A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Castle Baynard warde
The next is Castle Bainard Warde, so named of an olde Castle there: this Ward beginneth in the East, on the Thames side, at an house called Huntington house, and runneth West by Powles Wharfe, by Baynards Castell, Puddle Wharffe, and by the South side of Blacke Friers. Then turning by the East Wall of the sayde Friers, to the Southwest ende of Creede lane. Then on the North side of Thames streete, ouer agaynst Huntington house, by Saint Peters Church and lane, called Peter hill, along till ouer agaynst Puddle Wharffe: and then North vp by the great Wardrobe, to the West ende of Carter lane. Then vp Creede lane, Aue Mary lane, and a peece of Pater Noster Rowe, to the signe of the Golden Lion, and backe againe vp Warwicke lane, all the East side thereof, to the signe of the Crowne by Newgate Market: and this is the farthest North part of this Warde.
Then out of Thames streete bee lanes ascending North to Knightriders street: the first is Peter hill lane, all of that warde (two houses excepted, adioyning to Saint Peters Church.) The next is Powles Wharffe hill, which thwarting Knightriders streete, and Carter lane, goeth vp to the South chaine of Powles churchyarde.
Then is Adlestreete, ouer against the West part of Baynards Castell, going vp by the West end of Knightriders streete, and to Carter lane. Thus much for lanes out of Thames streete. The one halfe of the West side of Lambard hill lane being of this Warde, at the Northwest ende thereof, on the South side, and at the West end of Saint Mary Magdalens church on the North side beginneth Knightriders streete to be of this Warde, and runneth West on both sides to the parish church of Saint Andrew by the Wardrope.
Then at the said East end of saint Mary Magdalens Church goeth vp the old Exchange, al the west side wherof vp to the south east gate of Powles churchyard, and by S. Austens church, is of this ward. About the midst of this olde Exchange, on the west side thereof is Carter lane, which runeth west to the east entry of the blacke Friers, and the south ende of Creed lane, out of the which Carter lane descendeth a lane called Do little lane, and commeth into Knightriders streete, by the Bores head Tauerne: and more West is Sermon lane, by an Inne called the Powle head. Then out of Carter lane, on the North side thereof, the south Chaine of Powles Churchyard, and the church yard it selfe on that south side of Powles church, and the church of saint Gregorie, the Bishoppes Palace, and the Deanes lodging, be all of this Warde: and such be the boundes thereof. The Ornaments in this Warde, be parish churches 4. Of olde time a castle: Diuers Noblemens houses. Halles of Companies twaine. And such others, as shall be shewed.
In Thames street, at the south east end, is an ancient messuage, of old time called Bewmounts Inne, as belonging to that family of Noblemen of this realme, in the 4. of Edward the 3. Edward the 4. in the 5. of his raigne gaue it to W. Hastings, Lord Chamberlaine, Maister of his Mints. It is now called Huntinton House, as belonging to the Earles of Huntington Next is Pauls wharfe, a large landing place, with a common stayre vpon the Riuer of Thames, at the end of a streete called powles wharfe hill, which runneth downe from Powles chaine. Next is a great Messuage called Scrupes Inne, sometime belonging to the Scrupes, in the 31. of Henry the 6.
Then is one other great Messuage sometime belonging to the Abbey of Fiscampe, beyond the sea, and by reason of the wars, it comming to the hands of K. Edward the 3. the same was giuen to sir Simon Burley, knight of the Garter, and therefore called Burley, house in Thames streete, betweene Baynards Castle and paules wharfe.
There was also another tower by Baynards Castle, builded by King Edward the 2. Edward the 3. in the 2. of his raigne, gaue it to William de Ros (fn. 1) of Hamelake, in the County of Yorke, & his heyres, for one Rose yearely, to be payd for all seruice: the same place (as seemeth to me) was since called Legates Inne, in the 7. of Edward the fourth, where bee now diuers woodwharfes in place.
Then haue you Baynards Castle, whereof this whole ward taketh the name. This Castle banketh on the Riuer Thames, and was called Baynards Castle, of Baynard, a Nobleman that came in with W. the Conquerour, of the which castle, and of Baynard himselfe, I haue spoken in another place.
Then is there a great Brewhouse, and Puddle wharfe; a water gate into the Thames, where horses vse to be watered, & therefore being filed with their trampeling, and made puddle, like as also of one Puddle dwelling there: it is called Puddle Wharfe. Then is there a lane betweene the blacke Fryers and the Thames, called in the 26. of Edward the third Castle lane.
