Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities, 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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Sauce de bernis
A PREPARED SAUCE, like so many others with a FRENCH name, made by BURGESS one of the major manufacturers of such products in the late-eighteenth century. It was an accompaniment, so the reader is told, 'for hot Roast Mutton, Broiled Chicken, &c.' [Tradecards (18c.)]. In this it complemented his SAUCE ROYAL, which was designed for FISH dishes. Nothing further is known; neither why it was so called nor its composition.
Sauce des isles brittanique
One of several PREPARED SAUCEs given a French name, possibly to make it sound as if it was the product of high-class French cooking. It was a proprietary keeping sauce, made and promoted by one of the chief manufacturers of sauces in the late eighteenth century [Tradecards (1800)]. Apart from that, nothing is known of its name or indeed its ingredients.
A proprietary PREPARED SAUCE 'for cold meats' [Tradecards (18c.)]. Although given a FRENCH name, as was often the case with these sauces, it was probably similar to a GREEN SAUCE or a HERB SAUCE as prepared in a domestic kitchen. It was made, according to one cookery writer, of 'salad herbs' cut fine, GARLIC, SHALLOTs, MUSTARD, VINEGAR and PEPPER [Macdonald (fl. 1800)], though he also gives a version for a hot dish.
By the 1820s the term had become also a way of expressing contempt as a quotation in the OED from Hazlitt's Table Talk conveys: 'How fine were the graphical descriptions he [William Cobbett] sent us from America:..what a fine sauce piquante of contempt they were seasoned with!'
A PREPARED SAUCE, given, like many similar products, the spurious distinction of a FRENCH name and an association with royalty. It was invented by BURGESS and was apparently designed to add flavour to a home-made sauce served with FISH [Tradecards (18c.)]. It is an early example of a product made specifically to help the cook 'improve' what might otherwise have been insipid homely fare, rather than to be served at table. In this it seems to have been similar to SAUCE A LA SUISSE, which was made and advertised by one of Burgess' rivals [Tradecards (1800)]. In addition, Burgess' sauce could serve as 'an useful Sauce for the Side board' [Tradecards (18c.)].
A vessel, judging from valuations rather larger than a SAUCE BOAT, but intended likewise as a receptacle from which to serve SAUCE. Tureens often came as part of a set, which included a STAND and a SAUCE SPOON. It was a fashionable article and was therefore supplied both in SILVER and in other materials by up-market potters like Wedgwood [OED, Sauce].
A cutting TOOL consisting of a plate of metal, one edge of which is cut into a continuous series of teeth. The original form, and the probably the only one found in the early modern period, involves teeth that were set to be effective in one way only, although the operator was obliged to pull the tool back and forth. The best saws were made of STEEL, others of hardened IRON. According to Abraham Rees, the 'best saws are of tempered steel, ground bright and smooth: those of iron are only hammer hardened; hence the first, besides their being stiffer, are likewise found smoother, than the last' [Rees (1819-20, 1972 ed.)]. Once the blade had been cut from a sheet of metal, the teeth had to be set in a SAW SET or wrest. By this process, alternate teeth were bent slightly outwards. This enabled the saw to cut a 'groove or 'kerf' that was slightly wider than the blade so facilitating the movement of the saw back and forth. The coarser the kerf, the broader the groove. A coarse kerf was largely used to cut soft woods, a fine kerf was better for HARD WOOD and fine work.
1. the taper saws with the blade narrowing along its length. These had a handle at each end if long, as in the PIT SAW and CROSS CUT SAW, or if less than about 30 INCH with one handle, like the HAND SAW and Panel saw. The LOCK SAW is also included in this group;
Types of saw given a separate enty in the Dictionary are: CROSS CUT SAW, DISMEMBERING SAW, FRAME SAW, FRAMING SAW, HAND SAW, HEAD SAW, LEG SAW, LOCK SAW, LONG SAW, PIT SAW, TENON SAW, TWO HAND SAW, WHIP SAW.
See also SAW SET, SAWDUST, SAWN BOARD.
Sources: Diaries, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Patents, Rates.
References: Rees (1819-20, abridged 1972), Tomlinson (1854).
