A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Wards on the west side of Walbrooke, and first of Vintry ward
Now I am to speake of the other wardes, 12. in number, all lying on the west side of the course of Walbrooke: and first of the Vintry ward, so called of Vintners, and of the Vintrie, a parte of the banke of the Riuer of Thames, where the marchants of Burdeaux craned their wines out of Lighters, and other vessels, & there landed and made sale of them within forty daies after, vntil the 28. of Edward the first, at which time the said marchants complained that they could not sell their wines, paying poundage, neither hire houses or sellers to lay them in, and it was redressed by virtue of the kings writ, directed to the Maior and shiriffes of London, dated at Carlaueroke (or Carlile) since the which time many faire and large houses with vaults and cellers for stowage of wines and lodging of the Burdeaux marchants haue been builded in place, where before time were Cookes houses: for Fitzstephen in the raigne of Henrie the 2. writeth that vpon the riuers side betweene the wine in ships, and the wine to be sold in tauerns, was a common cookerie or Cookes row, &c. as in another place I haue set downe: whereby it appeareth that in those dayes (and till of late time) euery man liued by his professed trade, not any one interrupting an other. The cookes dressed meate, and sold no wine, and the Tauerner sold wine, but dressed no meate for sale, &c.
This warde beginneth in the East, at the west end of Downegate ward, as the water course of Walbrooke parteth them, to wit at Granthams lane on the Thames side, and at Elbow lane on the land side: it runneth along in Thames streete west, some three houses beyond the olde Swanne a Brewhouse, and on the lande side some three houses west, beyond Saint Iames at Garlicke Hith. In bredth this ward stretcheth from the Vintry north to the wall of the West Gate of the Tower Royall: the other North part is of Cordwayner streete warde. Out of this Royall streete by the South gate of Tower Royall runneth a small streete, East to S. Iohns vpon Walbrooke, which streete is called Horshew bridge, of such a bridge sometime ouer the brooke there, which is now vaulted ouer. Then from the sayd south gate west, runneth one other streete, called Knight riders streete, by S. Thomas Apostles church, on the north side, and Wringwren lane, by the said Church, at the west end thereof, and to the East end of the Trinitie Church in the said Knightriders streete, where this ward endeth on that south side the street: but on the north side it runneth no farther then the corner against the new builded Tauerne, and other houses, in a plot of ground, where sometime stood Ormond place, yet haue yee one other lane lower downe in Royall streete, stretching from ouer against S. Michaels church, to, and by the North side of S. Iames church by Garlicke Hith, this is called Kerion lane, and thus much for the bounds of Vintrie ward. Now on the Thames side west from Granthams lane, haue ye Herber lane, or Brikels lane, so called of Iohn Brikels, sometime owner thereof.
Then is Simpsons lane, of one Simpson or Emperors head lane of such a signe: then the three Cranes lane, so called not onely of a signe of three Cranes at a Tauerne doore, but rather of three strong Cranes of Timber placed on the Vintrie wharfe by the Thames side, to crane vp wines there, as is afore shewed: this lane was of old time, to wit, the 9. of Richard the 2. called the painted Tauerne lane, of the Tauerne being painted.
Then next ouer against S. MartinsChurch, is a large house builded of stone and timber, with vaults for the stowage of wines, and is called the Vintrie. There dwelled Iohn Gisers Vintner, Maior of London, and Constable of the Tower, and then was Henry Picard, Vintner, Maior. In this house Henrie Picard feasted some foure kings in one day (as in my Summarie I haue shewed). Then next is Vanners lane, so called of one Vannar that was owner therof, it is now called church lane, of the comming vp from the wharfe to S. Martins church. Next is Brode lane, for that the same is broder for the passage of Carts from the Vintrie warfe, then be the other lanes. At the northwest corner of this lane is the parish Clearks hall, lately by them purchased, since they lost their old hall in Bishopsgate street. Next is Spittle lane of old time so called, since Stodies lane of the owner thereof, named Stodie. Sir Iohn Stodie, Vintner, Maior in the yeare 1357, gaue it with all the Quadrant wherein Vintners hall now standeth, with the tenements round about vnto the Vintners: the Vintners builded for themselues a faire hall, and also 13. Almes houses there for 13. poore people, which are kept of charitie, rent free.
