Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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The male of the DEER, especially the red deer. Its HAIR was rated in 1660 and 1784 and hart's tongue was occasionally served on high occasions [Newspapers (1790)], but its principal product was HARTSHORN.
OED earliest date of use: c825
As hart's hair: Found rated by the HUNDREDWEIGHT of 112 LB
See also DEER HAIR, HARTSHORN, STAG.
Sources: Newspapers, Rates.
[harte lace; hart crule lace; hart and byas silk lace]
Possibly more correctly 'heart LACE', though that has not been located in the Dictionary Archive.
Not found in the OED
Found described as DOUBLE, NARROW, SINGLE, STATUTE Found made of CREWEL, SILK Found associated with BIAS LACE
Found in unit of DOZEN, GROSS, PIECE, YARD
Sources: Inventories (early).
[horns of harts; hartshorne; harts-horn; hart's-horn; hart's horne; harts horne; harts horn; hartes horne]
Literally, the horn or antlers of adult male DEER, or HART, though the label was particularly applied to it when processed by rasping into HARTSHORN SHAVINGS, and/or calcining into BURNT HARTSHORN. It was also distilled into SPIRIT OF HARTSHORN and made into drops [Diaries (Josselin)]. In this it contrasts with STAG HORN, which was the name of the same product, but was a label used when the horn was made into products like the HAFTs of knives.
Hartshorn was formerly the chief source of ammonia, and was consequently used in medical preparations, in cookery and by artists. Boiled, it produces a gelatinous substance suitable for making jellies, for example [Recipes (Eales)], and it was often advertised with other products with similar properties like SAGO and VERMICELLI; as in 'Sago, Salop, Vermiceli, Hartshorn Shavings' [Newspapers (1757)], and 'Sago, Hartshorn Vermicelli' [Tradecards (1742)].
The various entries in the Books of Rates give some indication that hartshorn was mainly imported as complete horns to be processed in England. It was listed among the DRUGS in the Books of Rates coming inwards as 'Horns of Harts or Stags, the hundred' [Rates (1660)], indicating unprocessed horns intended for use in APOTHECARY. In the same year going outwards 'Harts horn' was rated by the HUNDREDWEIGHT, and was almost certainly processed, probably in the form of BURNT HARTSHORN [Rates (1660)].
OED earliest date of use: c1000
Found described as rasped (in other words, made into shavings)
Found in units of LB, OZ Found imported in units of C, PAIR Found rated by the 100 HORN, HUNDREDWEIGHT of 112 POUND
See also STAG HORN.
Sources: Diaries, Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Rates, Recipes, Tradecards.
[hartshorne shavings; harts horn shaveings]
SHAVINGS of HARTSHORN, otherwise known as CORNU CERVI. It was possible to make these shaving manually, but they were sometimes produced in a rasping mill, hence 'Raspt hartshorne' [Inventories (1682)]. These shavings were often boiled up to make a jelly, as in, for example, the recipe by Mrs Eales [Recipes (Eales)], for although here hartshorn is given as the ingredient, 'shavings' were assumed. Hartshorn shavings were therefore often listed along with other jelly forming substances; hence 'Isinglass and Hartshorn shavings' NEWSPAPERS NY1790MNM075], and 'Isinglas Hartshorn Shavings Sago [Tradecards (19c.)].
OED earliest date of use: 1747
Found described as BEST
Found in units of LB, POUND, TUB
Sources: Diaries, Inventories (late), Newspapers, Tradecards.
Later, but not in the Dictionary Archive, this is usually given as 'heartwort'
A term applied by early herbalists to various plants in the genus they called 'Sesili', such as Sesili aethiopicum, now called Laserpitium latifolium or herb frankinsence. The seeds were one of the ingredients of MITHRIDATE [Recipes (Pemberton)] and of VENICE TREACLE [Recipes (Pemberton)]. As heartwort, the term was used not only for hartwort, but also for ARISTOLOCHIA clematitis, also called BIRTHWORT (a species of MINT) and MELILOT.
OED earliest date of use: 1562
Found as SEED
Sources: Rates, Recipes.
The context of the only example noted in the Dictionary Archive is not helpful. A Hereford mercer had 2 LB valued at 12d LB among his spices [Inventories (1689)]. The unit of measure and context, such as it is, suggests a material for colouring either for use in the laundry as POWDER BLUE, or as a DYESTUFF.
Found in units of LB
Sources: Inventories (mid-period).
[hatt box; hat-box; hat and other boxes]
A BOX adapted to house a HAT or hats. They were often sold by hat makers, though probably not actually made by them, for example [Newspapers (1770)]. Like the BAND BOX, which a hat box closely resembled, a hat box was fashionable as well as functional, so it attracted the attention of innovators and hence the patent in 1790 to make them of LEATHER [Patents (1790)].
OED earliest date of use: 1796
Found made of BEECH
Sources: Houghton, Inventories (late), Newspapers, Patents.
[hat & cloak pins]
A long, decorative pin designed to secure a HAT by affixing it to the hair.
OED online earliest date of use: 1891 under Hat
Found made of BRASS
Sources: Inventories (late), Patents.
[hatt-band; hattband; hatt band; hatbande; hat-band; hat band; bands for childrens hatts]
A band or narrow RIBBON, put round the HAT above the brim. These could adorn hats as a matter of standard decoration or as an addition of black CRAPE worn during a period of mourning, hence hatband crape [Inventories (1708)], and the advertisement for 'Italian Crape by the Piece or Hatband' [Tradecards (1752)]. Either way, they could be items of fashion. Hat bands were specially prepared, and given away by the principals to those attending special occasions like weddings and funerals to wear round their hats, for example [Diaries (Turner)]. Hatband makers, along with hatmakers were designated as 'two Ancient Trades and Mysteries' whose products were protected by statute [Acts (1649)].
OED earliest date of use: 1412 in a general sense; 1598 for mourning purposes
Found described as BLACK, for BOYS, for CHILDREN, COARSE, COLOURED, COARSE, DECAYED, of several FASHIONs, FINE, GOLD, MOURNING, OLD FASHIONED, READY MADE, WOMEN, WROUGHT Found made of ALAMODE, CRAPE, CREWEL, SARSENET, SILK Found in units of DOZEN, GROSS Rated by the GROSS of 12 DOZEN
See also CREWEL BAND, CYPRESS BAND.
Sources: Acts, Diaries, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Rates, Tradecards.
[Acts (1766)], which permitted the use of hatter cards in raising the nap of some fabrics, indicates that by that date at least hatters cards were of the type made with WIRE inserted into a leather backed by a CARDBOARD, rather than the type using TEASELS. It appears to have been used to raise the nap on a HAT.
Not found in the OED
Found described as FINE
See also CARD.
Often shortened to Havana, the term originally referred to a SNUFF made in Havana, the capital of Cuba, or of the type of TOBACCO produced there. Havana tobacco was particularly suitable for making cigars, unlike the more robust leaf developed by the Dutch and used to make RAPPEE SNUFF [Goodman (1993)].
OED earliest date of use: 1711 under Havana
References: Goodman (1993).