In this lane also is one great Messuage, of old time belonging to the Priory of Okeborne (fn. 2) in Wilshire, and was the Priors lodging when he repayred to London. This Prior being of the French order, was suppressed by H. the 5. and with other lands and Tenements pertaining to the said Priory, was by H. the 6. giuen to his Colledge in Cambridge, called now the kings Colledge. About this Castle lane, was sometime a Mill, or Mils, belonging to the Templars of the new Temple, as appeareth of record: for King Iohn in the first yeare of his raigne, granted a place in the Fleete, neare vnto Baynards Castle, to make a mill, and the whole course of water of the Fleete, to serue the said mill.
I reade also that in the yeare 1274. the 2. of E. the I. Ri. Raison and Atheline his wife did giue to Nicho. de Musely Clarke, 10 shillings of yearely free and quiet rent, out of all his tenements, with the houses thereupon built, and their appurtenances, which they had of the demise of the M. and brethren of knights Templars in England next to their mill of Fleet, ouer against the houses of Laurence de Brooke, in the parish of S. Andrew next to Baynards Castle: which tenements lyeth betweene the way, leading towards the said Mil on the west part. Also in the rights belonging to Robert Fitzwater & to his heyres, in the Citie of London, in the time of peace, it was declared in the yeare 1303. that the sayde Robert Castillon of London, and Banner bearer, had a soke (or warde) in the Citie, that was by the wall of S. Paule, as men go downe the streete before the Brewhouse of S. Paule vnto the Thames, and so to the side of the Mill, which is in the water that commeth downe from Fleete Bridge, and goeth by London wals, betwixt the Fryers preachers Church, and Ludgate, and so that warde turned backe by the house of the said Fryers, vnto the sayde common wall of the sayd Chanonry of S. Paule: that is all of the parish of S. Andrew, which is in the gift of his auncestors by seniority, as more I haue shewed in the Castles.
Now here is to be noted, that the wall of London at that time went straight south from Ludgate, downe to the Riuer of Thames, but for building of the Blacke Fryers Church, the said wall in that place was by commaundement taken downe, and a new wall made, straight West from Ludgate to Fleetebridge, and then by the water of Fleete, to the Riuer of Thames &c.
In the yeare 1307. the 35. of Edward the first, in a Parliament at Carlile, Henry Lacie Earle of Lincolne complained of noyances done to the water of the Fleete: whereupon it was graunted, that the said Mill should be remoued and destroyed.
Then to beginne againe on the North side of Thames street ouer against Huntington house by Saint Peters Church and lane called Peterhill, and so to S.Benet Hude (or Hithe) ouer against Powles Wharffe, a proper parish Church, which hath the Monuments of Sir William Cheiny knight, and Margaret his wife, 1442. buried there. Doctor Caldwell Phisition. Sir Gilbert Dethik, knight, Alias Gartar king at Armes. West from this church, by the south end of Adlestreete, almost against Pudle Wharfe, there is one ancient building of stone and timber, builded by the Lords of Barkley, and therefore called Barklies Inne. This house is now all in ruine, and letten out in seuerall Tenements, yet the Armes of the Lord Barkley remaine in the stone worke of an Arched gate, and is betweene a Cheueron crosses, 10. three, three, and foure.
Richard Beauchampe Earle of Warwicke was lodged in this house, then called Barklies Inne, in the parish of Saint Andrew, in the raigne of Henry the sixt. Then turning vp towardes the North, is the parish church of S. Andrew in the wardrobe, a proper church, but few Monuments hath it. Iohn Parnt founded a chauntry there. Then is the kings greate Wardrobe, Sir Iohn Beauchampe, knight of the Garter, Constable of Douer, Warden of the Sinke Portes (sonne to Guido de Beauchampe, Earle of Warwicke) builded this house, was lodged there, deceased in the yeare 1359. and was buried on the South side of the middle Ile of Powles Church. His Executors sold the house to King Edwarde the third, vnto whome the Parson of S. Andrewes complayning that the said Beuchamp had pulled downe diuers houses, in their place to build the same house, where through he was hindered of his accustomed tithes, payd by the tenants of old time, granted him 40. s. by yeare out of that house for euer. King R. the 3. was lodged there in the second of his raigne.
