Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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A medicinal preparation consisting of a SYRUP and MULBERRY juice, although the recipe given by Pechey also contained what he called 'julep of roses' [Pechey (1694a)]. It was used as a gargle for sore throats, which Pechey referred to as 'gargarisms'.
A medicinal MUSK-POWDER [Coles (1676, facs. 1973)]. Diamoschum was most often found further described as DULCIFIED, that is sweetened with SUGAR. This suggests it was intended for consumption rather than as a PERFUME.
The meaning of this term is unknown, but the context in which the only example in the Dictionary Archive appears, confirms it was labelling a medicinal product, as did the prefix DIA [Inventories (1665)]. On the other hand, it may have been the name of a herb and not a preparation at all. Souter has 'Dianton' meaning heliotrope [Souter (1949)], but this was not used medicinally. An alternative is 'Dianthus'. Members of this family were used in medicine and extensively in TOILETRY, but they were given other names such as GILLYFLOWER, while Dianthus is cited first in the OED in the mid-nineteenth century.
Randle Holme defined diapalma as 'a white unguent for cooling an heat' [Holme (2000)]. This does not correspond too well with the OED's definition of a drying PLASTER originally made of PALM OIL, LITHARGE OF LEAD, and sulphate of zinc. The OED does not offer evidence for this mixture, and palm oil seems unlikely since it is noted first by the OED only in 1705, well after Randle Holme. Although it appeared in Pomet (1712), diapalma was not recognized in the eighteenth-century Materia Medica [Pemberton (1746)]; [Pomet (1712)].
A PERFUME, a POMANDER, or a 'a medicine of dry powders, that is either cast among Apparel to make it smel sweet, or into a wound, or superfluously into a drink' [Blount (1656, facs 1972)]. A similar definition is given by Randle Holme [Holme (2000)].
Literally a medicine composed of five ingredients, by adding IVORY SHAVINGS to DIATESSARON. One recipe gives the four other ingredients as MYRRH, GENTIAN, BAYBERRY, BIRTHWORT. Coles called it a 'Farriers composition' [Coles (1676, facs. 1973)], confirming what Gervase Markham had written earlier in the same century that its alternative name was Horse MITHRIDATE [Markham (1614, 1668 edition)]. In the Dictionary Archive, it is often found associated with HORSE SPICE, for example [Inventories (1703)], again supporting the idea that it was principally a veterinary product.
It is the most common of the DRUGS in the Dictionary Archive in which the prefix DIA was used, and virtually the only one that may be found in the stock of retailers who were not apothecaries. It has occasionally been noted in very large quantities, for example [Inventories (1708)]. It later became the name of a beverage composed of five ingredients, such as PUNCH, but it has not been noted in the Dictionary Archive with this meaning.
The name possibly derived from Ypres in Flanders, where it was notably made. It is the name of a TEXTILE and of a method of weaving; originally a rich material, probably made of SILK and patterned with GOLD THREAD. From the fifteenth century it was usually a LINEN fabric, woven with diamond shaped patterns which showed up by opposite reflections of light from its surface, the spaces so formed were filled with geometrical designs, leaves, dots, etc. In this form it was mainly used for NAPKINs and TABLE CLOTHs and for small items of APPAREL, but the weave was also used for TAPE, FILLETING, INKLE and even for GIRTH WEB as well as for bedroom CARPETs. The term came to be used for a baby's nappy. According to Milburn, diapers were also made in Bengal and he listed them among INDIAN - PIECE GOODS.
During the seventeenth century, two of the diarists show that housewives sent out their yarn to be woven into diaper by local weavers and then to local whitesters. Much table linen was probably made this way, but some was home-made from bought fabrics, and many items were bought READY MADE. Much diaper was imported, mainly from Germany and Holland, but also from Ireland and Scotland. The manufacture of diaper in Britain was almost certainly introduced by immigrants from the Low Countries. Diaper looms were equipped with two or more harnesses in such a way that the warps could be passed through two or more sets of headles so that a wide range of repeated geometrical patterns could readily be woven.
Along with other types of linen, the manufacture of diaper in Scotland was regulated by 13 GEO1 c26 (1726) with a width of 2 or 2½ yard required for broad, double or single diaper intended for table cloths, and ½, 5/8, ¾, 7/8 or a full yard for napkins and towelling. A sale of linens manufactured at Brecknock in 1758 [Newspapers (1758)] included 'Diapers, single and double Work, for Napkins, three quarters and half wide, ditto ten quarters wide, for Table Cloths, of various and elegant Patterns'. The TABLECLOTHs, which were three yards long, were bordered right round.
Found describing CLOUTING, FILLETING, GIRTH WEB, INKLE, TAPE, YARN Found used to make BOARD CLOTH, Breakfast cloth, Bedside CARPET, CLOUT, CUPBOARD CLOTH, dresser cloth, NAPKIN, NIGHT CAP, PETTICOAT, SHEET, SURCINGLE, TABLE CLOTH, TABLING, TOWEL, TOWELLING Found described as BROAD, COLOURED, Douglas, ELL broad, HOLLAND, HUCKABACK, IRISH, NARROW, ORDINARY, RUSSIA, SCOTCH, SLEAZY, STRIPED
Found imported from Dantzig, Germany, Holland, Russia, SILESIA, Sweden, Scotland Found measured for sale by the PIECE, YARD
Sources: Acts, Diaries, Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Patents, Rates, Tradecards.
References: Hobson Jobson, Kerridge (1985), vii, 121, Milburn (1813), Montgomery (1984), 218.
A NAPKIN made of DIAPER. Since it was sometimes contrasted with TABLE NAPKIN [Inventories (1587)], it seems it may have served a different function; its proximity at times to a TOWEL suggest use in washing.
Also Diaphaenicon, the term comes from a Greek medical term 'DIA' meaning 'consisting of' and 'Phonicon' from the Greek word for 'DATE'. Given that the Latin for FENNEL, a medicinal and culinary HERB, is 'Feniculum', the two may have been confused. The term refers to a purging ELECTUARY. In one entry it was given the descriptor CALIDUS. It is not clear whether that meant a version with particularly fierce effects, or one that was warming [Inventories (1671)].
A medicinal preparation of which the principal ingredient was pompholyx, that is crude zinc oxide, which formed on the inside surface of a furnace in which BRASS was made. According to Bradley, an OINTMENT made from it was excellent for treating the feet of oxen [Bradley (1725), 'Family Dictionary', quoted in the OED]. Randle Holme included 'Vnguentum diapompholicus' among the standard preparations that might be found in an apothecary's UNGUENT BOX [Holme (2000)].
The term appears only once in the Dictionary Archive along with the descriptor 'Sol.'. The meaning of this is not understood, unless it was that the PRUNEs had been dried in the sun (cf RAISIN SOLIS].
The meaning of the term, which has been identified only once in the Dictionary Archive, is doubtful und its context unhelpful, though the actual script is reasonably clear [Inventories (1634)]. Souter has Diapsoricus - an eye salve, and Diapsychon - a cooling application [Souter (1949)]. Both are possibilities, though the difference in spelling makes it unlikely.