A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Queene Hithe Warde
Next vnto Bredstreete Warde on the south side thereof, is Queene Hithe warde, so called of a water gate, or harborow for boates, lighters, and barges, and was of old time for shippes, at what time the timber bridge of London was drawne vp, for the passage of them to the said Hithe, as to a principall strand for landing and vnlading against the middest and hart of the Citie. This Warde beginneth in the East, in Knightriders streete, on the south side thereof, at the East end of the parish church called the holy Trinity, and runneth west on the south side to a lane called Lambert hill, which is the length of the warde in Knightriders streete, out of the which streete are diuers lanes, running south to Thames streete, and are of this warde: the first is Trinity lane, which runneth downe by the west end of Trinity Church. Then is Spuren lane, or Spooners (fn. 1) lane, now called Huggen lane. Then Bredstreete hill. Then S. Mary Mounthaunt: out of the which streete are diuers lanes, running south to lane, turning East, through S. Nicholas Olaues church yard, to Bredstreete hill. This lane is called Finimore lane, or fiue foote lane, because it is but fiue foote in breadth at the west end: In the middest of this lane, runneth downe one other lane broader, south to Thames streete, I thinke the same to bee called Desboorne lane, for I reade of such a lane to haue beene in the parish of Mary Summerset, in the 22. yeare of Edward the third, where there is sayde to lye betweene the Tenement <of> Edward de Mountacute knight, on the East parte, and the Tenement sometime pertayning to William Gladwine on the west, one plot of ground, contayning in length towards Thames streete 25. foote, &c.
On the north side comming downe from Knightriders street, the East side of Lambart hill is wholly of this warde: and the west side, from the north end of the Blacke-smithes Hall (which is about the middest of this lane) vnto Thames streete. Then part of Thames streete is also of this warde, to wit, from a Cooks house called the signe of King Dauid, three houses west from the old Swan Brewhouse in the East, vnto Huntington house, ouer against Saint Peters Church in the west, neare vnto Powles Wharffe. And on the lane side, from a Cookes house called the blew Boore, to the west end of Saint Peters Church, and vp Saint Peters hill, two houses North aboue the said Church. And these be the bounds of this ward: in which are Parrish churches seuen, Halles of companies two, & other ornaments as shall be shewed.
First, in Knightriders streete, is the small parish church of the holy Trinity, very old, and in danger of downe falling: collections haue beene made for reparing thereof, but they will not stretch so farre, and therefore it leaneth vpon proppes, or stilts. Monuments as followeth.
Iohn Brian, Alderman in the raign of H. the fift, a great benefactor. Iohn Chamber had a Chauntrie there. Thomas Rishby Esquier, and Alice his wife, within the Chauncell. Iohn Mirfin, auditor of the Exchequer 1471. Sir Richard Fowlar of Rycote (fn. 2) in Oxfordshire, 1528. George Cope second sonne to sir Iohn Cope of Copesashby in Northamptonshire, 1572.
Towardes the west end of Knightriders street is the parish church of S. Nicholas Cold Abbey, a proper church, somewhat ancient, as appeareth by the wayes raysed thereabout, so that men are forced to descend into the body of the church: it hath bin called of many Colden (fn. 3) Abbey, of some, Cold Abbey (fn. 3) or Cold Bey, & so hath the most ancient writings, as standing in a cold place, as Cold harbor, and such like. The steeple or tall tower of this church, with the south Ile, hath beene of a later building, to wit the I. of R. 2. when it was ment the whole old church should haue bin new builded, as appeareth by the arching begun on the east side the steeple, vnder ye which, in the stone work, the armes of one Buckland Esquier and his wife, daughter to Beaupere, are cut in stone, & also are in the glasse windowes, wherby it appeareth he was the builder of ye steeple, & repairer of the residue. The 26. of E. the 3. An(drew) Aubery being Maior, T. Frere Fishmonger gaue one peece of ground to the said parish church of S. Nic. contayning 86. feete in length, & 43. feete at one end, and 34. at the other in bredth, for a Cemitorie or churchyeard. The 20. of Richard the second, Thomas Barnarde-Castle, Clearke, Iohn Sonderash Clearke, and Iohn Nouncy, gaue to the Parson and Churchwardens of the saide church and theyr successors, one messuage and one shoppe with the appurtenances in Distaffe lane and olde Fishstreete, for the reparation of the body of the saide church, the Belfrey or steeple, and ornamentes.
