A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Walbrooke warde beginneth at the West end of Candlewicke streete ward. It runneth downe Candlewicke street west towards Budge row. It hath on the northside thereof S. Swithens lane, so called of S. Swithens a parish Church by London stone: This lane is replenished on both the sides with faire builded houses, and is wholy of Walbrooke warde. The said parish Church of S. Swithen standeth at the southwest corner of this lane. Licence was procured to new build and encrease the said Church and steeple, in the yeare 1420. Sir Iohn Hend Draper, Maior, was an especiall benefactor thereunto, as appeareth by his armes in the Glasse windowes euen in the toppes of them, which is in a field siluer, a chiefe Azure, a Lion passant siluer, a Cheueron azure, three Escalops siluer: he lieth buried in the bodie of this Church, with a faire stone laid on him, but the plates and inscriptions are defaced. Roger Depham Alderman, Thomas Aylesbourgh, William Neue, and Matilde Caxton, founded Chaunteries, and were buried there, Iohn Butler Draper, one of the Shiriffes, 1420. Raph Ioceline, Maior, a benefactor, buried in a fayre Tombe, William White Draper, one of the Shiriffes, 1482. and other.
On the north side of this Church and Churchyard, is one faire and large builded house, sometime pertayning to the prior of Tortington in Sussex, since to the Earles of Oxford, and now to sir Iohn Hart Alderman: which house hath a faire Garden belonging thereunto, lying on the west side thereof. On the backeside of two other faire houses in Walbrooke, in the raigne of Henrie the seuenth, sir Richard Empson knight, Chanceler of the Duchie of Lancaster, dwelled in the one of them, and Edmond Dudley Esquire in the other; either of them had a doore of entercourse into this Garden, wherein they met and consulted of matters at their pleasures. In this Oxford place sir Ambrose Nicholas kept his Maioraltie, and since him the said sir Iohn Hart.
On the south side of this high streete, neare vnto the channell is pitched vpright a great stone called London stone, fixed in the ground verie deepe, fastned with bars of iron, and otherwise so strongly set, that if Cartes do run against it through negligence, the wheeles be broken, and the stone it selfe vnshaken.
The cause why this stone was there set, the time when, or other memorie hereof, is none, but that the same hath long continued there is manifest, namely since (or rather before) the conquest: for in the ende of a faire written Gospell booke giuen to Christes Church in Canterburie, by Ethelstane king of the west Saxons, I find noted of landes or rents in London belonging to the sayd Church, whereof one parcell is described to lie neare unto London stone. Of later time we read that in the yeare of Christ 1135. the first of king Stephen, a fire which began in the house of one Ailward, neare vnto London stone consumed all East to Aldgate, in the which fire the Priorie of the holy Trinitie was burnt, and West to S. Erkenwalds shrine in Paules Church: and these be the eldest notes that I reade thereof.
Some haue said this stone to be set, as a marke in the middle of the Citie within the walles: but in truth it standeth farre nearer vnto the riuer of Thames, then to the wall of the Citie: some others haue said the same to be set for the tendering and making of payment by debtors to their creditors, at their appoynted dayes and times, till of later time, payments were more vsually made at the Font in Poules (fn. 1) Church, and now most commonly at the Royall Exchange: some againe haue imagined the same to bee set vp by one Iohn or Thomas Londonstone dwelling there agaynst, but more likely it is, that such men haue taken name of the stone, then the stone of them, as did Iohn at Noke, Thomas at Stile, William at Wall, or at Well, &c.
