An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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c(1). Parish Church of St. Mary and All Saints, stands in the middle of the village. The walls are faced with modern flint, and the limestone dressings are also modern; there are a few old quoins of Totternhoe stone in the corner turrets, etc., of the tower. The roofs of the chancel and chapels are covered with slate and those of the nave and aisles with lead. The church appears to have been entirely of c. 1470, but in the 19th century the Chancel, North and South Chapels, and North and South Porches were re-built, the Nave was lengthened towards the E., and the West Tower and the North and South Aisles were restored.
Edmund Burke is buried in the church, and Edmund Waller (the poet) in the churchyard. The 15th-century altar tomb in the chancel and the 17th-century iron chest in the N. aisle are unusually fine examples of their kind.
Architectural Description—The Chancel, including the chancel arch, the arch opening into the N. chapel and the two arches into the S. chapel, is modern. The North Chapel retains no old detail and the South Chapel only an original piscina (see Fittings). The Nave (61 ft. by 21 ft.) has N. and S. arcades of five bays with pointed arches of two chamfered orders, octagonal pillars and moulded capitals; on both sides the three bays from the W. are original, except, in the third bay, the E. pillar and part of the arch, which are modern; the two eastern bays and all the bases and labels are also modern. The clearstorey is modern. The North Aisle (12½ ft. wide) has modern windows and doorway. The South Aisle (13 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, four windows of two lights with old inner jambs and rear arches; the S. doorway is modern. The W. window, of four lights, retains inside a few old stones. The West Tower (14½ ft. by 13 ft.) is of three stages with a S.W. octagonal stair-turret and smaller octagonal turrets at the other angles, all with modern pinnacles; the embattled parapet is also modern. The tower arch is original, two-centred, and of four hollow chamfered orders, with half octagonal responds, moulded capitals and bases. An original doorway with a four-centred head opens into the stair-turret. The W. doorway is modern, and the W. window of four lights retains only a few original stones inside. The four windows of the bell-chamber, each of two lights with tracery, have been much restored. The North and South Porches are modern.
Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In the nave—(1) of John Warren, 1609, Elizabeth, his wife, four sons and two daughters, with inscription. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) to Robart Lee, 1572, and Katherine, his wife, inscription and verse. Indents (see Monuments). Chairs: in the chancel, two, of oak, upholstered with crimson velvet, one dated 1663, the other about same period. Chest (see Plate, p. 136): in N. aisle, of iron, with cross bands and three locks; on front, between the bands, small painted landscapes, probably 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. side, (1) in recess, altar tomb of Purbeck marble (see Plate, p. xxiv.), front of base richly carved and panelled, with four shields containing indents, edge of covering slab and plinth moulded, in slab indent of small shield, recess flanked by two round columns with moulded capitals and bases, supporting flat four-centred arch under square panelled head with moulded and embattled cornice, recess lined with Purbeck marble, at each side quatre-foiled panel similar to those on tomb, in back, indents of a man in armour and a woman with butterfly head-dress, kneeling figures, four sons and apparently four daughters, above them indent of the Trinity or Virgin and Child, at each corner indent of shield, late 15th-century; in western arch between chancel and S. chapel, (2) altar tomb of clunch, in covering slab, indents of a man in armour and a woman in pediment head-dress, three sons and two daughters; in quatre-foiled panels on S. side, carved shields, first a hart's head with an arrow through his nostrils and a cross formy fitchy between the horns, for Bulstrode, quartering a cheveron between three squirrels, with a crescent for difference for Goostrey, second shield ermine a bend with three right hands cut off at the wrist thereon for Mayn, at W. end shield with the first coat impaling the second, early 16th-century. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (3) tablet, grey marble, to Robert Thorpe, 1623, inscription and arms. In churchyard—(4) tomb, marble and stone, of Edmund Waller (the poet), 1687, and Maria, his wife, 1700; (5) tomb of Ann, widow of Sir Frederick Hyde, 1687. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel—(1) to Thomas Waller, 1627, and his wife Dorothy, 1626, incised figure of a woman and marginal inscription visible; (2) said to be to Lucy, wife of Edmund Waller, 1686, names covered. In N. aisle—(3) to Edmund Waller (cousin of the poet), 1667, with arms. Piscina: in S. chapel, with trefoiled head, 15th-century, re-set. Screens: between chancel and S. chapel, of four bays, easternmost forming doorway, with tracery and carved cornice, 15th-century, cornice partly modern: between nave and tower, similar to chancel screen, also restored, and with some 17th-century incised woodwork at back of cornice. Miscellanea: consecration cross—built into W. wall of tower, outside, square stone having circular sunk panel with, a cross paty in relief, much defaced.
c(2). Hall Barn, stands in a large park about ½ mile S. of the church. It is a three-storeyed building with an attic; the walls are of red and black bricks, with stone dressings; the roofs are covered with slate. The earliest part of the present house appears to have been built c. 1675, and consists of a rectangular block facing N. At the beginning of the 18th century a wing was added on the S. side, extending towards the E., and apparently offices were built on the W. side. In 1883 an addition was built in the N.E. angle between the 17th and 18th-century blocks, and other alterations were made.