Buried in this church, Iohn Calfe, & William Cogeshall, 1426. Waltar Turke Fishmonget, Mayor 1349. Richarde Es<g>astone Fishmonger, 1330. Nicholas Wolberge Fishmonger, 1407. Thomas Padington Fishmonger, 1485. Robert Hary, Fishmonger, Iohn Suring, 1490. Roger Darlington Fishmonger, 1557. Richard Lacty, Parson, vnder a fayre tombe on the North side the Quire, 1491. Richard Bradbrudge, 1497. William Clarke, 1501. Iames Picman, 1507. Richard Farneford, 1525. Thomas Nicholas, Fishmonger, 1527. William Barde Fishmonger, 1528.
On the North side of this church in the wall therof, was of late builded a conuenient cistern of stone and lead, for receit of Thames water, conueyed in pipes of lead to that place, for the ease and commoditie of the Fishmongers and other inhabitantes, in and aboute old Fishstreete. Barnard Randolph, common sergeant of the citie of London, did in his life time deliuer to the Company of Fishmongers the summe of nine hundred pound, to be imployed towardes the conducting of the said Thames water, and cesterning the same, &c. in the parishes of S. Mary Magdalen, and saint Nicholas Cold Abbay, neare vnto Fishstreete, seuen hundred pound, and other two hundred pound to charitable deedes: he deceased 1583. and shortly after this conduit with the other was made and finished.
In Trinity lane, on the west side thereof, is the Painter stayners hall, for so of olde time were they called, but now that workemanship of stayning is departed out of vse in England. Lower down in Trinity lane on the east side thereof, was sometime a greate Messuage pertayning vnto Iohn Earle of Cornwell, in the fourteenth of Edward the 3. On Bredstreet hill down to the Thames on both sides, bee diuers faire houses, inhabited by Fishmongers, Cheesemongers, and Marchantes of diuers trades. On the West side whereof is the parish church of S. Nicholas Oliue, a conuenient church, hauing the monumentes of W. Newport, Fishmonger, one of the shiriffes, 1375. Richard Willowes Parson, 1391. Richard Sturges Fishmonger, 1470. Thomas Lewen, Ironmonger, one of the shiriffes, 1537. who gaue his messuage with the appurtenances, wherein hee dwelt, with foureteene Tenementes in the said parrish of saint Nicholas, to be had after the decease of Agnes his wife, to the Ironmongers, and they to giue stipendes appointed to Almes men, in fiue houses by them builded in the church yeard of that parrish, more to poore schollers in Oxford and Cambridge, &c. Blitheman, an excellent Organist of the Queens chappell, lyeth buried there with an Epitaph, 1591. &c. The next is old Fishstreete hill, a lane so called, which also runneth downe to Thames streete. In this lane, on the east side thereof, is the one end of Finimore, or Fiue foote lane. On the west side of this old Fishstreete hill, is the Bishoppe of Herefordes Inne or lodging, and auncient house and large roomes builded of stone and timber which sometime belonged to the Mounthauntes in Norfolke. Radulphus de Maydenstone Bishoppe of Hereford, about 1234. bought it of the Mounthauntes, and gaue it to the Bishoppes of Hereford, his successors. Charles Booth (fn. 4), Bishoppes of Hereforde and Chauncellour of the Marches, about the yeare 1517. repayred it, since the which time, the same is greatly ruinated, and is now diuided into many small tenementes: the Hall and principall rooms are an house to make Suger loaues, &c.
Next adioyning is the parrish church of S. Mary de Monte Alto, or Mounthaunt, this is a very small church, and at the first builded to be a Chapple for the said house of the Mounthaunts, and for Tenementes thereunto belonging. The Bishop of Hereforde is Patron thereof. Monumentes in this church of Iohn Glocester Alderman, 1345, who gaue Salt wharfe for two Chaunteries there, Iohn Skip Bishoppe of Hereford 1539. sate xii. yeares, died at London in time of Parliament, and was buried in this church. There was sometime a fayre house in the saide parrish of Saint Mary Mounthaunt, belonging to Roberte Belkenape, one of the Kinges Iustices, but the saide Belkenape being banished this Realme, King Richarde the second, in the twelfth of his raigne, gaue it to William Wickham Bishoppe of Winchester.
