An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. (a)xv. N.W. (b)xv. N.E.)
a (1). Parish Church of St. Michael, about 3/8 mile W. of the village, S. of Walton Hall, is built of limestone and ironstone rubble, much covered with thin cement. The roofs of the chancel and porch are tiled, that of the nave is covered with lead. The Chancel and Nave were built c. 1340, but there was probably a building of earlier date on the site, as the chancel is deflected towards the S. The West Tower was added in the 15th century, and the South Porch probably at the same time. A small North Vestry was added in the 19th century, but is now used only for storing lumber.
The late 16th or early 17th-century roof of the nave is interesting.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (22½ ft. by 13 ft.) has detail almost entirely of c. 1340; the E. window is of three trefoiled ogee lights and net tracery in a two-centred head with an external label which has head-stops. In the N. wall, at the E. end, is a window of two trefoiled ogee lights and a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with an external label which has carved stops; W. of the window, opening into the vestry, is a modern doorway. In the S. wall are three windows; the eastern is of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the middle window is similar to that in the N. wall, but with the sill at a higher level; the western is a low-side window inserted in the 15th century, and of two cinque-foiled pointed lights in a square head with sunk spandrels, and a moulded external label; the wood mullion is modern: under the middle window is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head having an external label. The two-centred chancel arch, also of c. 1340, is of two chamfered orders on the E. side, and three chamfered orders on the W. side; the outer order is continued down the jambs, which have semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals; the moulded bases are on square plinths. The Nave (39½ ft. by 20 ft.) has detail all of c. 1340, but the windows have been repaired with cement. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern of two trefoiled ogee lights and a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with an external label which has head-stops; the western window is of two cinque-foiled sharply pointed lights in a two-centred head with a quatre-foiled spandrel and an external label having carved stops: W. of the windows is the N. doorway, with chamfered jambs and pointed head; the high pointed rear arch is also chamfered. At the E. end of the wall is an external projection formerly the stair-turret to the rood-loft; it has a small blocked loop with a trefoiled head. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern of two cinque-foiled ogee lights and tracery in a two-centred head, with an external label which has carved stops; the western window is similar to the N.E. window: the S. doorway, near the W. end of the wall, has moulded jambs and two-centred head and a high rear arch; the moulded external label has head-stops. The West Tower (10½ ft. square) has unusually thick walls, and is of two stages with a moulded plinth and string-course and an embattled parapet; the W. angles have diagonal buttresses, and the E. angles have buttresses on the N. and S. sides, the N. buttress being of greater projection than the other. All the detail is of the 15th century. The two-centred tower arch is of three chamfered orders, springing from square jambs. The W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the tracery and external label are modern. The lower chamber of the upper stage has, in the N. and S. walls, two windows, each of one cinque-foiled light in a square head, with an external label; they are probably of the 15th century, but are externally covered with cement. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two cinque-foiled lights and a sexfoil in a two-centred head with an external label, all patched with cement. The South Porch has a two-centred outer archway of two chamfered orders, probably of the 15th century, but much restored with cement. In each side wall is an unglazed window, covered with cement and apparently modern. The high-pitched Roof of the chancel is of three bays and probably of early 16th-century date; the trusses have thin principals, and collar-beams with struts under them forming arches; the purlins in the middle bay are rough, those in the other bays are moulded; the roof is plastered between the trusses. The low-pitched roof of the nave is a late 16th or early 17th-century copy of a 15th-century type, and is of three bays; the tie-beams of the four trusses have moulded stops carved with foliage, supported by wall-posts and curved struts carved with shallow ornament, and resting on moulded stone corbels with carved volutes and fluted abaci; above the tie-beams are short king-posts with curved struts carved with shallow ornament; the principal rafters are moulded, and have stopped square ends carved on the soffit; the purlins and ridge are moulded, the wall-plates are fluted, and the rafters are flat and plain. The roof of the porch has old plain flat rafters and collar-beam trusses with modern boarding between them.