N. Elevation:—The ground floor, with the portico, is of modern stone; the upper storeys are divided into four bays by shallow double pilasters, of the Corinthian order; the pilasters are of stone, with a filling of rubbed red brick between each pair; the rest of the walling is of darker red brick, with black headers in Flemish bond. The pilasters, stone string courses between the storeys and a heavy cornice with modillions, are probably 18th-century additions to an original plain front. The attic is lighted by dormer windows. W. Elevation:—The lower part of the original block is covered by modern offices; the upper storeys are of red and black brick as on the N. front, but the string-courses are of brick. The S. and E. Elevations are of the 18th century and modern. The interior retains no 17th-century details.
c(3). Woodwork, Stable and a Wall at the Rectory, 100 yards N.W. of the church. The house is an 18th-century building, but contains the following 16th and 17th-centurywoodwork: One room has panelling of two dates in the 17th century, and a fluted frieze; another room has similar panelling and a 17th-century overmantel, richly carved and supported on Ionic pilasters; in a third room there is 16th-century linenfold panelling, but the framing may be of later date; the frieze is formed of longer panels laid horizontally, and the overmantel is made up of 17th-century panels with strap-work ornament, etc.
The Stable, E. of the house, is a 16th-century building of two storeys, much restored. On the E. side the lower storey is faced with modern brick; the upper storey, of original timber and brick, projects, except in the middle, where two long curved brackets support the eaves. The N. end is of timber and brick; the W. side and S. end are almost entirely modern. The roof is tiled. On the E. side is an original doorway with a moulded frame. The E. Wall of the garden is of 16th and 17th-century brick; it contains several small niches with four-centred heads, some blocked.
c(4). The Old Rectory, on the W. side of the churchyard, is a two-storeyed house of timber, brick and plaster; the roofs are tiled. It is said to be on the site of a cell of Burnham Abbey, and was built in the first half of the 16th century. In 1901 it was restored, and as far as possible to its original condition, and is now used for parochial purposes. The building forms three sides of a courtyard, the fourth being enclosed by a wall; in the W. or main block is the hall, with a room at the S. end; the wings project towards the E., and each contain two rooms; a passage at the W. end of the N. wing leads to a small staircase wing.
E. Elevation—The lower storey of each wing is built of thin red bricks with a diamond pattern in blue bricks; the overhanging upper storey, built of timber and plaster, is gabled, and has a modern oriel window. The wall across the courtyard is of similar brickwork to that of the wings, and contains an entrance doorway of modern stone. N. and W. Elevations:—The lower storey is built of brick and the upper storey of timber and plaster, all much restored, especially on the W. The N. end of the main block and the staircase wing are gabled. S. Elevation—The end of the main block, built entirely of brick, projects and is gabled; the lower storey of the wing is also of brick, and the upper storey of timber and plaster. Courtyard Elevations—The walls are of timber-framing, much of it modern, with plaster filling. The chimney stacks have square shafts, and are of 16th-century brick.
Interior:—The hall has an original stone fireplace with moulded jambs and a flat four-centred head, all re-tooled; the spandrels are carved with vine ornament and shields, one bearing the arms of Rawson, but incomplete, the other the Rawson crest. In the W. wall, near the S. end, are two niches with pointed heads; the doorway in the S. wall has a solid oak frame and a four-centred head with sunk spandrels; the hall also contains two 17th-century oak chests; one has carved framework and inlaid panels; the other, of later date, has moulded framework and plain panels. In the N. wing, on the ground floor, the western room has a fireplace and doorway similar to those in the hall, but the fireplace has been less restored; two sides of the room have 17th-century oak panelling; one side is of later date than the other, and has carved bolection mouldings; both rooms on the first floor have fireplaces resembling those on the ground floor, that in the eastern room, and two posts in the N. wall of the same room showing traces of original colour; the western room has an open timber roof and an original doorway with a four-centred head and sunk spandrels; another room has a similar doorway. The N. staircase has been restored, but the octagonal central newel and the handrail against the wall are original.