On the east side of this olde Fishstreete hill, is one greate House, now letten out for rent, which house sometime was one of the Halles, pertayning to the Company of Fishmongers, at such time as they had sixe Hallmotes or meeting places: namely, twaine in Bridgestreete, or new Fish streete, twaine in old Fish street, whereof this was one, and twain in Stockfishmonger row or Thames street, as appeareth by a Record, the 22. of Richarde the second.
I finde that Stephen Spilman, Gentleman, of that Family in Norfolke, sometime Mercer, Chamberlaine of London, then one of the Shiriffes and Alderman, in the yeare 1404. deceasing without issue, gaue his landes to his Family the Spilmans, and his goodes to the making or repayring of bridges and other like godly vses: And amongst others in this church he founded a chauntrie, and was buried in the Quire.
Richard Gray Ironmonger, one of the shiriffes, one thousand fiue hundred and fifteene, gaue forty pound to that church, and was buried there. At the West end of that church goeth vp a lane, called Pyellane. On the same North side, at the South end of Saint Mary Mounthaunt Lane, is the Parrish Church of Saint Mary Summerset, ouer against the Broken Wharfe: it is a proper church, but the monumentes are all defaced. I thinke the same to bee of olde time called Summers Hith, of some mans name that was owner of the grounde neare adioyning, as Edreds Hithe was so called of Edred owner thereof, and sithence called Queene Hith, as pertayning to the Queene, &c.
Then is a small Parrish church of Saint Peter, called parua or little, neare vnto Powles wharfe: In this Church no Monumentes doe remaine. At the West ende thereof, is a Lane called Saint Peters Hill, but two houses vp that Lane on the east side is of this warde, and the rest is of Castle Baynarde warde.
On the South side of Thames streete, beginning againe in the East, among the Cookes: The first in this warde, is the signe of Dauid the king: then is Townes end lane, turning downe to the Thames. Then is Queene Hith, a large receptacle for shippes, lighters, barges and such other vessels.
Touching the Antiquitie and vse of this gate and Hith, first I finde the same belonged to one named Edred, and was then called Edreds Hith, which since falling to the handes of King Stephen, it was by his Charter confirmed to William De Ypre: the Farme thereof in Fee and in Heritage, William De Ypre gaue it vnto the Prior and Couent of the Holy Trinitie within Aldegate, as appeareth by this Charter: To Theobalde by the grace of God Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of England, and Legate Apostolike, to the Bishoppe of London, and to all faithfull people, Clarkes and Laye men, William de Ypre sendeth greeting.
Know ye me to haue giuen and graunted to God, and to the Church of the Holy Trinitie of London, to the Prior and cannons there seruing God in perpetuall almes, Edreds Hith with the appurtenances, with such deuotion, that they shall send euery yeare twentie pound vnto the maintenance of the Hospital of S. Katherens, which hospitall they haue in their hands, & 100. shillinges to the monkes of Bermondsey, & 60. shillinges to the brethren of the hospitall of saint Giles, and that which remayneth, the said Prior and Canons shall enioy to themselues: Witnesses Richard de Lucie, Raph Picot, &c.
This Edreds Hithe after the aforesaid grantes, came againe to the Kinges handes, by what meanes I haue not read, but it pertayned vnto the Queene, and therefore was called Ripa reginæ, the Queenes banke or Queens Hith, and great profite therof was made to her vse, as may appeare by this which followeth.
King Henry the third, in the ninth of his raigne, commaunded the Constable of the Tower of London to arrest the shippes of the Cinque portes on the Riuer of Thames, and to compell them to bring their corne to no other place but to the Queens Hith onely. In the eleuenth of his raigne, hee charged the sayde Constable to destraine all fish offered to be sold in any place of this cittie, but at the Queene Hith. Moreouer in the twentie eight of the said kings raign, an inquisition was made before William of Yorke, Prouost of Beuerley, Henry of Bath, and Hierome of Caxton, Iustices Itenerantes, sitting in the Tower of London, touching the customs of Queen Hith, obserued in the year last before the wars betweene the king and his father, and the Barons of England, and of olde customes of other times, & what customes had beene changed, at what time the taxe and payment of al things comming thether, and between woorepath, and Anede Hith, were found and ceased, according to the olde order, as well corne and fish as of other thinges: all which customes were as well to be obserued in the parte of Downegate, as in Queen Hith, for the King vse. When also it as found, that the corne arriuing between the gate of the Guild hall of the Merchantes of Colleyne, and the soke of the Archbishop of Canterbury (for he had a house neare vnto the Blacke Fryers) was not to be measured by any other quarter, then by that of the Queenes soke.
