An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.
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(104–338) Any choice of topographical sequence adopted in describing the remaining domestic buildings must be arbitrary. The following arrangement has first the area between All Saints' Passage on the N., Pembroke College on the S., Christ's Piece on the E. and the Cam on the W., then the Bridge Street and Castle Hill areas; these include the ancient parts of Cambridge, in the general sense of the name. Next come the Jesus Lane, and the Regent Street, Trumpington Street, Lensfield Road areas, the more recent developments to E., S. and W. of the old town and, last, the Cherry Hinton, Chesterton and Trumpington areas.
(104) House, No. 1, on the corner of St. Mary's Street, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of gault brick with stone dressings and the mansard roof is slate-covered. It was built early in the 19th century to contain a shop and a dwelling; the whole is now a shop and the ground floor, which probably had the entrance to and part of the dwelling in the E. part, has been altered. The S. and W. sides have a plain plinth, a plat-band at first-floor level, a small cornice, and a coping to the parapet-wall, all of stone. On the ground floor is a segmental-headed arch with rusticated stone abutments occupying the full width of the W. side and framing a modern shop-front; on the S. is an arcade of seven elliptical-headed brick arches. Of the last, the three to the E. are wall arches containing square-headed windows and a doorway, the others contain display windows with original reeded timber frames, hinged lights in the heads and renewed panelled aprons. On each of the floors above are seven windows to the S., two to the W., with flat brick arches; five on the S. are dummies; six on the first floor on the S., two on the W., have elaborate and unusual cast and wrought-iron guards with palmette and scroll ornament. Inside, on the ground floor are cast-iron columns with lotus-leaf capitals; on the first floor are original plaster cornices with lotus and acanthus foliage.
(105) House, No. 3, 15 yds. N. of St. Mary's Street, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick in header bond to the W., timber-framed to the E.; the roofs are slated and tiled. It is an almost complete mid 18th-century reconstruction of possibly a late 16th-century building. On the W. the ground floor has been refaced and additions have been made on the E. in modern times. The W. front has platbands at first and second-floor levels, a simplified timber entablature and a parapet-wall with stone coping. The windows have flat brick arches and those on the top floor retain original double-hung sashes. Inside, the 18th-century staircase has close strings, turned balusters, moulded handrail and square newels with moulded caps. In the cellar is a moulded ceiling-beam, perhaps reused.
(106) House, No. 9, on the corner of Rose Crescent, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of yellow and gault brick and the roofs slated and tiled. It is of the second half of the 18th century to Trinity Street, with an extension to the E. that is uniform in date and design with the development of Rose Crescent in c. 1825 (see Monument (159)). The earlier block has a modern shop-front, plat-bands at second-floor and eaves levels, a rendered parapet-wall and mansard roof. The windows have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes set well back from the wall-face. The later block has on the S. an early 19th-century timber shop-front divided into three bays by moulded pilasters with shaped brackets above supporting a continuous shallow cornice of wide projection; the brackets have turned acorn-shaped pendants. Two of the bays retain in the upper part the glazing-bars of the original windows; the third bay has an inserted doorway.
(107) House, No. 13, on the corner of Green Street, is of four storeys with cellars (Plate 301). The walls are of brick in Flemish bond. It was built late in the 18th century, possibly in 1783, and remodelled inside early in the 19th century when the timber shop-front on the W. was inserted. This last is in three wide bays separated by two narrow bays and all divided and flanked by plain Ionic pilasters supporting a continuous entablature with modillion-cornice, the whole standing on a tall stone plinth pierced by three cellar windows fitted with wrought-iron latticework guards. One narrow bay contains the doorway, with panelled lintel and rectangular light above, the last with a decorative pattern of radiating scalloped and scrolled metal glazing-bars; a similar lintel and light surmount a window in the other narrow bay, and windows occupy the whole of the wider bays, all with renewed thin glazingbars framing large rectangular panes. The walling of red brick above is plain, with ranges of four windows on each floor, a simplified brick and stone cornice and parapet-wall with stone coping. The windows have flat brick arches and double-hung sashes and those on the first floor projecting cast-iron guards of Gothic design. On one of the bricks is scratched JH 1783. The S. side is of gault brick.
(108) House, No. 14, next N. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of exposed timber-framing with pargeted infilling and the roofs are tiled. It was built in c. 1600; an E. wing was added and the ground floor has since been cleared and extended to the E. for a modern shop with a modern front. All the pargeting has been restored in the present century. Before 1893 it was Foster's Bank and previously the Turk's Head.
This house, though much restored, is important as one of the only two timber-framed domestic buildings of c. 1600 of any elaboration surviving in the city.
The street-front (Plate 305) is in two symmetrical gabled bays, with the third storey and the gabled attics projecting. Turned timber columns on head-corbels and carrying brackets carved with scrolled grotesques divide and flank the bays and support the projections. In each bay, rising the full height of each of the upper storeys is an oriel-window of three transomed lights on the face and one in each canted side. The gable-ends contain attic windows, renewed in the 19th century, and have restored moulded fascia-boards and square jewelled posts at the apices with pierced pendants and tall turned finials. The timber studs are widely spaced and the rails few, the latter moulded, and both include restorations; the modelling of the renewed pargeting is copied from the original.
Inside, the first and second floors have cross and longitudinal chamfered ceiling-beams, the latter with rebated and curved stops. On the second floor is an original timber-framed partition across the middle. The E. wing was originally timber-framed but has been cased in brick; it is loftier than the original building.
(109) House, No. 15 (Plate 303), next N. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of brick and the roofs tiled. It was built in the first half of the 18th century. Later in the same century the staircase was renewed. The shop-front is modern and low additions have been made on the E. The red brick street-front has plat-bands at both floor levels, a brick modillion-cornice returned within the frontage and low parapet-wall. An original timber casing with panelled pilasters and enriched console-brackets supporting an open pediment frames the entrance-doorway and fanlight; the last contains a Gothic pattern of glazing-bars and has a small mask on the key-block to the semicircular arch. The windows above, three to each floor, have flat brick arches and the hipped dormer-windows moulded timber eaves-cornices. The chimney-stack is of gault brick. Inside, the staircase has cut strings, turned newels, moulded handrails and thin square balusters.
(110) House, Nos. 16 and 16a, next N. of the foregoing and adjoining the 'Blue Boar', is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of brick with stone dressings and the roofs slated. The street-front (Plate 303), built in the late Tudor style, has on the rainwater head the initials and date I.B. 1840, a date applicable to the building. It has been modernised inside. On the ground floor is a modern shop-front. The windows have chamfered stone reveals and timber frames; those on the first and second floors are of two timber-mullioned square-headed lights, the lower transomed but with the mullions below the transoms removed and the enlarged openings fitted with casements; all have contemporary scrolled wire guards. The attic storey, demarcated by a moulded string, has two parapeted gables and contains three windows.
(111) Houses, Nos. 20a and 22, 57 yds. N. of Green Street, are of three storeys. The W. walls are of brick, of the S. tenement of a plain dark red with lighter dressings, of the N. red with many blue vitrified headers and plain red dressings; the E. walls are timber-framed and plastered. The roofs are tiled. They are of the same date in the early 18th century and uniform in detail but the differences in the brickwork and closer spacing of the windows of the S. tenement suggest different building contracts. Short E. wings make the total plan half H-shaped. The interiors were remodelled in the 19th century; the ground floors have since been cleared and extended E. for a modern shop and the upper floors combined to serve Trinity College, together with the upper floors of the adjoining houses. The street-front has a plat-band at second-floor level and a bold timber eaves-cornice; the division between the original tenements is marked by a broad pilasterstrip that has light red brick S. quoins. The windows, of rather tall proportions, have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes in frames set near the wall-face. The framed E. wall has a timber eaves-cornice. In No. 20a an early 19th-century staircase, with cut strings and slim square balusters, rises from first to second floor.
(112) House, Nos. 23 and 24, next N. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of red brick with stone dressings and the roofs tiled. It was built at the beginning of the 18th century; the ground floor was subsequently cleared for a shop and the present shop-front is modern. The streetfront above, after becoming unsafe, has been rebuilt in modern times with new bricks, but incorporates some original features. The E. wall is entirely masked by 19th-century additions. The W. front has rusticated quoins and a plat-band at second-floor level, all of stone, and the original timber enriched modillioncornice. The windows, four to each floor, have flat brick arches with modern grotesque mask keystones; they contain double-hung sashes in original frames flush with the wall-face. On the roof are two 19th-century dormer-windows.
Inside, the 'Junior Parlour' of Trinity College extends the full length of the first floor and is lined with original ovolo-moulded and fielded panelling with a moulded dado-rail. The panelling above the modern fireplace has been rearranged. This room and some others retain original doors of two-fielded panels.
(113) House, No. 29, some 55 yds. N. of Trinity Lane, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of red brick and the roofs tiled. It was built about the middle of the 18th century and nearly doubled in depth in the 19th. The ground floor has been cleared and further extended to the W. in modern times for a shop with modern front, but the entrance to the house, with early 19th-century door-case, remains to the S. of the last and has panelled reveals and a fanlight with intersecting tracery in a square head. The rest of the front is plain, with three double-hung sash-windows on each of the upper floors, a timber modillion-cornice returned within the frontage and two hipped dormer-windows with sliding sashes. Inside, the 19th-century staircase, with close strings, square newels and thin turned balusters, has been rearranged and now blocks the former through-passage. The plastered W. gable of the original house is visible above the staircase.
(114) Houses, Nos. 30 and 31, next S. of the foregoing, are of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of red brick with vitrified headers and lighter red brick dressings. The roofs are tiled. Though separate tenements, they were built at the same time about the middle of the 18th century to a uniform design. No. 30 has been extended to the W. to link with a cottage probably of the early 18th century; No. 31 was altered inside in the 19th century. The first has a late 18th-century, the second a modern, timber shop-front. The old front has two doorways with fanlights, with a round head and a segmental head respectively, alternating with two wide segmental-headed display-windows containing a Gothic pattern of glazing-bars; the arches have moulded archivolts springing from reeded pilasters; the apron-walls below the windows are faced with panelling framed round the segmental heads of the cellar windows. The street-front has ranges of five windows over all on each of the upper floors and a continuous timber dentil-cornice returned within the frontage. The sills of the first-floor windows of No. 30 have been lowered. Between the two houses is an original lead rainwater downpipe with moulded head. Inside, No. 30 retains some good original fittings, including a staircase with cut strings, turned balusters and newels and moulded handrail, doors of six fielded panels with brass rim-locks, and moulded stone fireplace-surrounds. One room has an original dentil-cornice.
(115) House, No. 32, next S. of the foregoing and 35 yds. N. of Trinity Lane, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of red brick, the roofs tiled. It was built about the middle of the 18th century and extended W. early in the 19th. John Bowtell, bookbinder and antiquary, lived here. The ground floor of the original house has been cleared for a modern shop with modern front. Each of the two first-floor windows has a rubbed brick arch in the form of a Venetian-window head, though without structural uprights, the opening containing a timber tripartite sash-hung frame. The plain second-floor windows are squarely proportioned. The slight cornice is of stone, and returned within the frontage, and the parapet-wall has been rebuilt. Inside, the 18th-century part contains original cornices and panelled doors and a staircase with close-strings, square newels, thin turned balusters and moulded handrail. In the addition is a good early 19th-century staircase turned in a spiral round a well; it has cut strings, slender square balusters and moulded handrail. The well is lit through a roof-lantern.
(116) House, No. 34, next S. of the foregoing, is of three storeys. The walls are of brick and, to the W., partly timber-framed. The roofs are tiled. It was built in the first half of the 18th century. The ground floor has been cleared for a modern shop with modern front. The E. wall has the remains of stopped plat-bands at first and second floor-levels, a brick dentil-cornice and modern parapet-wall. The windows, three to each floor, have flat brick arches now painted; on the first floor the arch to the middle window has a reeded and fluted keystone, those to the side windows have plain brick keys; on the second floor the keystone in the middle is rusticated. The W. wall has a brick facing to the ground floor, plastered framing above and a timber eaves-cornice. Inside is a good original staircase with cut strings, turned balusters and newels and a moulded handrail, ending in a spiral curve at the foot. The first-floor E. room is lined with fielded panelling of c. 1725, with dado-rail and cornice, retaining doors of two panels.
(117) House, No. 38, at the corner of Trinity Lane, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of red and gault brick, the roofs tiled. It was built probably in the second half of the 18th century. The inside is much altered and the ground floor occupied by a shop with a 19th-century front much restored. The E. wall has a stone plat-band at eaves-level and a parapet-wall. The windows have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes; they are fitted with cast and wrought-iron guards. The whole is plain and only of note in that it contributes to the pleasant 18th-century aspect of the street.
St. Mary's Passage
(118) House, No. 3, 28 yds. E. of King's Parade, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of brick and plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled and slated. The framing is probably of the 17th century but the building has been extensively modernised and the front almost entirely rebuilt in the present century in an elaboration of the style of the earlier period. Inside, except for some brickwork in the cellars, no original structural work remains visible. On the first floor is an original panelled door.
(119) House, No. 1, 14 yds. E. of King's Parade, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs tiled. It was built in the 17th century. In the 18th century the N. front was remodelled and heightened by means of a screen-wall to present an appearance of three full storeys to the street. The shop-front was inserted or renewed and the first-floor windows were remodelled late in the 19th century. The ground floor has since been cleared and extended S. for a modern shop. On the N. the three first-floor windows have 19th-century architraves, brackets and cornices. The windows above retain 18th-century frames containing double-hung sashes; only the middle window is functional, being in fact a dormer-window; the flanking windows are dummies set in the screen-wall. At the wallhead is a timber modillion-cornice. Inside is a large central chimney-stack; in the cellar and on the ground floor are some stop-chamfered ceiling-beams.
E. side (see illustration facing p. 321 and Plate 303):—
(120) House, No. 22, at the corner of St. Mary's Passage, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and of red brick with rubbed dressings; the roofs are tiled. The building was framed in the 17th century; the staircase-bay was probably added and the N., W. and probably part of the S. walls were faced in brick in c. 1730. The interior of the ground floor has been much altered for a shop; the shop-fronts to N. and W. are of c. 1900. To the N., the windows on the upper floors have slightly cambered brick arches; those on the first floor have had the sills lowered in modern times. The wall is finished with a timber modillion-cornice and parapet-wall and in the roof are two gabled dormer-windows. The gabled W. wall has, above the shop-front, a colossal pilaster-strip to each side capped by a return of the modillion-cornice; between both caps the continuation of the cornice is flattened and simplified by omission of the modillions. Blind recesses take the places of windows here and the gable ends in a large rebuilt rectangular chimney-stack. The 18th-century rainwater downpipe has a moulded head. At the E. end of the building is a stack similar to that just described. The S. wing and the containingwalls of the staircase on the S.E. are timber-framed. The 18th-century oak staircase rises easily around a square well; it has close strings, square newels and a moulded handrail; the balusters are encased. The house contains a shaped and panelled stone fireplace-surround of c. 1700 and some reused 17th-century oak panelling.
(121) House, No. 19, 17 yds. S. of St. Mary's Passage, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of rough-cast timber-framing and modern brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built in c. 1700; the ground floor has been altered for a shop and the whole modernised and extended to the E. The shop-front and the fenestration above are of the late 19th century. Inside is a chamfered ceiling-beam and a reused 16th-century moulded timber, both in the cellars. The steep early 18th-century staircase has square newels and widely spaced turned balusters.
(122) House, No. 18, next S. of (121), is of three and two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs tiled. It consists of a mid 16th-century block to the Parade and an E. wing of the mid 17th century. Extensive alterations have been made in modern times; part of the ground floor is a shop, with a late 19th-century front, the rest and all the upper floors are now incorporated with the next house (123). The W. front projects at second floor-level; the whole face above the ground floor has applied sham timber-framing and windows of c. 1900. The E. end of the E. wing has pargeting in panels of simple combed decoration and a gable with moulded bargeboards; the N. wall projects at first-floor level, and in the attic are transeptal dormers. Inside, the house contains chamfered ceiling-beams.
(123) House, No. 17, next S. of (122), is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and modern brick; the roofs are tiled. Built in the 16th century, it has been much altered in modern times, and additions of three storeys and one storey made on the E. The ground floor has a 19th-century shop-front. The upper part, projecting at second-floor level, has added modern timbering and balustraded parapet in 17th-century styles. On the roof are three restored early 18th-century hipped dormer-windows. A projection on the E. rising the full height of the house and with a hipped roof may have contained a staircase. Inside is a chamfered ceiling-beam in the cellar. The staircase in the E. extension, in a 17th-century style, is modern.
(124) House, No. 16, next S. of (123) and 20 yds. N. of St. Edward's Passage, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs tiled. It was built in the 17th century and altered extensively in the 19th. The shop-front is of the late 19th century and the oriel-window rising through the two upper storeys, while perhaps representing an original feature, has sashes of the same period. The wall-face is decorated with sham timber-framing.
(125) House, No. 14, 8 yds. N. of St. Edward's Passage, is of five storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of red brick with rubbed dressings, the mansard roofs tiled. It was built in 1787 by a Mr. York, upholsterer, on the site of 'God's House' or Driver's House (Downing College. Library: John Bowtell MSS. 3/305). The staircase was rebuilt early in the 19th century. A number of alterations have been made on the E. and the ground floor has been cleared for a modern shop with modern front.
Though the site is so restricted, building to such a height is exceptional in Cambridge houses before 1800, and rare thereafter.
The arrangement of the W. side is shown in the illustration facing p. 321. The plat-bands have oversailing courses; at eaves-level is a timber or plaster fluted frieze and cornice, with human masks on cartouches centrally over each window. The parapet-wall has been rebuilt. The windows have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes in slightly recessed frames. The roof is in two spans with a flat between. The E. wall has the ground floor concealed and a single original window with segmental head on each of the upper floors; the first-floor window has been altered. In the S. wall a central window to the staircase extending through the second and third storeys has been blocked by a later building; centrally above, on the third and fourth floors, are single windows.
Inside, the plan consists generally of two rooms separated by the staircase leading N. and S. A number of original fittings survive; on the first-floor landing is a dado of fielded panels; the Drawing-room on the same floor has a panelled dado and plaster cornice with acanthus enrichment; elsewhere are fitted cupboards with panelled doors and a fireplace with eared surround. In the W. part of the cellars are some stop-chamfered ceiling-beams.
(126) House, No. 12 and 12a, at the S. corner of St. Edward's Passage, probably always divided into two tenements though of one build, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. It was built on an irregular half H-shaped plan in the 18th-century, with the linking range to the W. and long and short E. wings, that to the N.E. hipped, that to the S.E. gabled. The ground floor has been altered for modern shops with modern fronts. On the S.E. are modern white brick and slated additions. The arrangement of the W. side is shown in the illustration facing p. 321; the window-frames are almost flush with the wall-face; the eaves-cornice is coved. The large rectangular chimney-stack at the ridge of the mansard roof is pierced on the ground floor by a passage through to the staircase adjoining on the E. The stair is modern though it may be in the position of an earlier stair. A number of posts and stop-chamfered ceiling-beams are exposed within.
(127) Houses and Shops, Nos. 10 and 11, 15 yds. S. of St. Edward's Passage, two tenements of one build, are of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. They were built in 1827 (Camb. Chronicle 11 May 1827) and are of interest as a planned economy of shops and dwellings. No. 10 retains the original character; No. 11 is much altered. For the W. side see illustration facing p. 321. The central doorway opens to an axial through-passage giving access to the dwellings. The S. shop-window is largely original and has a recessed entrance to the S.; the N. shop-window is modern. The upper windows have flat brick arches; three contain casements opening to the floor and all have cast-iron guards. The E. wall contains segmental-headed windows. Nothing of note remains inside (plan p. 331).
(128) House, No. 9, next S. of the foregoing, is of three storeys. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. It was built early in the 19th century and remodelled and extended E. in the third quarter of the same century, probably by Isaiah Deck, chemist, to whom the shop-front and the fittings may be due. On the W., the first-floor windows have early to mid 19th-century cast-iron guards. Inside, the W. room on the first floor retains an enriched plaster cornice and a marble fireplace-surround with bosses at the angles and a shallow key-block. The staircase is in the E. extension.
(129) House and Shops, Nos. 7 and 8, next S. of the foregoing and 28 yds. S. of King Edward's Passage, are of four storeys. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. They are of the second quarter of the 19th century and of interest as a planned economy originally of two shops and two dwellings. The shops have since been combined and also the dwellings above; the latter are now undergraduates' rooms. The original shop-front had paired doorways in the middle and displaywindows on each side, the whole being in two bays divided and flanked by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature; the N. doorway has now been blocked. The W. front is illustrated facing p. 321. Inside, both tenements were planned with a W. room separated from a smaller E. room by a staircase-hall, or staircase and passage on the upper floors. The ground floor of the former S. shop has been cleared and how the staircase was approached is no longer evident. The entrance to the N. stair and tenement is from a passage intruding into Monument (128).
(130) House, Nos. 6 and 6a, next S. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. It was built in the first half of the 19th century, probably as a shop and dwelling. The shop-front is original, though altered, with a display-window in the middle and flanking entrances, the N. to the shop, the S. to a passage giving access to the dwelling over by a staircase contrived behind the next house, Monument (131). The W. first-floor windows, see illustration facing p. 321, have depressed elliptical arches turned in rubbed brick. Inside, the shop and W. ground-floor room have been combined by removal of the dividing wall. The staircase has cut strings, turned newels, square balusters and moulded mahogany handrail. On the first floor is an original reeded fireplace-surround of marble.
(131) House, Nos. 4, 4a and 5, next S. of the foregoing and 28 yds N. of Benet Street, is of four storeys. The walls are of gault brick with stucco and stone dressings; the roofs are slated. Cast in the heads of the two rainwater-downpipes on the W. is the date 1834. Stylistically this date is applicable to the building. The ground floor has since been so altered that the original plan is not recoverable. On the E. are later 19th-century additions. For the W. side see illustration facing p. 321. The wide doorway off-centre is original but has been moved; it contains a double door flanked by narrow lights with footscrapers below and a long light above all framed by pilasters supporting an entablature with dentil-cornice. A stone above is inscribed C.C.T.G., probably for Greef, a plumber, who lived here.
(132) House, No. 2, 12 yds. N. of Benet Street, is of three storeys. The walls are of brick, now painted, to the street and of plastered timber-framing to the E. The roofs are tiled. It was built on an L-shaped plan c. 1800, but has since been altered and the W. side refurbished in a revived Georgian style, though the openings may be original. The blind E. wall is covered with herringbone-patterned pargeting. The N.E. wing is similarly plastered and with sash-hung windows of c. 1800 or later. Inside, the ground floor has been rearranged but retains an early 19th-century reeded fireplace-surround of marble with bosses at the angles. A 19th-century staircase has been refitted with period balusters. On the first floor is an original plaster cornice and ceiling-border decorated with acanthus.
