A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Gouernors of the Cittie of London, and first of Ecclesiastical Bishops, and other Ministers there. (fn. 2)
Hauing thus run through the description of these Cities of London and Westminster aswell in their originall foundations, as in their increases of buildinges and ornaments, together with such incidentes of sundrie sortes as are before, both generally and particularly, discoursed: It remaineth that somewhat bee noted by me, touching the pollicie and gouernment, both Ecclesiastical and ciuill, of London: as I haue already done for Westminster, the order whereof is appointed by the late statute, euen as that of London is maintained by the customes thereof, most laudably vsed before all the time of memory.
And first to beginne with the Ecclesiasticall iurisdiction, I read that the Christian faith was first preached in this Iland (then called Britaine) by Ioseph of Arimathea, and his brethren disciples of Christ, in the time of Aruiragus, then Gouernor here, vnder the Romaine Emperour, after which time, Lucius king of the Britaines sent his Ambassadors Eluanus and Meduuanus, two men learned in the scriptures, with letters to Eleutherius Bishop of Rome, desiring him to send some deuout and learned men, by whose instruction he and his people might be taught the faith and religion of Christ. Eleutherius baptized those messengers, making Eluanus a Bishoppe and Meduuanus a Teacher, and sent ouer with them into Britaine two other famous Clearkes, Faganus & Deruuianus, by whose diligence Lucius and his people of Britaine were instructed in the faith of Christ and baptized, the temples of Idols were conuerted into cathedral churches, & Bishops were placed where Flammines before had bin, at London, Yorke and Carleon vpon Vske were placed Archbishops, saith some. The Epistle said (fn. 1) to be (fn. 1)sent by Eleutherius to king Lucius, for the establishing of the faith, ye may read in my Annales, Sommaries and Chronicles, truely translated & set down as mine author hath it, for some haue curtoled and corrupted it, and then fathered it vppon reuerend Bede, who neuer wrote word thereof, or otherwise to that effect, more then this as followeth.
In the yeare 156. Marcus Aurelius Verus the 14. Emperor after Augustus, gouerned the Empire with his Brother Aurelius Comodus, In whose time Elutherius, a Holy man, being Pope of the Church of Rome, Lucius king of Britaines wrote vnto him, desiring that by his commaundement hee might bee made Christian: which his request was graunted him, whereby the Britaines receiuing then the faith, kept it sound and undefield inrest and peace, vntill Dioclesian the Emperours time: thus farre Bede, which may suffice to proue the Christian Faith there to be receiued here. And now of the London Bishops as I find them.
There remaineth in the Parish Church of S.Petervppon Cornhill in London, a table wherein is written that Lucius founded the same Church to be an Archbishops see, and Metropolitane or chiese church of his kingdome, and that it so endured the space of foure hundred yeares, vntill the comming of Augustine the Monk & others from Rome, in the raigne of the Saxons. The Archbishops names, I finde onely to be set downe by Ioceline of Furnes, in his book of Brittish Bishoppes, and not else where. Thean (sayeth hee) was the first Archbishoppe of London in the time of Lucius, who builded the said church of S. Peter, in a place called Cornhill in London, by the aide of Ciran, chiefe Butler to king Lucius.
2.Eluanus was the second, and he builded a Library to the
same church adioyning, and conuerted many of the Druides,
(learned men in the Pagan law) to the Christian faith.
3. Cadar was the third, then followed,
12. Guidelium. (fn. 3)
13. Vodimusslaine by the Saxons.
14. Theanus, the foureteenth, fledde with the Britaines into Wales, about the yeare of Christ, 587. Thus much out of Ioceline of the Archbishops: the credit whereof I leaue to the iudgement of the learned, for I reade of a Bishop of London (not before named) in the yeare of Christ 326. to be present at the 2. councell, holden at Arles, in the time of Constantine the great, who subscribed thereunto in these wordes, Ex prouincia Britaniæ Ciuitate Londinensi Restitutus Episcopus, as plainely appeareth in the first Tome of the Councelles: hee writeth not himselfe Archbishop, and therefore maketh the matter of Archbishops doubtful, or rather ouerthroweth that opinion.