c(5). House, now a Bank and dwelling-house, at the N.E. corner of the churchyard, is a rectangular two-storeyed building of the 16th century, altered and restored in the 19th century. The walls are timber-framed with modern brick filling; the roof is tiled. The projecting upper storey is supported on curved brackets. Inside the house are old ceiling-beams.
c(7). House, now two dwellings, is of two storeys, built late in the 17th century. The front is of red and blue bricks, and the other walls are of plain brick; the roof is tiled. The central chimney stack, with square shafts, is original.
c (8). House, now divided into two dwellings (Burke House and Burke Lodge), about 500 ft. N.E. of the church, is of two storeys. The walls are of brick; the roofs are tiled. It was originally an inn, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but much restored and altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The plan is of half-H shape, with the wings projecting towards the S. In front the wall has been re-faced and five bay windows have been added; a gateway which formerly opened into the yard behind the house has some old brick and timber in the side walls; at the back the walls are of 18th-century and modern brick. Two chimney stacks are built of thin bricks; one has four square shafts, the other a single shaft. Inside the house there are some old ceiling beams and a little early 17th-century panelling; some panelled doors with moulded frames may be of the 17th century.
c(9). Houses, now shops, form a row of small two-storeyed buildings of early 17th-century date, much restored. The front is covered with plaster. The E. end is partly of old timber-framing with brick filling, and partly of 17th-century brick. At the W. end a covered passage has old timbers in the ceiling. The roofs are tiled.
c(10). Cottages, two, forming an L-shaped block, are of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, now much restored. In front only the upper storey of the western cottage is original; a few old timbers remain at the back. The eastern cottage has an original chimney stack.
c(11). Cottages, three, adjoining, are each of two storeys, built of brick and timber late in the 16th century, now much restored. The roof is tiled. In front the lower storey is of modern brick and the upper storey has modern brick filling; at the E. end the entrance to a covered passage has a four-centred wooden head with a chamfered edge, partly blocked. The square central chimney stack is built of thin bricks. The rooms have old timbers in the walls and ceilings.
c(13). The Old Swan Inn, is of two storeys, built late in the 16th century, now much restored and altered. In front the lower storey is of modern brick; the gabled upper storey retains old timber-framing with filling of thin bricks. The roof is tiled. The original central chimney stack has been restored at the top.
c(14). House, formerly an inn, now three dwellings, is of two storeys, and almost encloses a courtyard. It was built possibly in the 16th century, enlarged and restored in the 17th century, and re-fronted with brick in the 18th century; the other walls are of 17th-century brick, except those of the W. wing, which have a modern base, the upper part being of 17th-century timber and brick. The roofs are tiled. A passage which leads from the front to the courtyard has old timbers in the walls, with large beams and joists in part of the ceiling. Inside the house there are also old ceiling-beams.
c(15). House, formerly an inn, now two dwellings, one known as Essex House, was built possibly in the 16th century, but altered and enlarged at various later dates. The walls are chiefly of brick; the roofs are tiled. The plan consists of an L-shaped block (Essex House) with a covered passage at the E. end, dividing it from a square block, which forms the second dwelling. The S. front was re-faced early in the 18th century, but the side walls of the passage are of old timber and brick. At the back Essex House has a modern addition, with a little original timber-framing above it; the N. wing is of 17th-century brick, restored with modern brick. The back of the second dwelling is entirely modern. The chimney stacks are built of 17th-century brick. Some of the rooms have old ceiling-beams.
c(16–17). Houses, two, now shops, are of two storeys, built originally late in the 16th century, and now re-fronted, covered with plaster and almost entirely modern. The first house has 18th-century shop windows; the moulded base of a large original chimney stack remains. Inside the shop is a wide fireplace with restored jambs and arch; detached posts support the ceiling-beams, and on the walls there is panelling of 17th-century design, in pitch pine. The second house retains only an original chimney stack, which has three octagonal shafts with moulded bases; the tops are missing.
c(18). The White Hart Inn, at the corner of the lane and the Market place, is a two-storeyed house, built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but entirely re-faced with modern brick and timber. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped. One original chimney stack remains, and has grouped shafts on a large base with a moulded top.
c(20). Cottages and Stables, near the W. end of the lane, were built early in the 17th century. The lower storeys are of thin bricks, the upper storeys timber-framed with brick filling. The roofs are tiled. One of the stables has a panelled door of late 17th-century date. Inside the buildings the walls and ceilings have old beams.
c(21). Cottage, formerly the Old Elm Tree Inn, near the S. end of the street, has, in front, a low modern addition, above which the original wall has been re-faced with modern brick. The gabled ends are of original timber and brick. The plain rectangular chimney stack is built of 17th-century brick. The ceilings have old stop-chamfered beams.