(133, 134, 135, 136) Houses, Nos. 9, 8, 6, standing 11 yds. to 44 yds. E. of King's Parade, and the Eagle Inn, No. 7, adjoining No. 8 on the N., have all at one time and another been incorporated in the Inn, originally the 'Eagle and Child', and described as the Post House in Loggan's plan of Cambridge of 1688. They are of two and three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, brick, and limestone ashlar with an infilling of brick. The roofs are tiled and slated. A lease of 1826 of the property, with a plan, is in the possession of Corpus Christi College; in it No. 9 is described as 'new erected', 'lately rebuilt by the Master and Fellows'. The varying thickness of the S. wall of No. 8 and the irregular ground-floor fenestration suggest the control of an earlier building, of the 16th or 17th century, upon the early 19th-century refacing conforming to that of No. 9; with this refacing may go the addition of the second floor. The first-floor assembly-room indicates the user as part of an inn. No. 6 has a history of development similar to that of No. 8, also a later addition on the N.; the carriage-way between the two houses is in much the position of that shown in John Hamond's view of Cambridge of 1592. The Inn, No. 7, was in part at least built or rebuilt probably in c. 1600 and the gallery-front, though now of c. 1800, seems to represent an original feature. All the buildings have been altered and extended in later times.
The Eagle Inn is notable for the retention of an open gallery giving access to the rooms.
(133), No. 9, has a street-front of c. 1825 in three bays, which varies from that of (134) only in the use of ashlar throughout and in the design of the iron guards to the cellar-windows. Inside, in the extreme N.E. corner is a doorway, now blocked, that gave access to the adjoining building.
(134), No. 8, has an early 19th-century street-front in six bays, with the ground floor ashlar-faced, the rest stucco. The plain surface is relieved by two plat-bands, at first-floor sill level and eaves level; above the last is a plain parapet-wall. The main entrance in the fourth bay has a moulded architrave and completed entablature above with wrought-iron quadrant lamp-brackets. At the E. end, in the first bay, is a large rectangular opening to the carriageway. The windows, equally spaced on the upper floors, all contain double-hung sashes. The N. side is concealed by modern additions, but a timber-framed gabled projection rising the full height probably contained a staircase.
Inside, on the ground floor are intersecting, and in the carriageway crossing, stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. One room is lined with 18th-century fielded panelling with dado-rail and cornice and round-headed arches springing from pilasters framing two recesses in the N. wall. The large room occupying the first floor has recently been partitioned; it had an open timber ceiling of intersecting moulded beams, now cased, but said to have been similar to that at the same level in the next house (135), forming ten panels. The fireplacesurround with turned paterae is of the 19th-century.
(135), No. 6, has a S. range in continuation of that of No. 8 and with a street-front similar to it in detail. The block adjoining on the N. is of the second half of the 19th century; that further to the N.E., perhaps of the late 17th century, seems to have been an annexe of No. 5 Benet Street (137), but in 1826 was a part of the inn premises. Inside, the ground floor is now a shop. On the first floor of the S. range is a cyma-moulded ceiling-beam with sunk soffit.
(136), Eagle Inn, No. 7, is L-shaped on plan, with E. and S. wings. The E. wing was built or rebuilt in the 19th century and has been much altered. The S. wing (Plate 304) of c. 1600, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has only the E. front visible; this has an open gallery of c. 1800 on the first floor supported on thin cast-iron columns and a later forward extension of the N. ground-floor room. Beside the central chimney-stack are paired staircases, to the cellars, to the gallery, and to the attics, that are entered through 19th-century doorways. The windows and doorways of the first-floor rooms opening on the gallery are of the same date as the foregoing. On the roof are three gabled dormer-windows, the northernmost retaining 17th or 18th-century leaded casements in a three-light timber frame. The gallery-front is divided into eight bays by slender turned timber posts linked by a latticework balustrading and supporting an eaves fascia-board cut to form shallow elliptical arches. The chamfered ceiling-beams inside the building have been encased since 1948.
(137) House, No. 5, adjoining (135) on the E., is of three and two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs tiled. It was built perhaps late in the 16th century or before the middle of the 17th century, the N. wing is of the latter period, and remodelled c. 1700; the absence of an overhang to the second floor may indicate that the whole storey is an addition. The ground floor has since been much altered for a shop; the shop-front though mutilated is of the early to mid 19th century. The first floor projects on the S. The S. wall has two sash-hung windows on each of the upper floors, a heavy timber modillion cornice of c. 1700 at the eaves, with three iron ring attachments (see Monument (34), Peterhouse, the Master's Lodge) and two 19th-century flat-roofed dormer-windows. On the N. wing are large transeptal dormers, their ridge rising well above the main ridge. The interior retains, on the first floor, an exposed chamfered ceiling-beam; on the same floor are a door of six panels and a timber eared surround to a fireplace, both of c. 1700. The staircase of c. 1700, rising from the ground floor to the attics, has close strings, square newels, turned balusters and moulded handrail and, on the containing walls, a panelled dado up to the first floor. See also Monument (135) for a later extension of the N. wing.
(138) House, No. 4, next E. of the foregoing and 50 yds. from King's Parade, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of gault brick and the roofs slated. It was built early in the 19th century, though red brickwork in English bond in the W. wall of the cellars and a gabled wall against the E. face of the E. wall survive from an earlier building on the site. The ground floor has a shop-front of c. 1825, partly altered. The house is distinguished by the wroughtironwork fittings outside. At the entrance to a through passage is a gate with plain and spear-headed uprights linked by scrolls and, above, a scroll-work grille. To the N. and S. windows are five elaborate scroll-work guards.
(139) Bath Hotel, No. 3, next E. of the foregoing, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and modern rendered brickwork; the roofs are tiled. The original building, L-shaped on plan with a small projection in the re-entrant angle, is of the 17th century. It was altered in the 18th century and extended later. In 1948 temporary stripping of the S. wall of the ground floor revealed two two-light windows, set high, with timber ovolo-moulded frames and mullions, one just W. of the present entrance, the other mutilated by the insertion of the W. window, and the original moulded timber head-rail enriched with egg-and-dart and bead ornament below the projecting first floor. But for the projection, the S. front is superficially of the late 18th century though now with applied sham timber-framing. It is in three bays and nearly symmetrical. The central doorway has flanking pilaster-strips, consoles and modillion-cornice, and the end windows on both floors contain tripartite sashhung frames. On the roof are three 17th-century hipped dormer-windows with timber eaves-cornices. The first floor projects on the N.; similarly in the N.E. wing the first floor projects on the E. A mansard roof replaces the original roof of the wing. All the fenestration is of the 18th century. Inside are chamfered and stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. The staircase retains some 18th-century turned balusters. On the first floor, studs, wall-plates and beams are exposed, except in one room where a late 17th-century timber cornice masks the plates. In the attics are two moulded plank doors to cupboards and a reused panelled door, all of c. 1600; fragments of panelling of the same date are in the cellars. In 1948 the S. wall of the W. ground-floor room was seen to be partly lined with 17th-century panelling in situ behind the plaster.
(140) Barclay's Bank, facing Peas Hill, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of red-tinged yellow brick with late 19th-century stone dressings, the roofs tiled. The site, on which stood the gateway of the Augustinian friary (Willis and Clark, III, 603), was bought by William Finch, ironmonger, in 1720 who built there a house and outbuildings where he lived 'many years before his death' in 1761. In 1783 the house was bought by John Mortlock and in 1886 it was part the private house and part the bank of E. J. Mortlock (ibid., 604). The outbuildings were demolished when the present Arts Schools were built. During the second half of the 19th century the two lower floors of most of the house were remodelled to form a lofty banking-hall.
The plan consists of a range to the street with shallow projections at each end on the S. and a S.E. wing; the last has been partly rebuilt and heightened but contains a lofty ground-floor room with 18th-century E. and W. walls.
On the street-front only the W. entrance, the first-floor window above it, parts of two plat-bands, and the range of second-floor windows of the mid 18th-century house survive, the first two with later stone dressings. The main entrance, tall windows, cornice and balustraded parapet, all of stone, are contemporary with the formation of the banking-hall. The back wall retains only the five 18th-century second-floor windows, but the blocking of the first-floor windows is traceable. The 18th-century roof is in two spans; on the N. it has two pedimented and two original hipped dormer-windows, on the S. a range of original dormer-windows with timber eaves-cornices.
Inside, some of the rooms on the second floor retain simple 18th-century panelling and cornices. The room in the S.E. wing, formerly the Mortlock's dining-room, was heightened and decorated in c. 1790. It retains a fireplace-surround, a N. door and door-case, and a plaster entablature of this date; the plaster wall-panelling, ceiling enrichment and E. doorway are modern. The fireplace has marble slips and a surround with attenuated side scrolls supporting an enriched entablature with fluted frieze and frieze-panels containing classical figure subjects in low relief. The door is in six panels with fluted borders and enriched mouldings; the door-case has an enriched and fretted architrave and completed entablature above, similarly enriched, with medallions in the frieze. The entablature at the wall-head has a frieze decorated with urns and garlands.
At 'Thorneycreek', Herschel Road, are other fittings removed from here in 1896. They include 18th-century panelling with moulded dado-rail and enriched modillioncornice; a fireplace-surround with grey marble slips, eared architrave, enriched frieze with panel, and cornice-shelf; a staircase with cut and bracketed strings, fluted balusters, newels in the form of Ionic columns, and moulded handrail.
(141) House, No. 14, adjoining the foregoing on the W., is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. It was built possibly during the 16th century and heightened by a storey late in the 17th century; in c. 1800 new double sash-hung windows were inserted and a new staircase added. On the S. are later and modern additions. The shop-front, the plain stucco exterior and the simple entablature and blocking-course at the wallhead are of the late 18th or early 19th century. It is now part of the adjoining bank. Inside, on the ground floor are intersecting stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. The first floor projects on the N.; this floor and the floor above have exposed chamfered ceiling-beams with scroll stops.
Free School Lane
(142) House, Nos. 1 and 2, at the corner of Benet Street, is of three storeys with basement and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing elaborated with modern applied timbering. The roofs are tiled and slated. It was built, whether as one or two tenements is uncertain, late in the 16th century; the S.E. extension projecting into the next house to the S. is probably of the following century. Extensive alterations have been made since; the present shop-front of No. 1 is of the 18th century. The house is a long rectangle on plan; it is gabled to the N. and S. and the pitch of the roof changes at the massive central chimney-stack. The first floor projects on both the W. and the N., the second floor on the W.; under the projections are 18th or 19th-century console-brackets. The N. shop-front has a doorway in the middle between two display windows with glazing of small panes. All the other windows are of the 18th century or later. Inside, the ground floor of No. 2 is completely modernised, the rest, which now comprises No. 1, retains some exposed chamfered and stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. The S. staircase, with close moulded strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrail is of the early 18th century. In the S.E. extension is a bolection-moulded fireplace-surround of c. 1700.
(143) House, No. 3, divided in part from the foregoing by a narrow single-storey modern annexe, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. It was built late in the 16th century and, although all the windows have since been altered and the staircase renewed, it remains rather less altered than most of the houses of this type and date in the city. On plan, each floor has a main room to the W. divided from a smaller one to the E. by a large chimney-stack with flanking stair. It is gabled to the street with the first and second floors projecting. On the N. slope of the roof is a large dormer. The plastering has a pargeted pattern of rectangular panels; this is continued over the face of the dormer and interrupted by the late 18th-century sash-hung windows elsewhere.
(144) House, No. 7, 10 yds. N. of Benet Street, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and red brick, the roofs tiled. It was built in the first half of the 18th century, incorporating parts of the framed walling of an earlier building in the western end. The ground floor of the E. block next the street has been much altered and contains shops with mid 19th-century fronts. The windows above the last are sash-hung, with stone sills and consoles; they are in four bays, with the brickwork of the N. bay largely refaced. At the wall-head is a stone cornice. The framed N. wall contains windows with twin double sash-hung frames and thick glazing-bars. Inside, three rooms are lined with original panelling with dado-rail and cornice. Reused 17th-century panelling lines a fourth rooms. The main staircase is of pine, with close strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrail; on the containing walls is a panelled dado.
(145) Houses, next N. of the foregoing and extending 17 yds. to 30 yds. from Benet Street, now combined to form part of a King's College hostel, are structurally three distinct buildings. They are of two storeys with cellars and attics, except the S.E. four-storey block of c. 1800. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and brick; the roofs are tiled. The buildings have narrow frontages and extend well back from the street. Perhaps the W. part of the middle house was the first built and may have consisted of a ground-floor hall open to the roof. The W. half of the N. house followed. Both the foregoing may have extended E. to the street but were truncated by the building or rebuilding during the 16th or 17th century of their eastern parts; whether these last were together of one build or distinct is uncertain; they were however remodelled and unified in the 18th century and so now appear from the street. The W. part of the S. house was rebuilt or remodelled in 1661 and the E. part entirely rebuilt in c. 1800. The ground floor of the last has been cleared in modern times and forms the entrance to the Arts Theatre.
The walls of the lofty E. part of the S. house exposed to the street are of gault brick, the others framed and plastered. On the E. are plat-bands at first, second and third-floor sill-levels; for the rest the features are typical plain examples of c. 1800. The earlier W. part has the first floor projecting on the S., the ends of the joists being concealed by a moulded fascia-board. On the roof are transeptal dormers, that to the N. gabled, that to the S. with later hipping and supported on shaped brackets at the main eaves-level. The gabled W. end has a projecting first-floor window flush with the projecting attic-storey; this last has a moulded bressummer tenoned into extensions of the main wall-plates themselves supported on shaped brackets; these brackets had pierced pendants but the S. pendant, carved with the date 1661, alone survives. Inside the W. part, on the first floor, are hollow-chamfered pine ceiling-beams with shaped stops. In the attics original panelling and an original door enclose the S. dormer.
The E. front of the other two houses has a modern shop-front, a rectangular projecting window on the first floor of the middle house and a continuous eaves-cornice returned round the window-head. On the roof are two hipped dormer-windows. The whole, except the first, is an 18th-century remodelling. The height of the two roof-ridges differs. Of the middle house, the mediaeval W. part has later dormer-windows close to the W. end; this last is gabled and with a later chimney-stack inserted. Inside, the ground floor has been modernished. The first-floor E. room has ovolo-moulded ceiling-beams; the W. room has an exposed central longitudinal collar-purlin and, in the W. end wall, remains of a curved brace as if to a king-post.
The N. house has had the W. half re-roofed. Inside, the ground floor has been modernised. In the E. half, in the S. wall of the attics, is a collar-beam truss with traces of a windbrace. It has three posts between tie-beam and collar, purlins clasped by the collar under the principal rafters, and reduced scantling of the last above purlin level.
(146) Central Hotel, at the N. corner of St. Edward's Passage, consists of a complex of four or five small houses; some or all of these were combined at the Restoration at the latest to form an inn, the 'Three Tuns', which was closed down in 1790. They are of two and three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, red brick with lighter rubbed brick dressings, and gault brick; the roofs are tiled. Most probably here Pepys 'drank pretty hard' on 25th February 1660. The ground floors have been altered and modernised and now contain a bank, shops and offices; the first floor, though partitioned, is less altered. For purposes of description, it may be divided into a N.E. range, of mid 17th-century origin and distinguished by a brick front of 1727 facing Peas Hill, a S.E. corner block rebuilt in the 19th century, a central rather later 17th-century block running N. and S. and containing the former assembly-room on the first floor, and a S.W. wing bordering St. Edward's Passage. The wing, though much altered, is probably the earliest surviving building in the complex and of the 16th century.
The Hotel is notable for the brick front of 1727. The building retains interesting mid and later 17th-century panelling and timber fireplace-surrounds.
The brick front of the N.E. range has a modern shop-window on the ground floor; above, it is in two bays divided and flanked by colossal pilaster-strips with a heavy rubbed and moulded brick dentil-cornice returned over the pilasters and a high parapet-wall, rebuilt, articulated over the returns. In each bay are two sash-hung windows on each floor with flat arches; the upper windows have shaped aprons. On the extremities are lead rainwater-pipes with square moulded heads, both cast with the date 1727 and three tuns. On the roof are two 17th-century hipped dormer-windows. The W. side is largely concealed but in the roof is an original dormer with a later roof built against it. Between the range and the S.E. corner block is a narrow gap extending from ground to roof, visible only from the attic.
The W. side of the central block, where it extends N. of the S.W. wing, has a gabled bay containing a window on the first floor in the face of a three-sided projection rising from a pent-roof over the ground floor and capped by the projection of the gable-end. The window has a timber three-light frame with casements retaining original hinges, catches and much of the original leaded glazing of small rectangular quarries. The plaster apron-wall is modelled with two human heads in panels. The gable has barge-boards with billet-ornament and pendants at the eaves; these are masked by a modern roof extending over the E. end of the hotel yard.
The whole of the S. elevation is faced in 19th-century brick. The S.W. range has projections of the first floor to N. and W. now largely concealed or obscured by brick underpinning. On the N.W. is a rainwater-pipe with 1729 and the arms of the Vintners' Company cast in the head. The mansard roof is of the 19th century.
Inside, the N.E. range has exposed intersecting cymamoulded and ovolo-moulded ceiling-beams on the first floor; here and on the floor above are mid 17th-century timber fireplace-surrounds with side-pilasters, panelled overmantels with pilasters, entablatures with dentil-cornices, and enrichments of open flowers, bosses and bands on the pilaster-shafts, styles and architraves; the surround on the upper floor is complete, the other has lost the splayed shelf but retains in the fireplace-recess early 18th-century Dutch delft tiles decorated in manganese on a white ground. A third surround, on the second floor, of similar date and character to the foregoing, but plainer, has been mutilated. The range contains much 17th and 18th-century panelling.
The whole first floor of the central block, except the staircase and passage at the N. end, was one room with a plaster segmental barrel vault rising from a cornice. The whole survives, though the room is divided up, and retains much panelling and a projecting door-case of c. 1675; the former has a dado-rail and dentil-cornice, the latter an entablature with frieze-panel, dentil-cornice, and broken pediment containing a pedestal flanked by volutes. The staircase-landing has a balustrade of c. 1727 with turned balusters and newels; on the landing above, in the attic, are more turned balusters perhaps of the 17th century.
In the S.W. wing, the panelling of c. 1670 that lined the first floor has been rearranged to form two rooms. It is divided into bays by panelled pilaster-strips and has three panels in the height and a deep entablature. This last has a panelled frieze, a heavy bed-mould to the cornice, and shallow entablature-blocks at intervals enriched with silhouetted foliation. The fireplace-surround and overmantel are part of the foregoing; the first has panelled pilasters at the sides, a frieze-panel and shallow cornice-shelf, and the overmantel two panelled bays divided and flanked by panelled pilasters supporting a return of the main entablature.
(147) House, No. 10, 5 yds. N.E. of Monument (140), is of three storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of gault brick with stone dressings; the low mansard roof is slated. It was built in c. 1830. Additions were made on the S. in the second decade of the 20th century; probably at the same time the present N. wall of the ground floor was substituted for a shop-front to form a rusticated Classical basement to the colossal Doric order above. This last has fluted pilasters without taper or entasis dividing the front into three unequal bays, the middle bay projecting slightly, and supporting a full Doric entablature with low blocking-course. In each bay and on each floor is a sash-hung window with flat brick arch. In the roof are three squat flat-roofed dormer-windows; that in the middle is blind. Inside are two fireplace-surrounds, of white and grey marble, and a door, all of revived Greek character, and several other doors, perhaps reused, with fielded panels. In the additions are reused balusters of c. 1700.
(148) House, No. 11, next E. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of rendered timber-framing and brick and the roofs tiled. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century; an E. wing was added later in the 17th century and a S. wing in the 18th. The whole has been much remodelled. On the N. the first and second floors both project; the lower projection is largely concealed by a modern shop-front, the upper is supported on late 19th-century console-brackets. The wall-head finishes in an unbroken horizontal parapet, probably a 19th-century alteration from plain overhanging eaves; the windows are of the same date. The S. wall has the ground floor rebuilt in brick. The S. wing is of brick up to the gable, with a plat-band at first-floor level. Inside are some exposed chamfered ceiling-beams.
(149) House, No. 4, 27 yds. N. of Petty Cury, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are timber-framed, the streetfront being hung with tiles simulating brickwork. The roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 16th century, the front being a remodelling of the mid 18th century when also the roof may have been reconstructed. A later E. wing links with an early 16th-century S.E. block behind the adjoining house, No. 3, and originally part of it. The W. wall has a modern shop-front and a wide passage-way to the N.; the floors above have each four sash-hung windows; at the wall-head is a timber dentil-cornice and parapet. The two 18th-century pedimented dormer-windows have sliding casements. The E. wing where not faced with modern brickwork has pargeting divided by moulded rails. The S.E. block had a first floor, now removed, projecting on the E. Inside the main block, the first-floor room has an open timber ceiling with a heavy stop-chamfered transverse beam, which is notched on the E. into a stop-chamfered post with thickened head, and longitudinal chamfered beams. The same room is lined with panelling of the early 17th century on the S. and part of the E. walls and modern elsewhere, except for two marquetry panels reset over the fireplace. The second floor has ceiling-beams and post similar to those below but the transverse beam is perhaps a replacement. The S.E. block contains an open timber ceiling with moulded longitudinal beam and wall-plates carved with folding leaf ornament and stop-moulded joists laid flat. An exposed corner-post though restored has an original shaped and chamfered head.
(150) House, No. 5, next N. of the foregoing, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are timber-framed, faced towards the street with modern tile-hanging, and the roofs slated. It was built probably in the 17th century and is older than the elaborations of 1688 described below. The ground floor has been cleared for a shop.
The house is notable for the elaborate plaster ceiling of 1688 on the first floor, which may well be the work of Henry Doogood, who was employed on Wren's City churches.
Facing Market Hill, in the W. wall, is a modern shop-front and on the first floor a doorway in the middle with a sashhung window to each side; the doorway opens on a balcony the full width of the frontage and has a large shell-hood supported on enriched console-brackets and carved with cherubs and the date 1688. The balcony is fenced with scrolled and twisted ironwork of the same date. On the floor above are two windows and at the wall-head a timber cornice and a parapet. Inside, the first-floor room has an elaborate plasterceiling (Plate 63) dated 1688. It has a central and bordering panels, the first containing an oval wreath of fruit and flowers framing a sky of conventional clouds with birds and a central mask, the second with scrolled acanthus foliage including a stag hunt, a boar hunt, a monkey and other animals and birds. Cartouches interrupting the second contain the arms of the Drapers' Company and of Watson. The same room is lined with light bolection-moulded panelling with dado-rail and cornice.
It seems probable that the improvements were commissioned by William Watson, Alderman of Cambridge 1696– 1702, baptised 1665, died 1722, son of William Watson, burgess and linen-draper (Registers of Great St. Mary; Daybooks of the Corporation). The arms are those of Watson of Rockingham, to which possibly he had no right. Details of the ceiling are closely paralleled in the Old Library ceiling of 1690 at Pembroke College (Monument (33)), which was the work of Henry Doogood. (C.A.S. Proc. xli (1948), 56–9).