The Saxons being Pagans, having chased the Britons with the Christian preachers into the mountaines of Wales and Cornewall: and hauing diuided this kingdome of the Britons amongst themselues, at the length, to wit, in the yeare, 596. Pope Gregorymoued <of> a godly instiction (sayeth Bede) in the 147. yeare after the arriual of the Angles or Saxons in Britaine, sent Augustine, Melitus, Iustus and Iohn with other Monks to preach the gospel to the saide Nation of the Angles: these landed in the Ile of Thanet, and were first receiued by Ethelbert, King of Kent, whome they conuerted to the faith of Christ with diuers other of his people in the 34. yeare of his raigne, which Ethelbert gaue vnto Augustine the Citty of Canterbury.
This Augustine in the yeare of Christ 604, consecrated Melitus and Iustus bishops, appointing Melitus to preach vnto the East Saxons, whose chiefe citie was London: and there K. Sebert Nephew to Ethelbert by preaching of Melitus receiued the word of life: and the Ethelbert, king of Kent builded in the Citie of London S. Paules Church, wherein Melitus began to bee Bishop in the yeare 619. and sate fiue yeares. Ethelbert by his charter gaue lands to this Church of S. Paul: so did other kings after him. King Sebert through the good life, and like preaching of Melitus, hauing receiued Baptisme, to shew himself a Christian builded a Church to the honour of God and S. Peter, on the west side of London, which Church is called Westminster, but the successors of Sebert, being Pagans, expelled Melitus out of their kingdomes
Iustus the second, Bishop for a time, and then Melitus againe: after whose decease, the seate was voyde for a time: at length Sigebert, sonne to Sigebert, brother to Sebert, ruled in Essex: he became a Christian, and tooke to him a holy man named Cedde, or Chadde, who wan many by preaching and good life to the Christian religion.
This Citie of Ithancaster (sayth Raph Cogshall) stood on the banke of the riuer Pante that runneth by Maldun in the hundred of Danesey, but now is drowned in Pante, so that nothing remaineth but the ruine of the Citie in the Riuer. Tilberie (both the West and East) standeth on the Thames side, nigh ouer agaynst Grauesand.
Erkenwalde, borne in the castle, or towne of Stallinborough in Lindsey, first Abbot of Crotesey (fn. 4) was by Theodore archbishop of Canterburie, appointed to be Bishop of the East Saxons, in the Citie of London. This Erkenwald in the yeare of Christ 677. before he was made Bishop, had builded two Monasteries, one for himselfe, being a Monke in the Isle of Crote in Surrey, by the riuer of Thames, and another for his sister Edilburge, being a Nun, in a certain place called Berching in Essex: he deceased at Berching in the yeare 697. and was then buried in Pauls church, and translated into the new Church of saint Paule in the yeare 1148.
Waldhere was Bishop of London. Sebba, king of the East Saxons, at his hands receyued the habite of Monke, for at that time there were Monkes in Pauls church, as writeth Redulphus De Diceto, (fn. 5)and others. To this Bishop he brought a great summe of money, to bee bestowed and giuen to the poore, reseruing nothing to himselfe, but rather desired to remaine poore in goodes, as in Spirit, for the Kingdome of Heauen: when hee had raigned thirty yeare, hee deceased at Paules, and was there buried, and lyeth nowe in a coffin of stone on the North side of the Isle next the Quire.
Ingwaldus, Bishop of London, was at the consecration of Tatwine, Archbishop of Canterbury: he confirmed the foundation of Crowland in the yeare 716. sayth Ingulfus, and deceased in the yeare 744. as sayth Houeden.
838. Elbertus, or Celbertus (fn. 6)Bishop of London.
841. Deorwulf, (fn. 7)Bishop of London.
886. Elstanus Bishop of London, died in the yeare 900. saith Asser: and all these, sayth the Authour of Flores Historiarum, were buried in the old church of saint Paule, but there remayneth now no memorie of them.
1044. Robert a Monke of Gemerisins (fn. 8) in Normandie, bishop of London 7 yeares, afterward translated from London to Canterberie.
1051. William, a Norman, Chaplaine to Edward the Confessor, was made bishop of London, 1051. sate 17. yeares, and deceased 1070. He obtained of William the Conqueror the charter of liberties for the citie of London, as I haue set downe in my Summarie, and appeareth by his Epitaph in Paules church.
1085. Mauricius bishop of London: in whose time, to wit, in the yeare 1086. the Church of S. Paule was burnt, with the most part of this Citie, and therefore he laid the foundation of a new large Church, and hauing sitten 22. yeares, hee deceased 107, saith Paris.
