A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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1, l. 16. Spuren lane. ' Sporuneslane' in 1271 (Anc. Deeds, C. 1910), 'Sporounelane' in 1295, and 'Sporenlane' in 1406 (Cal. Wills, i. 120, ii. 562). 'Hoggenelane' in the parish of Trinity the Less occurs in 1329 and 1375 (id. i. 357, ii. 181).
l. 24. Desboorne lane. Stow's authority is clearly Letter Book F, 184. The lane was granted to John de Gildisburgh under licence from the king, with permission to build over it subject to leaving a gutter to carry off the water. It lay between the tenements of Sir Edward de Montacute and Walter (not William) Gladewyn, and is described as containing in length 215 feet from the king's highway to the Thames, and seven feet wide at the commencement and in the middle, but only an ell at the bottom (C.P.R. Edw. III, viii, 149). Five years before, in 1343, complaint was made that the lane was blocked up and impassable (Mun. Gild. II. ii. 452). It would seem to be indentical with the 'venella que vocatur Deneburgate', or 'Denebureghlane,' which was alleged to be obstructed in 1275 (Hundred Roll, i. 418–9, 433).
2, l. 27. S. Nicholas Cold Abbey. It is St. Nicholas Coldhabey in 1378, and usually appears as Coldabbey in various spellings (Cal. Wills, i. 32, 195, 640). Stow's last derivation connecting it with Cold Harbour is probably correct. There are similar instances in the manor of Coldabbeye in Surrey, and the tenement called 'le Coldabbeye' in Windagain Land (id. ii. 45, 373). The church is sometimes called 'atte Coldeabbey' (id. ii. 198, 522).
Here Blitheman lies a worthy wight,
Who feared God above;
A friend to all, a foe to none,
Whome riche and pore did love.
of Princes' chaple gentleman
unto his dieinge day,
Where all toke greate delight to heare
Hym on the organs play.
Whose passing skill in musyke's arte
A scholar left behind;
John Bull, by name, his master's veyne
Expressing in eche kynde.
But nothing here continuethe longe,
Nor resting place can have;
His sowle departe hence to heven,
His body here in grave.
This epitaph is given in Munday's edition of the Survey, p. 399, where it is stated that he died on Whitsunday, 1591. A few of William Blitheman's compositions are extant; they show that he was a master of his art, and that Bull owed much to his influence (Dict. Nat. Biog. v. 222).
5, l. 1John Glocester Alderman, 1345. In Harley M.S. 538 'deceased 1355' is added. This is correct(Cal Wills, i. 687). But Salt Wharf was given to the church by his son John, who died in 1362 (id. ii. 64).
l. 16. a Record. See the writ and patents in Letter Book H, 447–8; providing, however, for Hallmotes twice a year as of old accustomed, and for the election of six persons, Viz, two each from Bridge Street, Old Fish Street. and Stofishmonger Row to govern the mistery. Compare i. 214 above. See also Mun. Gild. II. i. 397–408.
6, l. 1. Saint Mary Summerset. In a deed of Prior Stephen (1170–17) there is mention of Ernald the priest of St. mary Sumerset (Anc. Deeds, A. 2423). The name may be derived from Ralph de Sumery, who occurs about the same date (id A. 2364 2406). For the church and its mounments see Trans. Lond. and Midd., iii, 253–84.
l. 5. Edreds Hithe. The name 'Ætheredys Hythe' occurs in 899 in a Charter of Alfred (kemble, Cod. Dipl. mlxxiv). Henry I gave it to his queen Matilda. matilda, queen of Stephen, gave rents from Edreds hythe to Trinity (Cotton Charter, xvi. 35). In a charter of Henry II it is described as 'Ripa Reginae que appellatur Atheres hithe'(Mon. Angl., vi. 635). Isabel, queen of John, gave it to her son Richard of Cornwell (Hundred Roll, i. 414). For William of Ypres' charter, See Ancient Charters, No 32 (Pipe Roll Soc.). See also Madox, Hist. Exchequer i. 781. St. Michael, Queenhithe, is called St. Michael de 'Aedredes huda' about 1148, and 'de Hutha Regina' about 1220 (Hist, Mss. Comm. 9th Rep. 22. 63).
7, l. 22. woorepath and Anede Hith. See the record from the Liber Memorandorun on the Customs of Queenhithe, ap. Mun. Gild. III. 445–8, where a note is quoted from the Liber Horne stating that werepath or Worpath is in the east part of the Flete of Barking, seven miles east of London, and Anedehithe near Westminister.
8, l. 30. Witnesses. The names are very corrupt. The Charter in Mun. Gild. II. i. 47 reads: 'Hits testibus, Radulph filio Nicholai, Ricardo de Grey, Johanne et Willelmo, fratribus ejus, Paulino Peyvre, Radulpho de Warmic, Johanne Gumbaued et aliis.'
l. 38 customs of this Queene Hithe. They are given in the Liber Albus, see Mun, Gild. I. 241–3. Strype gives an English translation from the Liber Horne. The original has' Wolsiesgate in Corderia' (the Ropery) for 'wolsey Street in the parish of All hallowes the Less, and 'Berchenes lane' instead of Stow's Bircheovers', For complaining as to abuses at Queenhithe see Hundred Rolls, i. 403 sqq.
9, l. 22. Roomeland. The name given to an open space near a dock where shipes could discharge. There was a 'Rome land' at Billingsgate, described in the Husting Rolls as 'a platt of grounde raylled abowt called Rome lande on the west parte of Byllyngesgate'. In 1347 there is reference to'le Rounland' near Croched Friars (Letter Book F, 175, with note by Dr. Sharpe). For cleansing of 'Roumeland' at Queenhithe in 1368, see letter Book G,221. 'La Roumlonde' at Queenhithe is mentioned in 1311 and 1373 (Cal. Wills, i. 222; ii. 161).
