A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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The Citie of Westminster with the Antiquities, Boundes, and Liberties thereof
Now touching the City of Westminster, I wil beginne at Temple Barre, on the right hand or North side, and so passe vppe West, through a Backe lane or streete, wherein doe stande three Innes of Chancery, the first called Clements Inne, because it standeth neare to saint Clements church, but nearer to the fayre fountaine called Clements well: the second, New Inne, so called as latelier made of a common hostery, and the signe of our Lady, an Inne of Chancery for Students, then the other, to wit about the beginning of the raigne of Henry the 7. and not so late as some haue supposed, to wit, at the pulling downe of Strand Inne, in the raigne of king Edward the sixt, for I read that sir Thomas More, sometime Lord Chancellor, was a Student in this new Inne, and went from thence to Lincolnes Inne, &c. The thirde is Lyons Inne, an Inne of Chancery also. This street stretcheth vppe vnto Drury lane, so called, for that there is a house belonging to the Familie of the Druries. This lane turneth North towarde S. Giles in the field. From the south end of this lane in the high street are diuerse faire buildings, Hosteries, and houses for Gentlemen, and men of honor, amongst the which Cicile house is one, which sometime belonged to the Parson of S. Martins in the fielde, and by composition came to Sir Thomas Palmer knight in the raign of Edward the sixt, who began to builde the same of Bricke and Timber, very large and spacious, but of later time it hath beene farre more beautifully encreased by the late sir William Cicile Baron of Burghley, Lord Treasurer, and great counseller of the estate.
From thence is now a continuall new building of diuers fayre houses, euen vp to the Earle of Bedfords house lately builded nigh to Iuy Bridge, and so on the north side to a lane that turneth to the parish Church of S. Martins in the field, in the liberty of Westminster. Then had ye an house wherein somtime were distraught and lunatike people, of what antiquity founded, or by whom I haue not read, neither of the suppression, but it was said that sometime a king of England, not liking such a kind of people to remaine so neare his pallace, caused them to be remoued farther of, to Bethlem without Bishops gate of London, and to that Hospitall the said house by Charing crosse doth yet remaine.
Then is the Mewse, so called of the kinges Faulchons there kept by the kinges Faulconer, which of olde time was an office of great account, as appeareth by a Recorde of Richard the second, in the first yeare of his raigne: Sir Simon Burley knight was made Constable for the castles of Windsor, Wigmore, and Guilford, and of the Manor of Kenington, and also master of the kings Faulcons at the Mewse neare vnto Charing crosse by Westminster. But in the yeare of Christ 1534. the 26. of H. the 8. the king hauing faire stabling at Lomsbery (a Manor in the farthest west part of Oldborne) the same was fiered and burnt, with many great horses, and great store of Hay. After which time, the forenamed house called the Mewse by Charing crosse was new builded, and prepared for stabling of the kings horses, in the raigne of Edward the sixt and Queene Mary, and so remaineth to that vse, and this is the farthest building West on the North side of that high streete.
On the southside of the which street, in the liberties of Westminster (beginning at Iuie Bridge), first is Durham house, builded by Thomas Hatfielde Bishop of Durham, who was made Bishop of that sea in the yeare 1345. and sat Bishop there 36. yeares.
Amongst maters memorable concerning this house, this is one. In the yeare of Christ 1540. the 32 of Henry the eight, on May day, a great and triumphant Iusting was holden at Westminster, which had been formerly proclamed in France, Flanders, Scotland and Spaine, for all commers that woulde vndertake the challengers of England, which were sir Iohn Dudley, sir Thomas Seymer, sir Thomas Po<y>nings, and sir George Carew knights, and Anthonie Kingston, and Richarde Cromwell Esquiers, all which came into the Lists that day richly apparelled and their horses trapped al in white Veluet: there came against them the sayde day 46. Defendants, or Vndertakers, vz. the Earle of Surrey formost, Lorde William Howard, Lord Clinton, and Lord Cromwell, sonne and heyre to Thomas Cromwell Earle of Essex, and Chamberlaine of England, with other, and that day, after the Iustes performed, the Chalengers rode vnto this Durham house, where they kept open household, and feasted the King and Queene, with her Ladies, and all the Court: the second day Anthonie Kingston and Richard Cromwell were made knights there: the thirde day of May the said Chalengers did Turney on horsebacke with swordes, and against them came 49. Defendants: sir Iohn Dudley, and the Earle of Surrey, running first, which at the first course lost their Gauntlets, and that day sir Richarde Cromwell ouerthrew maister Palmer and his horse in the field, to the great honor of the chalengers, the fift of May the Chalengers fought on foote at the Barriers, and against them came 50. Defendants, which fought valiantly: but sir Richard Cromwell ouerthrew that day at the Barriers master Culpepper in the field, and the sixt day the Chalengers brake vp their houshold.
In this time of their housekeeping they had not onely feasted the King, Queene, Ladies, and all the Court, as is afore shewed: but also they cheared all the Knightes and Burgesses of the common house in the Parliament, and entertained the Maior of London with the Aldermen and their wiues at a dinner, &c. The king gaue to euery of the said chalengers, and their heyres for euer, in reward of their valiant actiuitie, one hundred markes, and a house to dwell in, of yearely reuenue, out of the landes pertayning to the Hospitall of S. Iohn of Jerusalem.
Next beyond this Durham house is another great house somtime belonging to the Bishop of Norwich, and was his London lodging, which nowe pertaineth to the Archbishop of Yorke by this occasion. In the yeare 1529, when Cardinall Wolsey Archbishop of Yorke was indited in the Premunirey, whereby king Henry the eight was entituled to his goodes and possessions: hee also seazed into his hands the said Archbishops house, commonly called Yorke place, and changed the name thereof into White hal: whereby the Archbishops of Yorke being dispossessed, and hauing no house of repayre about London, Queene Marie gaue vnto Nicholas Heth then Archbishop of Yorke, and to his successors, Suffolke house in Southwarke, lately builded by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolke, as I haue shewed.
This house the said Archbishop sold, and bought the aforesayd house of old time belonging to the Bishops of Norwich, which of this last purchase is now called Yorke house: the Lord Chauncellors or Lord Keepers of the greate Seale of England haue beene lately there lodged.
Then was there an Hospitall of S. Marie Rounciuall by Charing Crosse (a Cell to the Priorie and Couent of Rounciuall in Nauar in Pampelion Dioces) where a Fraternitie was founded in the 15. of Edward the 4. but now the same is suppressed and turned into tenements.