The Vintners in London were of old time called marchants Vintners of Gascoyne, and so I read them in the Records of Edward the 2. the II. yeare, and Edward the third the ninth yeare, they were as well English men, as straungers borne beyond the Seas, but then subiects to the kings of England, great Burdeous Marchants of Gascoyne, and French wines, diuers of them were Maiors of this Citie, namely Iohn Adrian Vintner, Reignold at Conduit, Iohn Oxenford, Hen. Picard, that feasted the kings of England, France, Scotland & Cypres, Iohn Stodie that gaue Stodies lane to the Vintners, which 4. last named were Maiors in the raigne of Edward the third, and yet Gascoyne wines were then to be sold at London, not aboue 4.d. nor Rhenish wine aboue 6.d. the Gallon. I reade of sweet wines, that in the 50. of Edward the 3. Iohn Peachie Fishmonger was accused, for that he procured a licence for the onely sale of them in London, which notwithstanding he iustified by law: he was imprisoned and fined. More I reade that in the sixt of Henrie the sixt, the Lombards corrupting their sweete wines, when knowledge thereof came to Iohn Rainwell Maior of London, he in diuerse places of the Citie commanded the heades of the buts and other vessels in the open streetes to be broken, to the number of 150, so that the liquour running forth, passed through the Cittie like a streame of raine water, in the sight of all the people, from whence there issued a most loathsome sauour.
I reade in the raigne of Henrie the seuenth, that no sweete wines were brought into this realm but Malmesies by the longabards, paying to ye king for his licence 6.s. 8.d. of euery but, besides 12. d. for bottel large. I remember within this 54. yeres, Malmsey not to be solde more then 1.d. ob. the pint. For proofe whereof, it appeareth in the Church booke of S. Andrew Vndershafte, that in the yeare 1547. I. G. and S. K. then-Churchwardens, for Lxxx. pintes of Maluesey (fn. 1) spent in the Church, after I.d. ob. the pinte, payde at the yeares end for the same ten shillinges: more I remember that no Sackes were solde, but Rumney, and that for medicine more then for drinke, but now many kinds of sackes are knowne and vsed, and so much for Wines. For the Vintrey, to end therewith, I reade that in the raigne of Henry the fourth, the yong PrinceHenry, T. Duke of Clarence, I. Duke of Bedford, and Humfrey Duke of Glocester the Kinges sonnes, being at supper amongst the Marchantes of London in the Vintrey, in the house of Lewes Iohn, Henry Scogan sent to them a Ballad beginning thus,
My noble sonnes and eke my Lords deare,
I your Father, called vnworthily,
Send vnto you, this ballad following here,
Written with mine own hand full rudely,
Although it be that I not reuerently
Haue written to your estates, I you pray
Mine vncunning taketh benignely,
For Gods sake, and hearken what I say.
Then follow in like meeter 23. staues, contayning a perswasion from loosing of time, follilie in lust and vice, but to spende the same in vertue and godlines, as yee may reade in Geffrey Chawcer his workes lately printed. The successors of those Vintners and wine drawers that retayled by the Gallon, pottell, quart and pinte, were all incorporated by the name of wine tunners, in the raigne of Edward the third, and confirmed the 15. of Henry the 6.
Next is Palmers lane, now called Anchor lane: the plummers haue their Hall there, but are tenantes to the Vintners. Then is Worcester house, sometimes belonging to the Earles of Worcester, now diuided into many Tenementes. The Fruterers haue their Hall there. Then is the Old Swan, a great Brew house. And this is all on the Thames side, that I can note in this Ward.