1108. Richard Beame, or Beamor, Bishop of London, did wonderfully encrease the worke of this church begunne, purchasing the streetes and lanes adioyning of his owne money: and hee founded the Monasterie of S. Osyth in Essex: he sate bishop 19. yeares, and deceased 1127.
1189. Richard Fitz Nele the kings Treasurer, Archdeacon of Essex, elected Bishop of London at Pipwel, 1189: he sate nine yeares, and deceased 1198. This man also tooke great paines about the building of Paules Church, and raised many other goodly buildings in his Diocesse.
1199. William S. Mary Church, a Norman, bishop of London, who was one of the three Bishops that by the Popes commaundement executed his interdiction or curse vpon the whole realme of England, but he was forced with the other Bishops to flie the Realme in 1208. and his Castell at Stortforde (fn. 9) in Essex, was by commaundement of king Iohn ouerthrowne, 1210. This William in companie of the Archbishop of Canterburie and of the Bishop of Elie went to Rome, and there complained agaynst the king 1212. and returned, so as in the yeare 1215. King Iohn in the Church of Saint Paule, at the handes of this William tooke vpon him the Crosse for the holy land: hee resigned his Bishopricke of his owne voluntarie, in the yeare, 1221. sayth Cogshall.
1221. Eustachius de Fauconbridge, Treasurer of the Exchequer (saith Paris) Chancellor of the Exchequer (sayth Taxtor, and Cogshall) bishop of London, 1223. Whilest at Chelmesforde he was giuing holy Orders, a great tempest of winde and raine annoyed so many as came thither, whereof it was gathered, how highly God was displeased with such as came to receyue Orders, to the ende they might liue a more easie life of the Stipende appoynted to the Church men, giuing themselues to banketting, and so with vncleane and filthie bodies, (but more vncleane soules) presume to minister vnto God, the Authour of puritie and cleannesse. Falcatius de Breut was deliuered to his custodie in the yeare 1224. This Eustachius deceased in the yeare 1228. and was buryed in Paules Church, in the South side without or aboue the Quire.
1229. Roger Niger Archdeacon of Colchester, made Bishop of London. In the yeare 1230. sayth Paris, vpon the feast day of the conuersion of S. Paul, when he was at Masse in the Cathedrall Church of S. Paule, a great multitude of people being there present, suddenly the weather waxed darke, so as one could scantly see another, and an horrible thunderclap lighted on the Church, which so shooke it that it was like to haue fallen, and therewithal out of a darke cloude proceeded a flash of lightning, that all the Church seemed to be on fire, whereupon such a stench ensued, that all men thought they should haue died: thousands of men and women ran out of the church, and being astonied fell vpon the ground voyd of all sence and vnderstanding, none of all the multitude tarried in the Church, saue the Bishop and one Deacon, which stood still before the high Aultar, awayting the will of God: when the ayre was cleansed, the multitude returned into the Church, and the bishop ended the seruice.
This Roger Niger is commended to haue beene a man of worthy life, excellently well learned, a notable Preacher, pleasant in talke, milde of countenance, and liberall at his table. He admonished the Vsurers of his time to leaue such enormities, as they tendered the saluation of theyr soules, and to doe penaunce for that they had committed: but when hee sawe they laughed him to scorne, and also threatned him, the bishop generally excommuni cated and accursed all such, and commaunded streightly that such Usurers should depart farther from the Citie of London, which hither towardes had beene ignoraunt of such mischiefe and wickednesse, least his Dioces should be infected therewithall. He fell sicke, and dyed at his Mannor of Bishops hall, in the lordship and parish of Stebunheth, in the yeare 1241, and was buried in Pauls Church, on the north side of the Presbiterie, in a faire tombe coped, of gray Marble.
1241. Fulco Basset Deane of Yorke, by the death of Gilbert Basset possessed his lands, and was then made bishop of London, deceased on the xxi. of May, in the yere 1259. as saith Iohn Taxtor, and was buried in Paules Church.
1259. Henry Wingham Chancellor of England, made bishop of London, deceased in the yeare 1262. sayth Taxtor, and was buryed in Paules Church, on the South side without or aboue the Quire, in a Marble Monument, close at the heade of Fauconbridge.