Neare vnto this Hospitall was an Hermitage, with a chappell of S. Katherine, ouer against Charing crosse, which crosse, builded of stone, was of old time a fayre peece of worke there made by commandement of Edward the first, in the 21. yeare of his raigne, in memorie of Helianor his deceased Queene, as is before declared.
West from this Crosse stoode sometime an Hospitall of saint Iames, consisting of two hydes of lande with the appurtenances in the parish <of> S. Margaret in Westminster, and founded by the Citizens of London, before the time of any mans memory, for 14. sisters maidens that were leprouse, liuing chastly and honestly in diuine seruice.
Afterwards diuers Citizens of London gaue sixe and fifty li. rent therevnto, and then were adioyned eight brethren to minister diuine seruice there. After this also sundry deuout men of London gaue to this Hospitall foure Hides of land in the field of Westminster, and in Hendon, Calcote, and Hampsted, eighty acres of land and Woode, &c. King Edward the first confirmed those giftes, and granted a Fayre to be kept on the Eue of saint Iames, the day, the morrowe, and foure dayes following, in the eighteenth of his raigne.
This Hospitall was surrendred to Henry the eight, the three and twentieth of his raigne, the sisters being compounded with were allowed Pensions for tearme of their liues, and the king builded there a goodly Mannor, annexing thereunto a Parke, closed about with a wall of bricke, now called saint Iames Parke, seruing indifferently to the said Mannor, and to the Mannor or Pallace of White Hall.
South from Charing crosse on the right hand, are diuers fayre houses lately builded before the Parke, then a large Tilt yard for Noblemen and other to exercise themselues in Iusting, Turn <ey>ing (fn. 1), and fighting at Barryers.
On the left hand from Charing Crosse bee also diuers fayre Tenements lately builded, till ye come to a large plotte of ground inclosed with bricke, and is called Scotland, where great buildings hath beene for receipt of the kings of Scotland, and other estates of that countrey: for Margaret Queene of Scots and sister to King Henry the eight, had her abiding there, when she came into England after the death of her husband, as the kings of Scotland had in former times, when they came to the Parliament of England.
Then is the said White Hal sometime belonging to Hubert de Burgh Earle of Kent, and Iusticier of England, who gaue it to the blacke Fryers in Oldborne, as I haue before noted. King H. the eight ordayned it to be called an Honor, and builded there a sumptuous Gallery and a beautifull Gate house, thwart the high streete to saint Iames Parke, &c.
On the right hand be diuers fayre Tennis courtes, bowling allies, and a Cocke pit, al built by king Henry the eight, and then one other arched gate with a way ouer it thwarting the street from the kings gardens to the said parke.
From this gate vp Kings streete, to a bridge ouer Long ditch (so called for that the same almost insulateth the City of Westminster) neare which bridge is a way leading to Chanon Row, so called for that the same belonged to the Deane and Chanons of S. Stephens chappell, who were there lodged, as now diuers Noblemen and Gentlemen be: Whereof one is belonging to sir Edward Hobby, one other to Iohn Thine Esquier, once stately builded by Anne Stanhop Dutches of Somerset, mother to the Earle of Hartford, who now enioyeth that house. Next, a stately house now in building by William Earle of Darby, ouer against the which is a fayre house builded by Henry Clinton Earle of Lincolne.
Touching this Woolestable, I reade that in the raigne of E. the first, the Staple being at Westminster, the parrishioners of S. Margaret and Marchants of the Staple builded of new the said church, the great Chancell excepted, which was lately before new builded by the Abbot of Westminster.
Moreouer that Edward the third, in the 17. of his raigne, decreed that no siluer bee carried out of the Realme on paine of death. And that whosoeuer transporteth wooll, should bring ouer for euery sacke foure nobles of siluer Bullion.
In the 25. of his raigne he appointed the Staple of Wooll to be kept onely at Canterbury, for the honour of S. Thomas. But in the 27. of the same king E. the Staple of Wooll, before kept at Bruges in Flanders, was ordayned by Parliament to be kept in diuers places of England, Wales and Ireland, as at New Castle, Yorke, Lincolne, Canterbury, Norwich, Westminster, Chichester, Winchester, Excester, Bristow, Carmardyn, &c. to the great benefit of the king, & losse vnto strangers & marchants. For there grew vnto the king by this meanes (as it was said) the summe of 1000 a hundred and two pounds by the yeare, more then any his predecessors before had receiued: the Staple at Westminster at that time began on the next morrow after the feast of S. Peter Ad vincula. The next yeare was granted to the king by Parliament towardes the recouery of his title in France, fifty shillings of euery sacke of wool transported ouer seas, for the space of sixe yeares next ensuing, by meanes whereof the king might dispend daily during those yeares more then a thousand markes starling. For by the common opinion there were more then 100000. sackes of Wooll yearely transported into forraine landes, so that during sixe yeares the said grant extended to fifteene hundred thousand pound starling.
In the 37. of Edward the third it was granted vnto him for two yeares to take sixe and twenty shillings eight pence, vpon euery sack of Wool transported, and the same yeare the staple of wooll (notwithstanding the kings oath and other great estates) was ordained to be kept at Callis, and sixe and twenty Marchants, the best and wealthiest of all England, to be farmers there, both of the Towne and Staple, for three yeares, euery Marchant to haue sixe men of Armes, and foure Archers at the kings cost. He ordained there also two Maiors, one for the towne, and one for the Staple, and he tooke for mala capta, commonly called Maltorth, twenty shillings, and of the said Marchants Gardians of the Towne forty pence, vpon euery sacke of Wooll.
In the 44. of Edward the third, Quinborough, Kingston vpon Hull, and Boston, were made Staples of Wooll, which matter so much offended some that in the 50. of his raigne, in a Parliament at London, it was complained that the staple of Wooll was so remoued from Callis to diuers townes in England, contrary to the statute appointing that citizens and Marchants should keepe it there, and that the king might haue the profits and customes with the exchange of gold and siluer that was there made, by al the Marchants in Christindome (esteemed to amount to 8000. li. by yeare the exchange onely): and the Citizens and Marchants so ordred the matter that the king spent nothing vpon souldiers neither vpon defence of the towne against the enemies, whereas now he spent 8000. li. by yeare.
In the 51. of Edward the third, when the Staple was setled (fn. 2) at Callis, the Maior of the Staple did furnish the Captaine of the towne vpon Enirode (fn. 3) with 100. Bilmen, 1200. Archers of Marchants and their seruants, without any wages.