In this house of late yeres, is lodged sir Iohn Fortescue, knight, Maister of the Wardrobe, Chancellor and vnder Treasurer of the Exchequer, and one of her Maiesties most honourable priuy Councell. The secret letters and writings touching the estate of the Realme, were wont to be enroled in the kings Wardrobe, and not in the Chauncery, as appeareth by the records. Claus. 18. E. 4. 1. Memb. 13. Claus. 33. E. 1. Memb.3. Et liberat. I. E. 2. Memb. 4. &c. From this Wardrobe by the west end of Carter lane, then vp Creede lane, Aue Mary lane, a peece of Pater Noster Rowe, vp Warwick lane, all the east side, to a Brewhouse called the Crown, as I sayd is of this warde. Touching lanes ascending out of Thames streete, to Knightriders streete, the first is, Peters hill, wherein I find no matter of note, more then certaine Almes houses, lately founded on the west side thereof, by Dauid Smith Imbroderer, for 6. poore widowes, whereof each to haue 20. s. by the yeare.
On the East side of this lane standeth a large house, of auncient building, sometime belonging to the Abbot of S.Mary in Yorke and was his abiding house when he came to London. Tho. Randolfe Esquier hath lately augmented and repaired it.
At the vpper end of this lane, towards the north, the corner houses there be called Peters Key, but the reason thereof I haue not heard. Then is Powles wharfe hill, on the East side whereof is Woodmongers Hall. And next adioyning is Darby house sometime belonging to the Stanleys, for Thomas Stanley first Earle of Darby of that name, who maried the Lady Margaret Countesse of Richmond mother to Henry the seuenth, in his time builded it.
Queene Mary gaue it to Gilbert Dethike, then Garter principall King of armes of englishmen, Thomas Hawley Clarentioues king of armes of the south partes, William Haruy Alias Norey king of armes of the north partes, & the other Heraults and Purseuantes of armes and to their successors, all the same Capital messuage or house called Darby house with the appurtenances, scituate in the parish of saint Benet, and saint Peter, then being in the tenure of sir Richard Sackuile knight, and lately parcell of the landes of Edward Earle of Darbie, &c. To the ende that the sayde king of Armes, Heraultes and Purseuauntes of Armes, and their successors, might at their liking dwell together and at meete times to congregate, speake, conferre, and agree among themselues, for the good gouernment of their facultie, and their recordes might be more safely kept, &c. Dated the 18. of Iuly, 1555 Philip and Mary the first and third yeare.
Then higher vppe neare the south chaine of Powles Churchyeard, is the Powle head Tauerne, which house with the appurtenances was of olde time called Powles Brewhouse, for that the same was so imployed, but being since left off, and letten out.
On the west side of this streete, is one other great house builded of stone, which belongeth to Powles church, and was sometime letten to the Blunts Lordes Mountioy, but of latter time to a colledge in Cambridge, and from them to the Doctors of the Ciuill law and Arches, who keepe a Commons there, and many of them being there lodged, it is called the Doctors Commons. Aboue this on the same side, was one other great building ouer against Powles Brewhouse, and this was called Powles Bakehouse, and was imployed in baking of bread for the Church of Powles.
In Lambart hill lane on the west side thereof, is the Black Smithes hall, and adioyning to the North side thereof, haue ye one plot of ground, inclosed with a bricke wall for a churchyeard, or burying plot, for the dead of S. Mary Magdalens by old Fishstreet, which was giuen to that vse by Iohn Iwarby, an Officer in the receipt of the Exchequer, in the 26. of King Henry the sixt, as appeareth by Patent. Iohn Iwarby, &c. gaue a peece of land lying voyde in the Parish of Saint Mary Magdalen, nigh to olde Fishstreete, betweene the Tenement of Iohn Phi<l>pot on the south, and the Tenement of Bartholomewe Burwash on the west, and the Tenement pertayning to the Couent of the Holy Well on the North, and the way vpon Lambardes Hill on the East, for a Church yearde to the Parson and Church Wardens, &c.
Ouer against the North west ende of this Lambard Hill Lane in Knightriders streete, is the Parish Church of Saint Mary Magdalen, a small Church, hauing but few monuments, Richard Woodroffe Marchant Taylor, 1519. Barnard Randolph Esquire, 1583.