On the land side is the royall streete and Pater noster Lane, I thinke of olde time called Arches, for I reade that Robert de Suffolke gaue to Walter de Forda (fn. 2) his tenement with the purtenance in the lane, called Les Arches in the parish of S. Michael de pater noster church, betweene the Wal of the (fn. 3) Selde called Winchester Seld (fn. 3) on the East, and the same on the West, &c. More, I reade of a Stone house called Selda (fn. 4) de Winton, iuxta Stenden bridge, which in that Lane was ouer Walbrooke water. Then is the fayre parish church of S. Michael called Pater noster church in the Royal, this church was new builded and made a colledge of S. Spirit, and S. Mary, founded by Richard Whitington Mercer, 4. times Mayor, for a maister, 4. fellowes maisters of art, clearks, conducts, chorists, &c. and an almes house called Gods house, or hospitall for thirteene poore men, one of them to be tutor, and to have xvi.d. the weeke, the other twelue each of them to have xiiii.d. the weeke for euer, with other necessary prouisions, an hutch with three lockes, a common seale, &c. These were bounde to pray for the good estate of Richard Whitington and Alice his wife their founders, and for Sir William Whitington Knight, and Dame Ioan his wife, and for Hugh Fitzwaren, and Dame Molde his wife, the fathers and mothers of the saide Richarde Whitington and Alice his wife, for king Richard the second, and Thomas of Woodstocke, Duke of Glocester, speciall Lordes and Promoters of the saide Richarde Whitington, &c. The licence for this foundation was graunted by king Henry the fourth, the eleuenth of his raigne, and in the twelfth of the same kinges raign the Mayor and Commonalty of London graunted to Richarde Whitington a vacant peece of grounde, thereon to build his Colledge in the Royall, all which was confirmed by Henry the sixt, the third of his raigne, to Iohn Couentrie, Ienkin Carpenter and William Groue Executors to Richard Whitington. This foundation was againe confirmed by Parliament, the tenth of Henry the sixt, and was suppressed by the statute of Edward the sixt.
The Almes houses with the poore men do remayne, and are paide by the Mercers: this Richarde Whitington was in this Church three times buried, first by his Executors vnder a fayre monument, then in the raigne of Edward the 6. the Parson of that Church, thinking some great riches (as he said) to bee buried with him, caused his monument to bee broken, his body to be spoyled of his Leaden sheet, and againe the second time to bee buried: and in the raigne of Queene Mary, the parishioners were forced to take him vp, to lap him in lead, as afore, to bury him the thirde time, and to place his monument, or the like, ouer him again, which remayneth and so hee resteth. Thomas Windford, Alderman, was buried in this church, 1448. Arnold Macknam Vintner, a Marchant of Burdious, 1457. Sir Heere Tanke,or Hartancleux Knight of the Garter, borne in Almayne, a Noble Warriour in Henry the fift, and Henry the sixt dayes. Sir Edmond Mulshew Knight, neare to Thomas Cokham Recorder of London, the Lady kyme, Sir William Oldhall knight, 1460. William Barnocke, Sir Iohn Yong Grocer, Mayor 1466, Agnes daughter to Sir Iohn Yong first married to Robert Sherington, after to Robert Mulleneux, then to William Cheyney Esquier, Iohn Hauing Gentleman, William Roswell Esquier, William Postar Clearke of the Crowne, 1520. Sir William Bayly, Draper, Mayor 1533. with Dame Katheren his wife, leauing xvi. children. Iohn Haydon mercer, Shiriffe 1582. who gaue Legacies to the 13. Almes men, and otherwise for a Lecture.
At the vpper end of this streete, is the Tower Royall, whereof that streete taketh name: this Tower and great place was so called, of pertayning to the kinges of this Realme, but by whome the same was first builded, or of what antiquity continued, I haue not read, more then that in the raigne of Edward the first, the second, fourth and seuenth yeares, it was the tenement of Symon Beawmes, also that in the 36 of Edward the 3. the same was called the Royall, in the parrish of S. Michael de pater noster, & that in the 43. of his raigne, hee gaue it by the name of his Inne, called the Royall in the cittie of London, in value xx.l. by yeare, vnto his Colledge of S. Stephen at Westminster: notwithstanding in the raigne of Richard the second it was called the Queenes Wardrope, as appeareth by this that followeth, king Richarde hauing in Smithfield ouercome and dispersed his Rebels, hee, his Lordes and all his Company, entered the Citty of London, with great ioy, and went to the Lady Princes his mother, who was then lodged in the Tower Royall, called the Queenes Wardrope, where shee had remayned three dayes and two nightes, right sore abashed, but when shee saw the king her sonne, she was greatelie reioyced and saide. Ah sonne, what great sorrow haue I suffered for you this day. The king aunswered and saide, certainely Madam I know it well, but now reioyce, and thanke God, for I haue this day recouered mine heritage, and the Realme of England, which I had neare hand lost.
