A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Cordwainer street ward
The next is Cordwainer street warde, taking that name of Cordwainers, or Shoemakers, Curriars, and workers of Leather dwelling there: for it appeareth in the records of H. the 6. the ninth of his raigne, that an order was taken then for Cordwainers and Curriars in Corney streete, and Sopars lane.
This warde beginneth in the East on the west side of Walbrooke, and runneth west through Budge Row (a street so called of Budge Furre, and of Skinners dwelling there), then vp by S.Anthonies Church through Aetheling (or Noble street) as Leyland termeth it, commonly called Wathling streete, to the red Lion, a place so called of a great Lion of Timber placed there at a Gate, entring a large Court, wherein are diuerse fayre and large shoppes well furnished with broade cloathes, and other draperies of all sorts to be solde, and this is the farthest West part of this ward.
On the South side of this streete from Budge Row, lieth a lane turning downe by the west gate of the Tower Royall, and to the south ende of the stone Wall beyond the said gate, is of this ward, and is accounted a part of the Royall streete: agaynst this west gate of the Tower Royall, is one other lane, that runneth west to Cordwainer streete, and this is called Turnebase lane: on the south side wherof is a peece of Wringwren lane, to the Northwest corner of Saint Thomas Church the Apostle. Then againe out of the high streete called Wathling, is one other streete which runneth thwart the same, and this is Cordwainer streete, whereof the whole warde taketh name: this streete beginneth by West Cheape, and Saint Marie Bow church is the head thereof on the west side, and it runneth downe south through that part which of later time was called Hosier lane, now Bow lane, and then by the west end of Aldmary Church, to the new builded houses, in place of Ormond house, and so to Garlicke hill, or hith, to Saint Iames Church. The vpper part of this street towards Cheape was called Hosiar lane of hosiars dwelling there in place of Shoomakers: but now those hosiers being worne out by men of other trades (as the Hosiars had worne out the Shoomakers) the same is called Bow lane of Bow Church. On the west side of Cordewainers street is Basing lane, right ouer against Turne basse lane. This Basing lane west to the backe gate of the red Lion, in Wathling streete, is of this Cordwainers street warde.
Now againe on the north side of the high street in Budge row, by the East end of S. Anthonies church, haue ye S. Sithes lane, so called of S. Sithes Church, (which standeth against the North end of that lane) and this is wholy of Cordwainers streete ward: also the south side of Needlers lane, which reacheth from the north end of Saint Sithes lane, west to Sopers lane, then west from saint Anthonies Church is the south ende of Sopars lane, which lane tooke that name, not of Sope-making, as some haue supposed, but of Alen le Sopar, in the ninth of Edward the second. I haue not read or heard of Sope making in this Cittie till within this fourescore yeares, that Iohn Lame dwelling in Grassestreete set vp a boyling house: for this Citie, of former time, was serued of white Sope in hard Cakes (called Castell sope, and other) from beyond the seas, and of gray sope, speckeled with white, verie sweete and good, from Bristow, solde here for a pennie the pound, and neuer aboue pennie farthing, and blacke sope for a halfe pennie the pounde. Then in Bowe Lane (as they now call it) is Goose lane, by Bow Church, William Essex Mercer had Tenements there in the 26. of Edward the thirde.
Touching Monuments therein, first you haue the fayre parish Church of saint Anthonies in Budge row, on the north side thereof. This Church was lately reedified by Thomas Knowles Grocer, Major, and by Thomas Knowles his sonne, both buried there, with Epitaphes: of the father thus,
Here lieth grauen under this stone,
Thomas Knowles, both flesh and bone,
Grocer and Alderman yeares fortie,
Shiriffe, and twice Maior truly.
And for he should not lie alone,
Here lieth with him his good wife Ioan.
They were togither sixtie yeare,
And nineteene children they had in feere, &c.
Thomas Holland Mercer was there buried 1456. Thomas Windout Mercer, Alderman, and Katherine his wife. Thomas Hind Mercer, 1528. He was a benefactor to this church, to Aldemarie Church, and to Bow. Hugh Acton Marchant tayler buried 1520. He gaue 36. pound to the repayring of the steeple of this Church: Simon Street Grocer lyeth in the Church wall toward the south, his armes be three Colts, and his Epitaph thus.
