Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.
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A contrivance by which two animals, especially OXen or BULLOCKs were attached to the hauling chains for drawing a PLOUGH or a vehicle like a CART or WAIN. HORSEs were attached by the use of a COLLAR, the difference in method resulting from the way the two types of animal apply their tractive power most effectively. By extension the term came to be applied to a pair of animals, especially oxen. 'Yoke' was also the name given to a piece of shaped wood designed to fit across a person's back and shoulders, with a chain hanging from each end onto which a PAIL could be attached and thus carried with less strain.
OED earliest date of use: c1050 in the first sense; 688-95 in the second sense
Found made of BIRCH, LIME
See also OX BOW, WAIN YOKE.
Sources: Houghton, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).
A descriptor used for goods from or pertaining to the county of that name, such as Yorkshire ALE, 'early Yorkshire cabbage', Yorkshire FUSTIAN, 'Yorkshire or Rotherham PLOUGH', etc. The term was also used elliptically for YORKSHIRE CLOTH.
OED earliest date of use: c1386
Found describing ALE, BACO, BAYS, BLANKET, CABBAGE, CUSHION, KERSEY, PLAINs, RUGs, SMOKED TONGUE, STOCKINGS Found described as RED
See also YORKSHIRE CLOTH, YORKSHIRE HAM.
Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Newspapers, Rates, Tradecards.
[yorkesheir cloth; yorckshire cloth]
No entry in the OED as such, but 'Yorkshires', according to the OED, were a thick, coarse CLOTH made in Yorkshire. Kerridge suggests that weaving of most such cloths was done by small farmers in the Peak District as a secondary occupation, their products being sold on to clothiers in towns like Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield and Leeds. There the cloths were fulled, frizzed and perhaps dyed. Some Yorkshire cloths were renowned for their capacity to keep out the wet, so were in demand for garments such as military COATs [Kerridge (1985)]. Although generally interpreted as a woollen textile, [Inventories (1589)] had Yorkshire cloth listed among other LINEN cloths and measured by the ell, a common indication of linen manufacture.
OED earliest date of use: 1753 as Yorkshires
Found described as BEST - NARROW, NARROW, RED
See also KERSEY.
Sources: Acts, Inventories (early), Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Inventories (mid-period), Newspapers, Rates, Tradecards.
References: Kerridge (1985).
[yorkshire & mutton ham]
HAM originating in Yorkshire, or in that style. Hannah Glasse suggested that their excellence was due to the quality of the SALT used in their making [Glasse (1747)]. Such hams were widely advertised.
OED earliest date of use: 1849
Found decribed as 'well cured and of a peculiar nice flavour'
Sources: Newspapers, Tradecards.
References: Glasse (1747).
A term that was applied particularly to young CATTLE, though other young animals reared on a farm may have been included. In one act [Acts (1565)], young beasts were defined as WEANLINGs, that is those animals recently weaned. The term may sometimes have included other beasts such as those called YEARLINGs.
Sources: Acts, Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late).
A DYEWOOD, Venetian Sumach or Rhus cotinus, used for dyeing yellow, it was possibly synomynous with GREEN FUSTIC as found in the Gloucester Coastal Port Books. It was described in 1812 thus: 'Fustick imported from the Greek islands is in very small sticks, and is denominated by the trade young Fustick' [Smyth (1812)]. It gave a YELLOW dye but seems to have been of less importance than the unrelated OLD FUSTIC.
OED earliest date of use: 1812
Found described as GROUND, of the growth of Cephalonia
See also FUSTIC.
Sources: Inventories (early), Inventories (late), Newspapers.
References: Smith (1812).
The term denotes a TREE for growing on. There was a considerable market for garden, woodland and orchard plants and a foreign visitor in the 1720s commented on the many gardeners round London who 'offer all sorts of young trees ... for sale.' [Diaries (Saussure)].
See also GREEN TREE, HOLLY TREE, TREE GRAFT, TREE, WALNUT TREE, YEW TREE.
Sources: Acts, Diaries, Inventories (mid-period).
The term denotes the period between childhood and adulthood, and as such was used in the early-modern period to size APPAREL and SHOES. It was widely recognized, and apparently understood to mean a size larger than BOY and possibly a style in-between that appropriate to the child and the adult. It appears to have applied to male clothing only, and to have had no female equivalent, except perhaps the uncommon 'miss' or MAID.
OED earliest date of use: c897 as a period in life, but it is not in the OED at all as a descriptor denoting size
Found describing GLOVES, HAT, HOSE, KID, SOCKS, STOCKINGS, WAISTCOAT
Sources: Diaries, Inventories (mid-period), Inventories (late), Newspapers, Tradecards.