An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959.
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(24) Clare College stands some 12 yards to the N.W. of King's College Chapel, on land extending from Trinity Hall Lane westward to the river. The walls are faced with Ketton and Weldon stone ashlar and the roofs are covered with Collyweston slates and lead; further, the building accounts record during 1635–41 the purchase of clunch from Haslingfield, lead from Derbyshire, large quantities of Ely bricks and local brick-earth and negotiations for the purchase of wood shipped to Lynn. Bricks for the first portion of the building were made at Brampton by direct labour. No doubt the wall-filling is of brick and clunch.
In 1326 the University, with Richard de Badew as Chancellor, founded a College called University Hall on this site. In 1338 the Chancellor, who styled himself the founder, granted all his rights and titles in the College to Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, who inherited the Honour of Clare from her brother Gilbert. She refounded, endowed and renamed it Clare Hall, a name retained until 1856 when it was changed to Clare College. The early buildings were ranged round a courtyard of approximately the size of the present court but with the E. range fronting immediately on Milne Street (now Trinity Hall Lane); thus the chapel in the E. part of the N. range was in much the position of the present Chapel, and the Hall and Master's Lodge in the W. range lay approximately athwart the centre of the present court; they were entirely demolished, stage by stage, during the 17th and 18th centuries to make way for the new buildings, and nothing of them remains.
The rebuilding was begun in 1638 but not completed until 1769. Accounts of the work, begun by Barnabas Oley, Fellow, were kept from the first and most of these survive in the College. It seems that the East Range and the Bridge were built first, between 1638 and 1640, followed by the South Range in 1640–2; the W. extremity of the last was not made habitable until later, upon the completion of the rooms on staircase 'F' in 1679. Both ranges contained sets of rooms, with temporary accommodation for the Master in the second. John Westley was the master-mason and the masons included Thomas and William Grumbold with their two sons, and George Tomson and Aristotle Drew; George Woodroofe was the sculptor and Francis Wright the carpenter.
The foundations of the West Range also were begun in 1640, but the work was interrupted by the Civil War and not resumed until 1662; the whole length of the E. wall to the Court and beyond was completed to a height of 10 ft. when work was again stopped until 1669. The S. half of the range as far as the Gateway was finished in 1671, but not internally until 1679 although in part occupied in 1672. The N. half, containing the Master's Lodge, and West Gateway were virtually begun in 1705 and completed in 1715. Westley had died in 1644 and Robert Grumbold and his partner Bradwell seem to have succeeded him in the work in 1669; a Mr. Jackson is referred to as 'Surveyor' of the works.
The building of the North Range, designed by Robert Grumbold, master-mason, was begun in 1683; the Hall and Buttery, with the Combination Room over the latter, were the first parts undertaken, followed by the Kitchen, with the Library over, begun in 1689. Completion of the N. range was celebrated by a banquet in Hall on 29th April 1693. The Interior of the Hall was altered in 1870–2 by Sir M. Digby Wyatt who inserted the present ceiling.
The Gate-piers to Trinity Hall Lane were built in 1763 by Grumbold. In 1762 the battlements of the E. and S. ranges were replaced by balustrades; at the same time the windows were reglazed and no doubt this was when their arched heads, shown by Loggan, were cut out.
The College had a chapel from at least as early as 1392 but the Society seems to have used the neighbouring church of St. John; on the demolition of the latter between 1440 and 1450 to make way for King's College the Society moved to the church of St. Edward, where the S. choir aisle is still known as Clare Hall Aisle. In 1763 the College chapel and the Library over it were demolished and the existing Chapel was built on approximately the same site, being consecrated on 5th July 1769, by Richard Terrick, Bishop of London. It was designed by Sir James Burrough, but James Essex, under whose supervision it was completed after Burrough's death in 1764, was in all probability involved in the work from the commencement.