Such as I am, such shall you be,
Grocer of London sometime was I,
The kings wayer more then yeares twentie,
Simon Streete called in my place,
And good fellowship faine would trace,
Therefore in heaven, euerlasting life
Iesu send me, and Agnes my wife:
Kerlie Merlie, my wordes were tho,
And Deo gratias I coupled thereto,
I passed to God in the yeare of grace.
A thousand foure hundred it was, &c.
William Dauntsey Mercer, one of the Shiriffes, buried 1542. Henrie Collet Mercer, Maior, a great benefactor to this Church, the pictures of him, his wife, ten sonnes, and ten daughters remaine in the glasse window on the North side of the Church: but the sayde Henrie Collet was buryed at Stebunhith. Henrie Halton Grocer, one of the Shiriffes, deceased 1415. Thomas Spight Marchant Tayler 1533. and Roger Martin, Mercer, Maior, deceased 1573. Iohn Grantham and Nicholas Bull had Chanteries there.
Next on the south side of Budge row by the west corner thereof, and on the East side of Cordwainer streete, is one other fayre Church called Aldemarie Church, because the same was very old, and elder then any Church of saint Marie in the Citie, till of late yeares the foundation of a verie faire new Church was laid there by Henrie Keble Grocer, Maior, who deceased 1518. and was there buried in a vault by him prepared, with a faire monument raised ouer him on the North side the Quier, now destroyed and gone: he gaue by his testament 1000. pound towards the building vp of that Church, and yet not permitted a resting place for his bones there. Thomas Roman, Maior 1310. had a Chauntrie there. Richard Chawcer Vintner gaue to that Church his tenement and tauverne, with the appurtenance, in the Royall streete, the corner of Kirion lane, and was there buried, 1348. Iohn Briton, Raph Holland Draper, one of the Shiriffes, deceased 1452. William Taylor, Grocer, Maior deceased, 1483. He discharged that ward of fifteenes to bee paide by the poore. Thomas Hinde Mercer, buried in saint Anthonies, gaue ten fodder of lead to the couering of the middle Isle of this Aldemarie Church. Charles Blunt Lord Montioy was buried there, about the yeare 1545. he made or glased the East window, as appeareth by his Armes: his Epitaph made by him in his life time, thus:
Willingly haue I sought, and willingly haue I found,
The fatall end that wrought thither as dutie bound:
Discharged I am of that I ought to my cuntry by honest wound,
My soule departed Christ hath bought, the end of man is ground.
Sir William Laxton Grocer, Maior, deceased 1556. and Thomas Lodge Grocer, Maior, 1563. were buried in the Vault of Henrie Keble, whose bones were vnkindly cast out, and his monument pulled downe, in place where of monuments are set vp of the later buried, William Blunt L. Mountioy, buried there, 1594. &c.
At the vpper ende of Hosier Lane, towarde West Cheape, is the fayre Parish Church of Saint Marie Bow. This Church in the reigne of William Conquerour, being the first in this Cittie builded on Arches of stone, was therefore called newe Marie Church, of Saint Marie de Arcubus, or le Bow in West Cheaping: As Stratford Bridge being the first, builded (by Matilde the Queene, wife to Henrie the first) with Arches of stone, was called Stratford le Bow, which names to the said Church and Bridge remayneth till this day. The Court of the Arches is kept in this Church, and taketh name of the place, not the place of the Court, but of what antiquitie or continuation that Court hath there continued I cannot learne.
This Church is of Cordwayner streete Warde, and for diuerse accidents happening there, hath beene made more famous then any other Parish Church of the whole Cittie, or suburbs. First we reade that in the yeare 1090. and the thirde of William Rufus, by tempest of winde, the roofe of the Church of saint Marie Bow in Cheape was ouerturned, wherewith some persons were slaine, and foure of the Rafters of 26. foote in length, with such violence were pitched in the ground of the high streete, that scantly foure foote of them remayned aboue ground, which were faine to be cut euen with the ground, because they could not bee plucked out, (for the Citie of London was not then paued, and a marish ground.)
