A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Tower streete warde.
The first Warde in the East parte of this cittie within the wall, is called Towerstreete ward, and extendeth along the riuer of Thames from the said Tower in the East, almost to Belinsgate in the West: One halfe of the Tower, the ditch on the West side, and bulwarkes adioyning do stand within that parte, where the wall of the cittie of old time went straight from the Posterne gate south to the riuer of Thames, before that the Tower was builded. From and without the Tower ditch West and by North, is the saide Tower hill, sometime a large plot of ground, now greatly streightned by incrochmentes, (vnlawfully made and suffered) for Gardens and Houses, some on the Banke of the Tower ditch, whereby the Tower ditch is marred, but more neare vnto the Wall of the cittie from the Posterne North till ouer against the principall fore gate of the Lord Lumleyes houses, &c. but the Tower Warde goeth no further that way.
Vpon this Hill is alwayes readily prepared at the charges of the cittie a large Scaffolde and Gallowes of Timber, for the execution of such Traytors or Transgressors, as are deliuered out of the Tower, or otherwise to the Shiriffes of London by writ there to be executed. I read that in the fift of King Edwarde the fourth a scaffold and gallowes was there set vp by other the Kings officers, and not of the Citties charges, whereupon the mayor and his Brethren complayned, but were aunswered by the King that the Tower hill was of the libertie of the cittie; And whatsoeuer was done in that point, was not in derogation of the cities Liberties, and therefore commaunded Proclamation to bee made, aswell within the Citie as in the Suburbes, as followeth: For as much as the seauenth day of this present Moneth of Nouember, Gallowes were erect and set vppe besides our Tower of London, within the liberties and franchises of our cittie of London, in derogation and preiudice of the liberties and franchises of this cittie. The king our soueraigne Lord would it bee certainely vnderstood that the erection and setting vp of the said gallowes was not done by his commaundement, wherefore the King our soueraign Lord willeth that the erection and setting vp the said Gallowes bee not any president or example thereby hereafter to be taken, in hurte, preiudice or derogation of the franchises, liberties, & priuiledges of the said cittie, which hee at all times hath had & hath in his beneuolence, tender fauour and good grace, &c. Apud Westminst. 9. die Nouemb. Anno regni nostri quinto. On the North side of this hill, is the saide Lord Lumleyes house, and on the west side diuers houses lately builded, and other incrochmentes along south to Chicke lane on the east of Barking church, at the end whereof you haue Tower street stretching from the Tower hill, west to S. Margaret Pattens church Parsonage.
Now therefore to beginne at the East end of the streete, on the North side thereof is the fayre parish Church called Alhallowes barking, which standeth in a large, but sometime farre larger, cemitory or Churchyearde. On the north side whereof was sometime builded a fayre chappell, founded by king Richard the first, some haue written that his heart was buried there vnder the high Altar: this chappell was confirmed and augmented by King Edward the I. Edward the fourth gaue licence to his cosen John Earle of Worcester, to found there a Brotherhoode for a Maister and Brethren, and he gaue to the Custos of that fraternity, which was Sir Iohn Scot Knight, Thomas Colte, Iohn Tate, and Iohn Croke, the Priorie of Totingbecke, and auotion of the parrish Church of Stretham in the county of Surrey, with all the members and appurtenances, and a parte of the Priory of Okeborn in Wiltshire, both priors Aliens, and appoynted it to be called the kinges chappell or chantrie, In capella beatae Mariae de Barking. King Richard the third new builded and founded therein a colledge of Priestes, &c. Hamond de Lega was buried in that chapple, Robert Tate Mayor of London, 1488. and other were there buried. This colledge was suppressed & pulled downe in the yeare 1548. the second of king Edward the sixt, the grounde was imployed as a Garden plot, during the raigns of King Edward, Queene Mary, and parte of Queene Elisabeth, till at length a large strong frame of Timber and bricke was set thereon, and imployed as a store house of Marchantes goodes brought from the sea, by Sir William Winter, &c.