(151) House, No. 14, 5 yds. E. of Rose Crescent, is of four storeys. The walls are timber-framed and hung with tiles simulating brickwork towards the street and of brick. The roofs are tiled. The present S. front is an early 18th-century remodelling and heightening of an earlier structure that has since been much altered and in part destroyed. A N. wing was added late in the 18th century. In modern times the walls and partitions of the two lower storeys have been entirely removed and replaced by steelwork; additions mask the back of the original building. The carriageway, presumably to the Angel Inn shown in William Custance's map of Cambridge, 1798, has been destroyed, unless the E. section of the modern shop-front intruding into the adjoining house is evidence for it. The tiling of the second and third floors imitates Flemish bonding. The five windows on each of these floors have flat brick arches; the lower contain fixed frames with round heads and carved spandrels, and the upper, double-hung sashes. At the wall-head is a timber modillion-cornice and a parapet. The N. wing has walls of yellow brick and a mansard roof.
Inside, the upper floors retain a much-damaged staircase of c. 1700 with turned newels and moulded handrail; all the balusters are missing.
The ironmongery here was founded in 1688. When Swann Hurrell took over the business from C. Finch, his uncle, in 1847 he moved the foundry hence to a disused brewery on Quayside. (See Monuments (79) and (82)).
(152) House, No. 1, on the corner of Sidney Street, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. A building of the early 18th century in origin, containing one or two tenements, it now comprises only a part of larger shop-premises. The ground floor has been entirely reconstructed in modern times and, in the S. part, raised so that the first floor lacks headroom. The windows, where not truncated, contain double-hung sashes. At the wallhead to S. and E. is a timber modillion-cornice, with a parapetwall to the S. part. The E. wall towards Sidney Street retains traces of pargeting. The inside has been modernised.
(153) House, Nos. 32, 33, 34, standing 42 yds. E. of Market Hill, is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. It was built probably in the 16th century. The ground floor has twice been reconstructed for a shop in modern times; the upper floors have been cleared and modernised. The street-front has the first and second floors projecting; the heavy moulded timber bressummer to the lower projection was revealed temporarily in 1954; the upper projection has a similar timber exposed. At the eaves is a modern timber fascia-board. All the windows, including the hipped dormer-windows, are of the 18th or 19th century. The original plan is irrecoverable but the building is in three bays, possibly of three tenements in origin. On the first floor are exposed stop-chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates. On the floor above, the E. bay is open to collar-beam level and the whole may have been open to the roof before attics were formed.
House, formerly at the corner of Market Hill, see Monument (86).
(154) House, No. 7, 60 yds. E. of Guildhall Street, between the Lion Hotel and the entrance to Falcon Yard, is of four and three storeys. The walls are of timber-framing, partly hung with tiles simulating brickwork, and of brick. The roofs are tiled. It was a part of the Falcon Inn and built in the 16th century. In the 18th century and later it was extensively remodelled. The ground floor contains a modern shop. The upper part, remodelled and heightened, is now an annexe of the Lion Hotel, the two being linked by a bridge; modern buildings span the yard-entrance on the E. The greater part of the interesting S. wing has been destroyed since 1883.
The building is notable for the survival, though altered and damaged, of a length of some 20 ft. of the original timber-framed S. wing that had open galleries on the first and second floors. The appearance of the original arrangement is preserved in drawings by Buckler (B.M., Add MSS. 36436, drwg. 177) and T. D. Atkinson (T. D. A. and J. W. Clark, Cambridge Described and Illustrated (1897), fig. 11).
Towards the street, the tile-hung first floor and the plastered second floor together project. At the wall-head is a 19th-century cornice and parapet. The E. side of the S. wing overlooking Falcon Yard has a modern front to the ground floor built flush with the main wall-face, so concealing the projection of the first floor. The original timber-framing of the galleries is exposed; the former-openings are disguised by blocking and inserted 18th and 19th-century windows. It is divided into bays by posts rising the full height of the two floors; rails tenoned into the posts and studs tenoned into the rails form the framing of the former solid apron-walls.
Inside, no early features remain on the ground floor. In the N. block, the first and second floors have exposed stop-moulded and stop-chamfered ceiling-beams; on the floor above is a cupboard with a damaged door of 16th-century linenfold panelling. In the S. wing the original plan-form persists in part on the upper floors, though the back wall of the first-floor gallery has been rebuilt, the longitudinal ceiling-beams being axial to the rooms not to the wing. The timber doorways shown by Buckler on the first-floor do not survive, but the second-floor gallery is still entered through a 16th-century timber doorway with continuous hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch in a square head.
(155) Lion Hotel, next W. of the foregoing, 32 yds. E. of Guildhall Street, is of three and two storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and brick, the roofs slate and tile-covered. The buildings, of different dates and all more or less altered at different times, surround a yard, which has been covered with a modern glass roof. Called until sometime in the 19th century the 'Red Lion', it is the only inn in the city showing a continued retention of both use and courtyardplan from at least the 17th century. None of the building complex is demonstrably earlier than this, though the probability of a mediaeval date for part has been suggested (ibid., 73). Alterations have been made on the W. in the second half of the 19th century, and on the S. are long ranges of brick and tiled stables of the late 18th or early 19th century.
The range to the street, which retains a 17th-century chimney-stack, was heightened in the 18th century and remodelled then and later. The E. range is probably of the 17th century; the E. wall and chimney-stack are both of original brickwork; the W. wall though refaced has a plaster cove of c. 1700 at the eaves. The yard is bounded on the W. by two buildings on different alignments incorporating late 18th-century brickwork. The S. range is of the 17th century only in the lowest storey; all above has been rebuilt.
Inside, the 17th-century part last described alone retains exposed chamfered ceiling-beams. In the S. end of the E. range is a staircase of c. 1700 with close strings, square newels, turned balusters and moulded handrail.
(156) House, No. 5, adjoining (155) on the S.W. some 43 yds. back from the street, is of two storeys with basement and attics. The timber-framed walls are faced with stucco; the roofs are slated. The house was built in the mid 18th century; earlier features are reset or too fragmentary to confirm the retention of any substantial part of the older structure in the new. About the middle of the 19th century the N. front was entirely remodelled; in the same century the ground-floor S. rooms were extended S., the extensions being covered with a flat lead roof. The N. forecourt is said formerly to have been flanked by a coach-house and stables.
The parapeted N. front is symmetrical; at each end are small single-storey N. wings, that to the W. to some extent altered; slight projections of the main wall-face above them to the full height of the front ensure their visual unity in the composition. The recessed central area is in three bays with a doorway in the middle and sash-hung windows with moulded architraves. The doorway is flanked by Tuscan pilasters supporting an entablature. At first-floor sill-level and below the parapet-wall are continuous plat-bands.
Inside, a central stairhall and passage are flanked by two rooms on each side separated by chimney-stacks. The N. wings contain a lobby and a closet respectively. Excepting these last, the plan is nearly square. Reused in the basement are heavy chamfered ceiling-beams. The 18th-century staircase has close strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrail. On the first floor is a fireplace with marble reeded surround of c. 1800 with carved figure and flowers. In the attics an intermediate wall-post is exposed; the roof is of the 18th century, with the purlins cut to make way for the dormer-windows. Some 18th-century doors remain.
(157) House, No. 9, standing 28 yds. S. of Petty Cury, is of two storeys with cellars. The walls are timber-framed, the roofs slated. It was built probably in the 16th century but has been much altered since, and perhaps shortened on the N., and the roof raised, mainly in the 19th century. The ground floor now contains two shops divided by an inserted stair. The E. wall of the N. shop has been removed for an eastward extension.
Towards the street are modern shop-fronts; the first floor projects and has modern applied timbering; the windows are of the 19th century. Some of the original timber-framed back wall remains visible. The S. chimney-stack has been rebuilt; that to the N. is modern. Inside, the ceiling of the ground floor is divided into eight panels by cross and longitudinal chamfered beams, those in the S. half alone with stops. On the first floor is an exposed wall-post with enlarged head to support a tie-beam, now removed. Only two rafters joined by a collar-beam and a tie-beam remain of the original roof, the first at the S. end, the second near the head of the stairs.
(158) Fisher House, next S. of the foregoing, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and of brick; the roofs are tile-covered. It consists of two small 16th or early 17th-century houses, the first lengthways with the street with the second almost at right angles to it some way to the E. The two have been linked by a later building. Late in the 17th or early in the 18th century the street-front was remodelled; in the same period the S. side of the second house was rebuilt or remodelled and the staircase renewed. Towards the street, the wall to the ground floor of the first house has been rebuilt in brick in modern times. The plastered first floor projects and has a modern cove to the soffit and a modern facia-board; the windows and modillioned eaves-cornice are of c. 1700, so also are the three hipped dormer-windows in the roof. On the E. is a projecting rectangular staircase-bay cased in 19th-century brickwork. The second house has a brick S. wall with a plat-band at first-floor level, a timber eaves-cornice and sash-hung windows. The timber-framed N. side has three dormers.
Inside, a room on the first floor of the first house is lined with early 18th-century panelling removed from 58 St. Andrew's Street (demolished 1955), with an eared panel over the fireplace. The second house, consisting of two rooms on each floor divided by a great central chimney-stack, has beside this last a staircase with close strings, turned balusters, square newels with moulded caps and moulded grip-handrail. One of the dormers has been reconditioned but is still used as a bed-recess.
(159) Houses and Shops, Nos. 1–11, all on the N. and E. sides of the foot-way between Trinity Street and Market Hill, are of three storeys with basements. The walls are of brick, the roofs slated. The Crescent occupies the yard and approaches to the former Rose Tavern, which are shown in William Custance's plan of Cambridge of 1798. Nothing of the structure of the inn survives. The terrace, a planned economy of shops and dwellings, was built at one time to a uniform design; it was described as 'newly erected' in the Cambridge Chronicle of 4 August 1826.
Rose Crescent is of interest as an early 19th-century commercial development of small shops, the timber shop-fronts being built to a repetitive design of some distinction. The whole survives remarkably complete with only a few late intrusions, though much of the original glazing of the display-windows and fanlights has been destroyed.
The frontage has a doorway and a display-window alternately almost continuously from end to end of the terrace, the single unit consisting of a shop-doorway flanked by windows and a house-doorway to the side. The bays are separated by moulded pilasters supporting an architrave-like fascia under a cornice projecting about 1 ft. Over the doorways are square lights with lead glazing-bars forming a geometrical pattern with scrolls in the spandrels. Little of the original glazing of small panes remains in the display-windows; under the windows are wrought-iron grilles to the basements. Above, the windows have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes; those on the first floor have stone sills continued as a plat-band and some plain and scrolled wrought-iron guards. At the wall-head is a continuous cornice, of slight projection, and a parapet. A number of the original wrought-iron lamp-brackets survive, projecting from the first floor. The more conspicuous variations in, or alterations to, the fronts, apart from damage already described, are as follows: No. 2, modern shop-front, leaded lights inserted in upper windows; 3, carriage entrance at side with original panelled gates; 4, attics added; 5 and 6, Rose Inn, ground floor entirely refronted; 7, survives largely intact; 8, shop door and frame renewed; 11, timber front altered in part, attics added.
On plan, Nos. 1 to 3 are very shallow and only the last has lighting from the back; Nos. 4–11 are two rooms deep and, except 5 and 6, have a passage leading straight from the house-doorway to a staircase. The interiors were probably always plain.
(160) House, No. 10, some 77 yds. from Trinity Street, is of three and four storeys with attics. The walls are of brick with vitrified headers, the roofs slated. It was built c. 1700 and refronted later in the 18th century. The shop-front is of the late 19th century and the window-frames and sashes are renewals of the same period. The plain parapet is presumably an alteration, of uncertain date. The street-front is entirely plain, with two window-openings with flat brick arches on each of the two upper floors. The N. side has three plat-bands and a brick dentil-cornice. The E. party-wall is timber-framed.
Inside, the S. ground-floor room is lined with original bolection-moulded panelling with dado-rail and cornice; the similar panel in the overmantel is flanked by panelled pilasters. The fireplace-surround is of the late 18th century, with enriched architrave, composite pilasters at the sides enriched with swags and stylised foliage, a frieze with central panel carved with dancing figures and flanked by festoons and musical trophies, and a dentilled cornice-shelf. The contemporary cast-iron grate has oval garlanded medallions containing figures. The original staircase has close moulded strings, twisted balusters, square newels with ball-finials and moulded pendants, and broad moulded handrail; it rises in six flights to the attics where a slighter balustrade has wavy plank balusters. The upper floors contain original bolection-moulded panelling, fireplace-surrounds and overmantels, panelled windowshutters, and some original white hearth-tiles. A first-floor fireplace contains carved slips and a cast-iron grate of neoGreek design.
N. and S. sides:—
(161) Houses, from end to end of the street, excepting No. 10 (Monument (160)), are nearly all part of a single rebuilding scheme probably of the second quarter of the 19th century. Nos. 8 and 9, which were older houses, have been largely, and Nos. 14 to 20, 22 and 24, entirely, rebuilt since; the rest have been more or less altered. Some original shop-windows survive but most are of the late 19th century or modern.
The houses are of two, three and four storeys, some with attics and basements. The walls generally are of gault brick, the roofs slated. The fronts are plain, most with parapet-walls. The windows have flat brick arches and stone sills and contain double-hung sashes. Nos. 3 to 5 have elliptical-headed shopwindows and round-headed doorways with stone imposts; over the doors are fanlights with festooned radiating glazingbars of some elaboration. Nos. 26 and 27 form a unified group at the W. end of the S. side. On the corners of Nos. 12 and 28 are respectively curved windows and a curved doorway. The rest call for no particular comment except that the cornertreatment is one popular in Cambridge, with minor variations, throughout the century; here the variant is an inset convex quadrant.
(162) Houses, three, Nos. 35 (plan p. 331), 36 and 37, standing 43 yds. to 66 yds. N. of Green Street, are of three storeys with cellars. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. They form a terrace of one build of the early 19th century; from the first they comprised shops and dwellings. Subsequent alterations to the shop-fronts have broken the initial architectural uniformity. No. 37 retains the original character and plan though the staircase has been removed. The others have had the ground floor cleared and new shop-fronts inserted in the present century. The upper floors have all been converted for use as an undergraduates' hostel.
The original shop-front has a doorway between large display-windows and a doorway to the dwelling to one side, all divided and flanked by Roman Doric pilasters on square bases continued as a plinth and supporting a bold entablature; paired pilasters flank the doorway to the dwelling. The windows above are of lofty proportions, with flat brick arches and, where unaltered, stone sills. At the wall-head is a stone cornice and a parapet-wall. In the W. wall of No. 37 is a french window set slightly in front of the wall-face. Inside is a doorway into the shop from the back room, not from the passage at the side as in the usual terrace-house plan.
(163) House, No. 48, standing 4 yds. S. of Green Street, is of three storeys. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, tile-hung towards the street to simulate brickwork. The roofs are tiled. Built in the 17th century, and altered in the following century, it has now been incorporated with the shop on the corner of Green Street by removal of the dividing wall on the ground floor. On the E., the shop-front is modern; the upper floors project at first-floor level; the timber window-frames have been renewed and the whole wall-head remodelled in modern times. Facing a passage on the S. side is the only original window left; it is of two lights with timber frame and mullion. The roof is H-shaped; the link, which runs E. to W. with half of straight pitch and half mansard, has dormers on the N. and dormer-windows on the S. Inside, the only ancient features remaining visible are some ceiling-beams.
(164) House, No. 32, next S. of County Hall, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are timber-framed, the W. wall being hung with tiles simulating brickwork, the rest plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century and remodelled in the 18th. Subsequent single-storey brick additions have extended the original L-shaped plan to the rectangle.
The house has remarkably accomplished 18th-century 'mathematical' tiling on the front to Hobson Street.
The street-front, now to all appearances of the 18th century, has a stucco plinth, tiling above resembling brickwork in Flemish bond and including the simulated rubbed brick flat arches over the window-openings, and a timber modillioned eaves-cornice. The doorway in the middle contains a door of six fielded panels and has a fanlight with interlacing glazingbars flanked by console-brackets supporting an open pediment with dentil-cornice; N. of it are two windows and S. of it paired windows, all sash-hung. The three sash-hung windows on the first floor are nearly symmetrically arranged. All the openings have boarded reveals concealing the tile-hanging. On the roof are two modern dormer-windows. The E. side has the plastering scored to resemble ashlar, 18th-century windows and a gabled dormer; the E. wing is similarly treated and has transeptal dormers.
Inside, in the S.W. room on the ground floor are stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. All the rooms on this and the first floors are lined with 18th-century panelling, some fielded, some entirely plain; the contemporary doors are of two panels. All the fireplaces have been renewed. The lower part of the staircase is of the 19th century, the upper part of the 18th century, with close strings, turned balusters and square newels.
St. Andrew's Street
(165) House, Nos. 68 and 68a, standing 17 yds. S. of Christ's Lane, is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of plastered timber-framing and brick, the roofs slated and tiled. It consists of a short early 17th-century range to the street with a short E. return and a carriageway on the S., all remodelled in the 19th century when a room was added or rebuilt over the last. Later in the 17th century the E. return was extended by the addition of an E. to W. range fronting the cobbled through-way.
The street-front has a modern shop-window, a projecting three-sided sash-hung window above and a hipped dormer-window. The E. return has a large gabled S. dormer-window and E. chimney-stack with original square base and the upper part with channelling of 17th-century character though rebuilt in the early 19th century and subsequently heightened. The back range has a timber eaves-cornice and two large gabled dormer-windows on the S.; the N. side is masked. Inside the W. range is a stone bolection-moulded fireplace-surround with a similarly moulded panel in the overmantel, the latter flanked by panelled pilasters, all of the early 18th century.
(166) Belmont, No. 55 and 55a, next N. of the New Theatre, is of two storeys with cellars. The walls are of gault brick with stone dressings, the roofs slated and tiled. It was built probably in 1822 but incorporates part of an early 18th-century structure forming the E. wing; the S.W. block is self-contained and seems to have contained separate offices from the first. Particulars of sale in 1838 describe it as held of the Dean and Chapter of Ely on a lease of forty years from 1822, being in private occupation, with a suite of solicitor's offices adjoining.
Belmont is a neo-Classical building of some originality in composition.
The street front is asymmetrical; four recessed bays front the dwelling, a single wider bay projecting obtusely defines the office-block. A uniformity of treatment is maintained throughout. The dwelling-entrance in the third bay is beneath an open porch with Ionic columns and pilaster-responds supporting a roofed entablature. The tall ground-floor windows have flat brick arches. The first-floor windows, of the same form as the foregoing but shorter, are contained in a wall-arcade with broad piers based upon a stone plat-band in continuation of the sills, stone imposts and segmental brick arches. At the wall-head is a stone capping in the form of a simplified and flattened cornice and blocking-course. The horizontal features are continued across the office-block and in the front wall, on the ground floor, is a segmental-headed wall-arch containing a window and, on the first floor, one bay of arcading as before. The other walls are plain; in the S. wall is a large modern window. The service-doorway in the E. wall is in a round-headed wall-arch and a window of the same form lights the main staircase. The older E. wing has brick plat bands at first and second-floor levels to the S., several blocked windows, and a dormer-window; the E. end and N. side are plastered and with later windows.
Inside, the original main staircase has cut strings, moulded handrail and slight square balusters, grouped at the foot in place of a newel, and turned newels above. In the E. wing are exposed chamfered ceiling-beams.
(167) House, No. 22, opposite Emmanuel Street, of two storeys with attics, has walls of gault brick and tiled roofs. It was built c. 1730. The ground floor has since been cleared for a shop. Towards the street, the shop-front is of the late 19th century; on the floor above are two windows with flat-rubbed brick arches and sash frames flush with the wall-face. At the eaves is a timber modillion-cornice and on the roof are two large dormer-windows with pedimented gables. The back wall is gabled and has two deep plat-bands; it contains a doorway with a fanlight in a door-case with panelled pilasters and console-brackets supporting a broken pedimental hood with modillion-cornice. The windows here have high segmental heads.
Inside, access to the floor is now by a stair in the adjoining building. At this level the E. room is lined with original simple panelling; all the rooms have cornices, and the original staircase surviving up to the attics has cut and bracketed strings, turned balusters, columnar newels and moulded and ramped handrail.
(168) House, No. 24, next but one S. of the foregoing, of three storeys, has walls of dark brick in header bond with dressings of lighter brick. The roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century; the E. room on the ground floor has since been converted into a shop. The brickwork of the street-front is of some note.
Towards the street, the shop-window is modern. The two windows on each of the upper floors have flat rubbed brick arches, the lower with projecting stepped brick keys, and contain sash frames set nearly flush with the wall-face. Below the parapet is a brick dentil-cornice, stopped and returned well within the width of the frontage, with every fifth dentil shaped. The back wall is cement-rendered. Inside, are two rooms in the depth, divided by the staircase, the former with corner-fireplaces against the staircase-walls; flanking the ground-floor front room is an original passage to the stairhall. The front room on the first floor is lined with original fielded panelling. The staircase has cut and bracketed strings, turned balusters, moulded handrail, and turned newels with square caps and pendants.
(169) House, Nos. 33 and 34, standing 14 yds. S. of Downing Street, of two storeys with attics, has walls of brick, where visible, and tiled roofs. It is of 17th-century origin and may originally have been timber-framed. In the 18th century a W. wing was added, and other additions have been made since. The E. wall, rebuilt with a parapet in the first half of the 19th century or later, has a modern shop-front the full length and height of the ground floor. The inside has been modernised.
(170) House, No. 36, standing 33 yds. S. of Downing Street, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. Where the old walls survive they are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the first half of the 17th century but the street-front has been entirely rebuilt and the ground and first floors cleared inside in modern times. On the roof are two 18th-century hipped dormer-windows to the E., an original dormer-window to the N., and an original dormer to the S.
St. Andrew's Hill
(171) House etc., standing 20 yds. to 29 yds. N. of Downing Street, house No. 4, with shop, No. 3, and warehouse adjoining on the S. (plan p. 331), the last behind the premises of Messrs. Barrett & Son, china and glass dealers, 25 St. Andrew's Street, the three forming a domestic and business unity. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slated. Barrett's warehouses in Jesus Lane were offered for sale as building materials in 1831 and R. Barrett was 'of St. Andrew's Hill' in 1836. (Camb. Chronicle 15 April 1831, 29 April 1836). Probably therefore the present group was built c. 1830; uniform with it, and doubtless part of the same capital development, to produce an annual rent income, are houses Nos. 5 and 6; the four buildings, Nos. 3–6, together form a single terrace, the front of No. 3, above the shop, being like the rest.
The terrace, of three storeys with basements, has a stone plat-band continuing the sills of the first-floor windows, a brick plat-band at eaves-level and a parapet-wall; the two rainwater downpipes between the houses are inset. The entrance-doorways to the houses have round heads and plain stone imposts and the wide ground-floor windows contain tripartite timber frames with double-hung sashes. No. 3 retains an original timber shop-front with wide displaywindow and doorway to one side divided and flanked by moulded pilasters supporting a simplified entablature with broad cornice; window and over-door contain glazing of small panes. All the sash-hung windows on the upper floors have plain flat arches of rubbed bricks.