In the fourteenth of his raigne there was granted 40. s. vpon euery sacke of wooll, and in the 21. was graunted 50.s. vpon euery sacke transported by english men, and three pound by strangers, &c. It seemeth that the Marchants of this Staple be the most ancient Marchants of this Realme, and that all commodities of the realm are Staple Marchandizes by law and Charter, as Wooles, Leather, Wool-fels, Lead, Tyn, cloth, &c.
King Henry the sixt had sixe wooll houses within the staple at Westminster: those he granted to the Deane and Cannons of saint Stephen at Westminster, and confirmed it the 21. of his raigne. Thus much for the Staple haue I shortly noted.
And now to passe to the famous Monastery of Westminster: at the very entrance of the Close thereof, is a lane that leadeth toward the west, called Theeuing lane, for that theeues were led that way to the Gate house, while the sanctuary continued in force.
This Monastery was founded and builded by Sebert king of the East Saxons, vpon the perswasion of Ethelbert King of Kent, who hauing embraced christianity, and being baptized by Melitus Bishop of London: immediately (to shew himselfe a christian indeed) built a church to the honour of God and S. Peter, on the west side of the city of London, in a place (which because it was ouergrowne with thornes, and enuironed with water) the Saxons called Thorney, and now of the Monastery and west scituation thereof is called Westminster.
Sebert was buried in this church, with his wife Athelgoda, whose bodies many yeares after, to wit in the raigne of Richard the second (saith Walsingham) were translated from the old church to the new, and there enterred.
Without the walles of London (saith hee) vpon the Riuer Thames, there was in times passed a little Monastery, builded to the honour of God and Saint Peter, with a few Benedict Monkes in it, vnder an Abbot, seruing Christ: very poore they were, and little was giuen them for their reliefe. Here the King entended (for that it was neare to the famous Cittie of London and the Riuer of Thames, that brought in all kinde of Marchandizes from all partes of the worlde) to make his Sepulcher. Hee commaunded therfore that, of the tenthes of all his rentes, the worke should bee begunne in such sort as should become the Prince of the Apostles.
At this his commandement the worke is nobly begun, euen from the foundation, and happily proceedeth till the same was finished: the charges bestowed, or to bee bestowed, are not regarded. Hee graunted to this church great priuiledges, aboue all the churches in this land, as partly appeareth by this his Charter.
Edwarde, King, greets William, Bishop, and Leofstane and Aelfsie Portreeues, and all my Burgesses of London friendly, and I tell you that I haue this gift giuen and granted to Christ and S. Peter the holy Apostle, at Westminster, full freedome ouer all the land that belongeth to that holy place, &c.
He also caused the parish church of S. Margaret to be newly builded without the Abby church of Westminster, for the ease & commodity of the Monks, because before that time the parrish Church stood within the old Abbey church in the south Isle, somewhat to their annoyance.
King Henry the third, in the yeare of Christ 1220, and in the fift of his raigne, began the new worke of our Ladies Chappell, whereof he layd the first stone in the foundation, and in the yeare 1245. the walles and steeple of the old Church (builded by king Edward) were taken downe, and inlarging the same Church, he caused them to bee made more comely, for the furtherance whereof, in the yeare 1246. the same king (diuising how to extort money from the Citizens of London towards the charges) appointed a Mart to bee kept at Westminster, the same to last fifteene dayes, and in the meane space all trade of Marchandise to cease in the Citty, which thing the Citizens were faine to redeeme with two thousand pound of siluer.
The worke of this church, with the houses of Office, was finished to the end of the quire, in the yeare 1285. the 14 of E. the first. All which labour of 66. yeares, was in the yeare 1299. defaced by a fire kindled in the lesser Hall of the kinges Pallace at Westminster, the same with many other houses adioyning, and with the Queenes chamber, were all consumed, the flame thereof also (being driven with the wind) fired the Monastery, which was also with the pallace consumed.
Edward the second appropriated vnto this Church the patronages of the churches of Kelueden and Sabritsworth (fn. 4) in Essex in the Diocesse of London.
Simon Langham Abbot (hauing beene a great builder there in the yeare 1362.) gaue 400.li. to the building of the body of the church: but (amongst others) Abbot Islip was in his time a great builder there, as may appeare in the stone worke and glasse windowes of the church. Since whose decease that worke hath staied as he left it, vnperfected, the church and steeple being all of one height.
King Henry the seuenth, about the yeare of Christ 1502. caused the chappel of our Lady, builded by Henry the third, with a Tauern also called the White Rose neare adioyning, to be taken downe: in which plot of ground, on the 24. of Ianuary, the first stone of the new chappell was laid by the hands of Abbot Islip, sir Reginald Bray, knight of the Garter, Doctor Barnes, Maister of the Rolles, Doctor Wal, Chaplen to the king, Maister Hugh Aldham, Chaplen to the Countess of Darby and Richmond (the Kinges mother), sir Edward Stanhop knight, and diuers other: vpon the which stone was engrauen the same day and yeare, &c.
The Altar and sepulture of the same king Henry the seuenth, wherein his body resteth in this his new chappel, was made & finished in the yeare 1519. by one Peter a Painter of Florence: for the which he receiued 1000. pound starling for the whole stuffe and workmanship, at the hands of the kings executors, Richard Bishop of Winchester, Richard Bishop of London, Thomas Bishop of Durham, Iohn Bishop of Rochester, Tho. Duke of Norfolke, Treasurer of England, Charles Earle of Worcester the kinges Chamberlaine, Iohn Fineux knight, chiefe Iustice of the kinges Bench, Robert Reade knight, cheife Iustice of the Common place.
This Monastery being valued to dispend by the yeare 3470. pound, &c. was surrendrd to Henry the eight, in the yeare 1539. Benson, then Abbot, was made the first Deane: and not long after it was aduanced to a Bishoppes Sea, in the yeare 1541. Thomas Thurlby being both the first and last Bishop there, who when he had impouerished the church, was translated to Norwich in the yeare 1550. the fourth of Edward the sixt, and from thence to Elie, in the yeare 1554. the second of Queene Mary. Richard Cox Doctor in Diuinity (late Schoolemaister to king Edward the 6.) was made Deane of Westminster, whome Queene Mary put out, and made Doctor Weston Deane, vntill the yeare 1556, and then he being remoued from thence on the 21. of Nouember, Iohn Fekenham (late Deane of Paules) was made Abbot of Westminster, and tooke possession of the same, being installed, and fourteene Monks more receiued the habite with him that day of the order of saint Benedict: but the said Iohn Feckenham, with his Monkes, enjoyed not that place fully three yeares, for in the yeare 1559. in the Moneth of Iuly they were all put out, and Queene Elizabeth made the said Monastery a Colledge, instituting there a Deane, twelue Prebends, a Schoolmaister, and Usher, 40. schollers called commonly the Queenes schollers, 12. Alms men, & so it was named the Collegiat church of Westminster, founded by Queene Elizabeth, who placed Doctor Bil first Deane of that new erection, after whome succeeded Doctor Gabriel Goodman, who gouerned that church forty yeares, and after Doctor L. Andrewes.
