A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Candlewicke street warde
Candlewick Streete, or Candlewright streete warde, beginneth at the East end of great Eastcheape, it passeth west through Eastcheape to Candlewright streete, and through the same downe to the north ende of Suffolke lane, on the south side, and downe that lane by the west ende of saint Laurence Churchyard, which is the farthest west part of that ward. The streete of great Eastcheape is so called of the Market there kept, in the East part of the Citie, as West Cheape is a Market so called of being in the West.
This Eastcheape is now a flesh Market of Butchers there dwelling, on both sides of the streete, it had sometime also Cookes mixed amongst the Butchers, and such other as solde victuals readie dressed of all sorts. For of olde time when friends did meet, and were disposed to be merrie, they went not to dine and suppe in Tauerns, but to the Cookes, where they called for meate what them liked, which they alwayes found ready dressed at a reasonable rate, as I haue before shewed.
The kings sons beaten in Eastcheape, there was no tauerne then in Eastcheape.; In west cheap linnen cloth sold but no silkes spoken of.; Fripparia. Vpholders vpon Cornhill, sellers of olde apparell and household stuff, Eastcheape.; Candlewright or Candlewike street: wike is a working place.; Weauers in Candlewike streete. Weauers brought out of Flanders and Brabant.; S. Clements lane; parish church of S. Clement in Eastcheape.; Abchurch lane. Parish church of S. Marie Abchurch.
In the yeare 1410. the 11. of Henrie the fourth, vpon the euen of saint Iohn Baptist, the kings sonnes, Thomas and Iohn, being in Eastcheape at supper, (or rather at breakefast, for it was after the watch was broken vp, betwixt two and three of the clock after midnight) a great debate happened betweene their men, and other of the Court, which lasted one houre, till the Maior and Shiriffes with other Citizens appeased the same: for the which afterwards the said Maior, Aldermen and shiriffes, were called to answere before the King, his sonnes, and diuerse Lordes, being highly mooued against the Citie. At which time William Gascoyne chiefe Iustice required the Maior and Aldermen, for the Citizens, to put them in the kings grace: whereunto they aunswered, that they had not offended, but (according to the law) had done their best in stinting debate, and maintaining of the peace: vpon which aunswere the king remitted all his ire, and dismissed them. And to prooue this Eastcheape to bee a place replenished with Cookes, it may appeare by a song called London lickepennie, made by Lidgate a Monke of Berrie, in the raigne of Henrie the fift, in the person of a Countrie man comming to London, and trauelling through the same. In West Cheape (saith the song) hee was called on to buy fine lawne, Paris threed, cotton Vmble (fn. 1) and other linnin clothes, and such like (he speaketh of no silks) in Cornhill to buy old apparell, and houshold stuffe, where he was forced to buy his owne hoode, which hee had lost in Westminster hall: in Candlewright streete Drapers profered him cheape cloath, in East cheape the Cookes cried hot ribbes of beefe rosted, pies well baked, and other victuals: there was clattering of Pewter pots, harpe, pipe, and sawtrie, yea by cocke, nay by cocke, for greater othes were spared: some sang of Ienken, and Iulian, &c. all which melodie liked well the passenger, but he wanted money to abide by it, and therefore gat him into Grauesend barge, & home into Kent. Candlewright (so called in olde Records of the Guildhall, of saint Marie Oueries, and other) or Candlewicke streete tooke that name (as may bee supposed) either of Chandlers, or makers of Candles, both of waxe and tallow: for Candlewright is a maker of Candles, or of Weeke which is the cotton or yarne thereof: or otherwise Wike, which is the place where they vsed to worke them, as Scalding wike by the stockes Market was called of the Poulters scalding and dressing their poultrie there: and in diuerse Countries, Dayrie houses, or Cottages, wherein they make butter and cheese, are vsually called Wickes. There dwelled also of old time diuers Weauers of woollen clothes, brought in by Edward the third. For I reade that in the 44. of his raigne the Weauers brought out of Flaunders were appointed