An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1, South. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.
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(O.S. 6 in. xxxii. N.E.)
(1). Parish Church of St. Nicholas, stands at the S. end of the village, and is built of coursed rubble, with wide joints, except the chancel, which is of small rough rubble, and the S. porch, which is of modern brick; the dressings are of stone. The roofs are tiled. The Nave is of late 13th or early 14th-century date; the West Tower was added in the first half of the 15th century, and at the end of the same century the Chancel appears to have been re-built, in a rougher style, probably by unskilled local masons; it was probably widened towards the N. at the same time, the centre line being 2 ft. 6 in. N. of the centre line of the nave. The North Vestry and South Porch are modern.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (20½ ft. by 14 ft.) has a modern E. window, of three lights. In the N. wall are two windows of late 15th-century date, each of two cinque-foiled pointed lights under a square head with sunk spandrels and an external label; the foils are crudely shaped and do not fit well into the arches: the western window is now blocked and visible only in the vestry; a doorway, now opening into the vestry, is probably of c. 1300, re-set, and has moulded jambs and two-centred head. In the S. wall are two windows, each of two septfoiled lights under a square head, similar to those in the N. wall and of the same date: between the windows is a doorway of c. 1300, re-set; it has moulded jambs and pointed head, with a re-used label. The chancel arch is of late 13th or early 14th-century date, probably contemporary with the nave, but re-set; the jambs and two-centred arch are of two chamfered orders; the S. jamb is flush with the S. wall of the chancel; the arch is not central with either the chancel or the nave. The Nave (44½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has three windows in the N. wall; the easternmost is a lancet, probably of c. 1300; the second was inserted in the 15th century, and is of three cinque-foiled lights under a square head; the third window is modern; the N. doorway, between the first two windows, is probably of c. 1300, and has moulded jambs and pointed head, with a plain label; the doorway is now partly blocked, and used as a window. In the S. wall are four windows; the easternmost of two plain round-headed lights under a square head, with a plain external label, and an internal lintel of wood; it was inserted probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, to light the pulpit: the second window, of late 15th-century date, is of three cinque-foiled lights, the westernmost light being round-headed and apparently of clunch; the main head is square, with pierced spandrels: the third window is a lancet, similar to that in the N. wall, and the fourth is modern: the S. doorway is of similar detail to the N. doorway, and also of c. 1300; the external label has head-stops. The West Tower (12 ft. by 11 ft.) is of two stages, with a moulded string-course and embattled parapet; the S.E. stair-turret is of five stages, carried above the parapet of the tower, and has a pyramidal roof. The two-centred tower arch, probably of late 15th-century date, is of two chamfered orders, with square jambs. In the S. wall is a 15th-century doorway with a four-centred arch opening into the stair-turret. The W. window is also of the 15th century, and of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. The upper storey of the lower stage has plain loop lights under the dividing string-course. The bell-chamber has on each side an original window of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. On the E. face is visible the weather course of the former high-pitched roof of the nave. The stair-turret is lighted by four loops. The South Porch is modern. The Roof of the chancel is of late 15th-century date, and of two bays with three trusses; the easternmost has an arched tie-beam, and the principal rafters of the westernmost have struts; the central truss is similar to the others, but the tie-beam is modern; the purlins have braces at the E. and W. ends. The roof of the nave is probably of the 14th century, re-modelled late in the 15th or early in the 16th century; it is of four bays with five trusses, no two being exactly alike; the easternmost truss has a cambered tie-beam with curved braces below, and struts above it; the second truss is modern, or re-worked; the third and fifth trusses have foiled struts, apparently part of complete quatrefoils, now hidden by the plaster ceiling; and the fourth truss has no tie, but a braced collar-beam; the cornices are moulded, and the wall-posts rest on wood corbels, some of which are almost entirely defaced.