Fittings—Bells: two; 2nd, by Anthony Chandler, 1679; wooden bell-frame dated 1639. Brass: In chancel—on N. wall, to Elizabeth, daughter of William Pyxe, 1617, Latin inscription and two English verses. Chest: In tower—with panelled front, moulded rails and muntins, plain lid, early 17th-century. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Bartholomew Beale, 1660, and Katherine his wife, 1657, busts in round-headed niches, with Corinthian columns supporting broken curved pediment, of black and white marble, inscription on panel below niches, achievement of arms in pediment. In nave—on S. wall, (2) to Sir Thomas Pinfold, knight, LL.D., King's Advocate, etc., 1701, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Ralph Suckley, also to his mother Elizabeth; of black and white marble, with bust in relief on medallion, and shield of arms. Painting: In nave—on easternmost tie-beam of roof, traces of red and black paint, and of text in black-letter. Piscinae: In chancel—with cinque-foiled ogee head, chamfered, of soft white limestone, probably 14th-century, re-worked, jambs and sill modern. In nave—in S. wall, with trefoiled ogee head, round basin half cut away, probably 14th-century. Stoup: In nave—in S. wall, E. of S. doorway, with chamfered jambs and pointed head, round basin of square section half cut away, 14th or 15th-century, head modern.
Condition—Good structurally, but church very damp in places, probably from low position; N. jamb of chancel arch covered with mildew, plaster near it in chancel and nave soft and crumbling, water said to come in at the top of wall above chancel arch; too much ivy on S. walls of chancel, nave and tower, which increases dampness.
a (2). The Rectory, about 200 yards E. of the church, is a modern L-shaped building, but a small block in the angle between the wings is probably of the 17th century. It is of two storeys, and the upper storey is said to be timber-framed, the lower storey of brick; both are entirely covered with modern rough-cast. The roof is tiled.
Condition—Good; much restored.
b (3). The Manor House, 3/8 mile S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, built in the 16th century, and enlarged towards the end of the 17th century and at a later date. The lower storey is of stone, the upper storey of timber and brick; the later addition is of brick. The roofs are tiled.
A 16th-century stone fireplace on the ground floor is noteworthy.
The plan of the original building is L-shaped, the wings projecting towards the N. and W., with a staircase wing in the angle between them. The 17th-century addition is W. of the staircase wing, and the later addition N. of it. Several windows in the upper storey are old. On the E. Elevation, at the S. end, the upper storey projects slightly, and is covered with modern rough-cast; between the storeys is a moulded string-course. On the W. Elevation the original building has a gable with brick filling partly in herring-bone pattern; under the gable is a small window of three lights with moulded wood frame and mullions and leaded quarries, and over it is an original chimney stack of two square shafts set diagonally on a moulded base. The 17th-century addition is also gabled.
Interior:—On the ground floor most of the rooms have encased beams in the ceilings; in the room at the W. end of the W. wing is a large original stone fireplace, with moulded jambs and depressed arch in a square head. The 17th-century addition has a moulded ceiling-beam. One staircase has a moulded handrail and is apparently of late 17th-century date. On the first floor some of the beams and purlins of the roof are visible, and a cupboard has a 17th-century panelled door.
b (4). Cottage, now two tenements, 100 yards N.E. of (3), is of two storeys, built of timber-framing with wattle and daub filling early in the 17th century; the S. part of the building has been re-faced with modern brick. The roof is thatched.
b (5). Walnut Tree Farm, ½ mile S.E. of the church, is a house of two storeys, built, probably late in the 16th century, on a rectangular plan, facing N.; at the back a low addition was made in the 18th century, the roof being brought down to cover it, and there is a modern S.W. addition making the plan L-shaped. On the N. front the upper storey is of closely-set vertical timbers, with brick filling in herring-bone pattern, covered with plaster; the lower storey is of brick. The W. end of the house has been re-faced with modern brick. The roofs are tiled.
Interior:—On the ground floor are some original ceiling-beams and a wide open fireplace.