c(22). House, now four cottages, at the corner of an alley, is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S. and W. On the street front the lower storey has been re-faced with modern brick, and the timber-framing of the upper storey covered with boards; the brick filling is modern. The W. end is of modern brick; on the N. front the timber-framing is original, with modern brick filling. The chimney stack at the S. end, built of 17th-century thin bricks, has oversailing courses. Inside the house are chamfered beams in the ceilings, wind-braced roof timbers, and an old fireplace, with the chimney-corners enclosed in cupboards.
c(23). House, now four tenements, stands near the N. end of the street. The timber-framing of the front and gabled ends is covered with modern boards, and the brick filling is also modern; at the S. end of the front the upper storey projects, and is gabled. The plan is rectangular, with a central chimney stack built of 17th-century thin bricks. In the ceilings there are plain oak beams, now almost enclosed by plaster.
c(24). The George Hotel, is of two storeys and an attic, built at the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, timber-framed with brick nogging, and re-fronted with brick in the 19th century. The plan is L-shaped, the wings extending towards the N. and E., with the staircase in the angle between them; a late 17th-century addition at the N. end is built of red brick with black headers, and has a coved cornice. The roofs are tiled. A large covered gateway opens from the S. front to the yard at the back. The central chimney stack and another stack on the W. side are built of thin bricks. In the older part of the house all the rooms have original ceiling-beams with stop-chamfered edges, and the kitchen has a wide fireplace with chimney-corner seats and an oak lintel. On the first floor are two old battened doors of oak, one with the original strap-hinges. The oak staircase, with a central octagonal newel, is original, except the lowest steps.
c(25). House, now three cottages, two being shops, is of two storeys and an attic; the walls are partly of brick, partly timber-framed with brick filling; the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, with the middle wing extending towards the N., but late in the 18th or early in the 19th century the space on the N.W. between the wings was enclosed. In the 19th century the S. front was re-faced, and the overhanging upper storey under-built. At the back, towards the E. end, are two small brick gables, apparently original, and, on the first floor, original windows with oak mullioned frames and leaded lights; the 16th-century middle wing has original brick and timber in the E. wall and in the foot of the gable at the N. end, the head being of modern lath and plaster. At the E. end is a chimney stack with oversailing courses at the top, built of 16th or 17th-century thin bricks. Interior:—Two rooms have wide fireplaces, partly blocked, but one retains the original chimney-corner seats; the front room of the middle cottage is lined with early 17th-century panelling, said to have been brought from the parish church. The ceiling-beams show the line of the former projection of the upper storey, and those in the westernmost cottage are moulded, a post which supports one of the beams having similar moulding; the position of the joists indicates that on the ground floor the westernmost and middle cottages originally formed one long room.
c(26). Cottages, two, standing in an alley at the back of a coachbuilder's shop in the High Street, and facing W., are said to have been formerly a barn which belonged to a farmhouse on the site of the shop. They consist of a rectangular block, of two storeys, gabled at the N. end, and built in the 17th century; the walls are of original timber-framing with brick filling of later date. The roof is tiled.
c (27). House, now three tenements, is a rectangular two-storeyed building of late 16th-century date, but re-fronted with brick and considerably altered in the 19th century. The gabled E. end retains much of the original timber-framing and brick filling. The roof is tiled. Inside the house there are old ceiling-beams.
c(28). House, at the W. end of the street, is of two storeys. The plan is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The wing facing the street appears to be of two dates; the E. half was built probably early in the 17th century, but has been refronted with modern brick; a small part of the original E. wall projects beyond the adjoining building, and is of timber, now plastered, and brick; the W. half is of mid 17th-century brick with a moulded plinth on the street front. The N. wing is apparently of later date than the rest of the house, and is of flint with modern brick dressings. All the foundations are of flint; the roofs are tiled. On the E. is a chimney stack built of thin bricks, probably of early 17th-century date; the large fireplace under it is now partly blocked, and the chimney-corner seats are enclosed in cupboards. In the ceilings are old beams.
c(29). House, now two cottages, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, and timber-framed; the brick filling is of various later dates, and the timbers are now painted. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, the wings projecting towards the S. and E. The front wing is said to have extended originally further towards the E., and a similar extension at the W. end is indicated by the appearance of the W. wall, part of it being of modern brick under a gable of old timber and brick. In the two rooms on the ground floor the large fireplaces, partly blocked, have oak lintels, and there are old ceiling-beams with stop-chamfered edges.