The warehouse is of two storeys with basement. The walls have horizontal timbers at intervals; to these the staging for the china was, and still is, fixed. The upper floors extend over the shop. The lay-out of the whole group is little altered, except that the partitions and small workroom between the shop and warehouse are later insertions.
Nos. 5 and 6, see Monument (171).
(172) House, No. 7, adjoining the foregoing on the N., of two storeys with attics, has walls of brick and tiled roofs. It was built late in the 18th or early in the 19th century together with outbuildings on the E.; the E. wing N. of the latter is modern. The first floor has been extended S. to bridge a carriageway. Severe economy in the building appears in the plainness of the exterior; the openings are rectangular; the doorway has a simple plaster architrave; the windows contain light double-hung sashes in frames set flush with the wall-face.
(173) Houses, Nos. 9 and 10, on the corner of Tibb's Row and extending towards Corn Exchange Street, of two storeys with attics, and cellars in part, have walls of plastered timber-framing and brick, and tile-covered roofs. They consist of a long range of one build to St. Andrew's Hill, with additions along the N. side, and a N.E. wing at an angle bordering the Row. The first retains no firmly dateable features but the plan suggests a 16th-century origin. The earliest of the additions, to the W., is of c. 1700. The wing, probably once a separate building, is of the 17th century. The whole was remodelled and the main range refronted early in the 19th century, probably by Charles Humfrey and in 1818 when the ownership of the land on which two porches were being built was in dispute (Camb. Chronicle 17 July 1818). Humfrey evidently established his right, for the porches survive and the space between them is enclosed with railings. Later 19th-century alterations, including the addition of a bay-window, and modern additions have been made.
The S. front is of red brick; at each end is a plain porch, with one now closed, and near the middle a window with tripartite timber frame set in an elliptical-headed wall-arch. On the first floor are seven rather irregularlary spaced sash-hung windows in frames flush with the wall-face, and on the roof six 19th-century dormer-windows. The E. and W. ends are gabled; the first is of plastered framing, the second faced with brick. The W. addition on the N. side is timber-framed. The N.E. wing has the walls of the ground floor rebuilt in brick, weather-boarded above. To the E. are two plastered dormers. The railings of c. 1818 bordering St. Andrew's Hill have plain wrought-iron uprights and standards with urn finials.
(174) Botolph House, at the E. end, on the corner of Free School Lane and Pembroke Street, of four storeys with basement, has walls of gault brick. It was built c. 1790 and has lower annexes on the S. flanking the projecting staircase-bay. The N. front and E. end have continuous stone plat-bands at first-floor level and below the parapet-wall. The original entrance-door of six panels has a fanlight above with radiating glazing-bars; the door-case has panelled reveals and side pilasters with stylised acanthus-leaf capitals supporting an entablature with garlands on the frieze and an enriched modillion-cornice. The three windows on each floor above, irregularly spaced horizontally, have flat brick arches, stone sills and sash-hung frames set flush with the wall-face. The S.E. annexe, of the same build, is of three storeys with a timber cornice and parapet. The single-storey S.W. annexe may be a slightly later addition.
Inside, the passage-hall is ceiled with quadripartite plaster vaulting in four bays with foliage bosses at the intersections. The principal rooms have enriched plaster cornices and typical late 18th-century marble fireplace-surrounds with figures carved on frieze-panels flanked by foliage swags and with enriched cornice shelves. The staircase is elliptical, with a rooflight over the well. The building is misshapen by uneven settlement.
The adjoining houses, Nos. 14, 15 and 16, on the W., of rather earlier date and with plastered timber-framed walls to the S., have been refronted at the same time as, and in similar materials to, (174) though in simpler style and with a timber modillion-cornice.
(175) House, now two dwellings, Nos. 12 and 13, adjoining the foregoing on the W., of two storeys with cellars and attics, has timber-framed walls faced in part with later brickwork, and tiled roofs. It was built on a T-shaped plan in the 16th century; E. and W. of the S. wing are modern additions. The modern brick-faced street-front contains modern windows; on the roof are three 18th-century hipped dormer-windows. To the S., the first floor of the main range projects. The central chimney-stack has a base of original red brickwork; the upper part has been rebuilt. The roof of the S. wing has been raised and given mansard form; the attics are approached from No. 11 Pembroke Street adjoining. Inside, No. 12 has chamfered ceiling-beams in the main range, moulded wall-plates in the S. wing; No. 13 has intersecting chamfered beams and plates in the one ground-floor room. On the first floor are exposed wall-posts with enlarged heads to carry tie-beams; in both posts and ties are mortice-holes for braces now removed.
(176) House, Nos. 1, 1a and 1b, standing 5 yds. E. of Trumpington Street, of two storeys, with rendered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs, was built in the 16th century. It has been much altered. The street-front, probably originally with a projecting first floor, was remodelled in the 18th or 19th century and has two modern shop-windows, two sashhung windows on the first floor and a parapet. Inside, the W. shop has exposed moulded and stop-moulded intersecting ceiling-beams and wall-plates and a wall-post with shaped head; on the first floor are chamfered beams.
(177) House, No. 3 Pembroke Street, on N. side, 20 yds. from Trumpington Street, is of two storeys. The walls are of plastered timber-framing, the roofs tiled. It was built in the 16th century and probably originally consisted of two rooms on each floor divided by a central chimney-stack; the W. part was rebuilt as a separate tenement in the 19th century. The street-front has had the ground floor reconstructed in modern times to include a shop-window in the late 18th-century style. The first floor projects. The roof is of high pitch, with the chimney-stack emerging close behind the ridge. The back wall is obscured. No old windows survive.
Inside, the ground-floor room has a chamfered longitudinal ceiling-beam. An original wall-plate is visible on the upper floor.
(178) House, No. 12, now a club for women graduates, stands 111 yds. W. of Trumpington Street. It is of two and three storeys with walls of timber-framing and brick and tilecovered roofs. Various dwellings, altered and extended at different times, form the present building-complex. They include, to the Lane, a 16th-century house on the W. with a house of c. 1775 adjoining on the E., the latter with a contemporary kitchen-wing extending S. A S. range abutting the foregoing kitchen-wing and with a stair-hall and open court interposed between it and the earlier house on the N., and itself with a S. wing, is of c. 1800. On the E. and S.E. are later 19th-century and modern additions.
The ground floor of the 16th-century house is cased in 18th-century brick; the windows are of the later date. The first floor projects to both N. and S. and the high-pitched roof ends in a rebuilt brick parapeted gable on the W. The E. end abuts the taller building of c. 1775. At the roof-ridge is a tall brick chimney-stack rebuilt in the 18th century with round-headed recessed panels on the face; added on the S. is a later flue.
The E. house has a brick facing to the Lane; this returns short of the full frontage on the second floor. It is in four bays and has a stone plat-band at first-floor level, a timber cornice, and a parapet-wall. The round-headed doorway in the W. bay has a fan-light with cast-iron radiating glazingbars and anthemion-ornament and is flanked by timber Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature; the door of eight panels is original. All the windows have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes in frames nearly flush with the wall-face; those at each end of the second floor have scroll-work cut in the brickwork of the arches. The W. gable-end, above the adjoining building, is plastered; the E. is in gault brick. In the E. wall of the kitchen-wing is an original timber-framed window of archaic pattern with mullion and transom and wrought-iron casements.
The S. range is of yellow brick with red brick dressings. It has an open arcade to the court on the N. with round-headed red brick arches and piers faced with stucco.
Inside, the entrance-hall has a plaster quadripartite vault and a dado of reset early 17th-century panelling. Most of the late 18th-century fittings of the Dining-room to the E. survive; the walls are divided into panels by plaster mouldings and have a frieze enriched with swags and roundels and a dentil-cornice; the fireplace-surround is of marble with an enriched architrave, flanking scrolls, a frieze carved with acanthus foliage and an enriched cornice-shelf. On the floor above are 18th-century two-panel doors. The fittings in the 16th-century house include an 18th-century overmantel with dentil-cornice and foliated scrolls at the sides and a fitted cupboard of the same period with round head and open shelves. On the first floor parts of an original moulded wall-plate are visible and a room is lined with 18th-century fielded panelling, with an eared architrave to the fireplace.
All Saints' Passage
(179) Lichfield House, No. 1, to N.E. of the old churchyard, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of plaster and tile-covered timber-framing and brick, the roofs tiled. It consists of a long rectangular block framed in the 17th century lying N.E. to S.W., with a brick N.W. wing and a small N.E. addition both of the second quarter of the 19th century, the period when the rest was superficially remodelled. The entrance-front, to the N.W., has a timber doorway in the middle of the original length of wall, with round head, side pilasters and pediment with dentil-cornice; at the wallhead is a timber cornice with added timber parapet; on the roof are three hipped dormer-windows. These last are transeptally arranged with three gabled dormers opposite on the S.E. roof-slope. The S.E. side of the building is entirely masked. The S.W. end has a stone plinth, plaster rendering up to the level of the first floor and tiling simulating brickwork above; the shaped bargeboards are of the 19th century. The windows generally, both 19th-century casements and sashes, have glazing-bars forming two-centred arches in the heads of the lights.
Inside, the ceiling-beams are now cased. The N.E. ground-floor room has a wide opening to the N.E. addition, with four-centred arch springing from pilasters. A cast-iron fire-back dated 1697 seems always to have been in the house.
(180) Lindum House, No. 70, behind No. 71 and 15 yds. N.W. of All Saints' Passage, of two and three storeys, is in the main an early 19th-century building incorporating part of an 18th-century structure on the S.; projecting eastward is a lower 17th-century wing. The oldest walls are of plastered timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. The house was formerly the 'Freemasons' Tavern'; within living memory the name and 'Livery Baiting Stables' was painted in the passage to it from Bridge Street. The old part retains no ancient features outside. Inside are stop-chamfered ceiling-beams on the ground floor and on the first floor where also the wall-posts are exposed. The roof has collar-beam trusses.
(181) House, No. 69, 22 yds. N.W. of All Saints' Passage, of three and two storeys with cellars, has brick walls and tiled roofs. It is mainly of the early 18th century; the tall range to the street appears to be a reconstruction of an earlier building and parts of the cellar walls are of 16th or 17th-century brickwork. The kitchen at the N.W. end and the rooms over are part of No. 68, a 17th-century building refaced in the 19th, formerly the 'Bell'. The house, previously the property of the Ewin family, was bought for Sir Isaac Pennington, M.D., in 1793 for £2,000. During the 19th century it was divided into two; though now one house again, two 19th-century staircases remain.
The street-front has plat-bands at first and second-floor levels and below the parapet-wall. This last is panelled and has a moulded stone coping; it is probably a reconstruction of the late 18th century; two elaborately moulded lead rainwaterheads bear the date 1791. The entrance-doorway has a plain square-headed opening with a late 18th or early 19th-century stone architrave and the windows contain double-hung sashes nearly flush with the wall-face; the glazing-bars and most of the frames have been renewed. The lower S.W. range, parallel with the street range and divided from it by the staircase-hall, has a plain parapet and early 19th-century windows with tripartite sash-hung timber frames; part of the S.W. wall has been rebuilt.
Inside, the Dining-room N.W. of the entrance-passage is lined with 18th-century fielded panelling with dado-rail. The window at landing-level in the N.W. wall shows that, of the two 19th-century staircases, that to the N.W. is in the position of the earlier staircase. The ceilings of the S.W. rooms have been raised. The house contains some early 17th-century panelling reset as a dado to the stairs. (J. A. Bullock in Cambridge Public Library Record (April 1939)).
House, No. 45, now demolished, see Monument (214).
(182) Warehouse, on the river bank 37 yds. S.W. of Magdalene Bridge, of three storeys and attics, with walls of white brick and timber and with slated roofs, was built in 1820. It is nearly rectangular on plan, the N.W. end following the turn of the river. The N.E. front has been remodelled in the later 19th century. Original windows remain in the N.W. and S.W. walls; they are small, of greater breadth than height and have segmental brick heads. Circular wall-anchors bear the initials and date I.E. 1820. The walls are 2 ft. thick on the ground floor, 1 ft. above; floors are supported on 1 ft. by 1 ft. beams resting on pilaster-like projections of the brickwork.
(183) House, No. 30, standing 40 yds. S.E. of Magdalene Bridge, of three storeys with attics, with walls of brick and timber-framing, was built in the first half of the 18th century. The ground and first floors have been altered. The street-front, of brickwork faced with stucco, has a shop-window of c. 1900 occupying the whole of the ground floor and a large window of c. 1840 on the first floor. The features above are original: a plat-band at second-floor level, two sash-hung windows, a brick cornice returned within the frontage, and a parapet-wall. On the roof are two hipped dormer-windows with casements. The N.E. wing has a plastered timber-framed gable. Inside, on the second floor is some 18th-century fielded panelling. Doors of two and six panels survive, and some of the rooms retain original cornices. The staircase has close moulded strings, slender balusters and a moulded handrail.
(184) House, No. 29, adjoining the foregoing on the S.E., of three storeys with cellar and attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and tiled roofs. It was built in the 16th or 17th century and much altered and heightened in the early 19th when a range was added on the N.E. The street-front has a 19th-century shop-window on the ground floor. The first and second-floor windows are both of the 19th century and the dormer-window in the mansard roof is of the same period. The chimney-stack on the N.E. is of the 18th century. Inside, the shop contains a chamfered ceiling-beam; a later beam close to the street frontage suggests that the shop-window masks an original projection of the first floor, an arrangement confirmed by the evidence of the building-lines of the later adjoining houses. The 17th-century staircase from ground to second floor has close strings, turned balusters, square newels and a square handrail; the continuation to the attics is of the 19th century.
A kitchen in the yard on the N.E. is weather-boarded and has 19th-century sliding windows.
(185) House, No. 28, next S.E. of the foregoing, of three storeys with attics, has walls of timber-framing and tiled roofs. No evidence remains to suggest that the building is earlier than the late 18th or early 19th-century date of the mansard roofs. The stone-mullioned windows are modern. Inside, in one of the upper rooms, is an early 19th-century cast-iron grate of elaborate design.
(186) House, Nos. 25 and 26, standing 61 yds. S.E. of Magdalene Bridge, of two storeys with basement and attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and tiled roofs. It consists of a 16th-century range to the street, with a 17th-century N.E. wing. The interior has been much altered. Late in the 17th century the first-floor rooms in the earlier range were heightened. Early in the 19th two sash-hung windows were inserted on the first floor towards the street; later in the same century the ground-floor front was rebuilt flush with that of the first floor, which formerly projected. In recent years the ground-floor front has again been rebuilt and parts of the earlier structure have been either demolished or rebuilt in brick.
Towards the street, in addition to the features already mentioned, the stucco-faced front has a late 17th-century plaster cove at the eaves; on the roof are two hipped dormer-windows. On the N.E. side is a later 17th-century chimney-stack with moulded brick string and a round-headed recess in two of the faces. The timber-framed walls of the wing have been almost wholly rebuilt, but on the first floor is a 17th-century oak-framed, transomed and mullioned, three-light window.
Inside, the basement walls are built of thin bricks, and the ceiling-joists carried on longitudinal beams supported by a moulded cross-beam; the N.W. fireplace has a segmental head, the N.E. a chamfered timber bressummer. On the ground floor, the ceiling-beams are stop-chamfered and the N.E. fireplace has an 18th-century eared architrave. The passage through the building on the S.E. is an alteration. On the first floor stop-chamfered ceiling-beams of pine and a new partition were inserted in the 17th century. Early timbers are exposed in the attics including the original framing of the S.E. gable-end, posts with enlarged heads supporting a tie-beam, collar-beam and studding.
The 17th-century deal staircase to the N., from ground floor to attics, has close moulded strings, heavy turned balusters, chamfered grip-handrail, and square newels with ball finials and some pendants; a continuation, of the same period, leads down to the basement. The second staircase, from basement to attics, has pine treads and risers housed into a central square newel; it is of the late 18th century.
The attics of the N.E. wing contain two original trusses with tie-beam, high collar, queen-posts and two horizontal struts from the last to the purlins. A number of simple 18th-century fittings survive in the house.
(187) Houses, Nos. 21 and 22, on the corner of Thompson's Lane, of three storeys, with walls of gault brick and slated roofs, are most probably those described as 'recently erected' in the Cambridge Chronicle for 14 August 1835, and by James Walter, architect. Though apparently built as social-economic unities of shops and dwellings, they have been combined; now much of the ground floor has been cleared for a modern shop and the rest is a hostel of Magdalene College. To Bridge Street and round into the Lane the original timber shop-fronts remain little altered; they have panelled pilasters supporting an entablature with a deep frieze; across the window-heads are ventilators consisting of metal strips pierced with continuous palmette ornament. The building has rectangular sash-hung windows with stone sills, more or less regularly spaced, and a plat-band below the parapet-wall, this last with a stone coping; the corner is contrived as a slightly recessed quarter-round. The interior has been altered and access to part is now through an adjoining house in the Lane (plan p. 331).
The adjoining houses, Nos. 23 and 24, on the N.W. are of the same style and period but lower and presumably built as dwellings only; they now contain shops with late 19th-century and modern fronts.
(188) Houses, Nos. 15 and 16, on the corner of Jordan's Yard, of three storeys, have plastered timber-framed walls and tile-covered roofs. They were built early in the 16th century and a new staircase was added to No. 16 in the 17th century. In spite of insertion of 19th-century and modern shop-fronts, later windows, attics in part, modifications to the roofs, and clearance of partitions from the lower floors, the original arrangements remain distinguishable. See also Monument (189).
Nos. 15 and 16 Bridge Street are good examples of a type of late mediaeval town house, of which few now survive in Cambridge; they retain much of their original detail. The upper floors are in part derelict.
The street-fronts (Plate 307) project at first and second-floor levels, the upper projection, the only one unmasked by later fascia boards, being supported on curved timber brackets. The sash-hung oriel-windows and others are of the 18th or 19th century. The roof is gabled at each end. The rear wall is botched after the collapse of an adjoining building.
No. 16, on the evidence of the disposition of ceiling-beams now cased, may have had the ground and first floors each divided into two, into a large and a narrow compartment, the latter across the width of the N.W. end and comprising, on the ground floor, an entrance-passage. No evidence survives to show the position of the original stair; a projecting timber-framed staircase-bay on the N.E., beside the chimney-stack in the rear wall, was an addition, probably of the mid 17th century; it is now largely demolished and access to the first floor is by ladder. The fireplace in the former main room on the ground floor is blocked; that on the first floor is fitted with a 19th-century grate and surround. The second floor is divided by an original partition in situ into two compartments, the arrangement postulated for the lower floors. The large room was originally open to the roof and was ceiled probably in the 17th century; the small room has always been ceiled and has an original stop-chamfered ceiling-beam. The structural wall-posts are chamfered and have thickened heads to support the tie-beams of the roof-trusses. The timber-framed partition incorporates curved braces to the tie-beam, chamfered only towards the large room. The roof has king-posts on the ties supporting a purlin under the collars of the pairs of trussed rafters; the longitudinal braces from posts to purlin have all been removed and replaced by props in other positions. At this level the original chimney-stack is seen to be of 8¼ by 4½ by 2 ins. bricks; it is disused; the part rising clear has been removed and the roof continued down over the stump.
No. 15 is generally similar to the foregoing; the modern passage and staircase against the N.W. party-wall may perpetuate the original arrangement. The chimney-stack, at the S.E. end of the rear wall, has a fireplace on the first floor with chamfered bressummer though the opening has been reduced and an 18th-century fireplace with eared surround inserted. The oriel-windows overlooking the street are in the positions of earlier windows. The fireplace on the second floor is also an insertion of the 18th century, with moulded surround, key-block, and cornice-shelf with simple geometrical decoration.
(189) Houses, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 4a Jordan's Yard, forming a range of dwellings of three storeys with cellars, with plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs, continue and are of the same build as Nos. 15 and 16 Bridge Street, described above. In the 18th century the upper floors were newly fronted in lath-and-plaster above the projection of the first floor on the S., so obliterating any projection that may have existed higher, and a stair and kitchen built flanking the chimney-stack at the eastern end. The two upper floors of No. 1 and the second floor of No. 2 have been demolished.
Towards the Yard, the first-floor projection is supported on small curved brackets. All the doorcases and windows are of the 18th or 19th century. The E. end has near the middle a large original chimney-stack weathered back at the eaves and rebuilt in white brick above.
Inside, the cellar under No. 3 has walls of thin bricks and communicates with another later cellar with four-centred brick vault under the Yard. A chamfered ceiling-beam supports some original joists under the ground floor. On the ground floor of Nos. 1 and 2 moulded wall-plates and a central longitudinal moulded ceiling-beam support moulded joists with leaf-stops; one of the supporting wall-posts visible has an enlarged head. Shaped posts and moulded and chamfered beams are exposed in No. 3, and chamfered beams in No. 4. On the first floor a room in No. 3 is lined with 17th-century pine panelling in four heights of panels with plain pilasters; the overmantel comprises two oval panels in two rectangular panels divided and flanked by pilasters; one of the doors is contemporary. Much of the structural timber-work is exposed on the upper floors throughout. Generally the dwellings contain a quantity of 16th and 17th-century panelling, some in No. 1 in situ, and plain 18th-century fittings.
(190) House, No. 5 Jordan's Yard, adjoining the foregoing on the E., of two storeys with attics, has plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. The E. part is of the 17th century; in the 18th century the W. part was built between the foregoing and No. 4a Jordans's Yard, incorporating an older wall at the back, and a staircase and offices were added behind the first building. To the S. is now a plain cement-rendered 18th-century front with flat timber hood to the entrance-doorway and sash-hung windows with all the glazing-bars removed. Inside, on the ground floor is a stop-chamfered ceiling-beam in the E. part; the W. room has an 18th-century cornice, a cased beam, and chamfered wall-posts exposed in the N.E. and N.W. corners. On the first floor, the middle room is lined with reset mid 17th-century panelling, four panels high and with a fluted frieze under an 18th-century cornice; the contemporary door is of eight panels. A number of 18th-century doors remain in the house. The roof is in three bays; the earliest truss, to the E., has a collar-beam and principals of heavy scantling.
(191) House, No. 12, standing 9 yds. N.W. of Round Church Street, of two storeys with cellar and attics, with stuccofronted timber-framed walls and tiled mansard roofs, was built c. 1600. It was refashioned and probably heightened in the 19th century. In modern times the ground-floor has been cleared and a garage-entrance made through it, shop-windows have been inserted and the original back wall demolished, a new wall being built further E. Towards the street the first floor projects and is supported on curved brackets carved with strapwork and foliation; the same floor contains three 19th-century windows with architraves, friezes and cornices, the last supported on console-brackets. At the wall-head is a plain parapet and on the roof are three 19th-century dormer-windows.