This Tower seemeth to haue beene at that time of good defence, for when the Rebels had beset the Tower of London, and got possession thereof, taking from thence whome they listed, as in mine Annales I haue shewed, the princesse being forced to flye came to this Tower Royall, where shee was lodged and remayned safe as yee haue heard, and it may bee also supposed that the king himselfe was at that time lodged there. I read that in the yeare 1386. Lyon king of Armonie, being chased out of his Realme by the Tartarians, receyued innumerable giftes of the King and of his Nobles, the king then lying in the Royall, where hee also granted to the saide king of Armonie, a Charter of a thousand poundes by yeare during his life. This for proofe may suffice, that kinges of England haue beene lodged in this Tower, though the same of later time haue been neglected and turned into stabling for the kinges horses, and now letten out to diuers men, and diuided into Tenements.
In Horsebridge streete is the Cutlars Hall. Richard de Wilehale 1295. confirmed to Paule Butelar this house and edifices in the parrish of S. Michaell pater noster church, and S. Johns vpon Walbrooke, which sometime Lawrens Gisors, and his sonne Peter Gisors did possesse, and afterward Hugo de Hingham, and lyeth betweene the Tenement of the saide Richard towardes the south, and the lane called Horshew bridge towards the north, and betweene the waye called pater noster Church on the West, and the course of Walbrooke on the East, paying yearely one cloue of Gereflowers at Easter, and to the Prior and Couent of Saint Mary Ouery, 6.s. This house sometime belonged to Simon Dolesly Grocer, Mayor 1359. They of this Company were of olde time three Artes, or sortes of Workemen, to wit, the first were Smithes, Forgers of Blades, and therefore called Bladers, and diuerse of them prooued wealthie men, as namely Walter Nele, Blader, one of the Shiriffes, the 12. of Edward the 3. deceased. 1352. and buried in Saint Iames Garlicke Hith: hee left lands to the mending of high wayes about London, betwixt Newgate and Wicombe, Aldgate and Chelmesford, Bishopsgate and Ware, Southwarke and Rochester, &c. The second were makers of Haftes, and otherwise garnishers of Blades: the third sort were Sheathmakers for swords, daggers, and kniues. In the 10. of Henric the 4. certaine ordinances were made betwixt the Bladers, and the other Cutlers, and in the 4. of Henrie the 6, they were all three Companies drawne into one fraternitie, or brotherhood, by the name of Cutlers.
Knightriders streete.; Wringwren lane.; Parish church of S. Thomas the Apostle; George in Bredstreete giuen to the Saltars vpon conditions not performed.; Ipris Inne.; King Stephen lodged in the Tower Royal.
Then is Knight riders streete, so called (as is supposed) of Knights-well armed and mounted at the Tower Royall, ryding from thence through that street, west to Creede lane, and so out at Ludgate towards Smithfield, when they were there to turney, iust, or otherwise to shew actiuities before the king and states of the Realme. In this streete is the parish Church of saint Thomas Apostles, by Wringwren lane, a proper Church, but monuments of antiquitie be there none, except some Armes in the windowes, as also in the stone worke, which some suppose to be of Iohn Barns Mercer, Maior of London in the yere 1371. a great builder thereof, H. Causton, Marchant, was a benefactor, and had a Chantrie there about 1396, T. Roman Maior 1310. had also a Chantrie there 1319.Fitzwilliams also a benefactor, had a Chantry there. More, sir William Littlesbery, alias Horne, (for king Ed. the 4. so named him) because he was a most excellent blower in a horne, he was a Salter, and Marchant of the staple, Maior of London in the yeare 1487. and was buried in this Church, hauing appointed by his testament the Bels to bee chaunged for foure new Bels of good tune and sound, but that was not performed: he gaue 500. marks to the repayring of high waies betwixt London and Cambridge, his dwelling house, with a Garden, and appurtenances in the said parish to be sold, and bestowed in charitable actions, as his executors would answer before God: his house called the George in Bredstreete he gaue to the Saltars, they to find a Priest in the said Church, to haue six pound thirteene shillings foure pence the yeare, to euery preacher at Paules Cross, and at the Spittle 4. pence for euer, to the Prisoners of Newgate, Ludgate, Marshalsey, and Kings bench, in victuals ten shillings at Christmas, and ten shillings at Easter for euer, which legacies are not performed. William Shipton, William Champneis and Iohn de Burford, had Chauntries there, Iohn Martin Butcher, one of the Shiriffs, was buried there 1533 &c. Then west from the said Church on the same side, was one great messuage, sometime called Ipris Inne, of William of Ipris (fn. 5) a Fleming, the first builder thereof. This William was called out of Flanders, with a number of Flemings to the aide of king Stephen, agaynst Maude the Empresse, in the yeare 1138. and grew in fauour with the said king for his seruice, so farre that he builded this his house neare vnto Tower royall, in the which Tower it seemeth the king was then lodged, as in the heart of the Citie, for his more safetie.