their meetings to be in the Churchyard of saint Laurence Poultney, and the Weauers of Brabant in the churchyard of saint Mary Sommerset. There were then in this citie weauers of diuerse sorts, to wit, of Drapery or Taperie, and Naperie. These Weauers of Candlewright street being in short time worne out, their place is now possessed by rich Drapers, sellers of woollen cloth, &c. On the north side of this warde, at the west end of East cheape, haue yee saint Clements lane, a part whereof on both sides is of Candlewike streete ward, to wit, somewhat North beyond the parish Church of saint Clement in Eastcheape. This is a smal Church, void of monuments, other then of Francis Barnam Alderman, who deceased 1575, and of Benedicke Barnam his sonne, alderman also, 1598. William Chartney, and William Ouerie, founded a Chaunterie there. Next is saint Nicholas lane for the most part on both sides of this ward, almost to saint Nicholas church. Then is Abchurch lane, which is on both the sides, almost wholy of this ward, the parish Church there (called of saint Marie Abchurch, Apechurch, or Vpchurch as I haue read it) standeth somewhat neere vnto the south ende thereof, on a rising ground: it is a faire Church, Simon de Winchcomb founded a Chaunterie there, the 19. of Richard the second. Iohn Littleton founded an other, and Thomas Hondon an other, & hath the monuments of I. Long Esquire of Bedfordshire, 1442. William Wikenson Alderman, 1519. William Iawdrell Tayler, 1440. sir Iames Hawes Maior, 1574. sir Iohn Branch Maior, 1580. Iohn Miners, William Kettle, &c.
S. Michaels lane.; Crooked lane. Leaden Porch in Crooked lane. Parish church of S. Michaell in Crooked lane.; Fable of William Walworth, and lacke Straw reproued. Praise of W. Walworth for his manhood in arresting of Wat Tylar. The Maior was well armed, and had on his head a Basonet. T. Walsing. H. Knighton. Lib. S. Mariæ Eborum.; Maior made knight, and otherwise rewarded.; Order of making a knight for seruice in the field.; Aldermen knighted.
On the south side of this warde, beginning againe at the East, is saint Michaels lane, which lane is almost wholy of this warde, on both sides downe towardes Thames streete, to a Well or Pumpe there. On the East side of this lane is Crooked lane aforesaid by saint Michaels Church, towards new Fish streete. One the most ancient house in this lane is called the leaden porch, and belonged sometime to sir Iohn Merston knight, the first of Edward the fourth: It is now called the swan in Crooked lane, possessed of strangers, and selling of Rhenish wine. The parish church of this S. Michaels was sometime but a small and homely thing, standing upon part of that ground, wherein now standeth the parsonage house: and the ground there about was a filthie plot, by reason of the Butchers in Eastcheape, who made the same their Laystall. William de Burgo gaue two messuages to that Church in Candlewicke streete, 1317. Iohn Loueken stockfishmonger, foure times Maior, builded in the same ground this faire Church of saint Michael, and was there buried in the Quier, vnder a faire tombe with the Images of him and his wife in Alabaster: the said Church hath beene since increased with a new Quier and side chappels by sir William Walworth Stockfishmonger, Maior, sometime seruant to the saide Iohn Loueken: also the tombe of Loueken was remoued, and a flat stone of gray Marble garnished with plates of Copper laid on him, as it yet remaineth in the bodie of the Church: this William Walworth is reported to haue slaine Iake Straw, but Iacke Straw being afterward taken, was first adiudged by the said Maior, and then executed by the losse of his head in Smithfield. True it is that this William Walworth being a man wise, learned, and of an incomparable manhood, arrested Wat Tyler a presumptuous rebell, vpon whom no man durst lay hand, whereby hee deliuered the king and kingdome from most wicked tyrannie of traytors. The Maior arrested him on the head with a sounde blow, wherevpon Wat Tyler furiously stroke the Maior with his Dagger, but hurt him not, by reason he was well armed; the Maior hauing receiued his stroke, drew his basiliard, and grieuously wounded Wat in the necke, and withall gaue him a great blow on the head: in the which conflict, an Esquire of the kings house, called Iohn Cauendish, drew his sword, and wounded