In the yeare 1196. William Fitz Osbert, a seditious traitor, tooke the Steeple of Bow, and fortified it with munitions and victualles, but it was assaulted, and William with his complices were taken, though not without bloodshed, for hee was forced by fire and smoke to forsake the Church, and then by the Iudges condemned, he was by the heeles drawne to the Elmes in Smithfield, and there hanged with nine of his fellowes, where because his fauourers came not to deliuer him, hee forsooke Maries sonne (as hee tearmed Christ our Sauiour) and called vpon the Diuell to helpe and deliuer him. Such was the ende of this deceyuer, a man of an euill life, a secrete murtherer, a filthy fornicator, a polluter of concubines, and (amongest other his detestable facts) a false accuser of his elder brother, who had in his youth brought him vp in learning, and done many things for his preferment.
In the yeare 1271. a great part of the steeple of Bow fell downe, and slue many people men and women. In the yeare 1284. the thirteenth of Edward the first, Laurence Ducket Goldsmith, hauing grieuously wounded one Raph Crepin in west Cheape, fled into Bowe Church, into the which in the night time entered certaine euill persons, friendes vnto the sayd Raph, and slue the sayd Laurence lying in the steeple, and then hanged him vp, placing him so by the window, as if he had hanged himselfe, and so was it found by inquisition: for the which fact Laurence Ducket being drawne by the feete, was buried in a ditch without the Citie: but shortly after by relation of a boy, who lay with the said Laurence at the time of his death, and had hid him there for feare, the truth of the matter was disclosed, for the which cause, Iordan Goodcheape, Raph Crepin, Gilbert Clarke, and Geffrey Clarke, were attainted, a certaine woman named Alice, that was chiefe causer of the sayd mischiefe was burned, and to the number of sixteene men were drawne and hanged besides others, that being richer, after long imprisonment were hanged by the purse.
The Parish church of S. Mary Bow by meane of incrochment and building of houses, wanting roome in their Churchyard for buriall of the dead, Iohn Rotham or Rodham Citizen and Tayler, by his Testament dated the yeare 1465. gaue to the Parson and Churchwardens a certaine Garden in Hosier lane, to bee a Churchyarde which so continued near a hundred yeares. But now is builded on, and is a priuate mans house. The olde steeple of this Church was by little and little reedified, and newe builded vp, at the least so much as was fallen downe, many men giuing summes of money to the furtherance thereof, so that at length, to wit, in the yeare 1469. it was ordayned by a common counsaile, that the Bow bell should bee nightly rung at nine of the clocke. Shortly after, Iohn Donne Mercer, by his testament dated 1472. according to the trust of Reginald Longdon, gaue to the Parson and churchwardens of saint Mary Bow, two tenements with the appurtenances, since made into one, in Hosiar lane, then so called, to the maintenance of Bowe bell, the same to bee rung as aforesaid, and other things to bee obserued, as by the will appeareth.
Robert Harding Goldsmith, one of the Shiriffes 1478. gaue to the new worke of that steeple fortie pound. Iohn Haw Mercer ten pound, Doctor Allen foure pound, Thomas Baldry foure pound, and other gaue other summes, so that the said worke of the steeple was finished in the yeare 1512. The Arches or Bowes thereupon, with the Lanthornes fiue in number, to wit, one at each corner, and one on the top in the middle vpon the Arches, were also afterward finished of stone, brought from Cane in Normandie, deliuered at the Customers Key for 4.s. 8.d. the tun, William Copland Tayler, the Kings Merchant, and Andrew Fuller Mercer, being Churchwardens 1515. and 1516. It is said that this Copland gaue the great Bell, which made the fift in the ring, to be rung nightly at nine of the clocke. This Bell was first rung as a knell at the buriall of the same Copland. It appeareth that the Lanthornes on the toppe of this Steeple, were meant to haue beene glased, and lightes in them placed nightly in the Winter, whereby trauellers to the Cittie might haue the better sight thereof, and not to misse of their wayes.