Downe west from this parish church, and from London stone, haue ye Walbrooke corner: from whence runneth vp a streete, North to the Stockes, called Walbrooke, because it standeth on the east side of the same brooke by the banke thereof, and the whole warde taketh name of that streete. On the east side of this streete and at the north corner thereof is the Stockes market, which had this beginning. Aboute the yeare of Christ 1282. Henry Wales Mayor caused diuers houses in this Citty to bee builded towards the maintenance of London bridge: namely one void place neare vnto the parish Church called Woole Church, on the north side thereof, where sometime (the way being very large and broade) had stoode a payre of Stocks, for punishment of offenders, this building tooke name of these Stockes, and was appoynted by him to bee a market place for fish and flesh in the midst of the city, other houses hee builded in other places, as by the patent of Edward the first it doth appeare, dated the tenth of his raigne. After this in the yeare 1322. the 17. of Edward the second a decree was made by Hamond Chickwell Mayor, that none should sell fish or flesh out of the markets appoynted, to witte Bridge street, East Cheape, Olde Fishstreete, S. Nicholas shambles, and the saide Stockes vpon pain to forfeite such fish or flesh as were sold, for the first time, and the second time to loose theyr freedom, which act was made by commandement of the king vnder his letters patents dated at the Tower the 17. of his raign, and then was this stocks let to farme for 46. pound, 13. shillinges, foure pence by yeare. This Stockes market was againe begunne to bee builded in the yeare 1410. in the 11. of Henry the fourth, and was finished in the yeare next following. In the yeare 1507. the same was rented 56. pound, 19. shillinges ten pence. And in the yeare 1543. Iohn Cotes being Mayor, there was in this Stockes Market for Fishmongers 25. boordes or stalles, rented yearely to thirty foure pound thirteene shillinges foure pence, there was for Butchers 18. boordes or stalles, rented at one and forty pound, sixeteen shillinges foure pence, and there were also chambers aboue, sixeteene rented at fiue pound, thirteene shillinges foure pence, in all 82.li. 3.s.
Next vnto this Stocks is the parrish church of S. Mary Wool church, so called of a Beam placed in the church yeard, which was thereof called Wooll Church Haw, of the Tronage, or weighing of Wooll there vsed, and to verifie this, I find amongst the customes of London, written in French, in the raigne of Edward the second, a Chapter intituled Les Customes de Wolchurch Haw, wherein is set downe what was there to bee paide for euery parcell of Wooll weighed. This Tronage or Weighing of Woole till the sixt of Richarde the second was there continued, Iohn Churchman then builded the Custome house vppon Wooll keye, to serue for the saide Tronage, as is before shewed in Towerstreete Warde: This church is reasonable fayre and large, and was lately new builded, by licence graunted in the 20. of Henry the sixt, with condition to bee builded 15. foote from the Stockes market for sparing of light to the same Stockes. The Parson of this church is to haue foure markes the yeare for tith of the said Stockes, payde him by the Maisters of the Bridge house, by a speciall decree made the seconde of Henry the seuenth. Iohn Wingar Grocer, Mayor 1504. was a great helper to the building of this church, and was there buried 1505. he gaue vnto it by his testament two large Basons of siluer and twenty pound in money, also Richard Shore Draper one of the Shiriffes 1505. was a great Benefactor in his life, and by his testament gaue 20. pound to make a porch at the West end thereof, and was there buried, Richard Hatfield of Steplemorden in Cambridgeshire lyeth intombed there, 1467. Edward Deoly Esquier 1467. Iohn Handford Grocer, made the Font of that church, very curiously wrought, painted and guilded, and was there buried: Iohn Archer Fishmonger, 1487. Anne Cawode founded a Chauntrie there, &c. From the Stockes market, and this parrish Church East vp into Lombarde streete, some foure or fiue houses on a side, and also on the south side of Wooll Church, haue yee Bearebinder lane, a parte whereof is of this Walbroke Warde, then downe lower in the streete called Walbrooke, is one other fayre Church of Saint Stephen latelie builded on the east side thereof, for the olde Church stoode on the west side, in place where now standeth the Parsonage house, & therefore so much nearer the Brooke, euen on the Banke. Robert Chichley Mayor in the yeare 1428. the sixt of Henry the sixt, gaue to this parrish of Saint Stephen one plot of grounde, containing 208. foote and a halfe in length and sixtie sixe foote in bredth, thereupon to builde their new church, and for their church yeard: and in the seuenth of Henry the sixt, the