10, l. 17. John Cooke. By will, dated October 16, 1542, and proved january 13, 1544, he bequeathed to the city his capital messuage called the Duke of Norfolk's place and other messuages at Broken Wharf(Cal. Wills ii. 648). See Stow's subsequent statement on ii. 11. For the lane called 'le Tymber hith prope le Brokene. Wharf' and 'timber hythe otherwise called broken Wharf' see Hist MSS. Comm. 9th Rep 17–18—14th century. For 'le Brokenewharf' in 1274, see Anc, Deeds, A. 1875.
11, l. 19. Chartsey . . . and was their lane. In the Chertsey Register (Cotton MS., Vitellius, A. xiii. f. 31) it is described as a court 'in urbe Londonia sitam super ripam Thamisie Flurinis in occidentali parte urbis ipsius contra austrum uerhens prope portum quod ipsi urbani fishchupe uocant, id est porta pisces'. Forle Fisshwharf in St. Mary, Somerset, see Cal. Wills, i. 496, and mun. Gild. II. i. 406, ii. 453.
13, l. 1. Bewmounts Inne. As 'Newe Inne' It belonged in 1397 in William de Montagu, Earl of Salisbury (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 203, 259). On the attainder of his nephew John in 1400 it fell to the king. Then it seems to have been held by Edward, Duke of york, and by Queen Joanna (C.P.R. Henry IV, iii. 2) and later by Sir Thomas Erpingham (Cal. Inq. p. m. iv. 125). On October 28, 1440, Henry VI granted it to William Phelip, Lord Bardolf, with remainder to John, Viscount Beaumont, who had married his only daughter and heiress (C. P. R. Henry VI, iii, 120, 473). After the forfeiture in 1462 of John's son William it was granted as 'Newe Inne alias Beaumontes Inne' in June, 1475, to William Hastings (id. Edw. IV, ii. 517, cf. Cal, Inq. p. m. iv. 322). Hastings was ancestor of the Earls of Huntington.
l. 9. Scrupes Inne. So held by Sir William FitzHugh in 1453. His father Henry, who seems to have held it in 1425, was son of Joan daughter of Henry, first Lorxd Scrope of Masham. Stephen Scrope, second lord, held it in 1406 (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 307, iv. 84, 256).
15, l. 11. S. Bent Hude. St. Benet 'super Tamisiam' in IIII, and S. Benet' super Hebam' at the end of the twelfth century (Hist. MSS, Comm. 9th Rep. 63., 67). Afterwards very commonly called S. Benet Woodwharf, see p. 279n. above.
16, l. 28. Woodmongers Hall. David Smith, mentioned just above, had purchased it of Edmund Helles, woodmonger, shortly before his death in 1587, when he left it with other property to the Mayor and Commonalty on trust for Christ's Hospital (Inq. p. m. Lond. iii, 108–9).
17, l. 13. Powles Brewhouse. The bracinum 'or brewhouse of St. Paul's is mentioned in 1162, and the 'Paules hede' opposite the bakehouse in 1456 (Hist, MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 12, 27). It is called 'Pouleshede' near Poulescheyne in 1444 (Cal. Wills, ii. 503).
19, l. 3. a tempest of wind. Stow in his Memoranda (p. 134) writes thus: 'The xxiij day of Decembar, beyonge Sondaye, at nyghte, in anno 1565, was a greate tempest of wynde where thrwgh many persons were drownyd on the Thams and other placis, and the great gattes at the West ende of S. Pawls churche in London, where is the brasen pilar, was blowne wyde open, the wynd beynge in ye west was of suche force.
l. 15. the Lowlardes Tower. Often confused with the Lollards Towers at Lamberth, where the use of the name appears to be inaccurate and of much later date. For the history of the Lollards Tower see Sparrow-Simpson, Documents illustrating the History of St. Pauls, pp. 214–18, Camden Soc.; and History of Old St. Paul's, 113–26.
22, l. 3.Which house is also of this ward. Stow is in error; the Liberty of the Rolls is not now, and never has been in the City. Similarly he includes the liberty of St. Martin's in Aldersgate Ward, though it was not incorporated in the City till somewhat later.
l. 28. in the yeare 1102. According to the Liber Fundacionis S. Bartholomei, cap, vii, the real date was 1123; but the same authority speaks of it as 'Henrico primo anno xxx et circiter tercium tercium regni eius'. See Dr. Norman Moore's edition of the English Book of Foundation p. liv, and Mon. Angl., vi. 292. Cotton MS., Vesp., B. ix contains a copy of the Latin original composed about 1180, together with an English version made about 1400.
l. 29. Alfune, &c. Stow is following the Liber S. Bartholomei (u.s. cap. xxii) where Alfune is described as on old man, who had not long before built the church of St. Giles. But in a deed at St. Paul's it is stated that in the reign of Henry I, Aelmund, the priest, granted to the chapter the church of St. Giles, which he had built outside the wall of the City (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 62).
