Monday before, in presence of the said Mayor, while he, the same Mayor, was at St. Nicholas Flesh Shambles, in London, to make assay of flesh and fowl there, he took by stealth, and carried off.
And being questioned thereon how he would acquit himself, he could not deny the same. Therefore it was awarded that he should have the punishment of the pillory, there to remain for one hour, together with the fillet and fowls aforesaid; the reason for his punishment being there publicly proclaimed.
Lease of a moveable Stall, beneath the Gate of Ludgate.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xiii. (Latin.)
"This indenture witnesseth, that William Walleworthe, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty of London, have granted by these presents, with unanimous consent, unto Robert de Lenne, juweler, and Johanna, his wife, that they shall have and hold a moveable stall, situate beneath the Gate of Ludgate, on the side where the Friars (fn. 1) Preachers is situate; namely, between the upper post of that gate, situate near to the house which Thomas atte Crouch, sporiere, there holds, and the lower post of the gate aforesaid; that they may there expose their things for sale, in such manner as they have been wont heretofore there to have their stall: to have and to hold the same unto them, and either of them, from the Feast of Easter next after the date of these presents, to the end of ten years then next ensuing, fully to be completed; they rendering yearly to the Chamberlain of the Guildhall, for the time being, 40 shillings for the same etc. (fn. 2) Given at the Guildhall of the City of London, the last day of March, in the 49th year etc."
Lease of a Garden in Tower Ward, near the City Wall.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xiii. (Latin.)
"To all persons who this present writing indented shall see or hear, William de Waleworthe, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty of London, greeting in the Lord. Know ye that we, with unanimous consent and will, have let, and by this our present deed indented confirmed, unto John Watlyngtone, serjeant, a garden situate in Tower Ward, near to Londonwal, which John Scot lately held; being between the garden which Geoffrey Puppe holds, on the North side, and the garden which William Lambourne holds, on the South: to have and to hold the same to him and his assigns for the term of 30 years next ensuing; he paying 10 shillings yearly for the same etc. (fn. 3) Given at London, the Monday next after the Feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist [24 June], in the 49th year etc."
Indenture made between the Woodmongers of London and John Baddeby.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xx. (Norman French.)
"This indenture, made between John Joudelayn, Robert Potenhale, John Lyghtefote, Robert Parys, John Asshurst, Walter Potenhale, William Shrympelmersshe, Roger Yeokeshale, Thomas Hert, John Asshelee, and Thomas Freke, citizens and dealers of London, of the one part, and John Baddeby, of Tappeleawe, (fn. 4) in the County of Buckingham, of the other part, witnesseth, that whereas a dissension arose and was moved between the said dealers, and other dealers, as well of the City of London as among the people in the country, because that the same John claimed, as of right, to have custom and certain contribution from every vessel passing and coming through his loke, (fn. 5) called 'Baddebyesloke,' which the said John has there standing in the water of Thames;—as to the which the said dealers, as well for themselves as for all others having vessels in the said water, have made suit against the said John Baddeby before the Council of our Lord the King; insomuch that he, the said John Baddeby, has well understood and perceived that he has no right to demand the contribution aforesaid:—thereupon, the said John Baddeby has disclaimed and renounced, for himself and his heirs, all manner of actions, demands, and challenges, in any manner accustomed, and all contribution from vessels passing and repassing by the water of Thames from henceforth: so that all dealers, with their vessels, may freely and quietly pass through the said loke, when they may please, without hindrance or demand of the said John and his heirs, or of any other person in their name, by reason of their passing, for all time to come. In witness whereof, the parties aforesaid have to these indentures interchangeably set their seals. Given at London, the 28th day of June, in the year of Grace 1375, and the 49th year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third."
The Porters of the City Gates sworn that they will prevent Lepers from entering the City.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xx. (Latin.)