The context of this term as it appears in the Dictionary Archive suggests that it was what Randle Holme labelled a 'Saw wrest', which he described as 'an Instrument of Iron either set in a handle or not, for it may be used as well without; in the edge of it are made three or four, or more Nicks; with this (the Joyner having filed the Teeth of his Saw) he sets the said Teeth; that is, he puts one of the Nicks or Notches of the Wrest between the first two Teeth of the Blade of the Saw, and then turns the Wrest, and it will turn one Tooth to you, and the other from you; and so do all along the Saw: This setting of the Teeth of the Saw (as the Work-men call it) is to make the Kerfe wide enough for the Back to follow the edge; and is set ranker (that is, more bending outwards) for soft and course cheap Stuff, than for hard and costly Wood' [Holme (2000)]. The only saw wrest noted in the Dictionary Archive was listed in a late American inventory [Inventories (1809)]. Possibly the 'Saw strops' noted in one advertisement was an alternative name [Tradecards (1698)].
WOOD in the state of small particles, detached from a tree, PLANK etc. in the process of sawing. It was used as a material for stuffing articles like a BABY, and was spread on floors to absorb moisture. It was also burnt on fires for FUEL and used for packing fragile goods for transportation [Tradecards (1800)].
In a sense, a largely unnecessary term since almost any BOARD had been produced by sawing [but see CLOVE BOARD]. The term seems at times to have been used in one of two specific ways; firstly to contrast boards with TIMBER not yet prepared, as in 'Timber & Sawedboards' [Inventories (1711)], and secondly, as in 'All the sawed boardes about the house vjs' [Inventories (1597)] to cover all the dressed wood in the house used as FURNITURE, elsewhere called DISH BOARD and TABLE BOARD and the like. However, most examples do not seem to have had either of these specific meanings. Other WOOD occasionally described as sawn included RAIL, SPAR, TIMBER, WAINSCOT, and WOOD.
According to some it is a synonym for PRUSSIAN BLUE [Sebino.it/pigments (online)], but a recipe patented in 1748 included OIL OF VITRIOL (concentrated sulphuric acid), RED ARSENIC, INDIGO and COBALT in a process differing from that used to make prussian blue [Patents (1748)]. An upholsterer of Wolverhampton had a variety of TEXTILEs defined as saxon blue in colour [Inventories (1780)], but this use of the term has not been noted elsewhere in the Dictionary Archive.
A patent in 1748 includes a recipe for Saxon green, which involved adding a ready prepared blue DYESTUFF (that is SAXON BLUE) to a vat of OLD FUSTIC or YOUNG FUSTIC [Patents (1748)]. Apart from this record, Saxon green has been found both as a colour defining a TEXTILE and as the name of one. In this case it may be the fabric in question was a green coloured 'saxone', not otherwise noted in the Dictionary Archive, but defined by Montgomery as an inexpensive dress material with a SILK warp and a LINEN weft [Montgomery (1984)].
A TEXTILE of fine texture resembling SERGE; in the sixteenth century sometimes partly of SILK, subsequently almost always entirely of WOOL. It was woven with a distinct two-and-two twill with a single weft and the warp twisted from two or three THREADs. It was distinguished from SERGE only by the bolder warp. Its manufacture in East Anglia was probably introduced in the fifteenth century, though there are records that suggest it was still regarded as 'outlandish' a hundred years later [Kerridge (1985)]. Say was a STUFF and therefore was included among the NEW DRAPERIES. Valuations of this fabric fell within the range of other similar ones running from 14d to as high as 3s 6d. Parliament attempted to protect the home manufacture of WORSTED, says and other similar fabrics from foreign competition [Acts (1541)], but if the 1600 Book of Rates is anything to go by, duties on imported says did not stem the flood. The book listed four imported varieties; 'Sayes, double Sayes, or Flanders serges', 'Double Say or Serge', 'Mil'd Says' and 'Hounscot Say' [HONDSCHOOTE SAY]. Before 1660 the term was used for a covering apparently with the same functions as CARPET.
Found described as BLACK, BLUE, BROAD, of divers colours, DOUBLE, DUTCH, ELL BROAD, FRENCH, GIRDLING, GREEN, HAIR COLOUR, IN GRAIN, MILLED, MIXED, mixed wool silk, NARROW, PURPLE, RED, SILK, STRIPED, TAWNEY, three quarter broad, twisted, unmilled, WHITE, YARD BROAD, YELLOW Found used to make an APRON, BANKER, BED, BUFFET STOOL, CUPBOARD CLOTH, CURTAIN, HANGINGS, HAT, JACKET, VALANCE Found in units of PIECE, YARD Found rated by PIECE, YARD
Sometimes abbreviated to SAY, this type of LACE is not referred to in the authorities, and it appears only rarely in the Dictionary Archive. It seems to have been NARROW, since it was offered for sale as PENNY BROAD (considerably less than ¼ INCH), which would suggest something similar to a POINT. However, it was also sold by the PIECE, suggesting a decorative lace similar to EDGING LACE. Another possibility is scribal error for STAYLACE.