Wat twise or thrise euen to the death: and Wat spurring his horse, cried to the commons to reuenge him: the horse bare him about 80. foote from the place, and there hee fell downe halfe dead, and by and by they which attended on the king enuironed him about, so as he was not seene of his companie: many of them thrust him in diuerse places of his bodie, and drew him into the Hospitall of S. Bartholomew, from whence againe the Maior caused him to be drawne into Smithfield and there to be beheaded. In reward of this seruice, (the people being dispersed) the king commaunded the Maior to put a Basenet on his heade, and the Maior requesting why he should so do, the king answered, he being much bound vnto him, would make him knight: the Maior answered, that hee was neither worthie nor able to take such estate vpon him, for he was but a Marchant, and had to liue by his Marchandise onely: notwithstanding, the king made him put on his Basenet, and then with a sworde in both his hands he strongly stroke him on the necke, as the manner was then, and the same day he made three other Citizens knights for his sake in the same place, to wit, Iohn Philpot, Nicholas Brember, and Robert Launde Aldermen. The king gaue to the Maior 100. pound land by yeare, and to each of the other 40. pound land yearely, to them and their heyres for euer.
After this in the same yeare, the said sir William Walworth founded in the said parish church of S. Michael, a Colledge of a master and nine priests or Chaplens, and deceased 1385. was there buried in the north Chappell by the Quier: but his monument being amongst other by bad people defaced in the raigne of Edward the sixt and againe since renued by the Fishmongers for lacke of knowledge, what before had beene written in his Epitaph, they followed a fabulous booke, and wrote Iacke Straw, insteade of Wat Tilar, a great error meete to be reformed there, and else where, and therefore haue I the more at large discoursed of this matter.
Dunthorne.; Old seale of the Mayoralty broken and a new seale made. The Armes of this Citty were not altered, but remayne as afore, to witte, argent, a playne crosse Gules, a sword of S. Paule, in the first quarter, and no dagger of W. Walworth as is fabuled.
It hath also beene, and is now growne to a common opinion, that in reward of this seruice done, by the said William Walworth against the rebell, King Richard added to the armes of this Citie, (which was argent, a plaine Crosse Gules) a sword or dagger, (for so they terme it) whereof I haue read no such recorde, but to the contrarie. I find that in the fourth yeare of Richard the second in a full assembly made in the vpper Chamber of the Guildhall, summoned by this William Walworth, then Maior, as well of Aldermen as of the common Counsell in euery warde, for certaine affaires concerning the king, it was there by common consent agreed and ordained, that the olde Seale of the office of the Maioralty of the citie being very smal, old, vnapt, & vncomely for the honor of the citie, should be broken, and one other new should be had, which the said maior commaunded to be made artificially, and honourable for the exercise of the said office thereafter in place of the other: in which new Seale, besides the Images of Peter, & Paul, which of old were rudely engrauen, there should be vnder the feet of the said Images, a shield of the armes of the saide Citie perfectly graued, with two Lions supporting the same with two sergeants of armes, (fn. 2)an other part, (fn. 2) one, and two tabernacles, in which aboue should stand two Angels, between whom aboue the said I mages of Peter and Paule, shall bee set the glorious virgine: this being done, the old Seale of the Office was deliuered to Richard Odiham Chamberlaine, who brake it, and in place thereof, was deliuered the new seale to the said Maior to vse in his office of Maioraltie, as occasion should require. This new seale seemeth to bee made before William Walworth was knighted, for he is not here intituled Sir, as afterwards he was: and certain it is that the same new seale then made, is now in vse and none other in that office of the Maioraltie: which may suffice to aunswere the former fable, without shewing of any euidence sealed with the olde seale, which was the Crosse, and sworde of Saint Paule, and not the dagger of William Walworth.