William Duerhirst, barbir, porter of Algate, and the several porters of Bisshopesgate, Crepulgate, Aldrichesgate, Neugate, Ludgate, Bridge Gate, and the Postern, (fn. 6) —were sworn before the Mayor and Recorder, on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle [24 August], in the 49th year etc., that they will well and trustily keep the Gates and Postern aforesaid, each in his own office and bailiwick; and will not allow lepers to enter the City, or to stay in the same, or in the suburbs thereof; and if any one shall bring any leprous person to any such Gate, or to the Postern aforesaid, or if any lepers or leper shall come there, and wish to enter, such persons or person shall be prohibited by the porter from entering; and if, such prohibition notwithstanding, such persons or person shall attempt to enter, then they or he shall be distrained by their or his horses or horse, if they or he shall have any such, and by their outer garment; the which such persons or person are not to have back, without leave of the Mayor, for the time being. And if even then such persons or person shall attempt to enter, they or he shall be attached by their bodies or body, and in safe custody be kept, until as to such persons or person it shall by the Mayor, for the time being, have been otherwise ordained.
And further, the same porters were told, on pain of the pillory, that they must well and trustily observe and keep this Ordinance, as aforesaid.
William Cook, forman (fn. 7) at Le Loke, (fn. 8) and William Walssheman, forman at Hakeney, were sworn that they will not bring lepers, or know of their being brought, into the City aforesaid; but that they will inform the said porters, and prevent the said lepers from entering, so far as they may.
Money given for cleansing the Fosses, in return for Masses for the soul of Thomas Legge.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxi. (Latin.)
Be it remembered, that on Friday the last day of August, in the 49th year etc., William Eynesham, Chamberlain of the Guildhall, received from Sir Thomas Goldyngtone, Rector of the Church of St. Christopher, William Wodehous, Richard Wylesdone, and Roger Claveryng, vendors of the tenements which belonged to Thomas Legge, (fn. 9) and disposers of the moneys arising therefrom, 100 pounds of such moneys; which they, of their own free will, granted unto the Mayor and Commonalty for cleansing the Fosses of the city aforesaid; on condition that the Chaplains celebrating in the Chapel of St. Mary at the Guildhall, should have the soul of the said Thomas, and the souls of Alice, Margery, and Simon Legge, in their Masses and prayers commended unto God.
The said Chamberlain afterwards accounted, after the Feast of St. Michael [29 September], in the 49th year, for all moneys received and expended between the Feast of St. Michael in the 48th year etc. and the Feast aforesaid; among which moneys, the same 100 pounds were accounted for, as having been expended in cleansing the said Fosses.
Punishment of the Thewe, inflicted upon a Common Scold.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxi. (Latin.)
Alice Shether was brought before the Mayor, on Tuesday the 4th day of September, in the 49th year etc., for that at the Wardmote of John Haddele, Alderman of Tower Ward, she was indicted for being a common scold; and for that all the neighbours, dwelling in that vicinity, by her malicious words and abuse were so greatly molested and annoyed; she sowing envy among them, discord, and ill-will, and repeatedly defaming, molesting, and backbiting many of them, sparing neither rich nor poor; to the great damage of the persons and neighbours there dwelling, and against the Ordinance of the City.
Wherefore, upon the complaint of the said Alderman, and of many of her neighbours in the same Ward, as well as at the suit of the Mayor and Aldermen having the governance of the City, the said Alice was questioned on the matters aforesaid, and it was enquired of her how she would acquit herself thereof; whereupon, she said she was in no way guilty of the things aforesaid, and put herself upon the country as to the same, etc.
The jury, by Robert Kestevene and eleven others, said upon their oath,—that she is guilty of all the things above charged against her. Therefore it was awarded that she should have the punishment of the pillory, called the "thewe," for women ordained, there to stand for one hour. And precept was given to the Sheriffs to have proclamation made of the nature of her offence.