Monumentes in the parrish church of Alhallowes Barking, not defaced, are these: Sir Thomas Studinham of Norwich Dioces, Knight, 1469. Thomas Gilbart Draper and Marchant of the Staple, 1483. Iohn Bolt Marchant of the Staple, 1459. Sir Iohn Stile Knight, Draper, 1500. William Thinne Esquier, one of the Clearkes of the Greene cloath, and Maister of the Houshold to K. Henry the eight, 1546. Humfrey Monmouth Draper, one of the Sheriffes, 1535. buried in the churchyearde. William Denham, one of the Sheriffes, 1534. Henry Howard Earle of Surrey beheaded 1546. Sir Richarde Deuereux sonne and Heyre to the Lord Ferrers of Chartley, Richard Browne Esquier, 1546. Phillip Dennis Esquier, 1556. Andrew Euenger Salter, William Robinson Mercer, Alderman 1552. William Armorer Clothworker, Esquier, Gouernour of the Pages of honor, or M. of the Heance men, seruant to Henry the eight, Edward the sixt and Queene Mary, buried 1560. Besides which there be diuers Tombes without inscription. Iohn Crolys and Thomas Pike, Cittizens of London, founded a Chantery there 1388. By the West ende of this Parrish church and chappell, lyeth Sydon lane, now corruptly called Sything lane, from Towerstreete vp North to Hart streete. In this Sidon lane diuers fayre and large houses are builded, namely one by Sir Iohn Allen, sometime Mayor of London, and of counsell vnto king Henry the eight: Sir Frances Walsingham Knight, Principal Secretary to the Queenes Maiestie that now is, was lodged there, and so was the Earle of Essex, &c. At the North West corner of this lane, standeth a proper parrish Church of Saint Olaue, which Church together with some houses adioyning, and also others ouer against it in Hartstreete, are of the saide Tower streete Warde. Monumentes in this parrish Church of Saint Olaue bee these: Richard Cely, and Robert Cely Felmongers, principall builders and benefactors of this Church: Dame Iohan, wife to Sir Iohn Zouch, 1439. Iohn Clarentiaulx King of Armes, 1427. Thomas Sawle, Sir Richard Haddon Mercer, Mayor, 1512. Thomas Burnell Mercer, 1548. Thomas Morley Gentleman, 1566. Sir Iohn Radcliffe Knight, 1568. And Dame Anne his wife, 1585. Chapone a Florentine Gentleman, 1582. Sir Hamond Vaughan Knight, George Stoddard Marchant, &c.
Then haue yee out of Towerstreete, also on the North side, one other lane, called Marte lane, which runneth vp towardes the North, and is for the most parte of this Towerstreet warde, which lane is about the thirde quarter thereof deuided, from Aldgate ward, by a chaine to bee drawn thwart the saide lane aboue the west ende of Harte streete. Cokedon hall, sometime at the South west end of Marte lane I reade of.
A third lane out of Towerstreete on the North side is called Mincheon lane, so called of tenements there sometime pertayning to the Minchuns or Nunnes of Saint Helens in Bishopsgate streete: this lane is all of the saide Warde, except the corner house towardes Fenchurch streete. In this lane of olde time dwelled diuers strangers borne of Genoa and those parts, these were commonly called Galley men, as men that came vppe in the Gallies, brought vp wines and other merchandises which they landed in Thames street, at a place called Galley key: they had a certain coin of siluer amongst themselues which were halfe pence of Genoa, & were called Galley halfe pence: these halfe pence were forbidden in the thirteenth of Henry the fourth, and againe by Parliament in the fourth of Henry the fift, it was that if any person bring into this realme Galley halfe pence, suskinges or dodkins, hee should be punished as a Theefe, and he that taketh or payeth such money, shall leese a hundred shillings, whereof the king shall haue the one halfe, and hee that will sue, the other halfe: notwithstanding in my youth I haue seene them passe currant, but with some difficulty, for that the english halfepence were then, though (fn. 1) not so broade, somewhat thicker and stronger.
The Clothworkers hall is in this lane. Then at the west ende of Towerstreet haue ye a little turning towardes the North to a fayre house sometime belonging to one named Griste, for he dwelled there in the yeare 1449. And Iacke Cade captaine of the rebels in Kent, being by him in this his house feasted, when he had dined, like an vnkinde guest, robbed him of all that was there to be found worth the carriage. Next to this is one other fayre house, sometime builded by Angell Dune Grocer, Alderman of London, since possessed by sir Iohn Champneis Alderman and Maior of London. He builded in this house an high Tower of Bricke, the first that euer I heard of in any private mans house to ouerlooke his neighbours in this Citie. But this delight of his eye was punished with blindnesse some yeares before his death: since that time sir Perceuall Hart a iolly Courtier and knight, harbenger to the Queene, was lodged there, &c. From this house somewhat West is the Parish Church, and parsonage house of Saint Margarets Pattens, to the which Church and house on the North side, and as farre ouer against on the South, stretcheth the farthest west part of this warde.