More recent work in the College includes, in addition to the alterations in the Hall, alterations in 1891 to the interior of the S. end of the E. range and the E. end of the S. range when stair 'D' was rebuilt and, in 1929, conversion of the attics over the Master's Lodge into undergraduates' rooms. In the present century additions have been made on the N. side of the Kitchen and old Buttery; in 1935 the Mansfield Forbes Library was fitted up and in 1938 the old Buttery was converted into a dining-room. A new Court was built on the W. side of Queens' Road in 1922 to 1933.
From the account-books J. W. Clark has computed the cost of the building work between 1638 and 1715 at £15,340; the cost of the Chapel was £7,327, making a total of £22,667 prior to the later alterations and additions.
The buildings of Clare College, although varying in date from 1638 to 1769, are remarkably unified on plan and harmonious in elevation. The ranges built before the Civil War are exceptional for the formality of their calculated design, depending for effect more upon repetition than upon symmetry, although the latter is observed, and for the fusion of classical divisions and details with the traditional mediaeval features of stone mullions and, before they were removed in 1762, arched windows and battlements. The W. front overlooking the river is a seemly and beautiful exercise in the use of a colossal order raised on a high basement. The W. face of the E. Gateway is, for English building, a particularly uninhibited Mannerist composition. Internally, the Chapel and Ante-chapel, the latter the only octagonal Ante-chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, are ably contrived to form a dramatic contrast of shapes. The bridge and the ironwork of the gates are notable.
Architectural Description— The Court (152½ ft. by 110½ ft.) is a rectangle. The East Range (Plate 103) is of three storeys with attics; the E. gateway, on the axis of the Court, is of four storeys. It was amongst the first works undertaken in the general rebuilding of the College, being begun in 1638 and finished in 1641. On the E. side the Gateway is flanked, on the N., by four and a half bays and, on the S., by seven bays terminating in a pilaster-like projection. On the W. side the Gateway is flanked by five bays to N. and S. All alternate bays project slightly. The symmetry of the Court side is not preserved on the E. side because of the incidence of the Chapel projecting on the N.E., but the bay arrangement on the E. remains centred on the Gateway and is symmetrical so far as it extends, except in the northernmost half-bay (Plate 102). That this arrangement is the original intention is suggested by the tusking for the S. wall of the Chapel shown in Loggan's engraving of the College; there, too, the northernmost half-bay is shown with two-light windows, so preserving the balance with the complementary bay on the S.; it now contains windows of one light and either Loggan is at fault or, more probably, the windows were reduced to allow greater width for the 18th-century Chapel.
The entrances to the Gateway (Plates 102, 105) and their superstructures project to form elaborate frontispieces to E. and W. which, although structurally part of the range, have no architectural link with the flanking fronts; none of the strings is continuous, the stages differ in height and the windows and even the crowning cornices are at different levels. The E. frontispiece (Plate 102) is in three stages, the topmost rising above the parapet-level of the flanking fronts and finishing in a pediment. The stages are defined by superimposed Orders consisting of rusticated Roman Doric and banded Ionic attached columns towards each side of the two lower stages and Corinthian pilasters in the topmost stage, all on pedestals and supporting entablatures; the walling of the lowest, Doric, stage is rusticated. The round-headed entrance-archway has plain imposts, continuing from the rustic-blocks of the flanking columns, and rusticated voussoirs. The stage above embraces two storeys; the three windows on each floor are arranged in a band of almost continuous fenestration between the flanking Ionic columns and with the middle windows curved outward in a semicircle to form an oriel rising through both storeys and supported on a shaped corbel; on the apron-wall between the two semicircular windows are three blank shields and the Ionic entablature breaks forward round the head of the oriel. In the third stage are four equally spaced Corinthian pilasters with a shell-headed niche with guilloche framing filling the centre bay and an oval convex panel with moulded framing in each side bay; the pedestals of the order are returned as a continuous plinth and prolonged to support side-scrolls against the ends of the front-wall; in the crowning pediment is a cartouche flanked by swags of unusual design. The third stage differs in design from that shown by Loggan, the latter equating more closely in style with the third stage of the existing W. front, and it may be an early 18th-century rebuilding; further, the elaborated N. and S. returns linking the two attics also appearing in Loggan, if they once existed, have been destroyed.