After this, the Baliffes of the said Hith complayned, that since the said Recognision, foureteene forraine ships laden with Fishe, arriued at Belinges gate, which shippes should haue arriued at the saide Hith: And therefore it was ordered, that if any forraine shippe laden with fish, should in forme aforesaid arriue else where then at this Hith, it should bee at the Kinges pleasure to amerce them at fortie shillinges. Notwithstanding, the shippes of the Citizens of London were at libertie to arriue where the owners would appoynt them.
After this, the saide Henrie the third confirmed the graunt of Richard Earle of Cornwell, for the Farme of the Queene Hithe, vnto Iohn Gisors then Maior, and to the Comminaltie of London, and their successors for euer, as by this his Charter appeareth:
Henry by the grace of God, king of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Guien, and Earle of Aniow, to all Archbishops, &c. Bee it knowne, that we haue seene the couenant betweene our brother Richard Earle of Cornwell, of the one partie, and the Maior and Comminaltie of London on the other partie, which was in this sort. In the 30. yeare of Henry the sonne of king Iohn, vpon the feast of the translation of S. Edward at Westminster, this couenant was made betweene the honorable lord Richard Earle of Cornwel, and Iohn Gisors then Maior of London, and the Commons thereof, concerning certaine exactions and demands pertaining to the Queen Hithe of London. The said Earle granted for himselfe and his heires, that the said Maior, and all Maiors insuing, and all the Commons of the citie, should haue and holde the Queene Hithe, with all the liberties, customes, and other appurtenances, repaying yearly to the said Earle, his heires and assignes, 50.li. at Clarken well, at two seuerall tearmes: to wit, the Sunday after Easter 25. pound, and at Michaelmas 25. pound. And for more suretie hereof, the said Earle hath set thereunto his seale, and left it with the Maior, and the Maior and Comminaltie haue set to their seale, and left it with the Earle. Wherefore we confirme and establish the saide couenant for vs, and for our heyres, Witnesses, Raph Fitz Nichol, Richard Gray, Iohn and Wil. Brithem, Paulin Painter, Raph Wancia, Iohn Cumband, and other: at Windsor the 26. of Februarie, the 31. of our reigne.
The charge of this Queene Hithe was then committed to the Shiriffes, and so hath continued euer since, the profits whereof are sore diminished so that (as writeth Robert Fabian) it was worth in his time little aboue 20. markes, or 15. pound one yeare with an other. Now for customs of this Queene Hithe, in the yeare 1302. the 30. of Edward the first, it was found by the oath of diuerse men, that Bakers, Brewers, and others buying their corne at Queene Hithe, should pay for measuring, portage, and carriage for euery quarter of corne whatsoeuer, from thence to west Cheap, to Saint Anthonies Church, to Horshew Bridge, and to Woolsey streete in the Parish of Alhallowes the lesse, and such like distances, one ob. q.: to Fleete bridge, to Newgate, Cripplegate, to Bercheouers lane, to Eastcheape and Billingsgate, one pennie. Also that the measurer (or the meater) ought to haue 8. chiefe Master Porters, euery master to haue three porters vnder him, and euery one of them to finde one horse, and sackes, and he that so did not, to loose his office. This Hithe was then so frequented with vessels, bringing thither corne (besides fish, salt, fewel, and other marchandizes) that all these men, to wit, the meater, and porters, 37. in number, for all their charge of horses and sackes, and small stipend, liued well of their labors: but now the Bakers of London and other Citizens trauell into the Countries, and buy their corne of the Farmers, after the Farmers price.
King Edward the second in the first of his raigne, gaue to Margaret, wife to Peter de Gauestone, fortie three pound, twelue shillings nine pence ob. q. out of the rent of London, to be receiued of the Queenes Hithe. Certaine Impositions were set vpon ships and other vessels comming thither, as vpon corne, salt, and other things, toward the charge of cleansing Roomeland there, the 41. of Edward the 3.