Now of other monuments in that Church, Simon Mordon Maior, 1368. was buried there, Iohn Olney Maior 1446. Robert March Stockfishmonger gaue two peeces of ground to be a Churchyard: Iohn Radwell Stockfishmonger, buried 1415. George Gowre Esquire, son to Edward Gowre Stockfish monger, Esquire, 1470. Alexander Purpoynt Stockefishmonger, 1373. Andrew Burel Gentleman, of Grayes Inne 1487. Iohn Shrow Stockfishmonger 1487. with this Epitaph.
Farewell my friends the tide abideth no man,
I am departed hence, and so shall ye.
But in this passage the best song that I can,
Is Requiem æternam, now Iesu grant it me,
When I haue ended all mine aduersitie,
Grant me in Paradise to haue a mansion,
That shedst thy blood for my redemption.
Iohn Finkell one of the Shiriffes, 1487. was knighted, and gaue 40. li. to this church, the one halfe for his monument. Iohn Pattesley Maior, 1441. Thomas Ewen Grocer, bare halfe the charges in building of the steeple, and was buried 1501. William Combes Gent. of Stoke by Gilford in Surrey, 1502. Sir Iohn Brudge Maior, (fn. 3) 1530. (fn. 3) gaue 50. li. for a house called the Colledge in Crooked lane, he lieth buried in S. Nicholas Hacon. Waltar Faireford, Robert Barre, Alexander Heyban, Iohn Motte, Iohn Gramstone, Iohn Brampton, Iohn Wood, Stockfishmonger, 1531. Sir Henry Amcots Maior, 1548. &c. Hard by this Saint Michaels Church, on the south side thereof, in the yeare 1560. on the fift of Julie through the shooting of a Gun, which brake in the house of one Adrian Arten a Dutchman, and set fire on a Firkin and Barrell of Gunpowder, foure houses were blowen vp, and diuerse other sore shattered, 11. men and women were slaine, and 16. so hurt and brused, that they hardly escaped with life.
West from this Saint Michaels lane, is Saint Martins Orgar lane, by Candlewicke street, which lane is on both sides down to a Well, replenished with faire and large houses for marchants, and it is of this ward: one of which houses was sometime called Beachamps Inne, as pertaining vnto them of that familie. Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, commonly for his time was loged there.
The parish Church of saint Martin Orgar is a small thing. William Crowmer Maior, builded a proper Chappell on the south side thereof, and was buried there, 1433. Iohn Mathew Maior, 1490. Sir William Huet Maior, 1559, with his Ladie and daughter, wife to sir Edward Osburne (fn. 4) Raph Tabinham Alderman, Alice wife to Thomas Winslow, Thorudon, Benedicke Reding, Thomas Harding, Iames Smith, Richard Gainford Esquire, Iohn Bold, &c. Then is there one other lane called saint Laurence, of the parish Church there. This lane, down to the south side of the churchyard, is of Candlewicke street ward. The parish church of saint Laurence was increased with a Chappell of Iesus by Thomas Cole, for a maister and Chapleine, the which Chappell and parish Church was made a Colledge of Iesus, and of Corpus Christi, for a maister and seuen Chapleins, by Iohn Poultney maior, and was confirmed by Edward the third, the 20. of his raigne: of him was this Church called S. Laurence Poultney in Candlewicke street, which Colledge was valued at 79. li. 17.s. xi.d. and was surrendred in the raigne of Edward the sixt. Robert Ratcliffe earle of Sussex, and Henry Ratcliffe earle of Sussex, were buried there, Alderman Beswicke was buried there, Iohn Oliffe Alderman, Robert Browne and others. Thus much for this ward, and the antiquities thereof. It hath now an Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors 8. Constables 8. Scauengers 6. Wardmote inquest men 12, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene at xvi. pound.