23, l. II. John Coke, Treasurer of the Hospital, compiled a Rental, which he began in the 'thirty-seventh year of his profession and sixtyfourth of his age' in 1456, and completed in 1468 (Morely, Memoirs of Bartholomew Fair, 25–6; Dict. Nat. Biog., xi 223). Wakering was master from 1422 to 1466.
l. 14. Walter Cope. He was a member of the old Society of Antiquaries before Feb., 1590, was knighted April 26, 1603, made Chamberlain of the Exchequere in 1609, and died in 1614. He was the original builder of Holland House, which he called Cope Castle; it passed with his only daughter to Henry Rich, afterwards first Earl of Holland. See Hearne, Curious Discourses, ii. 427; Dict, Nat. Biog. xii. 168.
l. 15. Mouonmentes. There is a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 57, which supplies the following variants: Adam Hore (l.16); Sir Thomas Palefant, baron of Winva, Lord St. George, Oncketon, and Pille (l, 21); Shipley (l. 26); Wesbye (l. 27); Robert Caldecote (l. 29) William Brokas (l. 32).
l. 32. John Shirley. Shirley's transcripts of Chaucer, Lydgate, and other poets are of great value and importance. Nothing is known of his life except what Stow here records, save that in 1440 he was living in London. Translations by him of 'The Lamentable Cronycle of the dethe and false murdere of James Stewarde, late kynge of Scotys' and of two other small pieces are contained in Additional MS. 5467. Shirley's MSS. are Harley, 78, 2251, 7333, and Additional 16165, in the British Museum; Ashmole 59, in the Bodleian Library; Trinity College, Cambridge, R. 3, 20; and the Sion College MS. In Additional MS. 29729 are some poems of Lydgate's 'copyed out of ye boke of John Shirley by John Stowe'. See Skeat, Chaucer, i. 25, 53–9 and Dict. Nat. Biog. lii. 133.
27, l. 19. priuiledge of fayre. The fair existed before 1133, when Henry I granted a charter of protection (Mon. Angl., vi. 296). The charter of Henry II, granted circa 1156–62, was confirmed by Henry III in 1253 (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 368–70). For the history of the fair see Morely, Memorials of Bartholomew Fair; for a description of the fair in Stow's time see Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, and in the early part of the nineteenth century Hone, Everyday Book, i. 1166–1251. The fair was held for the last time in 1855.
28, l. 36. brokers, &c. See Webster, Northward Ho! Act II, sc. i: 'All the brokers in Long Lane had rifled their wardrobe.' Taylor, the Water-poet, writes in Three Weks from London to Hamburgh, p. 1:—'Like a desperate pawn had lain seven years in lavender on sweeting in Long Lane, or amongst the dogged inhabitants of Houndsditch.'
Long Lane was perhaps called after William le Long of Portepul, who held land here before 1249 (Anc. Deeds, B. 2330). Richard le Lung 'feleper' (fripper or broker) is mentioned in 1279 (Letter Book A, 30).
l. 21. markets of horses and cattle. In Henry IV, Pt. 2, Act 1, sc. ii, Falstaff says of Bardolph: 'I bought him in Paul's, and he'll buy me a horse in Smithfield: if I could get me a wife in the stews, I were manned, horsed, and wived.' So Burton (Anatomy of Melancholy, Part 3, Sec. 3, Mem. 4, subs. 2): 'He that marries a wife out of a suspected inn or alehouse, buys a horse in Smithfield, and hires, a knave for his man, an arrant honest woman to his wife'.
33, l. 25. Chamberlaine gate. Stow follows Leland: 'Parochia S. Sepulchri extra Chamberlaingate, quae nunc ut videtur Newgate appellatur (Collectanea, ii. 361). 'Newgate formerly Chamberlain gate' (Camden, Britannia, ii. 80, ed. Gough). From Domesday (i. 127) it appears that William the Chamberlain paid 6s. a year for his vineyard at Holeburn. This shows that the Chamber had property outside Newgate in 1086, and explains the name. Stow calls the Old Bailey the 'court of the Chamberlaine' on ii. 21, 37.
l. 31. one of the Pophames. Sir John Popham (d. 1463); he was chancellor of Anjou and Maine, and captain of St. Suzanne. The Popham referred to on p. 34 was his cousin Stephen (d. 1445–6), whose daughters were Sir John's co-heiresses. See ii. 47 above and Dict. Nat. Biog., xlvi, 146–7.
l. 38. Scropes Inne. It belonged to Richard, first Lord Scrope of Bolton (d. 1403), and in 1459 to Henry, fourth lord (Cal. Inq. p. m., iv. 284). Afterwards it was Sergeants Inn till its restoration to John the fifth lord in 1494 (Inq. p. m. Lond., i.7). John Cottyngham (d.1560) and Henry Gaynsford (d. 1574) were later owners (id.ii. 90, iii.7).
35, l. 16–17. William de Luda... gaue this house. Stow gives the terms of William de Luda's will correctly (see Cal. Wills, i. 138). But William's immediate predecessor, John de Kirkeby, had in 1290 left the bishopric of Ely his houses at Holborn, together with his vines and gardens (id.i. 90). The validity of Kirkeby's will was disputed. The rights of the Bishop of Ely against Kirkeby's heirs were only established in 1321 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 6th Rep., 295b, 298b).
ll. 35–6. feastes … by the Sergeants at the law. See Pulling, Order of the Coif, 234–7. Stow's account of the feast of 1464 adds some details to the longer narrative in Gregory's Chronicle, 222. For a feast kept at Ely Place by the Sergeants on Nov. 21, 1495, see Chron. Lond.,207–8. On Nov. 23, 1503, the feast was kept at Lambeth, id. 260.
37 l. 19. Furniualles Inne. It occurs as an Inn of Chancery in the reign of Henry IV. The heiress of the Furnivals brought it to John Talbot, first Earl of Shrewsbury, whose descendant sold it to the society in 1546. (Herbert, Inns of Court, 324–8).
l. 35. Chamberlaines … kept their courts. This seems to be an unwarranted conjecture on Stow's part. The deed of 1356 is simply a lease to John Cambridge (cf. Letter Books G, 121,279, and I, f. ccxxxi) relating to property of the corporation here. See R.R. Sharpe, Memorials of Newgate Gaol, p. 9.
38, 1. 22. Seacole lane, I thinke called Limeburners lane. Seacole Lane and Limeburners Lane were distinct. In 1308 John Hereward left his daughter 'shops in Secollane and Lymbarnereslane' (Cal. Wills, i. 204)
l.33. Shooe lane. It occurs as 'Vicus de Solande' in the time of King John (e.g. Cotton MS., Faustina, B. II, f. 83vo), and as 'Sholonde' in 1272. In 1283 Roger de Scholond had tenements in Scholane (Cal. Wills, i. 12,67).