Inside, the cellars continue eastward where they served a range now demolished. On the ground floor the wall-plate of the original back wall remains in situ. On the first floor, the N. room retains original moulded panelling, four panels high, with a strapwork frieze; exposed in the ceiling are intersecting chamfered beams. Similarly the S. room has some original panelling, the N. wall being built against it, and exposed beams; below the window is 19th-century panelling. The framing of the original back wall shows in an E. room. The late 18th-century staircase has slender square balusters and a moulded mahogany handrail.
(192) Houses, Nos. 10 and 11, and No. 16 Round Church Street, stand on the corner N.W. of the church of Holy Sepulchre. No. 11 is of one build with No. 12 (Monument (191)) but now united internally with No. 10, which itself is of one build with No. 16 Round Church Street. The last two were built in the 17th century and are of two storeys with attics; the walls are of plastered timber-framing and the roofs slated and tiled. No. 11 was refronted on the S.W. in the first half of the 19th century and in modern times the ground floor has been cleared, a shop-window inserted in both streetfrontages, and the rear party-wall demolished. The S.W front is now flat, with sash-hung windows, a cornice and parapetwall, but the first floor probably projected originally. The gabled S.E. end has, on the projecting first floor, an early 19th-century three-sided bay-window that is constructed round one of the structural wall-posts. Inside, on the ground floor the rear wall-plate in continuation from that in Monument (191) remains in situ. On the first floor is an original door of six panels.
No. 10 and the adjoining house, also with modern shops and shop-windows on the ground floor, have 18th-century windows on the first floor, four in all, plain eaves and gabled dormer-windows. At the E. end is a large brick chimney-stack weathered back above ridge-level and rebuilt above. Inside, chamfered beams are exposed in the ceilings. The staircase is of the 18th century, with square paired balusters and moulded handrail. On the first floor of No. 10 much of the main room is lined with 17th-century panelling, of three patterns, some probably in situ, four panels high and with a carved frieze in part misplaced. Loose in the attic is a 16th-century bargeboard carved with leaf and vine ornament.
(193) House, No. 9, the first building S. of the church of Holy Sepulchre, of three stories with cellars and attics, has plastered timber-framed walls, with some clunch in the cellars, and tiled roofs. It is L-shaped on plan. The street range has 16th-century cellars, but above ground it is an 18th-century rebuilding. The N.E. range is of the 17th century, with a staircase inserted in the 18th century. The whole has been partly refitted at later dates, a modern shop-front inserted and additions made in the re-entrant angle. The S.W. front, above the ground floor, is severely plain, with sash-hung windows and simple eaves; two of the upper windows are fitted with early 19th-century voluted wire guards. The N.W. side has two large brick chimney-stacks, both of the 18th century except for the rebuilt upper courses, at the N. angles of the 17th and 18th century ranges respectively; the windows are of the 19th century.
Inside, the cellar under the N.E. range contains a 16th-century door with linenfold panels. The wall between the two rooms above has been removed and the whole is one room, with the staircase structure projecting into it; exposed in the ceiling are chamfered beams; on the walls is reused 17th and 18th-century panelling, including an elaborate overmantel to the more westerly fireplace with a moulded panel superimposed on a horizontal fielded panel and flanked by foliated scrolls all below a dentil-cornice.
On the first floor, a room in the front range is wainscoted throughout with fielded panelling of c. 1730 in two heights with dado-rail and cornice; it is in situ. The staircase, of the same date, has close strings, turned balusters and newels and square moulded handrail. A cambered tie-beam is visible in the attics of the N.E. range. The house contains many reset lengths of 17th and 18th-century panelling and several panelled doors of the same periods.
(194) House, No. 4, standing 20 yds. N.W. of Jesus Lane, of three and two storeys with cellars and attics, has walls of red brick now painted yellow and slate and tile-covered roofs. L-shaped on plan, it was built in 1729. In the 19th century the middle flights of the staircase were refashioned and the first-floor windows to the street modified. In modern times the ground floor has been altered, a shop-window inserted and new stairs built from ground to first floor. The front is the width of a brick in advance of the front of the adjoining house, No. 3 (Monument (195)), though the two are generally similar in character; Nos. 3 and 4 together once formed part of the Hoop Inn, earlier the Bell Inn; it has a plaster plat-band at second-floor level and a timber modillioned eaves-cornice returned at the extremities and fitted with metal rings. The windows, three on each of the upper floors, have flat arches of rubbed bricks with mask key-blocks; those on the first floor are now without glazing-bars. The mansard roof is a 19th-century rebuilding. The N.E. wing, of red brick in Flemish bond, retains two original dormers.
Inside, a first-floor bedroom has a moulded wood fireplacesurround of c. 1800 with paterae at the angles, another a white marble arched surround with keystone. The 19th-century staircase has square balusters and a mahogany handrail; the early 18th-century upper flights, from the second floor to the attics, except where rebuilt at the head, have moulded strings, twisted pine balusters, a newel with moulded pendant, and moulded handrail. (A. B. Gray, Cambridge Revisited (1921), 43; Cambridge Public Library Record XI, No. 42, April 1939.)
(195) House, No. 3, standing 9 yds. N.W. of Jesus Lane, with walls of red brick in Flemish bond with vitrified headers, now all painted yellow, and tiled roofs, is of three storeys with cellars and attics. It was built in 1729 (see Monument (194)) and towards the middle of the century the first-floor rooms were panelled. Early in the 19th century a large N.E. wing was added. The ground floor now contains a modern shop with display-windows occupying the whole of the street-front up to first-floor level. At second-floor level is a brick plat-band. Of the timber modillion-cornice and parapet-wall, similar to those on the later wing and perhaps early 19th-century renewals, the former was removed in 1956. The five windows on each of the upper floors towards the street have flat rubbed brick arches with mask key-blocks; four retain later 18th-century glazing. On the roof are three dormer-windows with timber pedimented cornices and sliding casements. The grey brick N.E. wing has, projecting on the S.E. side, a three-sided bay-window rising through the three floors and with a crowning cornice.
Inside, the ground floor is supported on stop-chamfered beams exposed in the cellars. The two large rooms on the first floor are lined with mid 18th-century panelling with dado-rail and dentil-cornice, the dentils being of some elaboration. The fireplaces have plain surrounds, cornice-shelves and overmantels each containing a large fielded panel. The doors are of six fielded panels. The staircase from the second floor to the attics is of the early 19th century and has square balusters, newels in the form of small columns with moulded caps and bases, and a moulded handrail.
(196) House, No. 8, standing 20 yds. due E. of St. Clement's Church and formerly the vicarage, of two storeys with attics, has rendered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. It was built in the 17th century, improved in the 18th, and has since been modernised. The windows, of the late 18th century, have sliding casements; the timber eaves-cornice is of the same date, so is the hipped dormer-window to the N.E. Inside, on the ground floor the ceiling-beams are cased; the S.E. room contains an 18th-century fitted oak corner-cupboard with a cornice and doors consisting of fielded panels. The late 18th-century staircase has slender turned balusters and moulded handrail. On the first floor the ceiling-beams are chamfered, and the partitions are of the 18th century, with doors of two fielded panels hung on angle-hinges. The timber-framing is exposed throughout; it has plain square angle-posts and wall-plates.
(197) Old Vicarage, at the N. corner of St. Clement's churchyard, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and brick and tiled roofs. It was built in the 16th century and, despite minor changes in the 18th century, retains much of the original form and character. Most notable is the large chimney-stack in the N. external wall, which has been pierced in modern times for passages on the first and second floors.
The walls to the ground floor are largely of red brick, that to the W. being a modern reconstruction in vitrified brick and timber-framing; the S. wall has a slight plinth; the E. is plastered where not concealed on the N. by a timber addition. The first floor and attics together project on the W. and S. and probably formerly did on the E.; they are of timber-framing, which is continued round on the N. as far as the great brick chimney-stack. The bressummers under the projections are supported on brackets. The W. and the S.E. doorways, the second now blocked, have late 18th-century timber cases and all the windows are of the 18th or early 19th century, those on the ground floor to the S. with contemporary shutters. The chimney-stack, some 26 ft. wide, is rectangular and forms a great base, about at ridge height, for freestanding chimneys, in part rebuilt, set diagonally; it is weathered back at eaves-level and has a square-headed opening above pierced through the centre for a downward continuation of the main roof to provide drainage to the eaves; the converging corbelling of the flanking flues appears in the thickness of the opening.
Inside, the original square beams and joists supporting the ground floor are visible in the cellar. On the ground floor the ceiling-beams are exposed, including two dragon-beams, to S.W. and S.E., continued to support the projecting upper floors; they are chamfered, except the S.W. dragon-beam, which is moulded on one side. Chamfered ceiling-beams occur on the floor above. The open fireplaces have all been altered, but the original shaped oak lintel of that on the first floor is visible above a plain 18th-century surround. The doors, doorcases and fireplace-surrounds generally are of the 18th century and plain.
(198) House, No. 29, standing 93 yds. from Bridge Street, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has walls of gault brick and tiled roofs. The almost symmetrical block centred on the entrance doorway and extending to the back wall of the stairhall in depth was built early in the 19th century, before No. 30 (Monument (199)). An original N.W. wing of this last overlaps, concealing the S. end of the W. wall; the ground floor is now a part of No. 29. Later in the 19th century an extension including a carriage-way was made on the N. and offices were added on the W. The E. front has a plinth and a timber eaves-cornice. The doorway and fanlight have a continuous splayed plaster reveal and architrave, all contained within a round-headed arch. The windows have flat brick arches and stone sills. On the roof are three dormer-windows. The N. extension has a window with segmental head on the ground floor. On the W., in the earlier block, above the later offices, is a staircase-window with semicircular head; at the eaves is a cornice similar to that on the E., and on the roof are three more dormer-windows. An original rainwater head remains.
Inside, on the ground floor, the S. room has a moulded fireplace-surround with paterae at the angles and a cornice. The staircase has moulded strings, slender square balusters, moulded mahogany handrail and, in part, a dado of fielded panelling. The secondary staircase has turned newels. On the first floor is a dado of fielded panels in one room, and in another a glazed door with the bars forming a Gothic pattern. Other original fittings remain but they are plain.
(199) House, No. 30, adjoining the foregoing on the S., of two storeys with cellars, with walls of gault brick with stone dressings and tile-covered roofs, was built c. 1820.
No. 30 is a particularly good and well-preserved example of a type of town house of which there are many much less elaborate in Cambridge.
The street-front is symmetrical, with an elliptical-headed doorway in the middle, two windows to each side and five on the first floor, the last contained within a wall-arcade, a brick plinth, stone plat-bands at first-floor and eaves level, and a low parapet-wall with stone coping. The monumental doorway is of two square orders with plain stone imposts and the returns and soffit of the inner order lined with wood panelling; the door is of enriched fielded panelling in two leaves, and the fanlight has radiating foliated and festooned metal glazing-bars. All the windows have flat brick arches and retain their shutters. The wall-arcade on the first floor, rising from the lower plat-band, has elliptical arches springing from moulded stone imposts continued across the piers.
The W. side is longer than the E. and overlaps No. 29 (Monument (198)) where it is obtusely gabled to the N. It has a continuous brick plat-band at eaves-level and a parapet-wall. An original doorway, now blocked, and the staircase-window, set high, have round brick arches; the windows where open have double-hung sashes, but some are dummies and others have been blocked. A small modern annexe has been built against the staircase-wall.
Inside, some of the 'period' decoration is obvious modern pastiche; thus the antiquity of much of the enriched architectural elaboration here described is in doubt, this however is correct for the period c. 1820, though in pristine condition. The entrance-hall has an open round-headed archway to the stairhall and two round-headed recesses in the N. and S. walls, that to the W. in each containing a doorway with timber case with architrave, frieze and pedimented cornice; frieze and pediment are both enriched, the former with an urn on a panel in the middle and roundels containing paterae to each side; the corresponding doorcases on the reverse, in the N. and S. flanking rooms, are generally similar but without pediments; the doors, of six moulded panels, are original. The main N. room has a wood and composition fireplace-surround with slender paired columns at the sides, a frieze with central panel and panelled blocks over the columns modelled with female figures, cupid, lion and lamb, and roundels similar to those on the doorcases described above, and an enriched cornice-shelf. In the S. room is a fireplace-surround with Ionic side-columns and enriched frieze and cornice, with a frieze-panel of Cybele in a chariot. Both the foregoing rooms have heavy skirtings and dado-rails, enriched plaster cornices, and panelled window-reveals with architraves; the S. room has a second enriched door-case, on the W. wall, of similar character to that on the N. described above.
The stairhall is oblong, with rounded N.W. and S.W. corners. In the N. and S. walls are doorways and oval panels above; of the latter, one is glazed, the other blind. Standing against the S. wall is an enclosed stove cased with tiles, probably German and of c. 1700 (Plate 51). The stone cantilevered staircase rises from first to second floors in one curving flight against three walls, the front edge of the landing across the fourth wall being enriched with an urn and swags. The stairs have returned moulded edges to the treads, moulded soffits, plain iron balusters and a mahogany handrail.
On the first floor, a N. room has a fireplace-surround similar in character to those on the ground floor, but with pilasters at the sides, their shafts enriched with scrolled foliation, urns on the entablature-blocks, and a central frieze-panel modelled with figures personifying perhaps Love before Minerva extolling Health, Wealth and Happiness. The wall-niches flanking the foregoing, and the fittings and painted decoration in Adam style in the bedroom E. of the stairhall were certainly added in the present century by craftsmen in the tapestry works formerly housed here. See also Monument (200).
(200) House, No. 31, adjoining (199) on the S., 50 yds. from Bridge Street, of two storeys with cellars, has walls of gault brick and tiled roofs. On the E. it has a continuation of the plinth of No. 30 (Monument (199)), but a straight joint above between the two houses suggests different building phases; general stylistic similarities and the fact that the N. half at least of No. 31 was originally an annexe of No. 30, which it still is, suggest that the lapse of time between the two phases was short. The street-front is asymmetrical; the round-headed main doorway is of two continuous square brick orders and flanked on both sides by a wide window with segmental head and a narrow one with flat head; one of the last is a dummy. On the first floor are six sash-hung windows and one dummy window. At the eaves is a timber frieze and slight cornice.
Inside, the cellars have five parallel brick barrel-vaults running E. to W. and a passage on the W. The main ground-floor room in the N. half, formerly the kitchen of No. 30, has a dado of fielded panelling, cased ceiling-beams, and a wide segmental-headed fireplace in the S. wall, formerly open but now partly blocked, with a timber surround. The staircase in the S. half is original, with plain square balusters, turned newels and moulded handrail. Some original fireplacesurrounds with dentilled cornice-shelves remain on the first floor.
Monuments (201–211) form a notable row of plastered timber-framed town houses dating from late mediaeval times to the 18th century and, except for later windows almost throughout, comparatively little altered structurally. It is the only frontage of its age surviving in the city of sufficient length to give any impression of the earlier street scene. The houses belong to, or are being bought by, Magdalene College mainly for further accommodation for undergraduates. The alterations are now being made (1955–7). The aspect to the street is being retained but most of the W. extensions, of various dates, are being demolished, except the notable W. range of Monument (205). The interiors are being modernised. In the following descriptions, for simplicity, the street-front is taken to be orientated facing due E.
(201) House, No. 31, adjoining Madgalene Bridge, of two storeys with attics, has plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. It consists of a 16th-century range to the street with a nearly contemporary building on the N.W., perhaps originally separate, that was subsequently extended to the W. The S.W. re-entrant was built up in c. 1800 when the E., S. and W. return faces of the E. range were remodelled, the last two including the addition and so presenting a unified front to the river. The house seems once to have formed an annexe to the Pickerel Inn (Monument (202)).
The street-front has, on the ground floor two early 19th-century display-windows and doorways, originally to two shops, three sash-hung windows on the first floor, a cornice at eaves-level, and a high parapet-wall. The S. front is built out over the river revetment; the last is of ashlar and rubble, and white and red brickwork, coextensive respectively with the original range and addition of c. 1800; in the older range is a projecting three-sided bay-window, two storeys high, contemporary with the refacing; the horizontal features return from the street-front. The W. range has some brick underpinning but in general is of framing with heavy horizontal timbers in the walls at first-floor level; the first floor does not project. In the N. wall is an ovolo-moulded oak doorway and, close up under the eaves, a blocked two-light window, both of the 16th century; in the roof is an unaltered 17th-century dormer-window with leaded quarries. A small 18th-century extension spanning the through-way links the W. range with the Pickerel Inn.
Inside, in the E. range, the N. room originally continued as far S. as the S. wall of the middle passage, and here the partition between the head-beam and the chamfered sill is of late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, three panels high, with a fluted frieze. Some of the ceiling-beams are exposed; one cased at the N. end is at a higher level than the others in consequence it seems of the remodelling of the Pickerel Inn, for it continues over the adjoining entry. The S. room was remodelled in c. 1800 and has a fireplace-surround with enriched frieze and dentilled cornice-shelf. On the first floor the N. party-wall with the Inn is modern. The S. room, also remodelled, has a W. fireplace with marble slips and eared wood surround of c. 1800; beside it, behind a cupboard-door, are oak stairs. In the W. range, on the ground floor, the W. wall of the early part has been replaced by two supporting posts; a passagewidth E. of the latter is a partition with original studs about 1½ ft. apart containing a later doorway, now blocked, incorporating a 16th-century bargeboard carved with running vine ornament. In the later part are square cross and longitudinal beams supported at the intersection by a post that seems to have been a partition-stud. Three 18th-century cupboards remain on this floor. In the attics the lath and plaster E. gable end of the W. range survives.
(202) Pickerel Inn, No. 30, adjoining the foregoing on the N.W., of three and two storeys with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and of brick; the roofs are tile and slate-covered. It is L-shaped on plan, with a long range projecting W. from the southern part of the E. range. The oldest structure is that half, approximately, of the W. range adjoining the E. range; it is of the 16th century. In the 17th century the E. range was built, or more probably rebuilt, and the W. half of the W. range added. Early in the 19th century the street-front was rebuilt in brick, the range heightened and the interior and the carriage-way on the N. were altered; at the same time a brewery was built in the yard to the W., but this has been demolished. Late in the 19th century a large single-storey addition was made in the re-entrant angle.
The early 19th-century E. front has a plat-band at second-floor level and a cornice of oversailing brick courses. The wallopenings generally, except the modernised ground-floor windows, have segmental-arched heads. The carriage-way to the N. extends well up into the first floor and the framing inside shows this to have been heightened at the sacrifice of the first-floor rooms above; the E. entrance has an early 19th-century timber frame, but the S. post masks a chamfered oak post of the 17th-century building; above is a contemporary wrought-iron scroll-work lamp bracket. The W. side of the E. range where visible is plastered and probably timber-framed. In the S. end wall is a modern doorway to the adjoining entry.
In the W. range, the early E. part is lower than the rest and largely concealed on the N. On the S. side some much patched original timber-framing is exposed; it incorporates towards the E. end a doorway, now blocked, with one oak post, and towards the W. end of the first floor a blocked window with an ovolo-moulded mullion and head; further W. again are three small blocked windows close up under the eaves. The outside of the rest of the range is plastered and the open fenestration throughout the whole building is of the 18th century and later.
Inside, the ground floor of the E. range has been opened out to form one room, S. of the carriage-way; it has a large chimney-stack in the W. wall, a smaller in the N. wall, both altered, and intersecting ceiling-beams; these last are encased; the original W. wall-plate, in part exposed, is moulded. The 16th-century E. half of the W. wing has most of the wall-posts and ceiling-beams cased, but one exposed original post is chamfered. Original chamfered longitudinal beams and wall-plates are exposed in the later W. half; here the fireplaces are of the 18th and 19th centuries. On the upper floors are exposed wall-posts, chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates but otherwise the rooms have been modernised. The roof of the W. half of the W. range is now older than that of the E. half. Many of the doors and door-frames are of the 18th century and some 17th-century panelling remains S. of the doorway to the staircase in the W. range.
(203) House, No. 29, adjoining the foregoing on the N.W., 26 yds. from Magdalene Bridge, of two storeys with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and of brick; the roofs are slate and tile-covered. It was built in the 16th century and remodelled late in the 18th century when the shop-windows were inserted and a small wing was added on the S.W. The ground floor and the N. shop-window have been altered and the E. slope of the roof slated in modern times; with these exceptions the house remains practically as it was at the end of the 18th century. On the E. are two display-windows flanking the shop doorway, and a second doorway to the N. The 18th-century S. window contains a glazing of forty small panes; the N. window is largely modern. The first floor projects but the bressummer is concealed; symmetrically placed in it are three 18th-century sash-hung windows. The N. end contains some rough ashlar but, for the rest, is of later gault brick to the ground floor, plastered above; the N.W. oak corner-post is exposed. The W. side has a forward extension of the ground floor with a lean-to roof and a modern brick addition towards the S. The rebuilt chimney-stacks on the N. and S. walls rise just behind the ridge.
Inside, on the ground floor a heavy chamfered ceiling-beam spans the whole building longitudinally; a second beam to the W. supported on an iron column is the original wall-plate. Similar beams and plates and wall-posts with thickened heads are exposed on the first floor. A stair to the attic flanks the N. chimney-stack; the main staircase is now near the middle of the range. The S. room has an original N. partition wall with studs about 1½ ft. apart and plaster infilling; in the S. wall is a fireplace with segmental brick head. Only the N. end of the roof-space has been used as an attic bedroom, which has a N. fireplace similar to that just described; the use may be an innovation of the early 17th century, a period of severe overcrowding in the town. The roof has been altered and renewed, but heavy oak purlins remain in the S. roof-space and many original rafters survive.
(204) House, Nos. 26, 27, 28, 28a, next N. of the foregoing, of two storeys with attics, has walls of timber-framing and brick to the street range, of gault brick to the parallel W. range, and tile-covered mansard roofs (Plate 305). It was built in the 16th century, but largely remodelled and entirely re-roofed in the late 18th century when the walls, except that to the street, were rebuilt or refaced in gault brick and the W. range was added. To the E., the ground floor, largely refaced with 19th-century brickwork, contains three separate shop-windows with doorways; two are of the early 19th century, that to the N. is later. The first floor projects and contains three 18th-century windows. Inside are chamfered and square ceiling-beams exposed on the ground floor, mostly spanning from E. to W.
(205) House, Nos. 25, 25a, adjoining (204) on the N.W., 54 yds. from Magdalene Bridge, once the Cross Keys Inn, of three storeys to the street and two storeys with cellars and attics westward, has plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. It is L-shaped on plan. The long W. range is of the early 16th century, the street range of the early 17th century. Dormers were added on the W. side of the last later in the 17th century and in the 18th the N.E. ground-floor room was extended internally to W. and S.
Nos. 25 and 25a comprise a notable timber-framed town house of the early 17th century with a late mediaeval rear wing; the street-front though simpler than that of No. 14 Trinity Street is much less restored.