The third of Edward the fourth, the Market at Queene Hithe being hindred by the slackenesse of drawing vp London bridge, it was ordained, that all maner of Vesselles, Shippes, or boats, great or small, resorting to the Citie with victuall, should bee solde by retaile, and that if there came but one vessell at a time, were it salt, Wheate, Rie, or other Corne from beyond the Seas, or other graines, Garlicke, Onions, Hearings, Sprattes, Eles, Whiting, Place, Cods, Mackarell, &c. then that one vessell should come to Queene Hithe, and there to make sale: but if two vessels come, the one should come to Queene Hithe, the other to Billingsgate: if three, two of them should come to Queene Hithe, the third to Belingsgate, &c. alwaies the more to Queene Hithe: if the vessel being great, comming with salt from the Bay, and could not come to these keyes, then the same to be conueyed by lighters, as before is ment.
One large house for stowage of corne craned out of Lighters and Barges, is there lately builded: sir Iohn Lion, Grocer, Maior 1554. by his testament gaue an hundred pounde towardes it, but since increased and made larger at the charges of the citie, in the yeare 1565.
Against this Queenes Hithe, on the riuer Thames of late yeres was placed a corne Mill, vpon, or betwixt two barges or lighters, and there ground corne, as water Milles in other places, to the wonder of many that had not seene the like, but this lasted not long without decay, such as caused the same Barges and Mill to bee remooued, taken asunder, and soone forgotten. I reade of the like to haue beene in former time, as thus: In the yeare, 1525. the sixteene of Henrie the eight, Sir William Bayly being Maior, Iohn Cooke of Glocester, Mercer, gaue to the Maior and Comminaltie of London and theyrs (fn. 5) for euer, one great Barge, in the which two corne Milles were made and placed, which Barge and Milles were set in, and vpon the streame of the Riuer Thames, within the iurisdiction and libertie of said citie of London.
And also he gaue to the Cittie all such Tymber, Bourdes, Stones, Iron, &c. prouided for making, mending, and repayring of the sayde Barge, and Milles, in rewarde whereof, the Maior gaue him fiftie pounde presently, and fiftie pounde yearely during his life, and if the sayde Cooke deceased before Iohan his wife, then shee to haue fortie Markes the yeare during her life.
Next adioyning to this Queene Hithe, on the West side thereof, is Salt Wharffe, named of Salt taken vp, measured and sold there. The next is Stew lane, of a stewe or hotte house there kept. After that is Timber Hithe, or Timber street, so called of Timber or Boordes there taken vp and wharffed: it is in the parrish of saint Marie Somershithe, as I reade in the fiftie six of Henrie the third, and in the ninth of Edward the second. Then is Brookes wharfe & broken wharfe, a watergate or key, so called of beeing broken and fallen downe into the Thames. By this broken Wharffe, remayneth one large olde building of stone, with Arched Gates, which Messuage as I finde in the raigne of Henry the third the 43. yeare, pertaining vnto Hugh de Bygot, and in the xi. of Edward the third, to Thomas Brothertun the kings brother, Earle of Norffolke, Marshall of England. In the xi. of Henry the sixt. to Iohn Mowbray Duke of Norffolke, &c.
Within the gate of this house, (now belonging to the citie of London) is lately, to wit, in the year, 1594. and 1595. builded one large house of great height, called an engine, made by Beuis Bulmar Gentleman, for the conueying and forcing of Thames water to serue in the middle and West parts of the Citie. The auncient great hall of this messuage is yet standing, and partayning to a great Brew-house for Beere. West from this is Trigge lane, going downe to the Thames. Next is called Bosse lane, of a Bosse of water, like vnto that of Belingsgate, there placed by the executors of Richard Wittington. Then is one great messuage somtime belonging to the Abbots of Chartsey in Surrey, and was their Inne, wherein they were lodged when they repayred to the Citie: it is now called Sandie house, by what reason I haue not heard. I thinke the Lord Sands haue beene lodged there. And this is an end of this Queene Hithe ward: which hath an Alderman, and his Deputie, common Counsell sixe, Constables nine, Scauengers eight, Wardmote Inquest thirteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene in London twentie pound, and in the Exchequer at xix. pound xvi.s. two pence.