In this parish also was a Grammar schoole by commaundement of king Henrie the sixt, which schoole was of olde time kept in an house for that purpose prepared in the Churchyard, but that schoole being decayed as others about this Citie: the schoole house was let out for rent, in the raign of Henric the eight, for 4. shillings the yeare, a Celler for two shillings the yeare, and two vaults vnder the Church for fifteene shillings both.
The monumentes in this church be these, vz. of Sir Iohn Couentrie, Mercer, Mayor 1425. Richard Lambert Alderman, Nicholas Alwine Mercer, Mayor 1499. Roberte Harding Goldsmith one of the Shiriffes, 1478. Iohn Loke one of the Shiriffes, 1461. Edwarde Bankes Alderman, Haberdasher, 1566. Iohn Warde, William Pierson Scriuener, and Atturney in the common place. In a proper Chappell on the south side the Church standeth a Tombe, eleuate and arched, Ade de Buke Hatter glased the Chappell and most parte of the Church, and was there buried: all other monumentes bee defaced, Hawley and Sowtham had chauntries there.
Without the North side of this church of Saint Mary Bow towardes west Chepe standeth one fayre building of Stone, called in record Seldam, a shed, which greatly darkeneth the said church, for by meanes thereof all the windowes and dores on that side are stopped vp. King Edward the third vpon occasion as shal be shewed in the Warde of Cheape, caused this sild or shed to be made and strongly to bee builded of stone, for himselfe, the Queene, and other Estates to stand in, there to beholde the Iustinges and other shewes at their pleasures. And this house for a long time after serued to that vse, namely, in the raigne of Edward the third and Richard the second, but in the yeare 1410. Henry the fourth in the twelfth of his raigne confirmed the saide shedde or building to Stephen Spilman, William Marchford, and Iohn Whatele Mercers, by the name of one new Seldam, shed or building, with shoppes, sellers, and edifices whatsoeuer appertayning, called Crounsilde, or Tamarsilde, situate in the Mercery in West Cheape, and in the parrish of Saint Mary de Arcubus in London, &c. Notwithstanding which graunte, the Kinges of England, and other great Estates, as well of forreine Countries repayring to this realme, 'as inhabitantes of the same, haue vsually repayred to this place, therein to beholde the shewes of this Citty, passing through West Cheape, namely, the great watches accustomed in the night, on the euen of S. Iohn Baptist, and Saint Peter at Midsommer, the examples whereof were ouer long to recite, wherefore let it suffice brieflie to touch one. In the yeare 1510. on Saint Iohns euen at night, King Henry the eight came to this place then called the Kinges head in Cheape, in the liuerie of a Yeoman of the Garde, with an halberde on his shoulder (and there beholding the watch) departed priuily, when the watch was done, and was not known to any but to whome it pleased him, but on S. Peters night next following, hee and the Queene came royally riding to the said place, and there with their Nobles beheld the watch of the cittie, and returned in the morning.
This church of S. Mary with the saide shedde of stone, al the housing in or aboute Bow Church yearde, and without on that side the high streete of Cheape to the Standarde bee of Cordewainer streete warde. These houses were of olde time but sheddes: for I read of no housing otherwise on that side the street, but of diuers sheddes from Sopars lane to the Standarde, &c. Amongst other I read of three shops or sheddes by Sopars lane, pertayning to the priorie of the holy Trinity within Aldgate: the one was let out for 28 s. one other for 20s. and the third for xii.s. by the yeare: Moreouer that Richard Goodchepe Mercer, and Margery his wife, sonne to Iordaine Goodchepe, did let to Iohn Dalinges the yonger, mercer, their shed and chamber in west Cheape, in the parrish of S. Mary de Arches, for iii.s. iiii.d. by the yeare. Also the men of Bredstreete ward contended with the men of Cordwayner street ward, for a selde or shede, opposite to the standard on the south side, and it was found to be of Cordwainer streete ward, W. Waldorne being then Mayor, the I. of Henrie the 6. Thus much for Cordwainer streete ward: which hath an Alderman, his Deputie, common Counsellors 8. Constables, 8. Scauengers 8. Wardmote inquest men 14. and a Beadle. It standeth taxed to the fifteene in London at 52.li. 16.s. in the Exchequer at 52. pound, 6.s.