On the West side of this Church, by the Porch thereof, is placed a Conduit or Cesterne of Lead, Castelated with stone, for receite of Thames water, conueyed at the charges of the before named Barnard Randolph Esquier. By the East ende of Saint Mary Magdalens Church, runneth vppe the old Exchange lane, by the west end of Carter lane, to the southeast gate or chain of Powles Church yeard as is before shewed. And in this parte was the Exchange kept, and Bullion was receyued for Coynage, as is noted in Faringdon Warde within.
In this Parish Church of S. Mary Magdalen, out of Knightriders street vp to Carter lane, be two small lanes, the one of them called Do Little lane, as a place not inhabited by Artificers, or open shop keepers, but seruing for a neare passage from Knightriders street, to Carter lane.
The other corruptly called Sermon lane, for Shermoniers lane: for I find it by that name recorded in the 14. of E. the 1. and in that lane, a place to be called the Blacke loft (of melting siluer) with foure shops adioyning. It may therefore bee well supposed that lane to take name of Sheremonyars, such as cut and rounded the plates to bee coyned or stamped into Estarling pence, for the place of coyning was the olde Exchange, neare vnto the sayde Sheremoniars lane. Also I find that in the 13. of R. the 2. William de la Pole had an house there.
In the South Churchyeard of Powles, is the south side and west end of the saide Church: In the which west end, bee three stately gates or entries, curiously wrought of stone, namely, the middle gate, in the midst wherof is placed a massie pillar of brasse, whereunto the leaues of the said great gate are closed and fastened with lockes, boltes, and barres of yron: All which notwithstanding, on the 24. of December, in the yeare 1565. by a tempest of wind then rising from the west, these gates were blowne open, the barres, boltes and lockes broken in sunder, or greatly bended. Also on the 5. of January, in the yeare 1589. by a like Tempest of wind, then in the South west, the lesser west gate of the saide church next to the Bishoppes pallace was broken, both bolts, bars, and lockes, so that the same was blowen ouer.
At eyther corner of this west end, is also of auncient building a strong Tower of stone, made for Bell Towers, the one of them to wit, next to the pallace, is at this present to the vse of the same pallace, the other towardes the south is called the Lowlardes Tower, and hath beene vsed as the Bishoppes prison, for such as were detected for opinions in Religion, contrary to the faith of the church.
The last prisoner which I haue knowne committed thereto, was in the yeare 1573. one Peter Burchet (fn. 3) Gentleman of the middle Temple, for hauing desperately wounded, and minding to haue murdered a seruiceable Gentleman named Iohn Hawkins Esquire, in the high streete neare vnto the Strand, who being taken and examined, was found to hold certaine opinions erronious, and therefore committed thether, and conuicted, but in the end by perswasion, he promised to abiure his heresies: and was by commaundement of the Councell, remoued from thence to the Tower of London, &c. where he committed as in my Annales I haue expressed.
The rest of that south side of S. Paules Church, with the chapter House, (a beautifull peece of worke, builded about the raigne of Edwarde the third) is now defaced by meanes of Licenses graunted to Cutlers, Budget makers, and other, first to builde low sheddes, but now high Houses, which doe hide that beautifull side of the Church, saue onely the toppe and south Gate.
On the North west side of this Church yeard, is the Bishops pallace, a large thing for receipt, wherein diuers kinges haue beene lodged, and great housholde hath beene kept, as appeareth by the great Hall, which of late years since the rebatement of Bishops liuinges, hath not beene furnished with houshold meynie and Guestes, as was meant by the builders thereof, and was of olde time vsed.
The Deanes lodging on the other side, directly against the pallace, is a fayre olde House, and also diuers large houses are on the same side builded, which yet remayne, and of olde time were the Lodginges of Prebendaries and Residenciaries, which kepte great Housholdes, and liberall Hospitality, but now eyther decayed, or otherwise conuerted.
Then is the Stacioners Hall on the same side, lately builded for them, in place of Peter Colledge, where in the yeare, one thousande fiue hundred fortie and nine, the fourth of January, sixe men were slaine by the fall of earth vpon them, digging for a Well. And let this bee an end of Baynardes Castle Warde, which hath an Alderman, his Deputie, Common Councell, nine, Constables ten, Scauingers seauen, Wardmote Inquest foureteene and a Beadle. And to the Fifteene is taxed at twelue pound, in the Exchequer eleuen pound, thirteene shillinges.