Kinges and Queenes buried in this Church are these: Sebert king of the East Saxons, with his wife Athelgade, Harold surnamed Harefote, king of the West Saxons: Edward the simple, surnamed Confessor, sometime richly shrined in a Tombe of siluer and Gold, curiously wrought by commaundement of William the Conqueror: Egitha his wife was there buried also. Hugolyn Chamberlaine to Edward the Confessor. K. Henry the third, whose sepulture was richly garnished with precious stones of Iasper, which his sonne Edward the first brought out of France for that purpose: Elianor wife to Henry the third: Edward the first, who offered to the shrine of Edward the Confessor the chaire of Marble, wherein the Kinges of Scotland were Crowned, with the Scepter and Crowne also to the same King belonging. He gaue also to that church landes to the value of 100. pound by the yeare, 20. pound thereof yearely to be distributed to the poore for euer: then there lyeth Eleanor his wife, daughter to Ferdinando king of Castile, 1293. Edward the third by Queene Phillip of Henault: Richard the second and Anne his wife, with their images upon them which cost more then foure hundred marks for the guilding: Henry the fift with a royall image of siluer and guilt, which Katherine his wife caused to bee laid vpon him, but the head of this image being of massie siluer is broken off, and conuayed away with the plates of siluer and guilte that couered his body: Katherin his wife was buried in the old Lady chapel, 1438. but her corps being taken vp in the raign of Henry the 7. when a new foundation was to be laid, she was neuer since buried, but remayneth aboue ground in a coffin of boordes behinde the East end of the Presbyterie (fn. 5): Henry the seuenth in a sumptuous Sepulture and Chappell before specified, and Elisabeth his Wife, Edwarde the sixt in the same Chappell without any Monument, Queene Mary without any Monument, in the same Chappell: Matilde daughter to Malcolme king of Scottes, wife to H. the first, dyed 1118. lyeth in the Reuestrie: Anne wife to Richarde the 3. Margaret Countes of Richmond and Darby, mother to H. the seuenth. Anne of Cleue, wife to Henry the eight. Edmond second son to Henry the third, first Earle of Lancaster, Darby, and Leycester, and Aueline his wife, daughter and heyre to William de Fortibus Earle of Albemarle. In S. Thomas chappell lie the bones of the children of Henry the third, and of Edward the first, in number nine. In the Chapter house, Elianor Countesse of Barre, daughter to Edward the first, William of Windsore and Blaunch his sister, children to Edward the thirde, Iohn of Eltham Earle of Cornewell, sonne to Edward the second, Elianor wife to Thomas of Woodstocke, Duke of Glocester, Thomas of Woodstocke by king Edward the third his Father, Margaret daughter to Edward the fourth, Elizabeth daughter to Henry the seuenth, William de Valence Earle of Pembrooke, A <ye> mer de Valence Earle of Pembrooke, Margaret and Iohn sonne and daughter to William de Valence, Iohn Waltham Bishop of Sarum, Treasurer of England, Thomas Ruthal Bishop of Durham, 1522. Giles Lord Dawbeny, Lord Lieutenant of Callice, Chamberlaine to king Henry the seuenth, 1508. and Elizabeth his wife of the Family of the Arundelles in Cornwal, 1500. Iohn Vicount Welles 1498. The Ladie Katherine, daughter to the Dutches of Norfolke: sir Thomas Hungerford knight, Father to sir Iohn Hungerford of Downampney kinght: a sonne and daughter to Humfrey Bohun Earle of Hereford and Essex, and Elizabeth his wife: Philip Dutches of Yorke, daughter to the Lord Mohun, thrice married, to the Lord Fitzwalter, sir Iohn Golofer, and to the Duke of Yorke: William Dudley Bishoppe elect of Durham, sonne to Iohn Baron of Dudley, Nicholas Baron Carow (fn. 6),1470. Walter Hungerford, sonne to Edward Hungerforde knight, Sir Iohn Burley knight, and Anne his wife, daughter to Alane Buxhull knight, 1416. sir Iohn Golofer knight, 1396. Humfrey Burcher, Lord Cromwell, sonne to Bourchier Earle of Essex, slayne at Barnet, Henry Bourchier sonne and heyre to Iohn Bourchier, Lord Barners also slayne at Barnet, 1471. Sir William Trussell knight, Sir Thomas Vaughan knight, Francis Brandon Dutchesse of Suffolke, 1560. Mary Gray her daughter, 1578. Sir Iohn Hampden Knight, Sir Lewes Vicount Robsart knight, Lord Bourchere of Henalt, 1430. and his wife daughter and heyre to the Lord Bourchere: Robert Brown and William Browne Esquers: The Lady Iohane Tokyne daughter of Dabridge court: George Mortimer Bastarde, Iohn Felbye Esquier, Anne wife to Iohn Watkins, William Southwike Esquier, William Southcot Esquier, Robert Constantine Gentleman, Arthur Troffote Esquier, Robert Hawley Esquier, slaine in that Church, sir Richarde Rouse knight, sir Geffrey Maundeuile Earle of Essex, and Athelarde his wife, Sir Foulke of Newcastle, Sir Iames Barons knight, Sir Iohn Salisbery knight, Margaret Dowglas Countesse of Lineaux (fn. 7), with Charles her sonne, Earle of Lineaux, Henrie Scogan, a learned Poet, in the Cloyster: Geffrey Chaucer, the most famous Poet of England, also in the Cloyster, 1400. but since Nicholas Brigham Gentleman raysed a Monumente for him in the South Crosse Ile of the Church: his workes were partly published in Print by William Caxton in the raigne of Henry the sixt, increased by William Thinne Esquier, in the raigne of Henry the eight: corrected and twise encreased through mine owne paynefull labors, in the raigne of Queene Elizabeth, to witte in the yeare 1561. and againe, beautified with notes by me collected out of diuers Recordes and Monuments, which I deliuered to my louing friend Thomas Speight, and hee hauing drawne the same into a good forme and Methode, as also explayned the olde and obscure wordes, &c. hath published them in Anno 1597.