The street-front (Plate 305) has the first and second floors projecting boldly. On the ground floor is a large entrance to a carriage-way in the S. end, with restored timber posts carrying an original nail-studded oak gate in two leaves, each of six vertical panels with moulded and chamfered muntins and rail, strap-hinges and locking-bar. The rest is occupied by a late 19th-century shop-front. N. of this last an original wall-post survives; it has a pilaster on the face with foliate capital beneath a bracket to the first-floor projection; the bracket is elaborately carved with a crouching man, jewelled strapwork and volutes. Four such features existed but this is the only one complete; a second bracket only, carved with a satyr, survives N. of the carriage-way. The first floor is in two bays divided by posts and brackets to the second floor similar to those just described, but with tapering Ionic pilasters and the brackets carved with a seated man, a naked woman and a centaur respectively. In each bay to the full height is a projecting three-sided window; though modernised and sash-hung, they represent original features. Extending between their flanking wall-posts and the enriched posts described above, approximately at the level of the Ionic caps on the last, are rails that originally formed the sills of small two-light windows close up under the upper projection. All are now blocked and only the sills and the mullion of the southernmost window remain visible outside; but, inside, those flanking the N. bay-window survive almost complete, with ovolo-moulded frames and mullions and iron stanchions. The face of the second floor is plastered and contains two 18th-century windows but the undulations of the plaster indicate the framing of other windows. The wall-posts at each end are exposed; they also have pilasters on the face, with moulded bases on rusticated pedestals, but much mutilated and lacking the caps and the brackets to the eaves.
The N. end has a moulded pendant at the gable-apex, and the S. end moulded bargeboards meeting a similar pendant; in the S. gable is an original two-light window, now blocked. The W. side has the N. half concealed by the adjoining W. range, but on the roof above and above the carriage-way are two large 17th-century dormers; both were blind and plastered, but a window was inserted in the latter in 1956.
The W. range (Plate 306), all of one build, has most of the timber-framing exposed on the S. side; the N. wall is of narrow bricks, white to the E., red to the W. On the S. is a blocked doorway towards the E. end retaining original posts; the other doorways and windows are later. The first floor projects, the projection being carried on the protruding ends of the floor joists, which are divided into four bays by joists of heavier scantling; three of the last are supported by curved and chamfered brackets and the ends of all the joists are rounded. The sill resting on the joist-ends is plain; the studs are about 12 ins. apart and the infilling is of lath and plaster. One original window now blocked and a second containing an 18th-century frame remain on the first floor, both close up under the eaves. The other windows are later and on the roof are two 17th-century dormer-windows. At the ridge is an original chimney-stack heightened in the 18th century. On the N., towards the E. end, alterations in 1956 revealed an ovolo-moulded two-light window in an apparent heightening of this part of the range; it has been cut down to form a doorway to No. 24. The timbers hereabouts were seen to be badly charred behind the facing of 19th-century brickwork. Further W., the chimney-stack in the stretch of original red brickwork has moulded bricks below the eaves. The W. end was refaced in 1956.
Inside, the longitudinal chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates are exposed in the carriage-way and the room to the N., on the floors above, and on both floors of the W. range. The beams in the N. first-floor room in the street range are moulded; the panelling from this room is now in the Small Combination Room at Magdalene College. The studding on the second floor of the same range is so arranged and moulded as to show the positions of the earlier windows. In the W. range some of the wall-posts have enlarged heads, and the E. framed gable-end is visible from the top landing of the E. staircase; it has a collar-beam with studding below. Trusses further W. have deep collars, chamfered and slightly curved; visible in a cupboard is apparently a principal at a lower level, suggesting that the E. part of the N. slope of the roof was once of steeper pitch.
(206) House, No. 23, next but one N.W. of the last, 67 yds. from Magdalene Bridge, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has plastered timber-framed and brick walls and tiled roofs. It was built late in the 16th century; the slightly later W. wing, extended in the 18th and 19th centuries, was demolished in 1955. In the 17th century the roof-space of the E. range was made habitable by the addition of the large gable towards the street.
The E. side (Plate 305) has a modern shop-front and a carriage-way on the N. with modern gates. The projecting first floor is supported by three brackets carved with stylised leaf-ornament, rosettes and paterae; the middle bracket has been mutilated. On the first floor is a 19th-century window with sliding casements; the surrounding pargeting in large panels is of the 17th or 18th century. The plastering and window to the gable are of the 19th century.
Inside, the carriage-way has original chamfered ceilingtimbers, the N. wall-plate containing mortice-holes in the underside for studding, which was replaced with red brickwork in the 17th century. The S. wall is of 18th or 19th-century timber-framing with white brick infilling. Chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates are exposed in most of the rooms. In the attics the original chamfered roof-purlins remain and the gable is seen to be fitted in between original rafters.
(207) House, Nos. 21 and 22, next N.W. of the foregoing, 52 yds. S.E. of Northampton Street, of two storeys with attics, has plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. The range to the street was built in the 16th century and a small cottage some yards to the W. in the first half of the 17th century; the two were then linked by an 18th-century block, and a kitchen was added on the W. in the following century. The cottage, the kitchen and other minor 18th and 19th-century additions were demolished in 1956. The roof-space of the street range seems to have been made habitable in part in the 17th century, but the whole of the interior has now been modernised.
Towards the street the ground floor is taken up by modern shop-fronts flanking a small open entry and concealing the former projection of the upper floor. On the first floor are 18th and 19th-century windows, and under the eaves is a moulded fascia in part covering an old wall-plate. The W. side and the outside of the 18th-century building are largely concealed by modern additions, but the second has an oak corner-post exposed in the S.W. angle and a plaster eaves cornice.
The interior of the ground floor is much altered. In the street range longitudinal chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates are exposed. The positions of the stops to the chamfers suggest that the range may have comprised two tenements divided on the line of the S. wall of the entry and that in the S. tenement, No. 22, a narrow room or lobby intervened between the N. end wall and the internal chimney-stack. A small rectangular addition, probably of the 17th century, projecting from the W. wall outside may have housed the stair to this lobby; it contained the stairs from the first floor to the attics; the position of the original stairs is unknown. On the first floor some of the structural timbers are exposed.
(208) House, No. 20, next N.W. of the foregoing, of two storeys with attics, has walls of brick, replacing timber-framing, and tiled roofs. The shape of the building and the way it conforms to the row of 16th-century houses in which it stands are the main evidence for suggesting a 16th-century origin for it, though it is built against, and therefore later than, No. 21 (Monument (207)) adjoining; it was extended to the W. in the 18th century and a new staircase added. In the following century a single-storey annexe was built against the extension; this has since been altered. The house has been extensively modernised inside and out and now communicates with No. 21. The N. wall of the extension retains a plat-band at first-floor level. Inside the street range are exposed longitudinal chamfered ceiling-beams. The posts and tie-beam visible in the S. end of the attics belong to the adjoining house. In the extension the 18th-century roof with square purlins and chamfered rafters survives.
(209) House, No. 18a, on the N. side of the entry next (208), 10 yds. from Magdalene Street, of two storeys with attics, has plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. It consists of two small adjoining houses combined; that to the E. is of the 16th century, the other may be of the same period though of a different building phase, but it has been much altered. Large houses stand to E. and W., of the 19th and 18th centuries respectively, a ground-floor room of the latter providing a sitting-room for No. 18a. Though the S. front has modern plastering and fenestration, the first floor of the E. building projects boldly on protruding joists with quarter-rounded ends. The first floor of the other building projects only slightly, but this may be the result of later remodelling.
Inside, the E. ground-floor room has a ceiling-beam and wall-plate, both moulded. At the head of the stairs is part of an original roof-truss, with tie-beam and small curved brace to a wall-post. In the attic, though the W. gable-end of the E. house has been destroyed, a fragment of a curved brace belonging to it remains.
(210) Houses, Nos. 15, 15a, 16, standing 10 yds. from Northampton Street, of two storeys with cellars and attics, have timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. They comprise a long early 16th-century E. range differing from tenement to tenement but all contemporary and uniform towards the street. In the 17th century a shorter parallel range was added on the N.W., which was extended by the addition of a W. wing at right angles to it late in the same century. The twostorey annexe on the S.W. of the early range is of the 18th century. Alterations and additions in and between the extensions have been made subsequently. The building is now divided into flats, with a separate tenement at the S. end.
Towards the street (Plate 305) are two shop-fronts, a door and a window, all modern, on the ground floor. The first floor projects and is supported on seven curved brackets; the windows are of the 19th century. On the roof are three 18th-century dormer-windows with 19th-century casements. The N. and S. ends are concealed. Little of the W. side is visible; towards the N. is a large dormer-window. The short parallel block has been generally underpinned in brick and stiffened with a S.W. angle-buttress; the framed upper floor has been heightened at the S. end; between the two storeys is a cornice. In the W. wing, of brick below and timber-framing above like the foregoing, the first floor has a cornice at the level of the base sill and three original casement windows with leaded quarries.
Inside, in the cellar under the middle part of the street range, is an original longitudinal chamfered ceiling-beam of heavy scantling; the joists and floor are modern. The room above the same, now a shop, has an original doorway in the N. partition-wall with a four-centred head, and, at the S. end, evidence of the former existence of a through passage. Throughout the ground floor the chamfered ceiling-beams and wall-plates are exposed, and similarly on the first floor, including wall-posts with forward-curving thickening to the heads. On the upper floor is a 17th-century door of six panels in moulded framing with 'cock's-head' hinges. In the attics two purlins and an original truss with chamfered collars are visible.
(211) Houses, Nos. 13, 14, and No. 1 Northampton Street, forming the corner block, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has timber-framed walls and tiled roofs. It consists of two 16th-century ranges nearly at right angles to one another (Plate 305), all of one build, though now divided, and later than the adjoining range (Monument (210)). In the 17th century the attics were reconstructed and in the 18th century the N. to S. roof was replaced by the present mansard roof. The ground floor now contains shops. In c. 1900 various partitions and stairs were inserted. The panelled pargeting, most of the windows and the shop-fronts are of the 18th and 19th century.
The ground floor to the streets is almost wholly altered by the insertion of shop-windows and brick underpinning. The first floor projects and the studding, indicated by undulations of the pargeting, is of narrow timbers, widely spaced. Of the six windows at this level, the easternmost on the N. and the two on the E. are in their original setting though the frames are renewals. The second floor also projects on the N. and on the E. return to a distance equivalent to the width of the E. to W. range, being supported on a diagonal bracket at the corner and a straight bracket at the S. end. Above the projection are attics with half their height with vertical walls, half in the roof; they have two N. dormer-windows and an E. window in an eccentric gable, the roof flanking the last rising fantastically to a high ridge. The eaves of the adjoining mansard roof are level with the second-floor projection. The rear walls of the ranges are without distinctive features.
The cellars are built of clunch and narrow red bricks. In the N. wall are two deep round-headed garderobe recesses. Many of the original chamfered joists to the ground floor survive. The ground floor has some exposed original ceiling-beams and plates; the longitudinal beams are housed into a diagonal beam at the turn. The entry in the N. to S. range is not an original feature of the plan. On the first floor the ceiling-beams and plates are arranged as below and show structural continuity throughout. Two rooms contain 17th-century panelling with the frieze carved with arabesques, and some panelled doors of the same date survive. In the attics some original framing is exposed at the W. end of the N. range.
(212) Cory House, 40 yds. from Magdalene Street, a long narrow range bordering the street, of two storeys with attics, has walls of brick and plastered timber-framing and tilecovered roofs. Two distinct 16th-century structures are linked by a narrow early 18th-century building (plan p. 345). The last represents the infilling of a through carriage-way. Subsequent additions have been made on the S. and the whole has been modernised. Towards the street (Plate 305) the ground floor of the older buildings has been underpinned in brick; their framed upper floor projects; the mansard roof of the W. building is an early 18th-century reconstruction. The middle building has a flat front and a mansard roof; the floors, front and roof are higher than those to each side. On the roof are five 18th-century dormer-windows. On the S. the E. addition, of the 17th century, is steeply gabled; further W. is a large projecting chimney-stack. The windows throughout are of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Inside are exposed wall-posts, chamfered wall-plates and ceiling beams, the last intersecting in the E. building; the beams in the W. building are 18th-century renewals. A number of 18th-century doors and fireplace-surrounds remain. Visible in the attic of the E. building is the N. wall-plate and part of the studding below; the plate is a rough pole and the studs are spaced 12 ins. apart.
(213) Pythagoras House, No. 26, standing 140 yds. from Magdalene Street, of three storeys and one storey with attics, has walls of gault brick and tile-covered mansard roofs. It was built c. 1800 and formed the prototype for the continuation of the row westward very shortly afterwards, the addition being marked by a straight joint in the brickwork, though the roofcovering is now continuous. A S.E. wing also of c. 1800 was built as a separate tenement, but subsequently remodelled and combined with the first. The additions in the re-entrant angle are of the late 19th or early 20th century. The street-front is symmetrical with a doorway in the middle; the two wide ground-floor windows contain tripartite timber frames and retain their shutters. Inside, the N.E. room has round-headed recesses flanking the chimney-breast in the outside wall. The original staircase has square balusters and turned newel.
See Monument (211) for No. 1 Northampton Street.
Castle Hill Area
The area N.W. of Northampton Street and Chesterton Lane and intersected by Castle Street is, excepting the few public and institutional buildings, predominantly a humble residential district. In contrast with the New Town and Barnwell, development here has been piecemeal; single houses, pairs and groups including irregular terraces make up the bulk of the buildings. The few planned terraces are of relatively unambitious character. Gault brick and slate are the prevalent materials, though plastered timber-framing and tiles occur, often all in the same structures.
Monuments (214) and (215) are the only houses of any note earlier than c. 1800.
For the rest, the Castle Hill area retains little building earlier than the 18th century, though parts of the boundary-wall to the Phoenix Nursery, at the N.W. end of Castle Street, and near Storey's Almshouses (Monument (93)) may be of the 17th century, and some of the terraced cottages on the N.E. side of Shelley Row may incorporate walling of the same age though otherwise built very largely of reused 18th-century material. Late 17th and 18th-century maps (Surveys by David Loggan, 1688, and William Custance, 1798) show an open space, Pound Green, in the area of the present Albion Row, Pound Hill and Haymarket Road; this was gradually built up after inclosure of the parish of St. Giles in 1805. By 1850 the district was largely covered with the heterogeneous buildings still existing, though additions continued to be made later in the century; some of the houses suggest the private enterprise of small freeholders who benefited under the inclosure, for example, Nos. 7, 19, 20 St. Peter's Street, the first dated 1839, and No. 8 Kettle's Yard.
The Almshouses apart, the most formal terrace is the L-shaped range of small houses Nos. 109 to 121 (odd numbers) Castle Street and 1 to 4 Collin's Buildings of one storey with attics in the mansard roofs; of similar character though even less ambitious are Nos. 1 to 3 Miller's Passage, formerly of five dwellings, and Nos. 8 to 14 (even numbers) Pleasant Row; Bell's Court is less formally planned than the foregoing but not entirely haphazard. The whole area has a downat-heel aspect though, in its variety, not without quaint and picturesque vistas. Seen from Northampton Street, the chance grouping of Nos. 8 to 11 Kettle's Yard with St. Peter's church behind is of much character.
(214) Folk Museum, house, No. 2 Castle Street, formerly the White Horse Inn, on the corner of Northampton Street, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and brick and tile-covered roofs. The range to the street was built in the 16th century. In the following century a loftier addition, more than doubling the size of the house, was made on the W. and to this a W. wing was added in c. 1700, when also a number of windows and partitions were inserted. The most notable feature of the house, apart from the visual stimulus of its form, varied roof-line and texture of building materials, is the very large chimney-stack in the S.W. wall of the original range; the use of pine structural timbers in the 17th-century work is a feature of some interest and is found in other Cambridge houses (e.g. Monument (145)). Mainly elm is used in the earlier work.
The street front of the E. range has been largely modernised. It has the entrance to a carriage-way in the S. end. The three large dormer-windows are of the 17th or 18th century. The high gable-end of the W. block is advanced to rise from the ridge. On the W., the only part of the range visible is that, framed and plastered, over the carriage-way. The S. side of the W. block has a small brick annexe with a plat-band between the storeys and a lean-to roof under the main eaves; the rest of the main wall is of later brickwork than the foregoing and an 18th-century reconstruction; it returns on the W. The large framed S. dormer-window contains 18th-century sliding casements. The W. gable is framed, and in the middle of the roof is a large chimney-stack with three diagonal and two later oblong shafts. The brick W. wing has a discontinuous plat-band between the storeys and inserted later 18th-century windows. Throughout the house, doorways and windows have been inserted or renewed in the 18th and 19th century.
Inside, in the E. range, the cellars are built of narrow red bricks and contain chamfered ceiling-beams. The ground floor, which has an original small room flanking the chimney-stack on the N. now bereft of lighting by adjoining buildings, has exposed plates and beams in the ceiling. The 18th-century square staircase-bay flanking the chimney-stack on the S. contains stairs turning round a central newel; on the landing is an opening for access to the chimney-flue fitted with a 17th-century oak door found elsewhere in the house. On the first floor many of the wall-posts, studs, plates and beams are exposed, including the entire original framing of the N. and S. walls and the partition with diagonal struts, central posts, studs and head-rails. In the W. block the original two ground-floor rooms are now combined in one and the necessary support provided by an iron pillar. The large open fireplace in the E. wall, in the back of the earlier chimney-stack, has a chamfered oak bressummer and small recesses in the N. and S. returns. The ceiling-beams and most of the wall-plates here and in the room above are of pine; the latter room contains an early 18th-century bolection-moulded fireplace-surround of wood. In the W. wing, the ground-floor room contains a fixed corner-cupboard of the 18th-century with fielded and glazed panels in the door; in the room above, the S. and W. walls retain traces of original blue and red painted marbling on the plaster, and in the W. wall is a fireplace with a plain 18th-century wood surround flanked on the N. by a deep cupboard beside the chimney-stack.
In the attics a doorway has been cut through the roof of the street range to open to the W. block. In the W. side of this last is a dormer enclosed by an 18th-century partition. The staircase inserted in the N. end of the street range and rising from cellar to attics is of the late 18th century with plain strings, slender square balusters and simple moulded handrail.
Preserved in the yard is exhibited a shop-front of some elegance removed from No. 45 Bridge Street (now destroyed). It has a central doorway with a cornice supported on flat-faced brackets, the cornice being continuous over the flanking segmentally-bowed windows.
(215) House, No. 83 Castle Street, on the S.W. side, beyond the Castle, about 330 yds. from Northampton Street, of two storeys with attics, was built with timber-framed walls in the 16th or 17th century. Early in the 19th century the walls were entirely faced with gault brick, a room added on the S.E. and a shop-window with flanking door inserted in the street-front. The roofs are tile covered. Although it consists of a range at right angles to the street, the part N.E. of the central chimney-stack, containing one room on each floor, is roofed with the ridge parallel with the street, suggesting that the house originally was one of a row, like the houses in Magdalene Street.
(216) The Grove, standing 113 yds. S.W. of the road, rather over ½ m. N.W. of Magdalene Bridge, is of two storeys, in part with cellars and attics. The walls are faced with gault brick with some stone dressings, except those of the cellars and outbuildings, which are of soft red brick. The low-pitched roofs are slated. The original early 19th-century building forms about two-thirds of the present house-block; 1813 is cut in the cellar brickwork; 1814 is on the rainwater-heads. The S.E. third was added in the mid 19th century, incorporating part of an original kitchen-yard, and the original dining-room remodelled and enlarged by the addition of a three-sided S.W. bay. The gault brick and stonework are of the date of the addition, probably facing soft red brickwork in the original walls. The interior fittings are largely of the late 19th century.
The outside has a plat-band at first-floor level and paired dentils of brick below the timber eaves-cornice. For the most part the wall-openings are regularly and widely spaced. The main entrance, on the N.E., is in a recess with added plain Doric columns in antis supporting a straight stone lintel below the tympanum of a segmental-headed arch. The ground-floor windows generally are in segmental-headed shallow wallrecesses; the upper windows are plain. Both the N.E. and N.W. fronts to the original building are symmetrical; in the middle of the second is a large semicircular bay the full height of the house flanked by reset rainwater-heads with the initials and date W.C. probably for William Custance, and 1814. On the S.W. side the angular bay of the dining-room and the flanking building on the S.E. are of the mid 19th century; the earlier part, to the N.W., has two french windows behind a verandah of the later period, with trellis-work supports to a low-pitched lean-to roof. The S.E. side has a low pedimented gable facing the kitchen-yard; here the fenestration is irregular and two of the first-floor windows are in segmental-headed wall-recesses tall enough to include the attic windows; at the S.W. end is a modern addition with an arbour on the ground floor.
Inside, the arrangement and form of the rooms on the N.W. and of the stairhall are original. The service staircase is an insertion. The Drawing-room has an early 19th-century moulded and enriched surround of white marble to the fireplace, and another room a reeded surround. Most of the earlier doorways retain their reeded architraves and the doors their applied mouldings on the reverse sides, though the fronts have been remodelled. The main staircase, of the form shown on the plan, has plain square balusters of wood, two to a step, but alternating at every third step with wrought-iron scroll-work between two uprights. The front edge of the landing is curved on plan. In the roof is a glazed light over the well. On the first floor are original fireplace-surrounds of simple design in marble and wood.
The small Kitchen-yard S.E. of the house is flanked by low red brick and slated buildings; in the S.E. wall is a doorway between brick piers. Some 17 yds. to the S.E. is an early 19th-century coach-house of similar materials, with a two-storey block in the middle under a low pyramidal roof, and singlestorey wings. A contemporary brick wall extends further S.E. to form the N.E. side of a small farmyard some 15 yds. away.
(217) Wentworth House, No. 2, adjoining the Fellows' Garden of Magdalene College, of two storeys with cellars and attics, has stuccoed timber-framed walls on a brick plinth and tiled mansard roofs. It was built at the end of the 18th century. The road front is symmetrical, in three bays, with the middle bay projecting slightly; it has a central doorway in a shallow round-headed recess, two ground-floor windows with tripartite timber frames containing double-hung sashes, and three plain sash-hung windows on the first floor. At the wall-head is a small cornice and boxed eaves-gutter. On the roof are three dormer-windows. The timber door-case has recessed pilaster-strips at the sides and an entablature with dentil-cornice; the door is original, of four fielded panels.
Inside, the base of the cellar walls is of clunch with some narrow bricks and may be earlier than the rest of the house; reused in the ceiling is a 17th-century moulded beam. The N.E. room on the ground floor contains an 18th-century fireplacesurround of wood with plain pilasters at the sides and an enriched cornice-shelf. The original staircase has moulded strings, slender square balusters, square newels and a moulded handrail. On the first floor, in the N.E. room the fireplace has an early 19th-century white marble surround with paterae at the corners. Other original or early 19th-century fittings surviving include panelled doors and a cast-iron basket firegrate.
(218) Range of cottages, Nos. 4, 6 (plan p. 365), 8, 10 (Plate 310), close E. of the foregoing and some 225 yds. from Magdalene Street, of one storey with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing on stock brick plinths, chimneystacks of gault brick, and tile-covered mansard roofs. It was built at the end of the 18th century, at much the same time as the houses to E. and W. The covering of pantiles on the low pitch, plain tiles on the steep pitch of the roofs seems to be original. The unit design is constant, later minor alterations alone breaking the repetition. The main windows are sashhung, the doors at the entrances in four plain panels, the dormer-windows gabled and fitted with casements.