39, l. 26. Thaues Inne. In early records it is always 'Davyesinne', as in 1419 when it belonged to Robert Plesyngton (Cal. Inq. p. m., iv. 40). But in the will of John Tavy (d. 1348) there is mention of his hospice in St. Andrew, Holborn, 'ubi apprenticii habitare solebant' (Letter Book F, 102; Cal. Wills, i. 619). A John Davy occurs as holding lands in Holborne in 1398 (id. ii. 332). See Herbert, Inns of Court, 322–4.
l. 29. so called of Fewters (or idle people). Stow is no doubt correct. Fetter Lane is probably the Viter lane without Newgate which occurs in 1294 and 1299 (Cal. Wills, i. 119, 139). Faitereslane appears in 1312, the new lane called Faitur Lane in 1352; other forms in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are Faytores lane, Faitours lane, Faytours lane and Faitour-lane (id. i. 230, 252, 698; ii. 44, 167, 591). Faitour, faytor, or fayter, means and impostor, a cheat, especially a vagrant, who shams illness or pretends to tell fortunes (N. E. D.). Such persons, no doubt, infested the western suburb, as the wise-women and fortune-tellers of Stow's own time did the north-eastern suburbs of Shoreditch and Hoxton (cf. Heywood's Wise Woman of Hogsdon). The suggestion that the name is due to fewters or fetters (the rests for a spear) made here by armourers (Mr. Loftie in N. and Q., 8th ser. xii. 161) is untenable. 'Fewter' Lane occurs commonly in Elizabeth's reign (Inq. p. m. London, iii. 94, 150, 153).
40, l. 15. Staple Inne. It is mentioned as 'le Stapled halle' in St. Andrew, Holboron, in 1333, when it belonged to Richard Starcolf, Mercer (Cal. Wills, i. 394). There were two other Stapled halls; one in Allhallows, Barking, mentioned in 1330(id, i. 363); the other in St. Botolph's without Bishopsgate, mentioned in 1330–46 (Letter Book E, 251). In this connexion the name meant no more than a wholesale storehouse. Staple Inn in Holborn is stated to have become an Inn of Chancery in 1413. It was rebuilt 1580–92. For its history see Staple Inn by E. Williams.
42, l. 17. returned againe to the Cliffordes. Probably it was only leased, for it appears as Clifford property in 1390, 1422, and 1455 (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 114, iv. 67, 266). It was acquired by the Society at a rental of 4l. soon after the last date (Herbert, Inns of Court, 274).
43, l. 13. Nocton Parke. The house in Chancery Lane, formerly called Harflu Inn, part of the possessions of Nocton Park Priory, was assured to the Six Clerks in 1539 (Letters and Papers, xiv. 867, c. 27). For references in 1454, see Mon. Angl. vi. 341, and Cal. Inq. p. m., iv. 261.
1st Master. Hither from forraigne Courts have Princes come,
And with our Duke did Acts of State commence,
Here that great Cardinall had first audience,
(The grave Campayne); that Duke dead, his Sonne
(That famous Prince) gaue free possession
Of this his Palace, to the Cittizens,
To be the poore man's ware-house; and endowed it
With Lands to th' valew of seven hundred marke,
With all the bedding and the furniture,
Once proper (as the Lands then were) to an Hospitall
Belonging to a Duke of Savoy. Thus
Fortune can tosse the World, a Princes Court
Is thus a prison now.
46, l. 2. Iohn Bale. He describes the introduction of the Carmelites to England, and the foundation of their first house at Aylesford in Kent by Richard Grey of Codnor in 1241, in his Heliades, ap. Harley MS. 3838, ff. 13, 14, 20.
l. 22. There were buried, &c. The names in the printed list are somewhat corrupt. A manuscript list of Stow's (Harley MS. 544 ff. 67–8), and another contemporary list ap. Harley MS. 6033, f. 9, give some help; the latter appears to have been consulted by Strype. 'John Mowbery … 1398,' probably means John IV (d. 1383); there is no date in either of the MSS. Bayholt is 'Bayllhot' in 544, and 'Baylhott' in 6033. 'Elizabeth, Countess of Athole' is probably the wife of David de Strabolgi, and afterwards of John Malwayn; she died in 1374 (Cal. Inq. p. m. ii. 337). 'Sir Pence Castle' is 'Sir Pons Castle, Baron of —' in 6033; perhaps Pontius, Lord of Castelhon in Gascony (Wylie, Henry IV, iii. 276). 'Sir Richard Derois' is 'Deroys' in 544, and 'de Royes' in 6033. 'Ashley' is 'Asteley' and 'Call' is 'Cawlle' in 544. 'Neddow' is 'Meddow' both in 544 and 6033. For 'Dame Margaret' Strype suggests Margaret Grey (d. 1540), Countess of Kent. Peter Wigus is in 544 Peter Wigns (? Wigornensis), and in 6032 Peter Wygich. 'Robert Mathew' is Metham in 544, and 'Matham' in 6033. 'Norice' is 'Norres', and 'Terwit' Tirwhit in 544. 'Robert Brocket' is Brockas ('Brocas') in both MSS. 'Chanlowes' is Chalouns, 'Dabby' Dalby, and 'Bampton' Lampton in 6033. For 'Thomas Federinghey' both MSS. have Dame — Foderinghey, and for 'Eldsmere' Elsmere; also William Hart and John Heron. 'Archer' is 'Awcher' in 6033. For 'Peter de Mota' 544 has Peter de Muta, and 6033 Peter de Mora. 'Hugh Bromflete' is Henry Bromflete (d. 1469), lord Vessey; Stow seems to have confused him with John de Vesci (fl. 1250), who was associated with Richard de Grey in introducing the Carmelites to England.
l. 12. the new Temple. It was granted in 1313 to Aymer de Valence, who released it to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, in 1314 (Letter Book E, 229; C. P. R. Edw. II, ii. 184). On Lancaster's death it was regranted to Aymer de Valence (Foedera, ii. 480), but again lapsed to the crown in 1324, and was then granted to Hugh le Despenser. See Williams, Staple Inn, p. 53.