Anne Stanhope Dutches of Sommerset, and Iane her daughter, Anne Cecill Countesse of Oxford, daughter to the Lorde Burghley, with Mildred Burghley her Mother, Elizabeth Barkley Countesse of Ormonde, Frauncis Sidney Countesse of Sussex, Francis Howard Countesse of Hertford, 1598. Thomas Baron Wentworth, Thomas Baron Wharton, Iohn lord Russel, sir Thomas Bromley Lord Chauncellor, sir Iohn Puckering Lord Keeper, Sir Henry Cary Lord Hunsdon, and Lord Chamberlayne, 1596. to whose memory his sonne sir George Cary lord Hunsdon and lord Chamberlaine, hath erected a stately monument.
This church hath had great priuiledge of Sanctuary within the precinct therof, to wit, the church, churchyard and close, &c. from whence it hath not beene lawfull for any prince or other, to take any person that fled thether for any cause: which priuiledge was first granted by Sebert king of the East Saxons, since increased by Edgare king of the West Saxons, renewed and confirmed by king Edward the Confessor, as appeareth by this his Charter following.
Edward by the grace of God, King of Englishmen: I make it to be known to all generations of the world after me, that by speciall commandement of our holy father Pope Leo, I haue renewed and honored the holy church of the blessed Apostle S. Peter of Westminster, and I order and establish for euer, that what person of what condition or estate soeuer hee be, from whence soeuer he come, or for what offence or cause it be, either for his refuge into the said holy place, he be assured of his life, liberty and lims: And ouer this I forbid vnder the paine of euerlasting damnation, that no Minister of mine or of my successors intermeddle them with any the goods, lands or possessions of the said persons taking the said sanctuary: for I haue taken their goodes & liuelode into my speciall protection, and therefore I grant to euery each of them, in as much as my terrestriall power may suffice, all maner freedom of ioyous libertie, and whosoeuer presumes or doth contrary to this my graunt, I will hee lose his name, worship, dignity & power, and that with the great traytor Iudas that betrayed our Sauiour, he be in the euerlasting fire of hell, and I will and ordayne that this my graunt endure as long as there remayneth in England, eyther loue or dread of christian name.
The parish church of S. Margaret sometime within the Abbey, was by E. the Confessor remoued, and builded without, for ease of the Monks. This church continued till the daies of E. the 1. at what time the marchants of the staple and parishioners of Westminster builded it all of new, the great chancell excepted, which was builded by the Abbots of Westminster, and this remaineth now a fayr parish church, though sometime in danger of down pulling: In the south Ile of this church is a fayre marble monument of Dame Mary Billing, the heyre of Robert Nesenham of Conington in Huntingtonshire, first married to William Coton, to whose issue her inheritance alone discended, remayning with Rob. Coton at this day, heyre of her and her first husbandes familie: her second husband was sir Thomas Billing chiefe Iustice of England, & her last, whom likewise she buried, was Thomas Lacy, erecting this monument to the memory of her 3. husbands, with whose armes she hath garnished it, and for her own burial, wherein she was enterred in the yeare 1499.
Next to this famous Monastery, is the kings principall Pallace, of what antiquity it is vncertain: but Edward the Confessor held his court there, as may appeare by the testimony of sundrie, and namely of Ingulphus as I haue before told you. The said king had his pallace, and for the most remayned there: where hee also ended his life, and was buried in the Monastery which hee had builded. It is not to be doubted, but that king William the first, as hee was crowned there, so he builded much at this Pallace, for he found it far inferior to the building of princely pallaces in France. And it is manifest by the testimonie of many authors, that W. Rufus builded the great Hall there, about the year of Christ 1097. Amongst others, Roger of Windouer, and Mathew Paris, doe write, that king William (being returned out of Normandy, into England) kept his feast of Whitsontide very roially at Westminster, in the new hall which he had lately builded, the length whereof (say some) was 270. foote, and seuenty foure foot in bredth, and when he heard men say, that this Hall was too great, he answered and said: this hall is not bigge inough by the one halfe, and is but a Bedde chamber in comparison of that I meane to make: a diligent searcher (saith Paris) might find out the foundation of the hal, which he had supposed to haue builded, stretching from the riuer of Thames euen to the common high way. This Pallace was repaired about the yeare 1163. by Thomas Becket Chauncelor of England, with exceeding great celerity and speede, which before was ready to haue fallen downe. This hath beene the principall seat and Pallace of al the kings of England since the conquest: for here haue they in the great hall kept their feasts of coronation especially, and other solemne feasts, as at Christmas and such like most commonly: for proofe whereof, I finde Recorded that in the yeare 1236. and the twentieth of Henry the third, on the 29. of December, William de Hauerhull, the kinges Treasurer, is commanded that vpon the day of circumcision of our Lord he cause 6000. poore people to be fed at Westminster, for the state of the king, the Queene, and their children, the weake and aged to be placed in the great hall, & in the lesser, those that were most strong and in reasonable plight in the kinges chamber, the children in the Queenes, and when the king knoweth the charge he would allow it in the accounts.
In the yeare 1238. the same king Henry kepte his feast of Christmas at Westminster in the great Hall, so did he in the year 1241. where he placed the Legate in the most honorable place of the Table, to wit in the midest, which the Noblemen took in euill part: the king sate on the right hand, and the Archbishop on the left, and then all the Prelates & Nobles according to their estates: for the king himselfe set the Guests. The yeare 1242, he likewise kept his Christmas in the hall, &c. Also in the yeare 1243. Richard Earle of Cornewall, the kings brother, maried Cincia, daughter to Beatrice Countesse of Prouince, and kept his mariage feast in the great Hall at Westminster, with great royalty and company of noble men: insomuch, that there were told (triginta milia) 30000 dishes of meates at that dinner.
In the yeare 1256. King Henry state in the Exchequer of this Hall, and there set downe order for the appearance of Shiriffes, and bringing in of their accounts: there was fiue Markes set on euery Shiriffes head for a fine, because they had not distrained euery person that might dispend fifteene pound land by the yeare, to receyue the order of Knighthoode, as the same Shiriffes were commaunded. Also the Maior, Aldermen, and Shiriffes of London, being accused of oppression and wrongs done by them, and submitting themselues in this place before the king sitting in judgement vpon that matter, they were condemned to pay their fines for their offences committed, and further euery one of them discharged of assise and warde.