Each tenement has two main rooms; the staircase and kitchen are in S. annexes. A number of original fittings survive; the staircases have square balusters and newels and moulded handrails.
The House, No. 12, adjoining on the E. though of the date of the foregoing, has been entirely modernised.
(219) Fort St. George, inn, on the S. bank of the river Cam, on Midsummer Common, ½ m. E.N.E. of Magdalene College, is of two storeys. The walls are of plastered timber-framing in part refaced or rebuilt in brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan, the cross range being to the S. In the 19th century and since, additions have been made flanking the small N. wing and on the E. A sketch dated 1827 in the inn shows that it stood on an island between the river and a cut to a lock close S.E. On the S., the ground floor is brick-faced and the first floor projects on curved timber brackets; the windows are modern. The gabled E. and W. ends and wing are partly refaced with brick where not obscured.
Inside, access is into a staircase-lobby on the S. side of the great central chimney-stack. In the E. room are exposed chamfered ceiling-beams; the longitudinal beam in the W. room is cased.
Park Street, known until c. 1830 as Garlic Fair Lane, contains houses predominantly of the first half of the 19th century; only two are exceptional in any way and they are described separately below (Monuments (220) and (221)). Upper Park Street follows the line of King's Ditch, and Lower Park Street leads off at right angles eastwards from the N. end of it. The whole area appears undeveloped in William Custance's Survey of 1798.
Nos. 49–57, irregular terraces, and No. 59, an oddly-shaped three-storey house, on the W. of Upper Park Street, probably rose soon after the sale of the Blackmoor Head estate in 1825 (Cambridge Chronicle, 6 May 1825). Nos. 5–18 on the E. are of rather later in the same decade and are shown in R. G. Baker's map of Cambridge of 1830; they have round-headed doorways, sash-hung windows, and plain overhanging eaves and possess some architectural quality deriving from an entirely utilitarian simplicity combined with good proportions; some have been heightened from two to three storeys. Nos. 19–42, a terrace some 120 yds. long on the S. side of Lower Park Street, are of c. 1834; twelve of the houses were advertised for sale in the Cambridge Chronicle in that year. The terrace is of two storeys, with continuous eaves throughout, and plainly the severest economy was exercised in its construction. Both streets are drab in general appearance.
(220) House, No. 61, on the W. side 65 yds. from Jesus Lane, is of three storeys with basement. The walls are of gault brick, the roofs slate-covered. It was described as 'modern built' in the Cambridge Chronicle, 16 Feb. 1850; by comparison with closely dated houses in the city it may be of c. 1840. The more notable feature of the house is the street-front. This has a wall-arcade of three bays on the ground floor, with plain plinth and imposts, a plat-band above the elliptical arches, at first-floor sill-level, and a stucco cornice and blocking-course. In the arcade is a doorway in the middle, containing an original door with four rectangular and two round reeded panels, and a sash-hung window with shutters in each of the side bays. On the floors above are sash-hung windows with scrolled ironwork guards. The extremities of the front for some 2 ft. are slightly recessed, with the horizontal features returned across them.
Inside, the entrance-hall is divided from the stairhall by an elliptical-headed archway with reeded pilaster-responds; a similar archway is on the first floor. The stairs are slight, with square balusters and turned newels.
(This house was demolished in 1956.)
(221) Annexe, with shop, to No. 13a Jesus Lane, on the E. side and 10 yds. from the corner, is of two storeys. It incorporates plastered timber-framed walls of the 16th or 17th century; for the rest, the walls are of 19th century gault brick. The roofs are tiled. The only feature of note is a tall dormer with a modern casement-window in the S. side, at right angles to the street.
The N. street-frontage of Jesus Lane was already in part built up between Bridge Street and the Fellows' Garden of Jesus College late in the 16th century (see J. Hamond's view of Cambridge, 1592). The density of building along the same frontage increased during the following century and then remained apparently substantially as shown by David Loggan (Survey of Cambridge, 1688) until the present century when some houses were demolished to make way for Wesley House. On the S., Hamond and Loggan both show building restricted to the frontage approximately opposite the Fellows' garden of Jesus College, with the manor house of St. Radegund standing back in gardens opposite the 'Chimney' and the Master's Garden; building has since extended eastward to the corner of King Street and Short Street. Yet the only houses now in Jesus Lane with any substantial parts earlier than c. 1800 are 'Little Trinity' and No. 32.
(222) 'Little Trinity', No. 16, standing back on the N. side 117 yds. from Bridge Street, of three and two storeys with cellars, has the main walls of grey brickwork in header bond with gauged red brick and ashlar dressings, and those of the kitchen and S.E. ranges of gault and red brick and timber-framing. The roofs are tiled. The principal block was built c. 1725; the humbler kitchen range adjoining on the E. is probably of much the same age. A S.E. block, formerly separate, but now linked to the latter by a 19th-century staircase building, may have a 17th-century origin and be indicated in D. Loggan's map of Cambridge of 1688, but it was remodelled, if not largely rebuilt, in the mid 18th century. Both it and the kitchen range have since been superficially remodelled to present a uniform appearance. An annexe N. of the kitchen is of the 19th century. At an unknown date fireplaces of c. 1760 were inserted in the principal block. The 18th-century Boundary-wall is of gault brick; it indicates the extent of the property from at least an early stage in the history of the present buildings. The N. part and the S.E. corner are now in commercial use, but in the latter are remains of walling that may well have been of stables.
'Little Trinity' is an outstanding small 18th-century house containing fittings of the same period.
The main front (Plate 300) of c. 1725 is symmetrical and approached axially from the Lane through a gate in contemporary wrought-iron railings with iron finials flanked by tall brick and stone piers surmounted by enriched urns. It has a plinth, plat-bands at first and second-floor levels, a stone cornice and a brick parapet-wall with stone coping surmounted by urns. The middle three of the five bays project slightly and are pedimented, the pediment having a plain tympanum and an urn standing on the apex. The central doorway and semi-elliptical fanlight are framed in a rectangular recess in a timber door-case with fluted Ionic pilasters supporting a pedimented entablature with pulvinated frieze and dentilled modillion-cornice. The windows have rubbed brick flat arches and contain double-hung sashes.
The E. and W. ends have low gables with stone copings and rebuilt chimney-stacks at the apices. On the N. the large staircase-bay has a Palladian window high in the N. wall, with key-block and cornices over the side lights; against the W. wall is a low modern annexe. On the roof are three dormer-windows, the largest modern.
The kitchen range is rendered on the S. and has a modern three-sided bay window to the ground floor and a wavemoulded timber eaves-cornice, possibly a modern renewal. The N. wall is masked. The S.E. wing has a white brick plinth, plastering above, a timber eaves-cornice similar to the foregoing, and casement and sash-hung windows; it is without features of note. Most of the window-frames are modern. In the screen-wall between the garden and the kitchen-yard is an 18th-century wrought-iron gate.
The Interior of the main block has a timber door-case at the entrance, with panelled pilaster-responds and a round head with moulded archivolt and key-block carved with a bearded male mask. The E. room is lined from floor to ceiling with fielded panelling in two heights, with dado-rail and cornice; the fireplace in the E. wall has an original timber surround with enriched eared architrave, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice-shelf; in the overmantel is a large plain panel with moulded and eared surround; at the corners of both the foregoing are carved rosettes. Doorways flanking the chimneybreast have cases similar to that described above but with plain key-blocks of bold projection; the doors are each of eight fielded panels, two being shaped to the semicircular head. The doorways in the N. and W. walls have moulded architraves and six-panel doors. The window-linings, shutters and windowseats are also panelled. The W. room has a timber dado-rail and dentil-cornice; the fireplace-surround (Plate 50) is of c. 1760, with grey marble slips, an enriched eared frame, and entablature with elaborate carved rococo decoration on the frieze and frieze-panel and a dentil-cornice; set in the overmantel is an 18th-century romantic landscape painting in an eared surround with rosettes at the corners and foliage pendants at the sides. The window-linings and shutters are panelled.
The stairhall has two flanking doorcases at the southern end, similar to that described above inside the entrance-doorway, framing fanlights over six-panel doors; the open archway in the S. wall is similarly cased. Round the walls is a panelled dado and a modillion-cornice; the floor is paved with original diagonal stone slabs with small black marble squares at the angles. The original staircase of oak and deal has cut strings with carved scrolled brackets, turned balusters, newels in the form of fluted Roman Doric columns, and moulded ramped handrail; the dado has pilasters corresponding to the newels and a rail moulded and ramped to match the handrail. The room next E. of the stairhall contains panelling, cornice and fireplace-surround, etc., similar to those described above in the E. room; set in the overmantel is an 18th-century landscape painting.
On the first floor, the E. room is lined from floor to ceiling with fielded panelling in two heights with dado-rail and cornice; the fireplace in the E. wall has a plain white marble surround and cornice-shelf and is flanked by cupboards with six-panel doors; opposite the last are two doorways in the W. wall. The room S. of the staircase has perhaps been refitted in modern times; it contains a remarkable rococo fireplacesurround of c. 1760 (Plate 50) with plain veined white marble slips framed in a riot of C-scrolls, stalactites and foliation supporting three small shaped brackets. Other rooms in the main block contain contemporary panelling and fireplaces of a simple type; the secondary staircase adjoining it on the E., also contemporary, has close strings, turned balusters and moulded handrail.
In the Kitchen is a large fireplace, now reduced in width, with an early 18th-century stone surround with supports for two spits; the surround has chamfered reveals and four-centred head with keystone and a square hollow-chamfered outer margin. The fireplace in the room above has a bolection-moulded surround. Other simple 18th-century fittings remain here and in the S.E. wing.
(223) House, No. 32, adjoining the Fellows' Garden, Jesus College, of three storeys with cellars and attics, has walls of red brick in header bond and dressings of brighter red gauged and rubbed brickwork and stone; the mansard roofs are slated. It was built probably shortly before the middle of the 18th century. In the 19th century new kitchen-offices were added on the N., the lower part of the staircase was remodelled and large double doors were inserted in the partition between the main first-floor rooms. Since 1899 the entrance-hall has been differently apportioned. It was the home of C. H. Cooper, F.S.A.
The classically proportioned front of No. 32 Jesus Lane is of note as an example of 18th-century street architecture of much dignity.
The front (Plate 301) has a weathered brick plinth, a platband at first-floor level and a cornice, with heavy ogee bed-mould, both of stone, and a low parapet-wall; it is in five bays, the second from the E. containing the entrance. This last has a stone surround with eared architrave and console-brackets supporting a cornice; the door is of six fielded panels and the fanlight contains radiating and concentric iron glazing-bars. The windows, four on the ground floor with panelled shutters, ranges of five above, have stone sills, dressed reveals and flat arches of gauged and rubbed bricks; they contain renewed double-hung sashes with slight glazing-bars. On the roof are two renewed dormer-windows. The N. side, originally symmetrical, is much altered and in part concealed by the later additions. The house is two rooms deep and the ends are twice gabled but walls screen the valley between; the E. end is without windows and has brick plat-bands in continuation of the horizontal features of the main front.
The Interior retains some clunch in the cellar walls. Many of the rooms throughout the 18th-century building contain contemporary wainscoting, generally of fielded panelling in two heights with dado-rail and cornice; the social importance of the rooms is differentiated by reduction in the degree of elaboration, by omission of dado-rails, fielding, etc.; the modern panelling inserted matches the old. The entrance-hall originally included the main E. room and extended to the W. wall of the entrance, with the present lobby in the S.W. corner. The lobby is wainscoted throughout and the original inner door is of six fielded panels, it now opens to a small room with a modern E. partition-wall and an original archway in the N. wall to the stairhall. The archway has panelled pilaster-responds and a round head with panelled soffit, moulded archivolt, and keystone. The staircase has moulded strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrail; it is original from the first floor upwards. Some of the rooms contain original fireplace-surrounds, several with 19th-century cast-iron grates of some elaboration. The surrounds in the E. ground-floor room and a N.E. room on the first floor are much alike, of clunch, with enriched eared architraves with flowers at the angles; those in the W. ground-floor room and the E. first-floor room are of marble and of the early 19th century, reeded and with roundels at the angles.
(224) House, No. 31, adjoining the foregoing on the W., of three storeys with cellars, is of two periods; the S. half beside the Lane, with walls of white brick and slated roofs is of c. 1830, the N. half, with plastered timber-framed walls and tiled roofs, of the late 17th century. A small 18th-century N.E. wing was until recently part of a range of stables. The W. wall has been entirely rebuilt in the present century in consequence of the demolition of adjoining houses to make way for Wesley House. The S. front is of three bays; though the features are symmetrically disposed, the whole is made eccentric by the inclusion in the W. bay of windows double the width of the rest and with tripartite timber frames. The round-headed doorway is of two square brick orders with plain imposts. At first-floor level is a brick plat-band and, at the wall-head, a timber modillioned eaves-cornice. The windows have stone sills, yellow brick flat arches and contain double-hung sashes.
Inside, the floors of the earlier N. half are one step higher than those of the S. The staircase rises in straight flights between parallel containing-walls athwart the later half and is contemporary with it.
The greater part of the rest of Jesus Lane was rebuilt in the first half of the 19th century and contains numbers of terrace-houses, in particular Radegund Buildings, showing much ingenuity and originality in the design of their fronts while conforming to the generally unobtrusive aspect of the street. More or less in order of date, Radegund Buildings (Nos. 50–61 Jesus Lane) were begun in 1816 largely on the initiative of Jesus College (Chanticleer, CXLVI (1948)), No. 49 in much the same style was built in c. 1820 (Cambridge Chronicle, 2 Nov. 21); Nos. 1–4 at the W. end, probably of the same build as the adjoining two houses in Bridge Street, and their near contemporaries Nos. 5–10 are of c. 1825, so also are Nos. 62, 63 at the E. end, but they were refronted and heightened ten or twenty years later; Nos. 47, 48 were built in the N.E. corner of the grounds of St. Radegund in c. 1833 after the manor house had been demolished and the materials offered for sale in 1832, No. 46 behind them being added later; All Saints' church and vicarage now occupy the greater part of these grounds. The houses near the middle of the Lane, by Malcolm Street, are not closely dated by documents; some of those on the N. side are probably later than 1850. Beyond Belmont Place all except the two at the E. end have been rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century. In modern times a block of eight houses 'newly erected' in 1814 (Cambridge Chronicle, 29 April 1814) has been cleared away for Westcott House.
For purposes of brief architectural description the houses in Jesus Lane may be grouped as follows:—
(225) Houses, Nos. 1 to 10, standing on the N. side at the W. end, mostly of three storeys, have brick walls with some stone dressings and slated roofs. They were built in c. 1825 for a class of professional status. Towards the front they have round-headed doorways, stone plat-bands, windows with double-hung sashes, some with cast-iron guards, and parapets with stone copings. The rainwater downpipes are recessed and at the junction with Bridge Street is a recessed rounded corner. An entry between Nos. 4 and 5 is closed by a wrought-iron gate of scrolled wheel pattern made by one Audley (A. B. Gray, Cambridge Revisited (1921), 56). The ground floors of Nos. 5 and 7 have been converted into a garage.
(226) Houses, Nos. 33, 34, and 35–37, standing on the S. side flanking the entrance to Malcolm Street, are of about the date of this last, c. 1840. The first two are of three storeys, the rest of two, with walls of grey brick with stone dressings and slate-covered mansard roofs. The round-headed entrance-doorways are of two plain orders with stone imposts and contain four-panel doors and fanlights with radiating metal glazing-bars. The first two have a stone plat-band at first-floor sill-level and all simple stone cornices with parapet-walls. The windows contain double-hung sashes and some are fitted with scrolled wire guards. Inside they retain many plain original fittings.
(227) Radegund Buildings (Plate 310), No. 49, a doublefronted detached house, and Nos. 50 to 61, terrace-houses, standing opposite the tennis-court of Jesus College, the first of three storeys, the others of two, have walls of grey brick and slate-covered roofs. Begun in 1816, they are distinguished by a surface modelling of tall and narrow recessed panels dividing the bays and stopping in stepped courses close above the plinth and below the eaves. Nos. 54 to 57 are rather higher than the flanking houses, to accentuate the middle of the terrace, and have recessed panels between the upper windowheads and the eaves. The entrance-doorways have plain rectangular openings, six-panel doors and oblong fanlights with latticework glazing bars; before them are small paved landings approached by steps on one side and both with wrought-iron latticework balustrading, the whole forming an original composition of much sensibility. The windows contain double-hung sashes with thin glazing-bars.
(228) Houses, Nos. 46 to 48, next W. of the foregoing, are perhaps a decade later than Radegund Buildings but of similar building materials. They have plain rectangular wall-openings, latticework fanlights over the doors, boxed eaves-gutters and notable cast-iron railings with spear-headed uprights.
(229) Houses, five terraces, Nos. 1 to 6 (plan of No. 2, p. 365), 7 to 11 on the W. side, Nos. 16 to 18, 19 to 25, 26 to 29 on the E. side, are of two storeys with basements and attics. The walls are of gault brickwork and the mansard roofs slate-covered. They were probably built by James Webster, a local builder, soon after 1842 (Chanticleer, CXLVI (1948)); some later additions have been made at the backs. The design is generally uniform throughout. They have plain rectangular wallopenings and a deep stylised brick entablature, the architrave being represented by two projecting courses, the cornice by a plain low parapet without projection and the dentils by bricks laid diagonally. The doorways, approached up three steps, have four-panel doors and fanlights with rectangular intersecting glazing-bars. The windows contain double-hung sashes; some are fitted with scrolled wire guards. Fencing the basementareas are wrought-iron railings with standards surmounted by small urns and plain intermediate uprights. Inside, a narrow entrance-passage flanking the front room widens out beside the back room to take a dog-leg staircase. The small gardens behind, each in area about equal to that occupied by the house, are enclosed by brick walls.
(230) House, No. 66 King Street, on the S. side some 13 yds. E. of Manor Street, of two storeys with attics, has brick walls and tiled roofs. It was built on a T-shaped plan early in the 18th century. The street-front is symmetrical, in three bays. The doorway in the middle has a timber case with pilasters, which until recently supported entablature-blocks and an open pediment framing a blind fanlight. Projecting at first-floor level are short horizontal brick panels that spanned the former windows below, now replaced by larger modern shopwindows. The upper windows are sash-hung and on the roof are three hipped dormer-windows, that in the middle now blocked, with timber eaves-cornices. Inside, the original staircase has close strings, turned balusters and square newels.
(231) Little Rose, inn, nearly opposite the Fellows' Garden of Peterhouse, 180 yds. from Pembroke Street, of two storeys with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and brick and tile-covered roofs. The long rectangular range bordering the street was built in the 16th century; the structure includes a gabled N. bay, now in separate occupation, and a gabled S. bay containing an open carriage-way. In the following century the N.E. wing was built, and in modern times the free length of the original range has been nearly doubled in width by a low addition on the W. Towards the street the ground floor has been faced with brick and contains 19th-century doorway and windows towards the middle and a modern shop-front under the N. gable. The first floor is plastered and contains 18th-century windows. The bargeboards to the N. gable are moulded; the S. gable, which has bargeboards carved with flowers within cheveron ornament, springs from above general eaves-level, necessitating higher wall-plates; of these last, that to the N. is supported by a square carved and moulded strut from the projecting end of the E. to W. tie-beam within. On the roof are two hipped dormer-windows and rising at the ridge is a great central chimney-stack with weathered offset.
To the W. are three gables, two behind those on the E. and one near the middle to give headroom over the staircase against the E. side of the chimney-stack; the rest of the wall is masked. The wing is without features of note.
Inside, chamfered cross and longitudinal ceiling-beams with plain and geometrical stops are exposed on the ground and first floors; one beam upstairs in the room N. of the stack is in an early 17th-century enriched casing. Other structural timbers visible include a wall-post with enlarged head; the tie-beam spanning the N. side of the S. gabled bay with one of two original curved braces surviving; two collar-beams and two wind-braces in the middle bays, and, in the N. gabled bay, rafters of heavy scantling sawn square and halved and pegged together, without a ridge-piece. Some reset fragments of panelling of c. 1600 remain in the inn.
(232) Tunwells Court, 5 yds. N. of Fitzwilliam House (Monument (28)) and 38 yds. N. of Fitzwilliam Street, of one and two storeys with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and tiled roofs. It consists of a long and narrow quadrangular plan extending far back from the street. Down the middle is a carriage-way passing through the E. and W. buildings. It is the creation of four building phases: the street range and its S.E. wing probably in the 16th century, the two easterly blocks with the link between them containing the second carriage-way in the 17th century, and the formation of the N. and the S. lateral ranges by linking the earlier buildings in the 18th century and modern times respectively, the modern S. link being no more than outbuildings and screen walls.
On the W., the shop-window to the N. is of the first half of the 19th century, the shop-window to the S. of later in the same century; the latter encroaches upon the carriage-way between the two. To judge by the adjoining frontage and by the eccentricity of the longitudinal ceiling-beams within the range, the first floor may have projected originally. At the eaves is a timber dentil-cornice of the 18th or early 19th century, the period when the first-floor windows and hipped dormer-windows were inserted or renewed. The gabled N. and S. ends are largely masked. Large projecting chimney stacks flanked by staircases are symmetrically arranged against the back wall of the range to each side of the carriage-way; the staircases each show a heightening covered by a lean-to roof against the side of the stack, suggesting the conversion, perhaps early in the 17th century, of the roof-space into habitable rooms. The N. stair is largely destroyed. The S.E. wing is of one storey with attics and refaced with brick.
The 18th-century N. range is lower than those adjoining on the E. and W. The ground floor is refaced on the S. with brick; the doorway in the middle contains an original door of four fielded panels. The windows contain sliding casements, and on the roof is a small gabled dormer-window, partly blocked. Inside is a reset ceiling-beam and a plank door.
The E. range has both the blocks flanking the carriage-way gabled to E. and W. The E. wall of the S. block is refaced with brick on the ground floor; it projects slightly and is gabled well above main eaves-level. The N.E. gable is at the level of this last. The way through the range is spanned by a room on the first floor with the roof running N. to S. The old windows have been renewed and others inserted in the 18th century and since. Inside, the staircase with square newels with turned half-balusters planted on them is an insertion of c. 1700; it passes close in front of one of the fireplaces on the upper floor. The bolection-moulded panelling lining a room on the first floor is of the same period.
(233) Houses, Nos. 25 to 27, three, by the grounds of Addenbrooke's Hospital, 20 yds. S. of Fitzwilliam Street, forming a terrace, are of three storeys with basements. The walls are of white brick with stone and rubbed brick dressings; the roofs are tiled. One seems to be included on R. G. Baker's map of Cambridge, 1830, and a parish boundary-mark at the N. end appears to read '1834'; their style agrees with a date c. 1830. They have a continuous stone plat-band at first-floor level, a simplified stone cornice and a parapet-wall. In six bays over all, of the entrance doorways originally in the first, third, and fifth from the N., only the first remains; it is approached up stone steps and has jambs and a semicircular head of two plain brick orders with stone imposts, a fanlight with lobed pattern of glazing-bars and a panelled door; the other two have been converted into windows and the steps removed. On the first floor are french windows, some retaining their sunblind-boxes with shaped side-pieces, opening to original cast-iron balconies with balustrading comprising scrolls and Greek honeysuckle ornament. The other windows contain plain double-hung sashes. The basement-area is fenced with railings with plain intermediate uprights, cast lattice panels, and standards with urn finials; the length before No. 27 has been removed. The interiors retain nothing of note.