51, l. 2. crosse legged as men vowed to the holy land. This is a popular notion unsupported by fact. Effigies of known Crusaders are found with the legs uncrossed, and cross-legged effigies of knights (and even ladies) who never went to Palestine, or died long after the Crusades were over. See Hartshorne, Recumbent Monumental Effigies in Northants, p. 119. For the tombs in the Temple Church see Vetusta Monumenta V, xix-xxv, Gough, Sepulchral Monuments, i. 24, 50; and Baylis, The Temple Church, 94–115. The ascription of them is open to question.
l. 23. by Sir Amias Paulet. Cf. Annales, p. 835, ed. 1605. In Harley MS. 538 the story is repeated at length. Briefly it is as follows:Paulet, for some offence, when Wolsey was but a schoolmaster, put him in the stocks. When Wolsey became chancellor he forbade Paulet to leave London. Paulet the rebuilt the gate-house of the Middle Temple, and adorned it with Wolsey's arms, hoping thus to appease his wrath.
52, l. 6. Hauing treated of Wardes, &c. In Harley MS. 544, ff. 96–9, there is a rough and early draft of this chapter: 'Of the Borough of Southwarke in the County of Southrey.' 'Now leauinge the City of Westminster, the farthest west part of suburbes without the Citye of London, I am to pase ovar the Thames & to say some what of Southwarke, a borughe so called for that the same lyeth on the south syde of the Ryvar of Thamis directly agaynst the citye of London, and at the south syde of the bridge. This broughe beinge in the county of Sothorey consisteth of dyvars stretes, wayes, &c.' The narrative then continues with only slight variations to 'bad men to lyke women' on p. 54. Then it proceeds: 'The originall of this privilege I have not red, but I have sene a patent thereof dated the 19 of E. 3'; and so continues with little variation to 'before that any bridge was builded' (on p. 56). Then a long passage (pp. 56–60) is lacking. The events of 1376–7 are given rather more in detail. The notice of the Tabard and Chaucer is omitted. The account of St. Thomas Hospital is shorter and differently arranged, and the subsequent narrative down to 'diuided into sundrie tenements' (p. 65) does not appear. There is an important addition on Sir John Throston (see below), and after this the narrative continues nearly as printed to 'Earles of Sussex' (p. 67), where it stops. Stow then states that having treated of the suburbs, &c., he is next to enter the city: compare note on pp. 285–6 above.
53, l. 22. 5. Prisons or Gaoles. Taylor, the Water—poet, writes:
Five jayles or prisons are in Southwarke placed,
The Counter once St. Margaret's church defaced,
The Marshalsea, the King's Bench, and White Lyon,
Then there's the Clinke where handsome lodgings be.
54, l. 5.two Beare gardens. The two rings are shown in Hofnagel's and Agas's maps, and marked separately as ' The bolle—bayting' and 'The Beare—bayting'. They were a little to the east of the landing—place at Paris—Garden (see Introduction, p. xl above).
l. 15. In a Parliament, &c. For a transcript of 'Ordinances touching the governance of the Stew—houlders in Southwarke vnder the direction of the bishope of Winchester, instituted in the tyme of Henry the Second', see Harley MS. 293, ff. 62–7.
55, l. 9. Also I find, &c. In Harley MS. 544 this reads: 'More I find in one olde boke fayre writen in parchement in the reigne of Richard the Second that in the 4 yere of his reigne, &c.' This is interesting, as showing that Stow used the original of the Liber S. Mariae Ebor. or Anominalle Chronicle (see Introduction, p. xxxiii), and was not dependent on Thynne's transcript.
57, l. 36. speculum meditantis. This work, long believed to have been lost, was identified by Mr. G. C. Macaulay in 1895, with a poem entitled Mirour de l' Omme, contained in the Cambridge University Library Additional MS. 1891, and was printed by him in his edition of Gower's Works, vol. i. pp. 1–334.
En toy qu'es fitz de dieu le pere,
Sauvé soit que gist souz cest piere.
O bon Jesu, fai ta mercy
Al alme dont le corps gist ci.
Pur ta pité, Jesu, regarde,
E met cest alme in sauve garde.
58, l. 27. Monumentes. There is a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 27, which reads Robert Hilyeard (l. 27); Katheren wife of John Stocker (l. 31); Lorde of Paryed Ferrar for 'Lord Ospay Ferar' (l. 32); and John Brome (l. 33). 'Ospay Ferar' may perhaps conceal some Italian noble of Ferrara, who died and was buried in England.
63, l. 22. Monuments in this Hospitall Church, &c. Strype corrects thus: Adam Attewod, William Weston, and John Every. These come from a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 27, which has also Roger Chamber, Richarde Chaunder, John Wode, Michael Enebrigge, and Thomas Knynton.
65, ll. 35–9 Sir John Throstone, &c. This is a curtailed version of the original draft in Harley MS. 544, f. 98vo, which reads: 'Gaue by his Testament towardes this purpos 200li. These were begone to be made by his lady and othar his executors in the yere of Christ 1521, and ended in the yere 1522, Sir John Monday beinge then Maior of London, and therefore by some thowght to be builded at the charges of the said maior: but that was mistaken, for before as behynde every the sayde ovens the goldsmithes armes are fayre engraven in stone, so ovar every ovene are likewise ingraven the armes of the sayd sir Iohn Throstone, and his ladies in one escutchen. There is of late taken &c.'