Terms of reconciliation between the Parishioners of St. Iwayn and St. Nicholas and John Hoklee, spicer.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxi. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 10) Be it remembered, that on the 7th day of September, in the 49th year etc., came the reputable men, parishioners of St. Iwayn (fn. 11) and St. Nicholas Flesh Shambles, in the Ward of Farndone Within, and delivered unto William Waleworthe, the Mayor, a certain petition, in these words.—
(fn. 12) "Unto the honourable Lords, the Mayor and Recorder of the City of London, shew the good folks of the Parishes of St. Jwayn and St. Nicholas Fleshameles, in the Ward of Farndone Within, that whereas dissensions have existed between the said good folks and one John Hoklee, spicer, by reason of certain grievances and annoyances which the said John, night and day, has in flicted upon the said good folks; so much so, that all the neighbours have been many times aggrieved and damaged thereby, as well by night as by day, as before stated:—as to such dissensions the parties above mentioned, by leave of your Lordships, have agreed, that the said John Hoklee, from henceforth, himself or by his servants, or any one of his company, shall not commit any affray, grievance, or damage, against his neighbours aforesaid, but towards his neighbours shall peaceably conduct himself. And that the same may be well and loyally observed on part of the said John, the parties above mentioned have submitted unto your discreetness, that, in such manner as you shall think proper, the said John shall be bound unto the Chamber of the Guildhall." (fn. 13)
Ordinance restricting the length of the Alestakes of Taverns.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxii. (Latin.)
On Friday the Feast of St. Matthew the Apostle [21 September], in the 49th year etc., at the prayer of the Commonalty, making plaint that the alestakes projecting in front of the taverns in Chepe, and elsewhere in the City, extended too far over the King's highway, so as to impede those riding there, and other persons, and, by reason of their excessive weight, did tend to the great deterioration of the houses in which they were placed;—it was ordained and granted by the Mayor and Aldermen, as a befitting remedy for the same, and all the taverners of the City being summoned, orders were given unto them, on pain of paying 40 pence to the Chamber of the Guildhall every time the said Ordinance should be contravened, that in future no one should have an alestake bearing his sign, or leaves, (fn. 14) projecting or extending over the King's highway more than seven feet in length at the utmost: the said Ordinance to begin to take effect at the Feast of St. Michael [29 September] then next ensuing, and always in future to be in force.
Grant of the dwelling-house over the Gate of Crepulgate.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xiii. (Latin.)
"To all persons who this present writing indented shall see or hear, William de Waleworthe, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty of London, greeting in the Lord. Know ye that we, with unanimous consent and will, by reason of the good service by John Wallyngtone, serjeant, Common Crier of the city aforesaid, unto us oftentimes done, and hereafter to be done, have granted by these presents unto the same John all the dwellinghouse situate over the Gate of Crepulgate, with the chambers and other edifices over the same gate being, together with a stable to the same gate annexed; to have and to hold the same unto him, the same John, for the whole term of his life, he receiving and keeping there all prisoners by the Mayor and Aldermen, during the life of him, the same John, thither to be sent etc. (fn. 15) Given at London, the Monday next after the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel [29 September], in the 49th year etc."
Punishment for forestalling geese, in Holborne.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxii. (Latin.)
On Tuesday next before the Feast of St. Luke the Evangelist [18 October], in the 49th year etc., John Clerk, the Younger, poulterer, was attached to make answer to John Haddele and William Neuport, Sheriffs of London, on their plaint, that whereas from of old it has been ordained that no poulterer or other person shall buy poultry of any one, except in the common market, and in a place thereunto assigned, and that no one shall meet any victuals coming to the City of London, or in any way affeer, forestal, or buy, the same, before that they shall have come to full market, and then not before the time appointed therefor;—the said John, on Saturday the Feast of the Translation of St. Edward the King [13 October], in the 49th year, after dinner, bought of John Spenser 22 geese in Holborne, when coming to the City, he forestalling the same, against the Statute and custom of the City etc.
And the said John Clerk personally appeared before the Mayor and Aldermen; and being asked how he would acquit himself thereof, in full Court he acknowledged that he had bought the geese, in form as against him the same Sheriffs had declared. Therefore it was awarded, that the 22 geese aforesaid should be forfeited to the use of the Sheriffs.
