Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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Hiera cum agarico
This medicament has not been noted in the dictionaries, and is found only once in the Dictionary Archive among the PILLs of a London apothecary [Inventories (1675)]. It was not included in the mid-eighteenth century Pharmacopoeia [Pemberton (1746)]. 'Hiera' comes from the Greek term for 'holy' or 'sacred' and was commonly used in the names of ancient medicaments. One of its few survivals in the early-modern period is HIERA PICRA. It may be that all that was meant here was this drug with the addition of AGARIC, a cathartic and emetic, which would have added to the purgative effect of the better-known product.
On the other hand, Fuller in his Pharmacopoeia extemporanea, produced a recipe for 'A Plaister with hiera', in which he listed as one of the ingredients 'Species of Hiera'. Other ingredients included MYRRH, ALOES, and OIL OF WORMWOOD. The last two were well known purgatives. Possibly the 'species of Hiera' was merely a convenient label for HIERA PICRA, also a purgative. The final product was to be laid 'to Childrens Bellies against Worms' [Fuller (1710)], so it was not a pill as found in the Dictionary Archive.
Each part of the name comes from Greek terms meaning 'bitter'. It is a name given to many medicines in the Greek pharmacopoeia. Later a purgative DRUG composed of ALOES - Wright suggests specifically Barbadoes aloes, that is ALOES BARBADENSIS [Wright (1898-1905)] - and canella bark, sometimes mixed with HONEY and other ingredients. The popular names for this drug, such as 'hickery pickery' and 'higry pigry' suggest a product largely outside orthodox medicine. For example, Sarah Fell made up some on one occasion, although on another she bought a bottle of it in Lancaster [Diaries (Fell)]; [Diaries (Fell)].
The KILT and accompanying articles of APPAREL worn by the clansmen of the Scottish highlands. After the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, which had found strong support from the highlanders, the prohibition of highland dress was seen as a way of eliminating the strong sense of identity felt by them, and thus reducing the possibility of further rebellion. The FILIBEG, TROUSERS and SHOULDER BELT were all specifically banned and it was declared that 'no Tartan or party-coloured Plaid or Stuff should be used for Great Coats, or for Upper Coats' [Acts (1748)]. Despite the fear of unrest in that region, it remained a major recruiting ground for the army, and for this reason the act exempted the military use of highland garb from the prohibition.
The HARNESS for the rear beast in a pulling or ploughing team of animals. It will differ from that for those at the front by the addition of a CART SADDLE or the like to take the weight of the shafts, and of a set of straps and connections that prevent the cart running into the horse when going down hill. In this respect it is similar to the normal HORSE HARNESS for a single horse and cart and different from the harness for the foremost beast, which will have some similarities to a PLOUGH HARNESS.
A movable joint by which a door or gate is hung upon its side post so as to be opened or shut, or other similar device, such as a mechanism to provide for the turning or moving in a quarter or half revolution of a lid, valve, etc., or of two movable parts upon each other.
Hinges came in various shapes and sizes, depending on the object to which they were to be fixed and on their decorative face. These range from the DOOR HINGE, with a long strap to help spread the weight of the door to the DOVETAIL HINGE used with fine furniture. Many hinges were similar to the dovetail, but labelled descriptively according to the shape of the exposed plate; so 'Lambs head hinges' as in '6 payre of lamhead hinges' [Inventories (1680)], and 'Frog-legged hinges' as in 'One dozen of ffrogg Legged Hinge' [Inventories (1707)]. Others were named after the letter of the alphabet, which they resembled when open out flat; hence H HINGE, 'T hinges' as in '6 pair of Tee hinges' [Inventories (1718)] and the hybrid 'HL hinge' as in 'One half Dozen of H: L: Hinges' [Inventories (1747)]. Most, however, were named after the type of structure for which they were designed, as BOX HINGE, 'Casement hinges' [Inventories (1668)], 'Table hinges' [Inventories (1704)], 'Clockcase hinges' [Inventories (1747)] and 'chest hinges' [Inventories (1909)].
A hinge was sometimes called a JOINT, as Randle Holme made clear [Holme (2000)]. This explains entries like 'for T Joints', for P' of HL Jonts', and 'for duftails', where only the context identifies them correctly [Inventories (1702)]. Hinges were usually fixed with NAILs, but according to Joseph Moxon, 'sometimes instead of Nailing the Hindges upon the Door, they Rivet them on, for more strength' [Moxon (1703, facs. 1989)]. This explains the entry 'stables [staples]and hinges 9 pou'd weight' [Inventories (1604)].
Because of the importance of hinges in carpentry and joinery, they attracted the attention of innovators and were the subject of several patents, like the one taken out by John Izon for 'Casting hinges ready jointed' [Patents (1775)]; [Tradecards (1791)].
See also COFFIN HINGE, CROSS GARNET HINGE, HOOK AND HINGE.
Sources: Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Patents, Tradecards.
References: Holme (2000), Moxon (1703, facs. 1989).
Presumably this is a modified form of an H hinge, in which there is insufficient room on one of the surfaces to use a full length leaf, so that it is modified on one side to fit the space available. Like other forms of HINGE, they were sometimes termed a JOINT.