70, l. 36. Wapping in the Woze. 'West,' the reading of the 1603 edition, is a printer's error, follishly altered by Munday to 'East' (Survey, p. 461). A woze, or ooze, is a low marshy place. For the hanging of ten pirates at Wapping in the Woze in August, 1583, see Annales, 1175, ed. 1605.
Samuel Rowlands, in his Knave of Hearts, p. 48, writes:—
For though Pyrates exempted be
From fatall Tyburne's wither's tree,
They have an Harbour to arrive
Call'd Wapping, where as ill they thrive
As those that ride up Holbourne Hill,
And at the Gallows make their Will.
71, l. 17. Radcliffe it selfe hath beene also encreased, &c. Howes in an addition to the Annales, p. 868, sub anno 1605, and possibly using material left by Stow, writes thus: 'The undiscernable and new building of goodly houses, shoppes, sheds, and lodgings within the City, in many vacant places, with the converting of the Citie Bulwarkes into houses of pleasure, to the great and wondrous enlarging of the suburbs and skirts thereof, namely Ratcliffe, Limehouse, Rederiffe, Southwarke, Shoreditch, Whitechappell and Saint Katherines.' In the same place he writes that before 1563 'faire houses in London were plenteous, and very easie to be had at low and small rents, and by reason of the late dissolution of Religious houses many houses in London Stood vacant, and not any man desirous to take them.' Howes ascribes the growth of London to the great immigration of foreigners through the troubles in France and the Netherlands. Compare with this the quotation on vol. i. p. 208 of a presentment made as to the increase of alien residents in Billingsgate. From his frequent reference to the pestering of the suburbs, and open places in the City with filthy small tenements it is clear that Stow sympathized with the anxiety of Elizabeth's government about the growth of the capital. In 1580 a royal proclamation (see Brich, 128–31) forbade any new buildings within three miles of the gates of the City. Three years later the Council directed attention to the great increase of building 'to danger of pestilence and riot', and to the practice of dividing single tenements. Nevertheless, in spite of repeated complaints by the Council, the mischief continued. In addition to the previous objections it was pointed out that the growth of London caused the decay of other towns, and increased the difficulty of provisioning the Capital (a matter which caused Elizabeth's government much anxiety). Finally, in 1593 a statute—35 Eliz. c. 3—was passed, declaring that 'great mischiefs daily grow and increase by reason of pestering the houses with diverse families, harbouring of inmates, and converting great houses into several tenements, and the erecting of new buildings in London and Westminster'. But the statute was no more easy to enforce than the previous proclamations. In 1596 the Council again addressed the Middlesex magistrates on the 'multitudes of base tenements and houses of unlawfull and disorderly resort in the suburbs', calling attention to the 'great number of dissolute, loose, and insolent people harboured in such and the lyke noysom and disorderly howses, as namely poor cottages, and habitacions of beggars and people without trade, stables, ins, alehowses, tavernes, garden—houses converted to dwellings, ordinaries, dicyng—howses, bowling—allies, and brothel houses' (Acts of Privy Council, xxv. 230). Naturally the growth of London could not be checked thus, though regulation was no doubt needed. More or less vain attempts to restrain the increase of buildings continued throughout the seventeenth century (see Remembrancia, 41–51; Acts of Privy Council, xii. 94, 155, 213; xiii. 201; xiv. 356; xix. 278–81, 324 (for St. Katherine's to Blackwall), 348, 350 (Tower Hamlets); xx. 326; xxii. 70, 145 (near Moorgate); xxv. 230; xxviii. 427 (Shoreditch, St. Giles, Cripplegate, and Clerkenwell), 435 (Southwark); and xxix. 5.
73, l. 8. saint Mary Matfellon. Stow's reference is to Cal. Inq. p. m., iii. 186; but the name is much older, and appears as 'Mantefelune' in 1280, and 'Mattefelon' or 'Matrefelun' in 1282 (Cal. Wills, i. 48, 58, 59). 'Matfellon' or 'Matrefillen' is Old—French for the centaury or knapweed. Probably, as in other cases, the church owed its distinctive name to some benefactor. 'Matfelon' and 'Materfeloun' occur as surnames in the fourteenth century (N. and Q., 9th ser., viii. 337–8). John de Knopwed, a mercer, died in 1341 (Cal. Wills, i. 448; see also Letter Book F, 79).
l. 37. From Holy well, &c. The omission here of the reference to the Theatre and The Curtain (see p. 262 above) is noteworthy. It may perhaps be explained in part by the fact that The Curtain was pulled down in 1600. But probably it was intentional, and due to lack of interest; for the slight reference in the chapter on Sportes and Pastimes was also omitted in 1603 (see p. 236 above). The original notice in Harley MS. 538, was as follows: 'Neare adjoyning are builded two houses for the shewe of Activities, Comedies, tragedies and histories, for recreation. The one of them is named the Curtayn in Holy Well, the other The Theatre. There are on the bak-syde of Holywell towards the filde from Holywell a continuall &c.'
In both of Howes's editions of the Annales (p. 698, ed. 1631) there is an often-quoted passage under date 1583, on how comedians and stageplayers were grown exquisite actors, and praising Thomas Wilson and Richard Tarleton for their wit. But in Stow's own editions there is nothing whatever to correspond.
margin. Soerditch, … as I can proue by record. Stow is probably
referring to the late legend, which connected Shoreditch with Jane Shore,
and is adopted by Heywood, Edward IV, Part 2, Act v, sc. iii:—
The people from the love they bear to her
And her kind husband, pitying his wrongs,
For ever after mean to call the ditch
Shore's ditch, as in the memory of them.