1280. Richard Grauesend Archdeacon of Northampton, Bishop of London. It appeareth by the Charter warren graunted to this bishop, that in his time there were two woods in the parish of Stebunhith pertaining to the said bishop: I haue since I kept house for my self, knowne the one of them by Bishops hal, but now they are both made plain of wood, and not to be discerned from other grounds. Some haue fabuled that this Richard Grauesend bishop of London, in the yeare 1392. the 16. of Richard the 2. purchased the Charter of liberties to this City: which thing hath no possibility of truth, as I haue proued, for he deceased in the yeare 1303. almost 90. yeares before that time.
1307. Raph Baldocke Deane of Powles, Bishop of London, consecrated at Lyons by Peter Bishoppe of Alba, in the yeare 1307: he was a great furtherer of the new work of Powles, to witte, the East end called our Lady Chappell, and other adioyning: this Ralph deceased in the yeare 1313. and was buried in the said Lady Chappell, vnder a flat stone.
1339. Raph Straford Bishoppe of London: he purchased the peece of ground called No mans land beside Smithfield, and dedicated it to the vse of buriall, as before hath appeared: hee was borne at Stratford vpon Auon, and therefore builded a chappel to Saint Thomas there: he sate fourteene yeares, deceased at Stebunhith.
1381. Robert Breybrooke Chanon of Lichfield, Bishoppe of London, made Chancellour in the 6. of R. the 2. sate Bishoppe 20. yeares, and deceased in the yeare 1404: hee was buried in the saide Lady chappell at Powles.
1405. Roger Walden Treasurer of the Exchequer, Archbishop of Canterbury, was deposed, and after made bishop of London: he deceased in the yeare 1406. and was buried in Powles church, <by> Alhallowes aultar.
1406. Nicholas (fn. 10) Bubwith Bishoppe of London, treasurer of the Exchequer, translated to Salisbury, and from thence to Bathe, and lyeth buried at Wels.
1422. Iohn Kempe fellow of Martin (fn. 11) Colledge in Oxford, was made Bishop of Rochester, from whence remoued to Chichester, and thence to London: he was made the kings Chancellor in the yeare 1425. the 4. of Henry the 6. and was remoued from London to Yorke, in the yeare 1426. He sate Archbishop there 25. yeares, and was translated to Canterbury, hee was afterwards made Cardinall in the yeare 1452. In the Bishop of Londons house at Fulham he receiued the Crosse, and the next day the Pall at the hands of Thomas Kempe Bishop of London: he deceased in the yeare 1454.
1426. William Gray Deane of Yorke, consecrated Bishop of London, who founded a Colledge at Thele in Hartfordshire for a Maister and fourer Chanons, and made it a cell to Elsing spittle in London, it had of old time beene a Colledge, decayed & therefore newly founded: he was translated to Lincolne 1431.
1449. Thomas Kempe, Archdeacon of Richmond, consecrated Bishop of London at Yorke house, (now White hall) by the hands of his vncle Iohn Kemp, Archbishop of Yorke, the eight of February, 1449. He founded a chappell of the Trinity in the body of saint Pauls church on the north side, he sate Bishoppe of London 39. yeares, and 48 dayes, and then, deceased in the yere 1489. was there buried.
1505. Richard Fitz Iames fellow of Martin (fn. 12) Colledge in Oxford, in the raigne of Henry the 6. was made Bishop of Rochester, after Bishop of Chichester, and then Bishop of London. He deceased 1521. and lyeth buried hard beneath the Northwest pillar of the Steple in Paules, vnder a faire tomber of marble, ouer the which was builded a faire Chappell of timber, with stayres mounting thereunto: this chappell was burned with fire from the steeple 1561. and the tombe was taken downe.
1539. Edmond Boner Doctor of the ciuill law, Archdeacon of Leycester, then Bishop of Hereford, was elected to London in the yeare 1539. whilest he was beyond the seas, Embassadour for king Henry the eight. On the first of September 1549. he preached at Paules Crosse, for the which sermon he was charged before the counsell of king Edward the 6. by William Latimer Parson of saint Lawrence Poltney, and Iohn Hoper, sometime a white Monke, and being conuented before certain Commissioners at Lambith, was for his disobedience to the kings order, on the 20. day of the same month sent to the Marshalsey and depriued from his bishopricke.