Robert Earle of Glocester, brother to the Empresse, being taken, was committed to the custodie of this William to be kept in the Castell of Rochester, till king Stephen was also taken, and then the one was deliuered in exchange for the other, and both set free: this William of Ipres gaue Edredes Hith, now called the Queenes Hith, to the Prior and Chanons of the holy Trinitie in London: he founded the Abbay of Boxley in Kent, &c. In the first of Henrie the second, the saide William with all the other Flemmings, fearing the indignation of the new king departed the land, but it seemeth that the saide William was shortly called backe againe, and restored both to the kings fauour, and to his olde possessions here, so that the name and familie continued long after in this realme, as may appeare by this which followeth. In the yeare 1377. the 51. of Edward the third, the Citizens of London minding to haue destroyed Iohn of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Henrie Percie Marshall, (for causes shewed in my Annales) sought vp and downe, and could not find them, for they were that day to dine with Iohn of Ipres at his Inne, which the Londoners wist not of, but thought the Duke and Marshall had beene at the Sauoy, and therefore poasted thither: but one of the Dukes knights seeing these things, came in great hast to the place where the Duke was, and after that he had knocked and could not bee let in, he said to Haueland the Porter, if thou loue my Lord and thy life, open the gate: with which wordes he gat entry, and with great feare he tels the Duke, that without the gate were infinite numbers of armed men, and vnlesse he tooke great heede, that day would be his last: with which wordes the Duke leapt so hastily from his Oisters, that hee hurt both his legges against the forme: wine was offered, but he could not drinke for haste, and so fled with his fellow Henrie Percie out at a backe gate, and entering the Thames, neuer stayed rowing, vntill they came to a house neare the Mannor of Kenington, where at that time the Princesse lay with Richard the yong Prince, before whom hee made his complaint, &c. On the other side, I reade of <a> Messuage called Ringed hall, king Henrie the eight the 32. of his raigne, gaue the same with foure tenements adioyning vnto Morgan Philip, alias Wolfe, in the Parish of Saint Thomas Apostles in London, &c.
Ouer against Ipres Inne in Knight riders streete at the corner towards S. Iames at Garlicke Hith, was sometime a great house builded of stone, and called Ormond place, for that it sometimes belonged to the Earles of Ormond. King Edward the 4. in the fifth of his raigne, gaue to Elizabeth his wife the Mannor of Greenwitch with the Tower and Parke in the Countie of Kent. He also gaue this tenement called Ormond place with all the appurtenances to the same, scituate in the parish of saint Trinitie in Knightriders streete in London. This house is now lately taken downe, and diuerse faire Tenements are builded there, the corner house whereof is a Tauerne. Then lower downe in Royall streete, is Kerion lane, of one Kerion sometime dwelling there. In this lane be diuers faire houses for Marchants, and amongest others is the Glasiers hall. At the south corner of Royall streete, is the faire parish Church of saint Martin called in the Vintrie, sometime called saint Martin de Beremand church. This church was new builded about the yeare 1399. by the executors of Mathew Columbars a stranger borne, a Burdeaux Marchant of Gascoyne and French wines, his armes remaine yet in the East Window, and is betweene a Cheueron, 3. Columbins: there lie buried in this Church, Sir Iohn Gisors, Maior, 1311.Henrie Gisors his sonne, 1343. and Iohn Gisors his brother, 1350. he gaue to his sonne, T. his great mansion house, called Gisors hall in the parish of S. Mildred in Bredstreet. This Thomas had issue Iohn and Thomas, Iohn made a feofment, and sold Gisors hall, and other his lands in London, about the yeare 1386. Thomas deceased 1395. Henrie Vennar, Bartholomew de la vauch, Thomas Cornwalles, one of the Shiriffes, 1384. Iohn Cornwalles Esquire, 1436, Iohn Mustrell, Vintner, 1424. William Hodson, William Castleton, Iohn Gray, Robert Dalusse Barbar, in the raigne of Edward the 4. with this Epitaph.