saide Robert one of the founders laide the first stone for himselfe, the second for William Stondon Mayor, with whoose goodes the grounde that the Church standeth on, and the housing with the grounde of the churchyearde was bought by the said Chichley for two hundred markes from the Grocers, which had beene letten before for sixe and twenty markes the yeare: Robert Whittingham Draper laide the thirde stone, Henry Barton then Mayor, &c. The sayde Chichley gaue more one hundred pound to the sayde worke, and bare the charges of all the timber worke on the procession way, and layde the leade vpon it of his owne cost, he also gaue all the timber for the rooffing of the two side Iles, and paid for the carriage thereof. This church was finished in the yeare 1439. the bredth thereof is sixtie seauen foote, and length 125. foote, the church yearde ninetie foote in length, and thirty seauen in bredth, and more. Robert Whittingham (made knight of the Bath) in the yeare 1432. purchased the patronage of this church from Iohn Duke of Bedford, vnckle to Henry the sixte, and Edward the fourth, in the second of his raigne, gaue it to Richard Lee then Mayor: There bee monumentes in this church of Thomas Southwell first Parson of this new church, who lyeth in the Quier, Iohn Dunstable Maister of Astronomie and Musicke, in the yeare 1453. Sir Richard Lee Mayor, who gaue the saide Patronage (fn. 2) to the Grocers. Rowland Hill Mayor, 1549. Sir Thomas Pope first Treasurer of the augmentations, with his wife Dame Margaret, Sir Iohn Cootes Mayor, 1542. Sir Iohn Yorke Knight, Marchaunt Taylor, 1549. Edward Iackman Shiriffe, 1564, Richarde Achley, Grocer, Doctor Owyn Phisition to king Henrie the eight, Iohn Kirkbie Grocer, 1578. and others.
Lower downe from this parrish church bee diuers fayre houses namely one, wherin of late Sir Richard Baker a knight of Kent was lodged, and one wherein dwelled maister Thomas Gore a marchant famous for Hospitality. On the West side of this Walbrooke streete, ouer against the Stockes Market, is a parte of the high streete, called the Poultrie, on the south side west, till ouer against S. Mildredes Church, and the Skalding Wike is of this Ward. Then downe againe Walbrooke streete some small distance, is Buckles Bury, a street so called of Buckle that sometime was owner thereof, part of which streete, on both sides 3. or 4. houses to the course of the Brooke is of this Warde, and so downe Walbrooke streete, to the South corner: from whence west downe Budge Row, some small distance to an Alley and through that Alley south by the west end of S. Iohns Church vpon Walbrooke, by the south side and east end of the same, againe to Walbrooke corner. This parrish church is called S. Iohn vpon Walbrooke, because the west end thereof is on the verie banke of Walbrooke, by Horshew Bridge, in Horshew bridge streete. This Church was also lately new builded: for aboute the yeare 1412. licence was graunted by the Mayor and comminalty, to the Parson and Parrish, for the enlarging thereof, with a peece of ground on the North parte of the Quier, 21. foot in length, 17. foot in bredth, & 3. inches, and on the south side of the Quier one foote of the common soyle. There be no monuments in this Church of any accounte, onely I haue lerned William Combarton Skinner, who gaue landes to that church, was there buried, 1410. and Iohn Stone Taylor, one of the Shiriffes, 1464, was likewise buried there. On the south side of Walbrooke warde from Candlewicke streete, in the mid way betwixte London stone, and Walbrooke corner, is a little lane with a turnepike in the middest therof, and in the same a proper parish church called S. Mary Bothaw, or Boatehaw, by the Erber: this church being neare vnto Downegate on the riuer of Thames, hath the addition of Boathaw, or Boat haw, of neare adioyning to an haw or yeard, wherein of old time boates were made, and landed from Downegate to bee mended, as may be supposed, for other reason I find none why it should bee so called. Within this Church, and the small Cloystrie adioyning, diuers Noblemen and persons of worshippe haue beene buried, as appeareth by Armes in the Windowes, the defaced Tombes, and printe of plates torn vp and carried away: there remayne onely of Iohn West Esquire, buried in the yeare 1408. Thomas Huytley Esquire 1539. but his monument is defaced since, Lancelot Bathurst, &c. The Erbar is an ancient place so called, but not of Walbrooke warde, and therefore out of that lane, to Walbrooke corner, and then downe till ouer against the south corner of Saint Iohns Church vpon Walbrooke. And this is all that I can say of Walbrooke warde. It hath an Alderman, and his Deputie, common Counsellers eleuen, Constables nine, Scauengers sixe, for the Wardmote inquest thirteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene in London, to 33. pound, fiue shillings.