The W. frontispiece (Plate 105) is generally similar in conception to the E. frontispiece, with the same vertical division into three stages and similar window-treatment, but the details differ and in the middle stage niches supplant the Ionic columns. The W. entrance-archway has panelled responds, moulded imposts and voussoirs with sunk rustications; it is flanked by square attached and rusticated Roman Doric columns supporting an entablature and in the spandrels are Gothic curvilinear traceried panels. The oriel is supported on a fluted corbel rising off a bracket carved with the bust of a man and has plain square ashlar panels on the apron-wall between the semicircular windows on the two floors; the shell-headed niches at each side have ogee dentilled labels and elaborate wall-decoration above carved in low relief with demi-angels holding cartouches flanked by fruit pendants and scrolls. The third stage comprises an elaborate composition of two Corinthian pilasters on pedestals supporting an open curved pediment and flanked by banded scrolls with sculptured demi-angels rising from the volutes. The pedestals and their returns are enriched with geometrical patterns of panelling; they and the order frame a round clock-face below and a shell-headed niche in a rectangular gadrooned surround above flanked by oval convex panels in fretted frames and by blank shields; the tympanum of the open pediment is carved with a demi-angel holding a cartouche flanked by swags of fruit. The clock is an insertion, probably of the 18th century, and the niche originally continued lower as shown by Loggan.
The Gatehall (24 ft. by 12¾ ft.) has ashlar walls and stone fan-vault in two bays with moulded ribs springing from moulded corbels and with two carved pendent bosses and a small central boss. The hinge-pins for the main gate remain in the E. entrance-archway. The original doorways in the side walls have chamfered jambs and four-centred heads.
The faces of the E. range flanking the Gateway are uniform, with moulded plinth and continuous entablatures of equal size at each floor-level and below the balustraded parapet and all mitred round the alternate recessed and projecting bays and round the clasping pilaster-like projection on the S.E. corner of the building; the projections are further accentuated by strings at window-sill level returning and stopping against the face of the recessed bays. In every bay and on each floor, except in the N.E. bay as described above and on the ground floor at each extremity of the W. side, is a rectangular stonemullioned window with moulded reveals; those windows in the recessed bays are of two lights, the others of three lights all now, and probably since 1762, with square heads. In the same year the embattled parapets were replaced by the present balustrading. In both the end bays on the W. is a round-headed doorway with plain jambs, panelled imposts, voussoirs alternately panelled and faceted, on the face and on the soffit, and a moulded label with small bracket-stops (Plate 109).
On the roof, above each bay, to E. and W., is a dormer-window with timber cornice and hipped roof. Symmetrically placed on the roof-ridge are two lofty ashlar chimney-stacks with moulded plinths and entablatures and, on each face, semicircular-headed recessed panels with moulded imposts and archivolts and keystones supporting returns of the main entablature. The mid 18th-century lead rainwater pipes flanking both frontispieces have heads decorated with the arms of the College.
The Interior of the E. range has been extensively remodelled by rearrangement of partitions and rebuilding the three southern staircases, 'D' in 1891 and 'B' and 'C' in the present century. On the ground floor the set off stair 'A' has an exposed chamfered ceiling-beam. The same stair is largely original, with close strings, shaped balusters of flat rectangular section with raking mouldings, moulded handrail and panelled newels with shaped finials. Stair 'D' retains some old material reused, including a panelled newel. On the first floor, the main room off stair ' A ' is lined with early 17th-century oak panelling in six heights with frieze panels and a small cornice; on the window-splays are reused fluted and reeded strips decorated with rosettes; the two exposed ceiling-beams are ovolo-moulded. On the second floor are exposed stop-chamfered ceiling-beams. The room over the W. half of the Gatehall, entered from stair 'C', is lined to a height of approximately 5½ ft. with reused and painted early 17th-century panelling; a section on the N. wall is carried higher and finished with a dentil-cornice; the original wood fireplace-surround is flanked by plain pilasters on pedestals supporting an ovolo-moulded shelf and overmantel in two panelled bays divided and flanked by panelled pilaster-strips under a dentil-cornice. In the attics the main timbers of the tie-beam trusses are exposed below the level of the arched collars. The range retains many 18th-century panelled doors.