Fittings—Bells: three, and a sanctus, 1st inscribed 'Sancte Paule Ora Pro Nobis W. H.' (by William Hasylwood), 1499–1509, 3rd, 1616, by Henry Knight. Brackets: W. of N.E. window of nave, of moulded wood, projecting peg on E. side, holes for others in front and on W. side, probably 15th-century. Brass: in the chancel, of John Frankeleyn, and Margaret, his wife, small figures, man in civilian dress, three sons, four daughters, head of one daughter missing, inscription, in black letter, 'Her' lyth John Frankeleyn and Margarete hys wyff which ordeyned leystowe to this chirche and divine to be doone every holy day in the yer. Ao Moccccolxiio'. Font: cup-shaped bowl, with fluted scallops, band of stiff foliage at the top, rim cable-moulded, early 13th-century, octagonal stem and moulded base, probably 15th-century. Glass: in head of W. window of tower, two fragments, 15th-century. Painting: on the stonework W. of S. door, traces of old red paint. Piscina: in chancel, with cinque-foiled ogee head, sexfoil basin, probably late 14th-century, covered with plaster. Plate: includes a cup of 1569. Miscellanea: in E. jamb of S.E. window of nave under wood lintel, small head-corbel, of stone, evidently not in situ: in the churchyard, opposite the S. door, part of churchyard cross, octagonal stem, with broach stops, octagonal chamfered base.
(2). Homestead Moat, S.E. of the church, deep and wide, with an inner rampart; only fragments remain.
(3). House, 100 yards N.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, but much altered; the roofs are tiled. The original plan was rectangular, but it has been enlarged. On the first floor is a wide fireplace with a flat head decorated with an arabesque design.
Condition—Good; much altered.
(4). Cottage, now two tenements, about 250 yards N.W. of the church, is of one storey and an attic, built in the 17th century. The walls are partly of timber and brick, partly covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. The plan is L-shaped. Some of the ceilings have old beams, and in one room is a large open fireplace.
(5). House, W. of (3), is of two storeys, built in the 17th century, and timber-framed, with brick filling, partly in herringbone pattern; the roof is tiled. The building originally extended further towards the W., and a bricked-in fireplace is visible externally in the W. wall. One old chimney stack remains; under it is a large open fireplace, and the rooms on the ground floor have chamfered beams in the ceilings.
(6). The Bell Inn, 400 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. The plan is L-shaped, and at the W. end is an old chimney stack. Inside the house is an open fireplace, and some of the ceilings have chamfered beams.
(7). House, opposite (5), is of two storeys, built of timber and brick in the 17th century; the roof is tiled. The plan, originally rectangular, facing S., is now L-shaped, an extension having been added at the back.
(8). Cherry Orchard, about 230 yards N.W. of the church, is an early 17th-century house of two storeys. The plan is L-shaped, with the main wing projecting towards the W., and the short wing towards the N. The walls of the main wing have been re-faced with red and blue bricks; the short wing is timber-framed, with brick filling, and has a small projecting window. The roof is tiled. Inside the house one room has a large moulded beam in the ceiling; other ceilings have chamfered beams, and there is a large open fireplace, partly blocked.
(9–10). Cottages, two, on opposite sides of the road, about 250 yards N.W. of the church, are each of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. They were built probably early in the 17th century, and are timber-framed, with brick filling; the roofs are thatched. The cottage on the W. side of the road ('The Rosaries') has stone foundations, and is partly covered with plaster; some of the windows are old. The plan of the other cottage was originally rectangular, but modern additions have made it L-shaped. Both cottages have old chimney stacks and large open fireplaces, partly blocked.
(11). Cottage, 500 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built late in the 17th century, of timber and brick, partly covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. The chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
(12). Cottages, two, 100 yards S.E. of (11), are of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are covered with plaster and modern rough-cast; the roofs are thatched.
Condition—Of both, fairly good.
(13). Cottage, opposite the School, was built in the 17th century. It is of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. The walls are on stone foundations and covered with plaster; a little timber-framing shows in one gable. The roof is thatched. The central chimney stack is of old thin bricks.
(14). Cottage, S.E. of (13), on the opposite side of the road, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The walls are timber-framed, with brick filling, set partly in basket pattern. The roof is covered with slate.
(15). Cottage, about 200 ft. S.E. of (14), is an early 17th-century building of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof. The walls are timber-framed, with brick filling, and partly covered with plaster; the roof is thatched. One of the chimney stacks is old, and under it is a wide open fireplace.