In the yeares 1268. and 1269. the same king kept his Christmas feasts at Westminster as before: and also in the same 1269. he translated, with great solemnitie, the bodie of king Edward the Confessor into a new Chappell, at the backe of the high Altar: which Chappell he had prepared of a marueylous workemanship, bestowing a new Tombe or Shrine of Golde, and on the day of his translation he kept a royall feast in the great Hall of the Palace: thus much for the feasts of old time in this hall.
We read also, that in the yeare 1236. the riuer of Thames ouerflowing the bankes, caused the Marches about Woolwich to be all on a Sea, wherein Boats and other vesselles were carried with the streame, so that besides cattell, the greatest number of men, women and children, inhabitants there, were drowned: and in the great Palace of Westminster, men did row with wheryes in the middest of the Hall, being forced to ryde to theyr chambers.
Moreouer in the yeare 1242, the Thames ouerflowing the bankes about Lambhithe, drowned houses and fieldes, by the space of sixe miles, so that in the great hall at Westminster, men tooke their horses, because the water ran ouer all. This Palace was (in the yeare 1299. the 27. of Edward the first) burnt by a vehement fire, kindled in the lesser hall of the kings house: the same with many other houses adioyning, and with the Queenes chamber, were consumed, but after that repayred.
In the yeare 1303. the 31. of Edward the first, the kings treasurie at Westminster was robbed, for the which Walter, Abbot of Westminster, with 49. of his brethren, and 32. other, were throwne into the Tower of London, and indighted of the robbery of an hundred thousand pound, but they affirming themselues to be cleare of the fact, and desiring the king of speedie iustice, a commission was directed for inquiry of the truth, and they were freed.
In the yeare 1316. Edward the second did solemnize his feast of Penticost at Westminster, in the great hall, where sitting royally at the table with his Pears about him, there entred a woman adorned like a Minstrell, sitting on a great horse, trapped as Minstrels then vsed, who rode round about the Tables, shewing pastime, and at length came vp to the kings Table, and laide before him a letter, and forthwith turning her horse, saluted euery one, and departed. The letter being opened, had these contents: 'Our Soueraigne Lord the King hath nothing curteously respected his knights, that in his fathers time, and also in his owne, haue put forth their persons to diuers perils, and haue vtterly lost, or greatly diminished their substance, for honor of the said king, and he hath inriched aboundantly such as haue not borne the waight as yet of the busines,' &c.
This great hall was begun to be repayred in the yeare 1397. by Richard the second, who caused the walles, windowes, & roofe, to be taken downe, and new made, with a stately porch, and diuerse lodgings of a maruellous worke, and with great costs: all which he leuied of strangers banished, or flying out of their Countryes, who obtayned license to remaine in this land by the Kinges Charters, which they had purchased with great summes of money, Iohn Boterell being then Clarke of the workes.
This hall being finished in the yeare 1399. the same King kept a most royal Christmas there, with dayly Iustings, and runnings at Tilt, whereunto resorted such a number of people, that there was euerie day spent twentie eight, or twentie sixe Oxen, and three hundred sheepe, besides fowle without number: he caused a Gowne for himselfe to be made of Golde, garnished with Pearle and precious Stones, to the value of 3000. Marks: he was garded by Cheshire men, and had about him commonly thirteene bishops, besides Barons, Knights, Esquires, and other more then needed: insomuch, that to the houshold, came euery day to meate 10000. people, as appeareth by the Messes tolde out from the Kitchen to 300. seruitors.
Thus was this great hall for the honour of the Prince oftentymes furnished with guests, not onely in this kings time (a prodigall Prince) but in the time of other also, both before and since, though not so vsually noted. For when it is said, the king held his feast of Christmas, or such a feast at Westminster, it may well be supposed to be kept in this great hall, as most sufficient to such a purpose.
I find noted by Robert Fabian (sometime an Alderman of London) that king Henrie the seuenth in the ninth of his raigne (holding his royall feast of Christmas at Westminster) on the twelfth day, feasted Raph Austry, then Maior of London, and his brethren the Aldermen, with other commoners in great number, and after dinner dubbing the Maior knight, caused him with his brethren to stay and behold the disguisings and other disports, in the night following shewed in the great hall, which was richly hanged with Arras, and staged about on both sides: which disportes being ended in the morning, the king, the Queene, the Ambassadors, & other estates, being set at a table of stone, 60. knights, and Esquires serued 60. dishes to the kings Messe, and as many to the Queenes (neither flesh nor fish) and serued the Maior with twentie foure dishes to his messe, of the same maner, with sundrie wines in most plenteous wise: and finally, the King and Queene, being conueyed with great lights into the Pallace, the Mayor with his companie in Barges returned and came to London by breake of the next day. Thus much for building of this great hall, and feasting therein.
It moreouer appeareth that many Parliament haue beene kept there: for I find noted, that in the yeare 1397. the great hall at Westminster, being out of reparations, and therefore, as it were, new builded by Richard the second (as is afore shewed) the same Richard in the meane time hauing occasion to hold a parliament, caused for that purpose a large house to be builded in the middest of the Palace Court, betwixt the clocke Tower, and the gate of the olde great hall: this house was very large and long, made of tymber, couered with Tyle, open on both the sides, and at both the endes, that all men might see and heare what was both sayde and done.
The Kinges Archers (in number 4000. Cheshire men) compassed the house about with their Bowes bent, and Arrowes nocked in their handes, alwayes readie to shoote: they had bouch of Court (to wit, meate and drinke) and great wages, of six pence by the day.
The olde great Hall being new builded, Parliaments were againe there kept as before: namely, one in the yeare 1399. for the deposing of Richard the second. A great part of this Palace at Westminster was once againe burnt in the yeare 1512. the 4. of Henry the eight, since which time, it hath not beene reedified: onely the great Hall, with the offices neare adioyning, are kept in good reparations, and serueth as afore, for feastes at Coronations, Arraignments of great persons charged with treasons, keeping of the Courts of iustice, &c. But the Princes haue beene lodged in other places about the city, as at Baynards Castle, at Bridewell, and White hall, sometime called Yorke place, and sometime at S. Iames.
Magna Carta. Common place (fn. 8)in westminster hall.
This great hall hath beene the vsuall place of pleadings, and ministration of Iustice, whereof somewhat shortly I will note. In times past, the courts and benches followed the king, wheresoeuer he went, as well since the conquest, as before, which thing at length being thought combersome, painfull, and chargeable to the people, it was in the yeare 1224. the 9. of H. 3. agreed that there should be a standing place appointed, where matters should be heard and iudged, which was in the great hall at Westminster.