The South Range, built between 1640 and 1642, was the next work undertaken after the E. range, and for this reason and because of the similarity of style between the two ranges, is described here, before the Chapel and Hall range. It is of three storeys with basements and attics and now contains sets of rooms, a library and common-rooms; when first built, and until the Master's Lodge was ready, temporary accommodation for the Master was provided in the western half and this may explain the elaboration of stair 'E'. Francis Wright was paid for all the carpenter's work in the range.
The N. and S. sides are symmetrically designed, with only minor discrepancies on the extremities of the S. side, and are similar in treatment to the sides of the E. range, except the centremost N. and S. bays; the square-headed window-openings and the balustraded parapets are again subsequent alterations. The side to the Court (Plate 103) is in fifteen bays; the centre bay remains flush with the normal recessed bays on each side but is flanked by superimposed pilaster-strips the full height of the building and of the same depth of projection and vertical articulation as the normal projecting bays (Plate 91). The central doorway has stop-moulded jambs, moulded imposts and a semicircular head with moulded archivolt, a dentilled label and keystone; above it the cornice only of the entablature across the front at first-floor level is continued and turned to form a segmental pediment with an extra horizontal member breaking forward over the keystone and supporting a cartouche in the tympanum. In the doorway is fixed panelling containing a modern wicket; the semicircular over-door has a moulded centre post, radiating arcading and framing carved with arabesque ornament.
The S. side is in nineteen bays (Plate 89); the treatment of the centre bay is similar to that of the centre bay on the N., except that a three-light window takes the place of the door. The W. pilaster-like termination of the front is of greater width than the corresponding feature on the E. due, no doubt, to the remodelling of the W. end of the range in c. 1670 for incorporation in the new river front of the College. The attics are lit by ranges of dormer-windows with hipped roofs, fifteen on the N. and eighteen on the S.; the three symmetrically placed chimney-stacks are similar to those on the E. range.
The Interior contains the Mansfield Forbes Library occupying the eastern half of the ground floor and formed in 1935 out of the former Reading-room and a set of rooms adjoining it on the E. In the room are nine projecting bookcases, five probably of 1627 but restored and the remainder reconstituted in the 19th century from enriched material of 1627 preserved from cases removed in 1863 from the main Library (for description see N. range). The Junior Common Room further W. has the lower parts of the E. and W. walls lined with reset panelling; it is in three heights, the lowest modern, the remainder of c. 1530 but patched and made up with modern work and all reset; the middle panels are carved with linenfold and the topmost with an open patterning of naturalistic vine tendrils, oak branches, hops, roses, etc., a heart with crossed arrows, interlacing ribbon-like mouldings, and a vine issuing from a tun (Plate 65). The exposed ceiling-beams on this floor are stop-chamfered.
Staircase 'E' (Plate 66) is original and therefore probably by Francis Wright; it is of oak, with heavy close moulded strings, moulded grip-handrail, flat pierced balustrading of arabesque design and square panelled newels with shaped finials and pendants; in the lower flight from the second floor to the attics moulded and shaped balusters, flat on the outer face, perhaps reused from stairs elsewhere, replace the more elaborate balustrading.
On the first floor the main room at the E. end is lined to a height of 6 ft. with reused early 17th-century panelling with a modern moulded capping. The main room E. of stair 'E' has a ceiling divided into nine panels by ovolo-moulded intersecting beams. The walls are lined with mid 18th-century fielded panelling with moulded dado-rail and dentil-cornice and with an eared panel above the modern fireplace. The main room W. of the same stair contains an original clunch fireplace with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the ceiling-beams are ovolo-moulded. The main room at the W. end has a moulded cross-beam and a chamfered longitudinal beam. Many of the doors on this floor are of the 18th century, with fielded panels and old brass rim-locks. Some of the doors on the second floor are similar, others are of two bolection-moulded panels. The ceiling-beams on the second floor are chamfered. Entrance to the attics is through a reset doorway with stop-moulded frame; in a set of rooms towards the W. end is a door-case of c. 1700 with a pediment without horizontal members embracing paired doorways with architraves and hung with bolection-moulded doors. The roof is of cambered collar-beam type, ceiled below the collars.