And therefore to begin againe at the East ende of Towerstreete, on the South side haue ye Beare lane, wherein are many faire houses, and runneth downe to Thames street. The next is Sporiar lane, of old time so called, but since, and of later time named Water lane, because it runneth downe to the Water gate by the Custome house in Thames streete: then is there Hart lane for Harpe lane, which likewise runneth downe into Thames streete. In this Hart lane is the Bakers Hall, sometime the dwelling house of Iohn Chichley Chamberlain of London, who was sonne to William Chichley, Alderman of London, brother to William Chichley, Archdeacon of Canterburie, nephew to Robert Chichley Maior of London, and to Henrie Chichley Archbishop of Canterburie. This Iohn Chichley, saith Iohn Leyland, had 24. children. Sir Thomas Kirrioll of Kent, after he had beene long prisoner in France, married Elizabeth, one of the daughters of this Chichley, by whom he had this Chichleys house. This Elizabeth was secondly married to sir Ralfe Ashton, Knight Marshall: and thirdly, to sir Iohn Burchier, vncle to the late Burchier Earle of Essex, but she neuer had childe. Edward Poynings made part with Burchier and Elizabeth to haue Ostenhanger in Kent, after their death, and entred into it, they liuing.
In Tower streete, betweene Hart lane, and Church lane, was a quadrant called Galley row, because Galley men dwelled there. Then haue ye two lanes out of Tower streete, both called Churchlanes, because one runneth downe by the East ende of Saint Dunstans Church, and the other by the west ende of the same: out of the west lane, turneth another lane, west toward S. Marie Hill, and is called Fowle lane, which is for the most part of Tower streete warde.
This Church of Saint Dunstone is called in the East, for difference from one other of the same name in the west: it is a fayre and large Church of an auncient building, and within a large Churchyarde: it hath a great parish of many rich Marchants, and other occupiers of diuerse trades, namely Saltars and Ironmongers.
The monuments in that Church bee these. In the Quire Iohn Kenington person, there buried, 1374. William Islip, person, 1382. Iohn K <i>ryoll Esquire, brother to Thomas K <i>ryoll, 1400. Nicholas Bond, Thomas Barry Marchant, 1445. Robert Shelley Esquier, 1420. Robert Pepper Grocer, 1445, Iohn Norwich Grocer, 1390. Alice Brome, wife to Iohn Couentry sometime Maior of London, 1433. William Isaack Draper, Alderman, 1508. Edward Skales Marchant, 1521. Iohn Ricroft Esquire, Sargeant of the Larder to Henrie the seuenth, and Henrie the eight, 1532. Edwaters Esquire, Sargeant at Armes, 1558. Sir Bartholomew Iames Draper, Maior, 1479, buried vnder a fayre Monument, with his Ladie. Ralfe Greenway Grocer, Alderman, put vnder the stone of Robert Pepper 1559. Thomas Bledlow, one of the Shiriffes, 1472. Iames Bacon Fishmonger, Shiriffe, 1573. Sir Richard Champion Draper, Maior, 1568. Henry Herdson Skinner, Alderman, 1555. Sir Iames Garnado knight. William Hariot Draper, Maior, 1481. buried in a fayre Chappell by him builded, 1517. Iohn Tate sonne to sir Iohn Tate, in the same Chappell, in the North wall. Sir Christopher Draper Ironmonger, Maior, 1566. buried 1580. and many other worshipfull personages besides, whose monuments are altogither defaced. Now for the two Church lanes, they meeting on the Southside of this Church and Churchyarde, doe ioyne in one: and running downe to the Thames streete: the same is called Saint Dunstans hill, at the lower ende whereof the sayd Thames streete towards the west on both sides almost to Belins gate, but towardes the East vp to the water gate, by the Bulwarke of the tower, is all of tower streete warde. In this streete on the Thames side are diuers large landing places called wharffes, or keyes, for Cranage vp of wares and Marchandise, as also for shipping of wares from thence to be transported. These wharffes and keyes commonly beare the names of their owners, and are therefore changeable. I reade in the 26. of Henrie the sixt that in the Parish of Saint Dunstone in the East a tenement called Passekes wharffe, & another called Horners key in Thames streete, were granted to William Harindon Esquire. I reade also that in the sixt of Richard the second, Iohn Churchman Grocer, for the quiet of Marchants, did newly build a certaine house vpon the key, called woole wharfe, in the Tower streete warde, in the Parish of Alhallowes Barking, betwixt the tenement of Paule Salisberrie, on the East part, and the lane called the water gate on the west, to serue for Tronage, or weighing of woolles in the Port of London Whereupon the king graunted that during the life of the said Iohn, the aforesayd Tronage should be held and kept in the said house, with easements there for the balances and weightes, and a counting place for the Customer, Controwlers, Clarkes and other Officers of the said Tronage, togither with ingresse and egresse to and from the same, euen as was had in other places, where the sayd Tronage was woont to be kept, and that the king should pay yearely to the said Iohn during his life fortie shillings at the termes of S. Michael & Easter, by euen portions, by the handes of his Customer, without any other payment to the said Iohn, as in the Indenture thereof more at large appeareth.