In this hall he ordayned three iudgement seates, to wit, at the entry on the right hand, the common place (fn. 9), where ciuill matters are to <be> pleaded, specially such as touch lands or contracts: at the vpper end of the Hall, on the right hand, or Southest corner, the Kings bench, where pleas of the Crowne haue their hearing: and on the left hand or Southwest corner, sitteth the Lord Chancellor, accompanied with the master of the Rowles, and other men, learned for the most part in the Ciuill lawe, and called maisters of the Chauncerie, which haue the Kings fee. The times of pleading in these courts are foure in the yeare, which are called Tearmes, the first is Hillarie Terme, which beginneth the 23. of Ianuary, if it be not Sundary, and endeth the 12. of February. The second is Easter Terme, and beginneth 17. dayes after Easter day, and endeth dour doyers after Ascension day. The third Terme beginneth 6. or seuen dayes after Trinitie Sunday, and endeth the Wednesday fortnight after. The fourth is Michaelmas Terme, which beginneth the 9. of October, if it be not Sunday, and endeth the 28. of Nouember.
And here is to be noted, that the Kings of this Realme haue vsed sometimes to sit in person in the Kings Bench; namely King Edward the fourth, in the yere 1462. in Michaelmas Terme sate in the Kings Bench three dayes togither, in the open Court, to vnderstand how his lawes were ministred and executed.
Within the Port, or entrie into the Hall, on eyther side are ascendings vp into large Chambers without the Hall adioyning thereunto, wherein certaine Courts be kept; namely, on the right hand, is the court of the Exchequer, a place of account for the reuenewes of the Crowne; the hearers of the account haue Auditors vnder them, but they which are the chiefe for accounts of the prince, are called Barons of the Exchequer, whereof one is called the chiefe Baron. The greatest officer of al is called the high treasurer. In this Court be heard those that are delators, or informers, in popular and penall actions, hauing thereby part of the profite by the law assigned vnto them.
In this Court, if any question bee, it is determined after the order of the common law of England by twelue men, and all subsidies, Taxes and Customes, by account: for in this office, the Shiriffes of the Shire do attende vpon the execution of the commandements of the Iudges, which the Earle should do, if he were not attending vpon the Princes in the warres, or otherwise about him: for the chiefe office of the earl was, to see the Kings iustice to haue course, and to bee well executed in the Shire, and the Princes Reuenewes to bee well aunswered and brought into the Treasurie.
If any fines or amerciaments be extracted out of any of the sayde Courts vpon any man, or any arrerages of accounts of such thinges as is of customes, taxes and subsidies, or other such like occasions, the same the Shiriffe of the Shire doth gather, and is aunswerable therefore in the Exchequer. As for other ordinarie rents of patrimoniall landes, and most commonly of taxes, customes, and subsidies, there be particular receyuers and collectors, which doe aunswere it into the Exchequer. This Court of the Exchequer hath of olde time, and as I thinke, since the Conquest, beene kept at Westminster, notwithstanding sometimes remoued thence by commaundement of the king, and after restored againe, as namely in the yeare 1209, King Iohn commaunded the Exchequer to be remoued from Westminster to Northhampton, &c.
On the left hand aboue the staire is the Duchie chamber, wherein is kept the Court for the Duchie of Lancaster, by a Chancellor of that Duchie, and other officers vnder him. Then is there in an other chamber, the office of the receits of the Queenes reuenewes for the Crowne: then is there also the Starre Chamber, where in the Terme time euery weeke once at the least, which is commonly on Frydayes and Wednesdayes, and on the next day after the Terme endeth, the Lord Chancellor and the Lords, and other of the priuy Councell, and the chiefe Iustices of England, from 9. of the clocke till it be II. do sit.
This place is called the Starre Chamber, because the roofe thereof is decked with the likenes of Stars guilt: there be plaints heard, of ryots, rowts, and other misdemeanors, which if they bee found by the kings Councell, the partie offender shall be censured by these persons, which speake one after another, and hee shal bee both fined and commaunded to prison.
Then at the vpper end of the great hall by the Kings bench,
is a going vp to a great Chamber, called the White hall,
wherein is now kept the court of Wards and Liueries: and
adioyning thereunto is the Court of Requests. Then is
S. Stephens Chappell, of old time founded by king Stephen.
King Iohn in the 7. of his raign graunted to Baldwinus de
London Clarke of his Exchequer, the Chappleship of Saint
Stephens at Westminster, &c. This Chappell was againe
since, of a farre more curious workemanship, new builded by
king Edward the third, in the yeare 1347. for thirtie eight
persons in that Church to serue God, to wit, a Deane, 12. secular
Canons, thirteene Vicars, foure Clarkes, sixe Choristes, two
Seruitors, to wit, a Verger, and a keeper of the Chappell.
He builded for those from the house of receit, along nigh to
the Thames, within the same Pallace, there to inhabite, and
since that, there was also builded (fn. 10)for them, betwixt the
Clocke-house and the Wooll-staple, called the Wey house.
He also builded to the vse of this Chappell (though out of the
Pallace Court) some distance west, in the little Sanctuarie,
a strong Clochard of stone and timber, couered with Lead,
and placed therein three great Bels, since vsually rung at
coronations, triumphs, funerall of Princes, and their obits. Of
those Bels men fabuled, that their ringing sowred all the drinke
in the towne. More, that about the biggest Bell was written,
King Edward made me,
Thirtie thousand and three,
Take me downe and wey me,
And more shall ye find me.
But these Bels being taken downe indeed, were found all three not to wey 20. thousand. True it is, that in the Citie of Roane in Normandie, there is one great Bell, that hath such inscription as followeth.
Ie suis George de Ambois,
Qui trente sinq mille pois:
Mes lui qui me pesera,
Trente six mill me trouera.
I am George of Ambois,
Thirtie fiue thousand in pois:
But he that shall weigh me,
Thiritie six thousand shall find me.
The said king Ed. endowed this chappell with lands, to the yearly value of 500.l. Doctor Iohn Chambers the kinges Phisitian, the last Deane of this Colledge, builded thereunto a cloyster of curious workmanship, to the charges of 11000. marks. This chappell, or colledge, at the supperssion, was valued to dispend in lands by the yeare 1085. pound. 10.s.5.d. and was surrendred to Edward the sixt, since the which time, the same Chappell hath serued as a Parliament house.