The North Range, excluding the extension eastward containing the Chapel, is of one and two storeys with attics and basements. The S. wall (Plate 104) is faced with ashlar, the N. is of red brick with stone window-dressings. It includes the Hall with a passage-way on the E. giving access to the Antechapel. The Butteries, which were to the W. of the Hall, with a passage on the N. to the Kitchen, are now housed in modern additions to the N. of the range, and their old position is occupied by a Dining-room. The Kitchen is sunk below ground-level. On the first floor the Combination Room is immediately W. of the Hall and entered from the screensgallery. The Library adjoins the Combination Room on the W. and extends to the Master's Lodge in the W. range. The attics extend the whole length of the range as far as the Antechapel and are divided up into sets of rooms. The Hall, Butteries and Combination Room were begun in 1683 but after completion of the foundations work was discontinued until 1685; slating was completed in 1687 and plastering, glazing and wainscoting were completed by 1689. In the latter year the Kitchen and Library were begun and all were finished structurally by 1693. In September 1684 Robert Grumbold was paid 50s. for drawing a design for the building.
The S. side, to the Court, has a moulded plinth containing windows lighting the basements, a string at first-floor level, an entablature with pulvinated frieze and modillion-cornice and a balustraded parapet. It is in twelve bays of unequal width, the greater part of the face of each bay being recessed to give the effect of a range of pilaster-strips flush with and supporting a continuous plain lintel and so dividing and framing a succession of square-headed wall-recesses; plinth and string are mitred round the pilaster-strips. On the roof are twelve dormer-windows, with timber semicircular pediments and pairs of triangular pediments alternately. None of the vertical or horizontal articulation of the wall-face continues the treatment of the other fronts to the Court except the plinth and, with minor adjustment, the balustraded parapet; these two, with the similarity of material and steady repetition of the dormers on every range, preserve the total harmony of the design, in spite of the variety. The doorway in the easternmost bay (Plate 109) has a semicircular rusticated head with a keystone carved with acanthus leaves, plain jambs and moulded and enriched imposts supporting double reversed scroll-brackets under a shell hood; above, on the first floor, is a sash-window with moulded architrave and a plain projecting apron below the sill. The doorway at the opposite end of the passage has a plain mid 18th-century stone surround with semicircular head and plain imposts and the two-light window above retains the original mullion and transom; between the two is a plain brick panel. The S. doorway to the screens-passage, although in the sixth bay from the E. and the seventh from the W., is in the centre of the front owing to the greater width of those bays demarcating the Hall; regularity with these last is preserved in the easternmost bay by omitting the E. pilaster-strip.
The Hall (67½ ft. including the Screens by 27 ft.) is lit by large two-light, transomed rectangular windows with moulded architraves, three on the N. and four on the S.; they are set high in the wall and those on the S. occupy most of the area of the wall-recesses above the string; below the string, the lines of the windows are continued down by panelling the wall-face. The S. doorway to the screens (Plate 108), approached by a flight of five elliptical steps, has a semicircular rusticated head with keystone, plain jambs and moulded imposts supporting panelled brackets with entablature-blocks carrying a broken scrolled pediment framing a cartouche carved with the arms of the College, probably by Francis Percy; it is hung with a late 18th-century door of twelve fielded panels, with lintel-rail enriched with Greek key-ornament and a fanlight. Above the doorway and lighting the screens-gallery is a window similar to the others in the Hall but smaller. The lower part of the N. side is largely concealed by modern additions; in it is an original doorway, now widened, to the basement; the upper part of the wall includes late 19th-century heightening. The projecting chimney-stack has round-headed recessed panels at the top, with the upper parts rebuilt and widened on the W.
