Periods > Interregnum (1649-60)

The period from the execution of Charles I in 1649 until the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

1649  Fifth Monarchy

The Fifth Monarchists, or Fifth monarchy men, were a radical religious group, active during the Interregnum, who looked for the imminent return of Christ to earth.

Suggested resources

  1. State Papers, 1656 - July (2 of 6)
  2. State Papers, 1657 - April (3 of 7)
  3. State Papers, 1658 - April (2 of 6)
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1651  Battle of Worcester

The final defeat of Charles II's forces, resulting in Charles's exile in France until the Restoration.

Suggested resources

  1. House of Commons Journal Volume 7 - 5 September 1651
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1653  Quakers

The Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers, appears to have first become organised in 1653 in county Durham. Its leading light, George Fox (1624-91), was an itinerant preacher.

Suggested resources

  1. The Diary of Thomas Burton - 16 April 1659
  2. Debates in 1678 - March (16th-27th)
  3. Richard Hutton's complaints book - The notebook of the Steward of the Quaker workhouse at Clerkenwell, 1711-1737
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1653  Barebones Parliament

The final meeting of Parliament before the Protectorate. Also known as the 'Parliament of Saints', it took its name from Praisegod Barbon, a nominee for London.

Suggested resources

  1. Journal of the House of Commons: volume 7 - 1651-1660
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1653  Trial of John Lilburne

The radical John Lilburne was as much a thorn in the flesh of the republic as he had been in the government of Charles I, and to the leadership of the new model army.

Suggested resources

  1. House of Commons Journal Volume 7 - 20 January 1652
  2. House of Commons Journal Volume 7 - 14 July 1653
  3. State Papers, 1653 - August (4 of 5)
  4. State Papers, 1653 - August (5 of 5)
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1653  Instrument of Government

The constitution, adopted on December 15th, which installed Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector.

Suggested resources

  1. December 1653 - The Government of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the Dominions thereunto belonging.
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1657  Humble Petition and Advice

A constitutional settlement proposed by Parliament. Cromwell accepted part of it but refused the Crown on May 8th.

Suggested resources

  1. May 1657 - To His Highness the Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland; and the Dominions thereto belonging; The humble Petition and Advice of the Knights Citizens and Burgesses now assembled in the Parliament, of this Commonwealth.
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1657  Edward Sexby's Conspiracy

The radical parliamentarian Edward Sexby conspired to overthrow Oliver Cromwell. He was arrested and died in prison.

Suggested resources

  1. State Papers, 1657 - January (1 of 2)
  2. A brief Relation of the late Dangerous Plot for the Destruction of his Highness's person
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