The name is, of course, much older. St. Leonard de Soreditch occurs in a deed circa 1218 (vol. i. 166 above, and Monasticon, vi. 625), and in the list of 1303 (Mun. Gild. II. i. 229); for other references in the thirteenth century see Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 14, 15.
l. 25. small and base tenements. Alluding no doubt to the gamblinghouses, brothels, and other disreputable places which made the district notorious. Middleton, in Father Hubbard's Tales (Works, viii. 96), calls 'Spital and Shoreditch the only Cole-harbour and sanctuary for wenches and soldiers'.
l. 14. the More. Stow's references to William's Charter and to FitzStephen show the state of the Moor in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. But recent excavations have proved that the marsh did not exist in the early Roman period. Roman remains are found on the gravel underneath the marsh deposit. It was apparently the building of the wall (see p. 269 above), and the obstruction of the Walbrook, that converted the land on the north to a swamp, and set up the difficulties of drainage described in the subsequent passage. SeeArchaeologin, lx. 181–3.
77, l. 3. Roger Atchley. On Jan. 14, 1512, it was 'agreed that the Chamberleyn of this Citie shall cause a grounde callid the Mooreffelde to be levellid by the oversight of my lorde Maier and of the Shrevys of this Citie, and over that to provide a convenyent place for the olde dogge hous of the Comen Hunte of this Citie, and that the olde hous be removed' (Repertory, 2. f. 126 b).
l. 9. diuers sluces. From the London Chronicle in Harley MS. 540, f. 7:—'In ye same yere in Julii and in August was ye slewcys made in Fynsbery fylde to convaye ye yll watars ovar ye towne diche by pypes of lede in to ye Temes.'
l. 16. three windmilles. In a Survey of the Manor of Finsbury (ap. Survey, 913, ed. 1633) taken in 1567, there is reference to the 'high Field or Meadow ground, where the there windmills stand, commonly called Finsbury Field'. Four windmills are shown on Agas's map a little later: but one of them stands rather to the west of the others; see Map in this volume. Others were afterwards added; so Middleton writes, about 1617, in A Fair Quarrel, Act iv. sc. i.: 'I have heard 'em roar from the six windmills to Islington.' Six mills are shown on Faithorne's map in 1658. Windmill Street, now re-named Tabernacle Street, preserved their memory.
78. l. 13. many fayre summer houses. The building of garden-houses,
or summer-houses in the rural suburbs, was very popular in the sixteenth
century. They are often referred to in the old dramatists as favourite
places for assignations. One of the scenes in Webster's Northward Ho!
(Act III. sc. ii) is laid at 'my master's garden-house here in Moorfields',
Samuel Rowlands, in his Knave of Clubs, p. 7, describes how 'a countrie
blew-coate serving-man' wandering about London
got into More fieldes
Viewing the Walkes and Trees,
And thence to Garden-Alley goes.
The Moorfields were set in better order with new and pleasant walks
soon after Stow's death (see Annales, p. 1021 b, ed. Howes). To their
previous unsatisfactory condition Dekker alludes in The Guls Hornbooke:
'To purge it will be a sorer labour than the cleansing of Augeas stable or scouring of Moreditch' (Non-Dramatic Works, ii. 212, ed. Grosart).
79, l. 19. Grubstreete. It was convenient for bowyers, since it lay near
the Archery-butts in Finsbury Fields. Randolph in Hey for Honesty,
ap. Works, ed. 1651, p. 475, writes:
Her eyes are Cupid's Grub-Street: the blind archer
Makes his love-arrows there.
82, l. 36. Monuments. Stow's manuscript list in Harley MS. 544, f. 67, supplies the correction, 'John Dorewentwatar, knight.' It adds 'Katheren wyfe to William Lowe', 'Joane' wife of John Peake, and 'the wife of William Ardlestone'.
83, l. 14. inplace whereof. Edward, Lord North, entertained Elizabeth here in 1558 and 1561. His son Roger sold the Charterhouse to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, on May 31, 1565 (Nichols, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, i. 31).
l. 24. Turnemill streete. Stow does not mention the houses of illfame which account for so many references to Turnmill or Turnbull Street in the Elizabethan dramatists, e. g. Henry IV, pt. 2, Act III. sc. ii, where Falstaff says of Shallow: 'This same starved justice hath done nothing but prate to me of the wildness of his youth, and the feats he hath done about Turnbull Street.'
84, l. 33. a storehouse. The King's tents were housed at the Charterhouse in 1543–4. They may then have been kept for a time at St. John's. But in the autumn of 1545 the Tents and Revels, were removed to Blackfriars. However, the Masters of the Tents, the Toils, and the Revels all appear to have had their storehouses at the 'late Hospital of St. John' before June 1560 (Chambers, Tudor Revels, 13–20).
85, l. 9. buried in this Church. There is a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 43vo, which supplies the following variants: Panclay for 'Vanclay'; Lanncolen; Radington; Walshall for 'Marshall'; Ouldhall for 'Gondall'. The first fifteen are described as 'ffryars'. 'Hilles or Hayles' is distinguished from 'William Hulles'.
87, l. 3. Porte Poole or Grayes Inne. Simon de Gardino de Purtepole left his house within Holeburne bar to his son-in-law Richard de Chygewelle or Chigwell (Cal. Wills, i. 48). Chygewelle in 1294 enfeoffed the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's with the property, and they enfeoffed Reginald de Grey, who held it of them in 1307. The Greys retained their connexion till 1506. But before 1397 Henry Grey de Wilton had made a feoffment of 'Portpole maner' called 'Grey's Inn' to certain persons in trust. See E. Williams, Staple Inn, 22, 38–44, and Douthwaite, Gray's Inn, 3–18.
1. 16. Richard Alington. Amongst Stow's Memoranda, 117–21, is The confessyon of Master Rychard Allington, esquere, the xxij of Novembre, 1561, abowte viij of ye clocke at nyght'. He accused himself of having made much money by usury, and says in his confession that he never thought his death 'wolde have cum to passe by this dessease, considerynge it is but ye smalle pockes'. Machyn describes him as son of Sir Giles Alington (Diary, p. 274).