The rectangular projecting bay containing the staircase at the N. end of the screens-passage was cut away below and bridged across the passage between the College and Trinity Hall in the 19th century; the N. wall is gabled and in the E. wall are two original stone-mullioned windows of two lights and an oval window above with the eaves swept up over it; a similarly treated oval window is in the head of the W. wall. Over the Hall is a hexagonal timber cupola containing a bell; it replaced the original cupola destroyed in the fire of 1890, of which it is a close copy; in each face, above a base with bolection-moulded panels, is a round-headed window with moulded imposts, archivolt and carved key under a continuous crowning entablature breaking forward over brackets at the angles; the dome is lead-covered, with a gilded pineapple finial and wrought-iron weather-vane.
The Interior of the Hall was altered by Sir Matthew Digby Wyatt between 1870 and 1872 when the enriched trabeated plaster ceiling was inserted and the wainscoting, set up by Cornelius Austin in 1688–9, was altered and further elaborated by Thomas Phyffers; the remarkable fireplace-surround by Phyffers has recently been removed. David Fyfield of London contracted for the original plasterwork and some, dated 1688, survives. The E. wall behind the dais is lined to about half the height with panelling divided into bays by single and coupled Corinthian pilasters on a high plinth and supporting a plain entablature; in each bay is a large bolection-moulded panel. Standing on the entablature is an elaborate centrepiece consisting of a foliated cartouche containing the arms of the College in a pedimented framing with side-scrolls and amorini above; at each end, in the angles of the walls, is an urn. The elaborately carved shafts of the pilasters, the inner mouldings of the panels and probably the urns and much of the centrepiece are of 1870–2; the remainder is of 1688–9.
The original bolection-moulded panelling on the side-walls is surmounted by an entablature running immediately below the window-sills; the enriched mouldings of the panels below the windows and the carving in the heads are additions. The Screen is divided into five bays by Corinthian pilasters on pedestals supporting an entablature surmounted by a balustraded gallery-front. In the second and fourth bays are round-headed doorways with moulded imposts and archivolts and carved key-blocks; the remaining bays contain bolection-moulded panels; enrichments similar to those on the dais panelling have been added. The W. face of the screen is similar to the E. face but unadorned and with the architrave and frieze of the entablature omitted. The screens-gallery is approached by the staircase at the N. end and entered under a wide semicircular plaster arch springing from scroll-brackets modelled with masks and with moulded archivolts, mask key-blocks, a panelled soffit enriched with rosettes, and spandrels on both faces modelled with scrolls and the date 1688.
In the W. wall of the screens-passage is a square-headed doorway with moulded stone architrave to the former Buttery, and further N. the archway to the passage to the Kitchen, with semi-elliptical head, plain keystone and sunk spandrels; a third opening, in the W. wall of the stair-bay, formerly opening to an external flight of steps, is now a buttery-hatch. Reset over the doorway to the former Buttery is a small 15th-century stone traceried panel with a central shield painted with the arms of the College.
The N. staircase is original and perhaps by Francis Percy who was paid in 1687 for carving-work about the cupola and staircase. It has close moulded strings, moulded handrail, twisted balusters and panelled newels; at the turns the two newels conjoin and the capping of the lower newel is replaced by a scroll against the side of the upper newel.
The remainder of the S. side of the N. range, W. of the Hall-block, has a window on each floor in each of the six recessed bays; they have moulded architraves, sills and plain aprons and contain double-hung sashes. The N. side has a coved eaves-cornice; the lower part is concealed by modern additions and on the first floor are two windows similar to those at the same level on the S., with a recess of the same form further to the W. In the roof are three gabled dormer-windows. Inside, the Kitchen (36½ ft. by 26 ft.) has been largely modernised; two old fireplaces in the N. wall have semi-elliptical stone arches and the late 17th-century staircase down from the former Buttery has close moulded strings, moulded handrail, twisted balusters and panelled newels.
