Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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The male of the DEER, especially the red deer. Its HAIR was rated in 1660 and 1784 and hart's tongue was occasionally served on high occasions [Newspapers (1790)], but its principal product was HARTSHORN.
Literally, the horn or antlers of adult male DEER, or HART, though the label was particularly applied to it when processed by rasping into HARTSHORN SHAVINGS, and/or calcining into BURNT HARTSHORN. It was also distilled into SPIRIT OF HARTSHORN and made into drops [Diaries (Josselin)]. In this it contrasts with STAG HORN, which was the name of the same product, but was a label used when the horn was made into products like the HAFTs of knives.
Hartshorn was formerly the chief source of ammonia, and was consequently used in medical preparations, in cookery and by artists. Boiled, it produces a gelatinous substance suitable for making jellies, for example [Recipes (Eales)], and it was often advertised with other products with similar properties like SAGO and VERMICELLI; as in 'Sago, Salop, Vermiceli, Hartshorn Shavings' [Newspapers (1757)], and 'Sago, Hartshorn Vermicelli' [Tradecards (1742)].
The various entries in the Books of Rates give some indication that hartshorn was mainly imported as complete horns to be processed in England. It was listed among the DRUGS in the Books of Rates coming inwards as 'Horns of Harts or Stags, the hundred' [Rates (1660)], indicating unprocessed horns intended for use in APOTHECARY. In the same year going outwards 'Harts horn' was rated by the HUNDREDWEIGHT, and was almost certainly processed, probably in the form of BURNT HARTSHORN [Rates (1660)].
SHAVINGS of HARTSHORN, otherwise known as CORNU CERVI. It was possible to make these shaving manually, but they were sometimes produced in a rasping mill, hence 'Raspt hartshorne' [Inventories (1682)]. These shavings were often boiled up to make a jelly, as in, for example, the recipe by Mrs Eales [Recipes (Eales)], for although here hartshorn is given as the ingredient, 'shavings' were assumed. Hartshorn shavings were therefore often listed along with other jelly forming substances; hence 'Isinglass and Hartshorn shavings' NEWSPAPERS NY1790MNM075], and 'Isinglas Hartshorn Shavings Sago [Tradecards (19c.)].
A term applied by early herbalists to various plants in the genus they called 'Sesili', such as Sesili aethiopicum, now called Laserpitium latifolium or herb frankinsence. The seeds were one of the ingredients of MITHRIDATE [Recipes (Pemberton)] and of VENICE TREACLE [Recipes (Pemberton)]. As heartwort, the term was used not only for hartwort, but also for ARISTOLOCHIA clematitis, also called BIRTHWORT (a species of MINT) and MELILOT.
The context of the only example noted in the Dictionary Archive is not helpful. A Hereford mercer had 2 LB valued at 12d LB among his spices [Inventories (1689)]. The unit of measure and context, such as it is, suggests a material for colouring either for use in the laundry as POWDER BLUE, or as a DYESTUFF.
A BOX adapted to house a HAT or hats. They were often sold by hat makers, though probably not actually made by them, for example [Newspapers (1770)]. Like the BAND BOX, which a hat box closely resembled, a hat box was fashionable as well as functional, so it attracted the attention of innovators and hence the patent in 1790 to make them of LEATHER [Patents (1790)].
A band or narrow RIBBON, put round the HAT above the brim. These could adorn hats as a matter of standard decoration or as an addition of black CRAPE worn during a period of mourning, hence hatband crape [Inventories (1708)], and the advertisement for 'Italian Crape by the Piece or Hatband' [Tradecards (1752)]. Either way, they could be items of fashion. Hat bands were specially prepared, and given away by the principals to those attending special occasions like weddings and funerals to wear round their hats, for example [Diaries (Turner)]. Hatband makers, along with hatmakers were designated as 'two Ancient Trades and Mysteries' whose products were protected by statute [Acts (1649)].
Found described as BLACK, for BOYS, for CHILDREN, COARSE, COLOURED, COARSE, DECAYED, of several FASHIONs, FINE, GOLD, MOURNING, OLD FASHIONED, READY MADE, WOMEN, WROUGHT Found made of ALAMODE, CRAPE, CREWEL, SARSENET, SILK Found in units of DOZEN, GROSS Rated by the GROSS of 12 DOZEN
[Acts (1766)], which permitted the use of hatter cards in raising the nap of some fabrics, indicates that by that date at least hatters cards were of the type made with WIRE inserted into a leather backed by a CARDBOARD, rather than the type using TEASELS. It appears to have been used to raise the nap on a HAT.
Often shortened to Havana, the term originally referred to a SNUFF made in Havana, the capital of Cuba, or of the type of TOBACCO produced there. Havana tobacco was particularly suitable for making cigars, unlike the more robust leaf developed by the Dutch and used to make RAPPEE SNUFF [Goodman (1993)].