Grant of the dwelling-house over the Gate of Aldrichesgate.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxiv. (Latin.)
"Be it remembered, that we, William Waleworthe, Mayor of London, and the assembly of Aldermen, with the assent of the Commonalty of the city aforesaid, by reason of the good service by Ralph Strode, Common Countor (fn. 16) of the said city, unto us done, and hereafter to be done, have given and granted unto the same Ralph all the dwelling-house, together with the garden, and all other its appurtenances, situate over the Gate of Aldrichesgate; to have and to hold the same, so long as he, the said Ralph, shall remain in the said office of Countor; it being understood that the Chamberlain, for the time being, during the next year shall cause at his own expense all and singular the defaults in the said house to be repaired etc. In witness whereof, we have caused the said grant among the Records in this Book of the Chamber of our City to be entered, the 27th day of October, in the 49th year of the reign of King Edward the Third."
Ordinances as to Poulterers; the Thames, and the Fosses; and common Beggars.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xv. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 17) Proclamation made in the time of John Warde, Mayor, on the Wednesday next after the Feast of St. Martin [11 November], in the 49th year.
(fn. 18) "That no freeman poulterer shall stand at the Carfukes (fn. 19) of the Ledenhalle, within house or without, with rabbits, fowls, or other poultry, for sale; but they are to expose the same for sale along the wall towards the West of the Church of St. Michael upon Cornhille; that so, all the foreign poulterers may stand by themselves, and expose their poultry for sale at the said corner of Ledenhalle, (fn. 20) without any freeman poulterer coming among them.
"Also,—that the foreign poulterers who enter by Neugate and Aldrichesgate, shall sell their poultry on the Pavement before the Friars Minors, near to the Fountain there.
"Also,—that the freemen poulterers there shall stand before the Church of St. Nicholas Flesshammeles, (fn. 21) and shall there sell their poultry, so as not to meddle with the foreigners in selling or in buying; on pain of forfeiture of the poultry between them sold, and of their being committed to prison at the will of the Mayor.
"Also,—that no freemen poulterers, themselves or by their wives, or by any other persons on their behalf, shall buy any manner of poultry of any of the foreign poulterers, privily or openly, before the hour of Prime rung. And that no person, of whatsoever condition he be, shall bring or expose for sale any manner of poultry that is rotten or stinking, or not proper for the body of man; on pain of forfeiting the same, and of punishment of the pillory.
"Also,—that no foreigner who brings poultry to the City, shall lodge in, or carry his poultry to, the house of any free poulterer; on pain of forfeiture of the poultry, and of imprisonment of them both.
"Also,—that no one shall by night or by day, privily or openly, throw rubbish, dung, or any manner of filth or other thing, into the water of Thames, or into the Fosses of the City, or any other place, to the damage of the said water of Thames, the Fosses, or the said city; but let every one keep the streets clean according to this Ordinance. And let no one cause any water or other thing to be thrown from the windows, by night or by day, within the franchise of the said city; but let them bring the same down to the ground below, and put it into the kennel there; on pain of imprisonment, and of paying 2 shillings, every time. And if any one shall be accused thereof, and cannot acquit himself by oath, let him have such penalty.
"Also,—that no one who, by handicraft, or by the labour of his body, can gain his living, shall counterfeit the begging poor, or shall set any one to beg for his living in the said city; on pain of imprisonment, and of being punished according to the ordinance of the Mayor and Aldermen thereon; and that nolazar (fn. 22) shall go about in the said city, on the same pain: and that every constable and bedel shall have power to take such persons, and bring them to Cornhulle and put them in the stocks, there to remain according to the Ordinance made thereupon."
Delivery unto John Costantyn by the Chamberlain of 438 documents under seal.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxv. (Latin.)