Neare vnto this Customers key towardes the East, is the sayd watergate, and west from it Porters key, then Galley key, where the Gallies were vsed to vnlade, and land their marchandizes, and wares: and that part of Thames streete was therefore of some called Galley Row, but more commonly petty Wales.
On the North side, as well as on the South of this Thames streete, is many fayre houses large for stowage, builded for Marchants, but towardes the East end thereof, namely ouer agaynst Galley key, Wooll key, and the Custome house, there haue been of olde time some large buildings of stone, the ruines whereof doe yet remaine, but the first builders and owners of them are worne out of memorie, wherefore the common people affirm Iulius Cæsar to be the builder thereof, as also of the Tower it selfe. But thereof I haue spoken alreadie. Some are of another opinion and that a more likely, that this great stone building was sometime the lodging appointed for the Princes of Wales, when they repayred to this Citie, and that therefore the street in that part is called petty Wales, which name remaineth there most commonly vntill this day.: euen as where the kinges of Scotland were vsed to be lodged betwixt Charing crosse, and white hall, it is likewise called Scotland: and where the Earles of Briton were lodged without Aldersgate, the streete is called Britaine streete, &c.
It is before noted of Galley key, that the Gallyes of Italie, &other partes did there discharge their wines and marchandizes brought to this Citie. It is like therefore that the Marchants and Owners procured the place to builde vpon for their lodgings and storehouses, as the Marchants of the Haunce of Almaine were licenced to haue an house called Gilda Teutonicorum, the Guild hall of the Germanes. Also the Marchants of Burdeaux were licenced to build at the Vintry, strongly with stone, as may be yet seene and seemeth olde, though often repayred: much more cause hath these buildings in Pettie Wales, though as lately builded, and partly of the like stone brought from Cane in Normandie, to seeme olde, which for many yeares, to wit, since the Gallies left their course of landing there, hath fallen to ruine, and beene letten out for stabling of horses, to Tipplers of Beere, and such like: amongst others, one mother Mampudding (as they termed her) for many yeares kept this house, or a great part thereof, for victualing, and it seemeth that the builders of the hall of this house were shipwrights, and not house Carpenters: for the frame thereof (being but low) is raysed of certaine principall postes of maine timber, fixed deepe in the ground, without any groundsell, boorded close round about on the inside, hauing none other wal from the ground to the roofe: those Boordes not exceeding the length of a Clapboord, about an inch thicke, euery Boorde ledging ouer other, as in a Ship or Gallie, nayled with Ship nayles called rugh, and clenche, to wit, rugh nayles with broad round heades, and clenched on the other side with square plates of iron: the roofe of this hall is also wrought of the like boord, and nayled with rugh and clench, and seemeth as it were a Gallie, the Keele turned vpwards, and I obserued that no worme or rottennesse is seene to haue entred either boord or tymber of that hall, and therefore, in mine opinion, of no great antiquitie.
I reade in 44. of Edward the third, that an Hospitall in the Parish of Barking Church was founded by Robert Denton Chaplen, for the sustentation of poore Priests, and other both men and women, that were sicke of the Phrenzie, there to remaine till they were perfectly whole, and restored to good memorie. Also I reade that in the 6. of Henrie the fift, there was in the Tower ward, a Messuage or great house, called Cobhams Inne, and in the 37. of Henrie the sixt, a Messuage in Thames streete, perteyning to Richard Longuile, &c. Some of the ruines before spoken of, may seeme to be of the foresayd Hospitall, belonging peraduenture to some Prior Alien, and so suppressed amongst the rest, in the raigne of Edward the third, or Henrie the fift, who suppressed them all. Thus much for the boundes and antiquities of this warde, wherein is noted the Tower of London, three Parish Churches, the Custome house, and two Hals of Companies, to wit, the Clothworkers, and the Bakers. This ward hath an Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors eight, Constables thirteene, Scauengers twelue, Wardmote men thirteene, and a Beedle: it is taxed to the fifteene at sixe and twentie pounds.