Sir Raph Austrie, Fishmonger, Maior, new roofed this church with timber, couered it with lead, and beautifully glased it: he deceased 1494. and was there buried with his two wiues, Raph Austrie his sonne, gentleman, William Austrie, and other of that name, Bartrand wife to Grimond Descure Esquire, a Gascoyne and Marchant of wines, 1494. Thomas Batson, Alice Fowler, daughter and heire to Iohn Howton, wife to Iohn Hulton, Iames Bartlet, and Alice his wife, William Fennor, Roger Cotton, Robert Stocker, Iohn Pemberton, Philip de Plasse, Iohn Staplcton, Iohn Mortimer, William Lee, William
Then is the Parish Church of S.Iames, called at Garlick hith or Garlicke hiue, for that of old time on the banke of the riuer of Thames, neare to this Church, Garlicke was vsually solde: this is a proper Church, whereof Richard Rothing one of the shiriffes, 1326. is said to be the new builder: and lyeth buried in the same, so was Waltar Nele, Blader, one of the Shiriffes, 1337. Iohn of Oxenford Vintner, Maior 1341. I read in the first of Edward the third, that this Iohnof Oxenford gaue to the Priorie of the holy Trinitie in London, two tofts of land, one Mill, fiftie acres of land, two acres of wood, with the Appurtenances, in Kentish towne, in valour 20.s. and 3.d. by yeare. Richard Goodcheape, Iohn de Cressingham, and Iohn Whitthorne, and before them Galfrid Moncley, 1281, founded a Chantrie there.
Monuments remaining there, Robert Gabeter, Esquier, Maior of Newcastle vpon Tine, 1310. Iohn Gisors, William Tilingham, Iohn Stanley, L. Strange, eldest sonne to the Earle of Darby, 1503. Nicholas Staham, Robert de Luton, 1361. Richard Lions, a famous marchant of wines, and a Lapidarie, sometime one of the Shiriffes, beheaded in Cheape by Wat Tiler, and other Rebels, in the yeare 1381. his picture on his graue stone verie faire and large, is with his haire rounded by his eares, and curled, a little beard forked, a gowne girt to him downe to his feete, of branched Damaske wrought with the likenes of flowers, a large pursse on his right side, hanging in a belt from his left shoulder, a plaine whoode about his necke, couering his shoulders, and hanging backe behinde him. Sir Ihon Wroth Fishmonger, Maior 1361. deceased 1407. Thomas Stonarde of Oxfordshire. Iohn Bromer Fishmonger, Alderman, 1474. the Ladie Stanley, mother to the Lord Strange, the Countesse of Huntington, the Ladie Harbert, Sir George Stanley, Gilbert Bouet, 1398, a Countesse of Worcester and one of her children, William More Vintner, Maior 1395. William Venor, Grocer, Maior 1389. Robert Chichley Maior 1421. Iames Spencer Vintner, Maior 1527. Richard Plat Brewer, founded a free schoole there, 1601. And thus an end of Vintrie warde, which hath an Alderman, with a Deputie, common Counsellors nine, Constables nine, Scauengers foure, Wardmote inquest foureteene, and a Beedle. It is taxed to the fifteene, six pound, 13. shillings 4. pence.