Be it remembered, that on the 22nd day of November, in the 49th year etc., William Eynsham, Chamberlain of the Guildhall of London, by precept of John Warde, the Mayor, and William de Haldene, the Recorder, in presence of John Pecche, John Aubrey, and Adam Stable, Aldermen, delivered unto John Costantyn, (fn. 23) son of John Costantyn, 438 written deeds and other remembrances under seal; together with divers other scrolls, in 15 cases, not under seal; the whole of which had been deposited in a certain chest; which chest Thomas Sallowe, late Master of the College of St. Thomas of Acon, in London, had delivered unto John de Cauntebrigge, the then Chamberlain of the said city, for safe custody etc., to the use of the said John, son of John Costantyn. (fn. 24)
Punishment of the Pillory, for frauds upon Hucksters of ale.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxvi. (Latin.)
Be it remembered, that William Felde, late serving-man to a serjeant of William Waleworthe, late Mayor of London, was committed to prison, for that he went to the houses of divers hucksters in London, and pretended that he was an officer sent by John Warde, the Mayor, to seize as forfeited such ale as in their houses he might find. And as it was known to them that he was such servant of the late serjeant, and they thought that he was telling the truth; and as he carried tablets in his hands in which he purposed to write their names, to present them to the Mayor; the same huck sters, being in dread of what he said, asked him to take something of them, and to let them sell their ale as before. Whereupon, from one of them he took 12 pence, from another 6 pence, and so divers gifts from several of them; of his own malice and falsity, to the disgrace and shame of all the officers of the City, and to the manifest scandal and damage of all the commonalty.
Upon which matters, on Saturday, the morrow of St. Andrew the Apostle [30 November], in the 49th year etc., being questioned before the said Mayor and Aldermen, he was asked how he would acquit himself thereof; whereupon, he acknowledged the things so imputed to him. Therefore it was awarded, that he should have the punishment of the pillory, to stand for one hour of the day upon the same.
Articles of the Cordwainers, or Tawyers.
49 Edward III. A.D. 1375. Letter-Book H. fol. xxvi. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 25) On Monday next after the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle [30 November], in the 49th year etc., came the reputable men of the trade of Cordwainers, and presented to John Warde, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, a certain petition, in these words.—
(fn. 26) "To the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London pray the good folks of the trade of Cordwainers of the same city, that it may please you to grant unto them the Articles that follow, for the profit of the common people; that so, what is good and right may be done unto all manner of folks, for saving the honour of the City, and lawfully governing the said trade.
"In the first place,—that if any one of the said trade shall sell to any person shoes of bazen as being cordewayne, or of calfleather for ox-leather, in deceit of the common people, and to the scandal of the said trade, he shall pay to the Chamber of the Guildhall, the first time that he shall be convicted thereof, 40 pence; the second time, half a mark; and the third time the same, and further, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall keep house within the franchise, if he be not free of the said city, and one knowing his trade; and that no one shall be admitted to the freedom without the presence of the Wardens of the said trade, bearing witness to his standing; on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—if any one of the said trade shall be found offending, touching the trade, or rebellious against the Wardens thereof, such person shall not make complaint to any one of another trade, by reason of the discord or dissension that may have arisen between them; but he shall be ruled by the good folks of his own trade. And if he shall differ from them, as acting against right, then let the offence be adjudged upon before the Mayor and Aldermen: and if he be found rebellious, against the Ordinance aforesaid, let him pay to the Chamber the sum abovementioned.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall entice or purloin the servant of another from the service of his master, by paying him more than is ordained by the said trade; on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—that no one shall carry out of his house any wares touching his trade, for sale in market or elsewhere, save only at a certain place, situate between Sopereslane and the Conduit; and that, at a certain time of the day, that is to say, between Prime and Noon. And that no shoes shall exceed the measure of seven inches, so that (fn. 27) the wares may be surveyed by the good folks of the said trade; because of the deceit upon the common people that might ensue, and the scandal of the said trade; on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—that no one shall expose his wares openly for sale in market on Sundays, at any place; but only within his own dwelling, to serve the common people; on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—that if any one has to do with old shoes, he shall not meddle with new shoes among the old, in deceit of the common people, and to the scandal of the said trade; on the pain aforesaid."