1550. Nicholas Ridley Bishop of Rochester, elected Bishop of London, was installed in Paules church on the 12. of April. This man by his deede dated the 12. day after Christmas, in the 4. yeare of Edward the sixt, gaue to the king the Mannors of Branketrie and Southminster, and the patronage of the church of Cogshall in Essex, the Mannors of Stebunheth and Hackney, in the County of Middlesex, and the Marsh of Stebunheth, with al and singular messuages, lands, and tenements to the said Mannors belonging, and also the aduowson of the viccarage of the parish church of Cogshall in Essex aforesaid: which grant was confirmed by the Deane and Chapter of Paules the same day and yeare with exception of such lands in Southminster, Stebunheth and Hackney, as onely pertayned to them. The said king Edward by his letters patents, dated the 16. of Aprill, in the said fourth yeare of his raigne, granted to Sir Thomas Wentworth, Lord Wentworth, Lord Chamberlaine of the kings houshold, for and in consideration of his good and faithfull seruice before done, a part of the late receiued gift, to wit, the Lordshippes of Stebunheth and Hackney, with all the members and appurtenances thereto belonging in Stebunheth, Hackney way, Shorditch, Holiwell streete, White chappell, Stratford at Bow, Poplar, North streete, Limehouse, Ratliffe, Cleue streete, Brockstreet, Mile end, Bleten hall green, Oldford, Westheth, Kingsland, Shakelwell, Newinton streete, alias Hackney street, Clopton, Churchstreete, Welstreet, Humbarton, Grouestreet, Gunston street, alias Morestreet, in the county of Middlesex, together with the Marsh of Stebunhith, &c. The Mannor of Hackney was valued at lxi. li. ix.s. 4.d. by yeare: and the Mannor of Stebunhith at cxl. li. 8.s. II.d. ob. by yeare, to be holden in chiefe, by the seruice of the twenti<e> th part of a knights fee. This Bishop Nicholas Ridley, for preaching a sermon at Paules crosse, on the 16. of Iuly in the yeare 1553. was committed to the Towre of London, where he remained prisoner till the 10. of Aprill, in the yeare 1554. and was thence sent to Oxford, there to dispute with the Diuines and learned men of the contrary opinion, and on the 16. of October 1555. he was burned at Oxford for opinions against the Romish order of sacraments, &c.
1553. Edmond Boner aforesaid, being released out of the Marshalsey, was restored to the Bishoprick of London, by Q. Mary on the 5. of August in the yeare 1553. and againe deposed by Q. Elizabeth, in the moneth of Iuly An. 1559. and was eftsoones committed to the Marshalsey, where he died on the 5. of September 1569. and was at midnight buried amongst other prisoners in S. Georges churchyard.
1559. Edmond Grindal bishop of London, being consecrated the 21. of December 1559. was translated to Yorke, in the yeare 1570. and from thence remoued to Canterbury, in the yeare 1575. He died blind 1583. on the 6. of Iuly, and was buried at Crodwne in Surrey.
1594. Richard Fletcher, bishop of Worcester, was on the 30. of December in Paules church elected bishop of London, and deceased on the 15 of Iune 1596. Hee was buried in Paules church, without any solemne funerall.
This much for the succession of the Bishops of London, whose diocesse containeth the citie of London, the whole shires of Middlesex and Essex, and a part of Hartfordshire. These Bishops haue for Assistants in the Cathedrall church of saint Paules, a Deane, a chaunter, a chauncelor, a Treasurer, 5. Archdeacons, to wit, London, Middlesex, Essex, Colchester, and saint Albons, and 30. prebendaries: there appertaineth also to the said churches for furniture of the Quire in diuine seruice, and ministration of the sacraments, a Colledge of 12. pety Chanons, 6. vickars choral, & Queristers, &c.
This Diocesse is diuided into Parishes, euery parish hauing his Parson, or vicar at the least, learned men for the most part, and sufficient Preachers to instruct the people. There were in this citty and within the suburbes thereof in the raigne of Henry the second (as writeth Fitz Stephens) 13. great conuentuall churches, besides the lesser sort called parish churches, to the number of 126, al which conuentuall churches, and some others since that time founded, are now suppressed and gone, except the Cathedrall church of saint Paule in London, and the colledge of saint Peter at Westminster: of all which parish churches, though I haue spoken, yet for more ease to the Reader, I will here againe set them downe in manner of a Table, not by order of Alphabet, but as they be placed in the wardes and suburbes.