By this chappel of S. Stephen, was sometime one other smaller chappel, called our Lady of the Piew, to the which Lady great offerings were vsed to be made. Amongst other things I haue read that Richard the 2. after the ouerthrow of Wat Tilar and other his rebels in the 4. of his raigne, went to Westminster, and there giuing thanks to God for his victorie, made his offering in this Chappell, but as diuerse haue noted, namely Iohn Piggot, in the yeare 1452. (fn. 11)on the 17. of February, by negligence of a Scholler appoynted by his Schoolemaister to put foorth the lightes of this Chappell, the Images of our Ladie richly decked with iewels, precious stones, pearles, and rings, more then any Ieweller could iudge the price, for so sayth mine Author, was with all this apparell, ornaments, and Chappell it selfe burnt, but since againe reedified by Anthonie Earle Riuers, Lord Scales, and of the Isle of Wight, Vncle and gouernour to the Prince of Wales, that should haue beene king Edward the fifth, &c.
The sayd Pallace, before the entrie thereunto, hath a large Court, and in the same a Tower of stone, containing a clocke, which striketh euery houre on a great Bell, to bee heard into the Hall in sitting time of the Courts, or otherwise: for the same Clocke, in a calme, will be heard into the Citie of London. King Henrie the sixt gaue the keeping of this clocke with the Tower, called the Clocke house, and the appurtenances vnto William Walsby Deane of Saint Stephens, with the wages of sixe pence the day out of his Exchequer. By this Tower standeth a fountaine, which at Coronations and great triumphes is made to runne with wine out of diuerse spoutes.
On the East side of this Court, is an Arched Gate to the riuer of Thames, with a fayre Bridge and landing place, for all men that haue occasion. On the North side is the South ende of Saint Stephens Alley, or Canon Row, and also a way into the old wooll staple: & on the West side is a verie faire gate begun by Richard the third, in the yeare 1484. and was by him builded a great height, and many faire lodgings in it, but left vnfinished, and is called the high Tower at Westminster. Thus much for the monasterie and pallace may suffice. And now will I speake of the gate house, and of Totehill streete, stretching from the west part of the Close.
The Gate-house is so called of two Gates, the one out of the Colledge court toward the North, on the East side whereof was the Bishop of Londons prison for Clarkes conuict, and the other gate, adioyning to the first but towards the west, is a Gaile or prison for offenders thither committed. Walter Warfield Celerer to the Monastery, caused both these gates with the appurtenances to be builded in the raigne of Edward the third.
Almeshouse of Henry the 7.; Chappell of Saint Anne.; Almeshouse founded by Lady Margaret.; Almory at Westminster.; Printing of bookes at Westm. the first in England.; Totehill street.; Hospital founded by Lady Anne Dacre.; Petty France.; Almeshouses for poor women. Chappell of Mary Magdalen.
On the Southside of this gate, king H. the 7. founded an almes house for I.3. poore men: one of them to be a priest, aged 45. yeres, a good Gramarian, the other 12. to be aged fiftie yeares, without wiues, euery Saturday the priest to receyue of the Abbot, or prior, foure pence by the day, and each other two pence halfe penny by the day for euer, for their sustenance, and euery yeare to each one a gowne and a hood ready made: and to three women that dressed their meat, and kept them in their sicknes, each to haue euery Saturday 16.d. and euery yere a gowne ready made. More, to the 13. poore men yearly 80. quarters of cole, and 1000. of good fagots to their vse: in the hall and kitchen of their mansion, a discreete Monke to be ouerseer of them, and he to haue 40.s. by the yeare, &c. and hereunto was euery Abbot and Prior sworne. Neare vnto this house westward, was an old chappel of S. Anne, ouer against the which the Lady Margaret mother to king H. the 7. erected an Almeshouse for poore women, which is now turned into lodgings for the singing men of the colledge: the place wherein this chappell and Almeshouse standeth, was called the Elemosinary or Almory, now corruptly the Ambry, for that the Almes of the Abbey were there distributed to the poore. And therein Islip Abbot of Westmin. erected the first Presse of booke printing that euer was in England about the yeare of Christ, 1471. William Caxton Cittizen of London, mercer, brought it into England, and was the first that practised it in the sayde Abbey, after which time, the like was practised in the Abbyes of S. Augustine at Canterbury, S. Albons and other monasteries. From the west gate runneth along Totehil streete, wherein is a house of the Lord Gray of Wilton, and on the other side at the entrie into Totehill fielde, Stourton house, which Gyles, the last L. Dacre of the south, purchased and builte new, whose Lady and wife Anne sister to Thomas the Lorde Buckhurst, left money to her Executors to builde an hospitall for twentie poore women, and so many children to be brought vp vnder them, for whose maintenance she assigned landes to the value of one hundred pound by the yeare, which Hospitall her Executors haue new begun in the field adioyning. From the entry into Totehill field, the streete is called Petty France, in which, and vpon S. Hermits hill, on the south side thereof, Cornelius van Dun (a Brabander borne, Yeoman of the Guard to king H. the 8. king E. the 6. Queene Mary and Queene Elizabeth) built 20. houses for poore women to dwell rent free, and neare hereunto was a chappell of Mary Magdalen, now wholy ruinated.
In the yeare of Christ 1256. the 40. of H. the third, Iohn Mansell, the kings Counceller and a priest, did inuite to a stately dinner the kings and Queens of England and Scotland, Edward the kinges sonne, Earles, Barons and knightes, the Bishop of London and diuers cittizens, whereby his guestes did grow to such a number, that his house at Totehill could not receiue them, but that he was forced to set vppe tentes and pauillions to receiue his guestes, whereof there was such a multitude that 700. messe of meate did not serue for the first dinner.
The Cittie of Westminster for ciuill gouernment is diuided into twelue seuerall Wardes, for the which the Deane of the collegiate church of Westminster, or the high Steward doe elect 12 Burgesses, and as many assistantes, that is, one Burgesse, and one Assistant for euery Warde, out of the which twelue Burgesses, two are nominated yearely, vpon Thursday in Easter weeke, for chief Burgesses to continue for one yeare next following, who haue authourity giuen them by the Act of Parliament, 27. Elizabeth, to heare, examine, determine and punish according to the lawes of the Realme, and lawfull customes of the Cittie of London, matters of incontinency, common scoldes, inmates, and common annoyances, and likewise to commit such persons as shall offend against the peace, and therof to giue knowledge within foure and twentie houres to some Iustice of Peace in the Country of Midlesex.