(234) House, No. 21, standing 92 yds. southward from the foregoing, of two storeys with attics, has walls of plastered timber-framing and tiled roofs. It is the remnant of a larger house built probably in the 17th century and consists of one room on each floor, with a late 19th-century extension to the E. The doorway, windows and gabled dormer-window to the W. are renewals or insertions of the 19th century. Inside, part of the ground-floor room has been lost to the shop adjoining on the N., the modern N. wall being some 2 ft. further S. than the earlier wall. The ceiling-beams on the ground floor are cased; those above are stop-chamfered.
(235) House, No. 17, St. Bonaventure's Priory, 123 yds. N. of Lensfield Road, of three storeys with basement, has walls of white brick with dressings of stone and rubbed brick and slate-covered roofs. It was built early in the 19th century and has an unusual entrance-doorway. The street-front is asymmetrical, in four unequal bays; but the three S. bays are symmetrical in themselves, centring on the doorway. This last, approached up stone steps, consists of a broad opening, with shallow elliptical head, containing a timber screen in three bays divided and flanked by panelled pilasters supporting a full entablature below the glazed tympanum. The screen contains a four-panel door in the middle bay and glazing above panelled dadoes in the side bays; in the tympanum the glazing-bars form a pattern of interlacing four-centred arches. Over the arch is a wrought-iron lamp bracket. The windows generally contain plain double-hung sashes. At the wall-head is a cornice and blocking-course, both of stone. Fencing the basement-area are wrought-iron railings with plain uprights.
Inside, the interesting feature is the form of the plan. The rectangular entrance-hall has flanking rooms; behind these, extending the full length of the building, is a long narrow stairhall parallel with the street containing two symmetricallyplanned staircases, the principal one, though of only slightly greater elaboration, being at the N. end. The stairs are lit by oval glazed domes in the roof. Beyond the stairhall are further rooms.
(236) Brook House, No. 10, standing 75 yds. from Lensfield Road, of three storeys with basement, has walls of gault brick and slate-covered roofs of low pitch. It was built c. 1840; some refitting was undertaken later in the century. In modern times the dividing wall between the two N. main rooms has been removed. The street-front is in four bays. The entrance-doorway is in the southernmost bay and set in a round-headed wall-recess continued up to include the first-floor window above, so to accentuate a principal feature in a weak position architecturally; covered approach to it is up a flight of stone steps between low brick and stone piers and wrought-iron balustrades under a wrought-iron scroll-work arch of ogee form fronting a ramped flared roof of sheet-metal. The piers, arch and roof may be rather later additions. All the windows contain plain double-hung sashes, some with their glazing-bars removed; those on the ground and first floors have slatted shutters, those on the second floor wrought-iron guards with C-scrolls and plain uprights. On the E. is a projecting bay towards the S. end with a large ground-floor window containing a tripartite timber frame and double-hung sashes. N. of the bay is a raised verandah, no longer covered.
Inside, entry is directly into a large stairhall, nearly square. The cast-iron balustrading to the staircase is probably a part of the later 19th-century refitting, when also white marble fireplaces were set up in some of the rooms.
(237) Kenmare, house, and No. 74a, annexe, 10 yds. S. of Mill Lane, of two storeys with basement and attics, has walls of gault brick and tile-covered roofs. Known in the 18th century as Randall House, it occupies the site of Cotton Hall, which was sold in 1768 to John Randall. It consists of a long range, parallel with the street, some 15 ft. back from the present building-line, that was built in the third quarter of the 18th century; incorporated is a small central W. wing of earlier date, possibly a part of the building shown in Loggan's survey of 1688. Later in the 18th century an annexe was built between the range and the street, covering the northern part of the E. front; subsequently, towards the end of the century, the free southern part was refronted to present a symmetrical composition within its length. On the W. are 19th and 20th-century additions.
The street-front of Kenmare presents an interesting and unusual composition including four Palladian windows. The admirable contemporary railings enclosing the small forecourt were taken for scrap metal during the 1939–45 war.
The E. front (Plate 301) has a plain plinth containing very broad basement windows, a timber cornice and a parapet-wall. The second-floor windows light attics and the wall at this level and above is in fact only a screen. In the middle, approached up a flight of stone steps with plain railings, is a doorway with flanking Tuscan pilasters supporting a pedimented entablature with dentil-cornice; above it on the first floor is a sash-hung window with architrave and pediment. To each side of the foregoing, on each floor, is a Palladian window, again of the Tuscan order, with a moulded archivolt to the middle light. The three attic windows are square, with continuous architraves. All the surrounds described are of timber painted white. Further N., the upper part of the wall of the same range shows above the annexe; it has an 18th-century eaves-cornice of bricks set diagonally. This last is continued across the N. end of the range and the W. side as far S. as the early wing; S. again is a remodelled projection to the staircase and a projecting chimney. The early wing has red brick quoins, a plat-band at first floor-level, and a projecting chimney on the W.; the ground-floor windows are modern, those above 18th century.
The interior has been much modernised. The hall retains late 18th-century paving of stone slabs with small slate squares at the angles. Some 18th-century doors of six fielded panels remain, and a first-floor room in the early wing has an original plaster cornice. The staircase is modern.
(238) Grove Lodge, house, standing well back from the street in its own grounds 85 yds. S.E. of the Fitzwilliam Museum, of two storeys in part with cellars, has walls of gault brick and slate-covered roofs. Christopher Pemberton took a building lease of the site from Peterhouse in 1795. The house is shown on William Custance's map of Cambridge of 1798; the representation shows a building equating with the present main E. block; the rest is a building or rebuilding of the second half of the 19th century. Further, the original part has been so rearranged that entrance is now from the S. instead of under the E. portico. The house now contains lecture rooms and two flats.
Pemberton's Grove Lodge is a late 18th-century villa of simple and gracious design. The architect was probably William Custance, surveyor and builder.
The late 18th-century E. block has the E. front in five bays (Plate 299). The middle three project slightly and are pedimented, the horizontal and raking cornice-members being of stone; coextensive with the projection and on a stylobate of three steps is a single-storey tetrastyle Ionic portico with an uninterrupted entablature, all of wood painted white, and with a flat roof; in the back wall is a round-headed doorway in the middle bay, now blocked, with a fanlight with radiating and scrolled metal glazing-bars and an original door hung in two leaves each of four fielded panels; in the side bays are french windows with later frames. Flanking the portico are rectangular windows with flat brick arches in round-headed wall-recesses. At first-floor sill-level is a stone plat-band; the overhanging eaves are plain. All the windows, except under the portico, contain double-hung sashes with thin glazing-bars. The apsidal bays on each end of the E. block, now of the height of the last, but possibly originally of one storey only, each contain windows similar to those last described, and wallrecesses simulating windows. W. of the S. apsidal bay is a later 19th-century porch and entrance; all westward again is of the same period and later.
Inside, the original entrance-hall has been eliminated and the N. main room extended S. The present entrance-hall has been extended to include the stairhall by removal of much of the partition-wall between them; it contains a reset mid 18th-century fireplace-surround with enriched eared architrave and cornice-shelf and contemporary panelled overmantel with scrolls at the sides and pedimented entablature carved with flowers. The staircase has cut strings, slender square balusters, without newels, and a moulded handrail, curved at the landing. In the stairhall are three doorways with late 19th-century enriched friezes and semicircular overdoors containing scrolls and foliation in relief. On the first floor, the N.E. room contains an original white marble fireplace-surround with fluted lintel and rosettes at the angles; the marble slips are modern.
Two of the Outbuildings to S. and W. of the house are of late 18th-century brickwork. They are shown in Custance's map. Of two storeys, they are quite plain.
(239) St. Peter's Terrace, houses Nos. 1 to 7, standing 30 yds. S.E. of the foregoing some 27 yds. back from the street fronting a private road, of three and four storeys with basements, has walls of gault brick, faced in part with stucco, with dressings of stone. The roofs are slated. The site was advertised to let on building leases for a term of forty years in the Cambridge Chronicle for 30 Nov. 1850, plans and elevations being prescribed; application was to be made to Elliot Smith.
In St. Peter's Terrace the revived Roman and the contemporary styles are combined with virtuosity and much logic in a street-front of architectural distinction.
Towards the street, the terrace is a carefully designed symmetrical unity of twenty-one bays from end to end. The fronts of the first, fourth and seventh houses, of three bays each, project slightly and have open Tuscan porches, the middle porch having the architectural emphasis of an enclosed upper storey with superimposed pilasters; the first and last houses have attics rising above the continuous main eaves-cornice. The ground floor is faced with rusticated stucco and contains round and segmental-headed openings, the doorways having continuous concave reveals. The main rooms being on the first floor, their windows are given appropriate predominance by architraves and full entablatures, pedimented in the second, fifth and eighth bays from each end; the openings extend down to the floor and have cast-iron balconies. The second-floor windows have simple stone architraves and sills continued across the front as a plat-band. All the windows contain double-hung sashes. The basement-areas are fenced by castiron railings with spear-headed uprights. The two ends of the terrace and the W. side are solely functional in design.
(240) Scroope Terrace (Plate 308), houses Nos. 1 to 12, standing between St. Peter's Terrace and Coe Fen Lane, of three storeys with basements, has walls of white brickwork and stucco dressings; the roofs are slate-covered. The N. part of the site was let by Gonville and Caius College on building leases for forty years in 1839 and houses Nos. 1 to 7, forming a symmetrical block, were then built. Nos. 8 to 12 were added by the College, in uniform style, in 1864 at a cost of £8, 704 (Cambridge Chronicle, 7 Sep. 1850, 12 Nov. 1847; E. J. Gross in J. Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, IV, pt. 2, 21).
The front is a dignified and well-proportioned example of formal street architecture, though dependent for effect more upon a regular repetition of parts than upon any special subtlety of design.
The terrace is some 120 yds. long and in thirty-six bays, each house comprising three bays. Towards the street the fronts of the two houses at each end and the two in the middle are accentuated by slight projection and slightly greater height; in the long view they are further emphasised as entities in a unified composition by their low-pitched hipped roofs. This architectural strengthening of the middle and ends, though slight, is entirely adequate to correct the optical illusions inherent in so long a block of comparatively low, uniform buildings. The ground floor is faced with rusticated stucco; the openings have square heads, the doors being hung between timber pilaster-responds supporting a lintel below a glazed panel. At each extremity is a single-storey rectangular annexe containing the doorway to the end house. The first-floor windows have moulded architraves, those of the projecting bays with plain entablatures, and extend down to the floor for access to small cast-iron balconies; they and the rest of the windows contain double-hung sashes. The second-floor windows have architraves similar to the foregoing and sills continued as a plat-band. At the wall-head is a stucco cornice and a low parapet.
Inside, Nos. 1 to 3 have been remodelled for the University School of Architecture; Nos. 9 to 12 have been more or less altered to form the Royal Hotel. In No. 3 is a white marble fireplace-surround of much refinement in design with twin pilaster-strips at the sides supporting an entablature; it contains a contemporary cast-iron grate with rococo ornament and mirror slips. Another fireplace-surround of white marble, in the School library, has tapering turned balusters at the sides supporting a debased entablature decorated with lions' masks. Many of the rooms have original plaster cornices with neoGreek enrichment.
(241) Scroope House, now part of the University Engineering Laboratories, standing 75 yds. W. of Scroope Terrace (Monument (240)), of two storeys with basement, has walls of gault brick with stone dressings and slated roofs of low pitch. The site was let on a building lease for forty years in 1837 and the house completed the same year, when the father of John Willis Clark, the antiquary, moved in from Wanstead House (Monument (279)) in Hills Road (J. Venn, Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College, IV, pt. 2, 21). It now contains lecture-rooms and laboratories. The servants' wing has been demolished.
The house has a plinth, a deep plat-band at first-floor level, a shallower one at first-floor sill level, a brick dentil-cornice, and a boxed eaves-gutter. The N. front, originally symmetrical and of five bays, has the middle bay projecting slightly; the entrance doorway in the latter is protected by an open stone porch with Ionic columns supporting an entablature concealing a flat roof. The two ground-floor windows to either side have been replaced in the later 19th century by a large square bay-window to the E. and a single window to the W. On the first floor the five windows contain original double-hung sashes; the middle window is wider than the rest, has a cambered head and contains a tripartite timber frame. On the W. are two windows similar to the last, but with flat arches, on the ground floor and three windows, like the others, on the first floor. On the S. side is a large segmental bay with windows lighting the dining-room and a bedroom above.
Inside, between the entrance-hall and stairhall is a large round-headed archway with panelled responds and soffit and a moulded archivolt. The two rooms extending the full depth of the building on the W. are closely alike; in the party-wall between them is a large opening with a panelled architrave and fitted with doors, the two leaves being of eight panels each and divided by a removable pilaster. The woodwork is grained to resemble walnut and gilded. The dining-room has the service end defined by responds supporting a trabeation across the ceiling with panelled soffit and enriched cornice. Most of the rooms on this floor and above retain their original skirtings and cornices, both plain and enriched, and white and grey marble fireplaces. The staircase has cut and bracketed strings, turned ash balusters and a moulded handrail.
Little St. Mary's Lane
(242) House, No. 12, on the W. corner of the entry 100 yds. from Trumpington Street, of two storeys with cellar and attics, has timber-framed and brick walls, the former with modern rendering, and tile-covered roofs. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century and extended N. late in the 18th century. The ground floor has been rebuilt in brick but the first floor still projects to the S. On the roof is a gabled dormer-window. The windows have all been renewed. Inside, the fireplaces and chimney-stack are at the W. end and the staircase is in the recess to the N. of the chimney-breast. On the first floor, the planks with fluting and scale enrichment surrounding the fireplace are probably reused material of c. 1600; of the same period is the panelling with carved frieze forming a cupboard S. of the chimney-stack, the door being hung on 'cock's-head' hinges.
(243) House, Nos. 13 and 14, adjoins the foregoing, is generally similar to it and probably of the same build. It was separated into two tenements and a chimney-stack inserted in the N. wall of the W. tenement in the 18th century or later; the stack contains older reused bricks. The fireplaces and stack at the E. end back against those in No. 12 and also have a stair in the recess to the N.
(244) Houses, Nos. 1 to 24, excluding Nos. 13 and 15 (see below), and No. 29a Trumpington Street, consisting of two terraces on the N. and S. sides of Fitzwilliam Street, which leads from Trumpington Street from nearly opposite the Fitzwilliam Museum to Tennis Court Road, are contemporary and broadly of uniform character. They and the street comprise a single early 19th-century development. The street does not appear on William Custance's plan of Cambridge of 1798, and the building of the terraces in 1821–2 (Cambridge Chronicle) give the terminal date for the formation of it. The N. terrace is of three storeys, the S. of two, with basements and attics. In the main the walls are of gault brick and the roofs slate-covered. The original minor divergencies in the designs have not been unduly widened by subsequent alterations and by the remodelling of many of the roofs to mansard form.
Fitzwilliam Street comprises well-proportioned unpretentious houses designed for the professional classes and is of note as a product of one period, the third decade of the 19th century, surviving without substantial alteration or decline in status.
The houses generally are of two or three bays, with round-headed entrance doorways, plain window-openings containing double-hung sashes, and parapet-walls. Fencing the basementareas are railings with plain sharpened uprights and standards with urn finials. On the N. side, Nos. 16 to 24 have scrolled wrought-iron balconies to the first-floor windows. On the S. side, No. 29a Trumpington Street has a pilastered front towards the last. Nos. 3 and 4 have their front doors deeply recessed in round-headed openings with moulded and panelled reveals. Nos. 5 and 6 are similar to the foregoing but built after them; the former is of three storeys. Nos. 7 and 8 are a pair, but the former has been heightened; they have shallow hoods to the doorways below the tympana of the containing arches and No. 8 has panelled parapets.
(245) House, No. 13, standing detached on the S. side of the street, towards the W. end, was built after the terrace houses described above (Monument (244)), in c. 1830; it is now part of Addenbrooke's Hospital. It is of three storeys with basement and substantially built of gault brick; the roofs are slate-covered. Large modern E. additions mask the E. end. The E. part of the house may be rather earlier than the W. The entrance doorway has flanking pilasters and entablature in the neo-Greek style. The W. side is symmetrical, with ranges of three windows on each floor. On the S., a balcony to the first floor has a scroll-work balustrade and trellised timber standards supporting a lean-to roof.
(246) House, No. 15, standing detached on the N. side of the street, towards the E. end, of two storeys, in part with basement, has walls of gault brick with stone dressings and slate-covered roofs. It was built in c. 1825; the authority for the tradition that it was designed by William Wilkins has not been discovered, circumstantial evidence points rather to Charles Humfrey (see Monument (247)). Some minor alterations, including the insertion of further windows, have been made since and most of the first-floor fireplace-surrounds are later 19th-century replacements. The house has many points of similarity with Scroope House (Monument (241)).
The house, though inspired by the Greek revival, presents a functional composition to the street, while the E. front is remarkable for the original use of the stylistic convention and an uncompromising duality in the design.
The building consists of a tall square block with a lower W. annexe; the former has a high plinth, two plat-bands, a wide one at first-floor level, a narrow one at first-floor sill level, and a cornice consisting of two oversailing courses of brick as a bed-mould to a deep boxed eaves-gutter; these features are continued across the free faces. The annexe, which has the floors at levels lower than elsewhere, has a plat-band at first-floor level; the plinth and cornice are similar to those just described. The roofs are of very low pitch. A monumental effect redolent of the revived Greek style is achieved by this horizontal accentuation.
In the S. wall, the entrance-doorway has flanking Doric pilasters without taper supporting a plain entablature, a door with reeding down the middle and a light above the lintel-rail. The two chimney-stacks, on the same plane as the S. wall, rise well above the eaves and are linked by a semicircular flying arch. The E., or garden, front is in two bays and entirely symmetrical. The comparatively very large ground-floor windows consist of four timber-mullioned and transomed lights in a neo-Greek surround of flanking Doric pilasters supporting a plain entablature, all similar in detail to the S. door-case described above; the tall casements below the transoms open to the ground.
Inside, the Hall and Drawing-room and Dining-room to the E. have original cornices enriched with variations upon the classical egg-and-dart ornament with, in the Dining-room, heavy dentils. All the ground-floor rooms, including the kitchen to the N.W., contain original white marble fireplacesurrounds, one with tapering turned balusters at the sides, another with anthemion ornament. The staircase has cut strings with enriched brackets, plain square balusters and a moulded mahogany handrail.
Tennis Court Road
(247) Houses, Nos. 4 to 12, extending from 20 yds. to 77 yds. N. of Fitzwilliam Street, and Nos. 1 to 6 Tennis Court Terrace returning W. from the latter point, form two terraces. They are modest buildings of c. 1825 of two storeys, with walls of gault brick and slate-covered roofs. In 1822 (Cambridge Chronicle, 19 May) Fitzwilliam Street was described as linking Trumpington Street with 'the proposed New Square belonging to Peterhouse'; the proposal was short-lived, for four months later building leases were advertised of ground belonging to the Master and Fellows of Peterhouse 'situate near the east end of Fitzwilliam Street and fronting Tennis Court Road' where was 'space sufficient for sixteen houses, which must be erected according to a plan of elevation already determined by the Society', particulars being obtainable from 'Mr. Humfrey, the architect' (Cambridge Chronicle, 17 Sept. 1822). The two terraces comprise only fifteen houses, if Tennis Court Terrace may be accepted as on ground 'fronting Tennis Court Road', which in the general terms of the advertisement it probably may. Only by including No. 15 Fitzwilliam Street (Monument (246)), still the property of Peterhouse, or the detached house at the W. end of Tennis Court Terrace, both of c. 1825 but of individual design, is the requisite number of houses reached. Thus some slight doubt remains about the precise origins of the existing terraces.
The houses of the first terrace, which was built in two phases, have plain eaves, round-headed entrance-doorways, some with stone imposts, and slightly moulded reveals, four-panel doors and fanlights, and windows containing double-hung sashes, those on the ground floor originally with solid shutters. The houses of the second terrace are similar to the foregoing but even plainer.
Further S. in Tennis Court Road, 130 yds. from Lensfield Road, Kellett Lodge is of the date of the foregoing and of similar materials and character except that it is double-fronted and the doorway in the middle has a more elaborate gadroonpattern of glazing-bars in the fanlight.
(248) Houses, pair, Nos. 4 and 5 Benet Place, next W. of Tennis Court Road, of three storeys with basements, have walls of gault brick and low-pitched slate roofs. They were built in c. 1820 and, though distinct dwellings, form a single block of unified and symmetrical design.
Nos. 4 and 5 are good examples of large town houses of their period, with notable ironwork. The whole of Benet Place (Monuments (248–250)) is a spacious early 19th-century development of much dignity.
The S. front is in eight bays, with lower and recessed flanking annexes containing porches on the ground floor; it has a widely projecting eaves-cornice. The regularly spaced windows on each floor have flat brick arches and contain double-hung sashes with very thin glazing-bars; those on the top floor are fitted with scrolled wire guards. The most conspicuous feature is the elaborate cast-iron balcony extending the length of the first floor; it has latticework balustrading and standards between the bays supporting four-centred arches with scroll-work in the spandrels and a continuous frieze below a flared sheet-metal roof; the whole is inspired by the Chinese phase of taste of the mid 18th century.
Inside many original fittings remain, including plaster cornices and ceiling-borders with Greek ornament, doors with reeding in the middle and fireplace-surrounds. The staircases though original are of no particular distinction. The principal room of each house is on the first floor, with three windows overlooking the road.
Ramped screen-walls flanking the building extend to Tennis Court Road on the E. and on the W. to the house next described, though that to the W. is interrupted in the middle by the opening for a carriage-way with square moulded stone cappings to the responds.
(249) Houses, Nos. 2 and 3 Benet Place (Plate 308), next W. of the foregoing are generally similar to them and of much the same date, but of six bays and without the balcony; other variations include the presence of paired brick dentils to the eaves-cornice and a round-headed wall-recess containing the first-floor window at each end of the S. front. On the top floor the middle S. window in each house is blind. A ramped screenwall extends, as on the E., to the house next described.
(250) House, No. 1 Benet Place, 22 yds. from Trumpington Street, stands next W. of the foregoing and again is of similar date and character to them, but of two bays only and without the annexes. Late in the 19th century a two-storey bay-window has been added on the S. The round-headed entrance-doorway, approached up a flight of steps with plain iron balustrades, has a fanlight with original glazing-bars forming a gadroon pattern and a semicircular wrought-iron hood, the last possibly added later.