c(30). House, now two dwellings, is of two storeys and an attic. It was built early in the 17th century, of brick and timber. The roofs are tiled. The plan is of half-H shape, with the wings extending towards the S. The N. front has been re-faced with modern brick, and has, at the E. end, a modern addition, used as a shop. On the E. side of the house the timber-framing is covered with plaster, and the upper storey and attic have original windows with oak frames and rectangular leaded lights. The central chimney stack and a stack in the W. wing are built of original thin bricks.
c(31). The Greyhound Inn, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century. The walls are timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, with a modern extension at the E. end. A large covered gateway opens into the yard at the back, and there is a central chimney stack, built of thin bricks. The ceilings have original stop-chamfered beams.
c (32). House and a range of four Cottages, opposite the Greyhound Inn, are probably of the 17th century and originally may have formed one building. The House has a gabled front of modern timber-framing, with a filling of old thin bricks, re-set in various patterns. On the N. side is a chimney stack built of old thin bricks. The Cottages are covered with plaster on the street front, which has two gables at the N. end; there are old timbers in one of the gables and also at the N. end of the back of the range.
c(33). Hyde Farm, about 1 mile S.E. of the church, is a two-storeyed house of brick and timber; the roofs are tiled. It appears to have consisted originally of a rectangular block, built early in the 17th century, with a central chimney stack and, on the W. side, a small staircase wing; later in the same century a wing was added at the N. end, projecting towards the E.; in the 19th century the house was restored, and additions were built on the W. side, N. and S. of the staircase wing. The S. front has been refaced with modern brick. The E. side of the main block is of original timber and brick; the N. and E. walls of the N. wing are of modern brick, but at the E. end is a large chimney stack built of late 17th-century brick, with round-headed panels in the sides of the shaft; the stack formerly projected, as shown by the S. wall of the wing, which is partly of old timber; the W. wall of the wing is of late 17th-century timber and brick. The staircase wing, and the wall above the low modern addition N. of it, are of original timber and brick, the wing being gabled. The central chimney stack of the main block is of early 17th-century date, and the fireplace retains the original chimney-corner seat, now enclosed in a cupboard. The ceilings have old stop-chamfered beams.
a(34). Gregories Farm, about ¾ mile N.W. of the church, is a two-storeyed house, built of brick in the 17th century, but much restored and altered. The roofs are tiled. The plan is L-shaped, with the wings extending towards the E. and S.; in the angle between the wings is a small projection with three gables, one of them hipped. The walls are covered almost entirely with cement, but the original brick is visible at the N. end of the longer wing, and the N. wall of the shorter wing is of modern brick. Three chimney stacks are of 17th-century brick; the others are modern or restored. One room has early 17th-century panelling and two wide fireplaces remain, one now filled in.
(35). Sealey's Farm, about 1 mile N.W. of the church, is a two-storeyed house, of brick and timber; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the second half of the 16th century, but considerably altered and repaired in the 17th and 19th centuries.
The plan is H-shaped, with the hall and one room in the main block, and two rooms in each of the wings. The S. front, except the E. wing, was re-faced c. 1690 with red and blue bricks, and between the two storeys is a projecting string-course; the W. wing is gabled; the E. wing is gabled at both ends, and is lower than the front part of the rest of the house; it is built of 16th-century brick on a moulded, much damaged plinth; on the S. front it has a string-course between the two storeys, and, on the ground floor, a small blocked window, with chamfered brick jambs and head; on the E. side the wall has been restored, and there are also blocked windows; at the back the E. half of the main block is only of one storey, built of 16th-century brick; the W. half and the W. wing are gabled, and timber-framed with filling, partly of lath and plaster, partly of brick. The W. side is of 17th-century brick, except a projecting chimney stack with two attached shafts, built of 16th-century brick.
Interior:—The room on the E. side of the hall has oak panelling with moulded styles, and moulded and chamfered rails; in each panel of the frieze is an inlaid lozenge device; that over the fireplace contains the date 1572, and below it are the initials GPBM in a frame, all inlaid; one of the doors is of similar panelling, and has original ornamental hinges; in the N.E. corner of the room a small alcove has fluted pilasters with moulded capitals and bases, a semi-circular arch and a moulded cornice; it is probably of late 17th-century date; round the fireplace is a large moulding of wood of the same date, and the ceiling has chamfered beams. One room on each floor of the W. wing has late 17th-century panelling; in the upper room the panels have bolection mouldings, and there are two pictorial panels, that over the fireplace being dated 1693. The staircase is probably of late 17th-century date, and has square newels, moulded handrail and turned balusters.