89, l. 35. This olde Fryer house. Stow places the original Blackfriars outside the City. But it seems clear that it was in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, in Shoe Lane, both from grants to the friars between 1224 and 1260, and from the will of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, where his place that belonged to the Preaching Friars is mentioned; as the conveyance to Lincoln in 1288 and his will were both enrolled in the Court of Husting (Cal. Wills, 1. 218), they must have related to property within the City. Probably this is the Oldborne Hall mentioned on ii, 38 above. Henry de Lacy's daughter married, as her first husband, Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and in her right Earl of Lincoln. As Earl of Lancaster he was Lord of the manor of the New Temple, including Ralph Neville's house in Chancery Lane on part of the site of the modern Lincoln's Inn. See E. Williams, Staple Inn, 45–54.
l. 37. a sell to Burton Lager of Jerusalem. The reference is to the Hospital of lepers of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem at Burton Lazars in Leicestershire. But St. Giles was not annexed thereto till 1299, an arrangement which was confirmed in 1354 (Tanner, Notitia Monastica, i. 304; Monast. Angl. vi. 632, 635; Letter Book G, 27–9).
91, 1. 7. Gote on the Hope It was bequeathed to the Drapers by William Calley in 1517; it is mentioned in 1432 (Cal. Wills, ii. 473, 602, 625). Ancient tavern signs were nearly always 'on the hoop'. The 'Griffon on the hope' on i. 323, and many instances in the Calendar of Wills, as 'Le Castell on the hoop' and 'Le Moone on the hoop', The 'hoop' seems to have 'originated in the highly ornamented bush or crown, which latterly was made of hoops covered with evergreens' (Larwood and Hotten, History of Signboards, pp. 503–5, 3rd ed).
l. 10. a great Bowle of Ale. John Chamberlain wrote to Dudley Carleton on Oct. 31, 1618, thus: 'The morning that he [Ralegh] went to execution there was a cup of excellent sack brought him, and being asked how he liked it, "As the fellow," saith he, "that drinking of St. Giles's bowl as he went to Tyburn said: 'That were good drink, if a man might tarry by it' " ' (Court and Times of James I).
92, l. 10. Walter Stapleton. According to the account in the Annales Paulini, p. 317, his body was refused burial at St. Clement Danes, and then laid temporarily in the waste church of the Innocents close by.
l. 36. Iuie bridge. On its history and that of Ivy-bridge Lane, which was destroyed by the extension of the Hotel Cecil, see N. and Q., 10th ser., v. 81, 136, 175. Sir Robert Cecil writes on Oct. 24, 1602, of 'My new house (called Cecyll howse) by Ivye bridge' (Letters, Camd. Soc).
96, l. 25. a fayre leager Booke. Stow is clearly quoting the Chertsey Register in Cotton MS., Vitellius, A. xiii, f. 35, though not perhaps from his own knowledge. It is there stated that in the time of Ætherlred I (866–71) the Danes arrived at Chertsey and summoned the monks to come out: 'Illis autem exire nolentibus, nec eorum obsecundare preceptis, omnes gladio interfecti sunt uidelicet xc., quorum corpora in uno loco iuxta uetus monasterium condita sunt. Postea ecclesiam et omnes officinas predicti monasterii igni combusserunt, res, terras, uillulas, et omnes eorum possessiones depredauerunt. Illi autem in malicia sua perdurantes, repatriare cupientes iusto dei iudicio apud Londoniam omnes interfecti sunt, in loco qui dicitur ecclesia Danorum.' The burialplace of the slaughtered monks was discovered after the refounding of Chertsey Abbey by Bishop Ætherwold of Winchester. The remains were then transferred to a shrine, 'sicut in cronicis predicti monasterii anglico ideomate inuenitur: "On (fn. 1) Certeseye in þe munstre þer restet seint Beccan abbod, and seint Edor messe prest, and seint Fritheuuold king þat staþelede erest þat munstre, mid seint Erkenuualde abbod, þat est werþ Bissup on Londone suuipe holi: and hundnigenti moneches of slagene mid heþene men." Acta sunt hec anno dominice incarnacionis octogintesimo octogesimo quarto, tempore Ethelredi regis filii regis Etheluulfi.'
The Chertsey record was written about 1260. The greater part is based on William of Malmesbury, Abbo Passio S. Edmundi, and Bede. But the account of the destruction of Chertsey is peculiar; Malmesbury (Gesta Pontificum, 143) refers simply to its destruction by the Danes—'qui, ut cetera, locum illum pessundedere, ecclesia succensa cum monachis et abbate.' The English fragment is based on the early eleventh century Anglo-Saxon list of Saints (see Liebermann, Die Heiligen Englands, p. 19; and the Hyde Liber Vitae, p. 94), with an interpolation from Bede of the notice of St. Erkenwald. (fn. 2) The incorrect date, '884' (Æthelred I died in 871), and the fact that the whole passage is a late compilation from various sources, make it untrustworthy. Very probably the punishment of the Danes refers to the massacre in the time of Æthelred II. As for the name St. Clement Danes, the street there was called 'Denchemen's street' early in the thirteenth century.
98, ll. 28, 29. house … doth yet remaine. J. T. Smith (Antiquities of Westminster, 12), writing in 1807: 'the spot was where a part of the stable of the Golden Cross Inn, and some of the houses at the south end of St. Martin's Lane now stand.'
100, l. 31. S. Marie Rounciuall. Founded by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, in 1222, suppressed as an alien priory after 1432 (C. P. R. Henry VI, ii. 247), and revived for a fraternity in 1476 (Mon. Angl. vi. 677; C. P. R. Edw. IV, ii. 542). It was on the site of the present Northumberland Avenue.