The Combination Room (31 ft. by 27 ft.) on the first floor, over the former Buttery, which Cole called the best proportioned room in the University, is lined with bolection-moulded panelling of great refinement set up by Cornelius Austin in 1688–9; it has a panelled dado, with a moulded skirting and dado-rail and tall panels above surmounted by an entablature with enriched and gilded architrave and cornice; in the middle of each end wall is a doorway with bolection-moulded architrave hung with a four-panelled, bolection-moulded door with an old brass rim-lock; the E. doorway has a late 19th-century pedimented door-case on the Hall side but retains the original bolection-moulded panelling on the reveals. The fireplace (Plate 49) has red marble slips in an enriched eared surround of wood with a frieze, scroll-shaped in section, carved with acanthus leaves and an enriched cornice; the mid 18th-century overmantel comprises a base-panel, perhaps a later insertion, containing carved wave-pattern ornament and, above, an eared panel with broken scrolled head with a shell at the apex. The bays containing the doorways and fireplace are defined by forward breaks of the panelling and entablature but of the slightest projection and akin to cabinet-work. The plaster ceiling is modern.
The Library (36½ ft. by 26½ ft.), over the Kitchen, was probably complete structurally by the end of 1689, but completion of the interior was delayed for some considerable time. The fitted woodwork by James Essex was not set up until 1729. The walls have an enriched plaster modillion-cornice and are lined to three-quarters of their height with open bookcases under a continuous timber crowning entablature with enriched architrave and cornice carved with acanthus leaves; the cornice is almost flush with the frieze, although giving the general illusion of a normal entablature. At both ends of the room is a door-case with Ionic side-pilasters supporting a pedimented entablature with a dentil-cornice and all the members enriched; the door is framed in eight fielded panels and has an old brass rim-lock. Standing free at the W. end of the Library is a bookcase (Plate 40), presumably of 1627, from the old library over the chapel, which was being refitted in that year; the old library was finally pulled down in 1763, although probably cleared at least as early as 1738. The bookcase has a plain end, which was originally against the wall, a panelled plinth and an entablature continued round the other three sides, and corner-posts in the form of narrow pilaster-strips with panelled shafts containing carved naturalistic foliation, small in scale and in low relief; the entablature comprises a frieze carved with bolder foliation and with scroll-brackets at intervals and a dentil-cornice; the end originally free is divided into four heights with jewelled arcaded panels and geometrical panels alternately and has, above the entablature, an elaborate pierced and scrolled cresting. (See also the cases in the Library of St. John's College.) Another case, lower than that just described and with a desk-top, is made up of similar material of 1627. Four wall-cases, now standing free, and some 5 ft. high, are similar in style but apparently entirely modern. In the Library is a late 15th-century chest with domed lid covered with sheet-metal, iron-bound and nail-studded; it has three locks with hasps and loops and rings at each end for a lifting-pole.
The West Range (Plate 101) is of three storeys with attics and basement. It contains a Gateway in the centre, with the Master's Lodge to the N. and the Bursar's office and sets of rooms to the S. The foundations were begun in 1640, at the time the S. range was begun, but not proceeded with until after the Civil War when, in 1662, the full length of the E. wall and probably part at least of the party-wall to the N. range was raised to a height of 10 ft. Work was again discontinued until 1669. Between 1669 and 1676 that part of the range S. of the Gateway was completed; Robert Grumbold, freemason, and Bradwell his partner were paid for the work and Simeon Wise supplied much of the wrought stonework. In 1671 the W. end of the S. range was being remodelled to accord with the design of the rest of the W. front but with an open arcade on the ground floor. The structural evidence, described below with the exterior, for the continuation of the arcade northward to a third bay is ambiguous, but, if accepted, would suggest that arcading was intended, though never built, to the whole length of the ground floor on the river front.
The Gateway and the Master's Lodge were begun in 1705 and finished structurally in 1707, being fitted and completed between 1709 and 1719; Robert Grumbold estimated for the work and was, it seems, again employed. The range was designed in uniformity on the E. with the S. and E. sides of the Court, with the exception of the Gateway frontispiece; this last conforms more nearly in treatment to the design of the river front, which was a new departure, columniated and wholly post-Restoration in character. Whereas the earlier part of the river front S. of the Gateway originally had transoms and mullions in the windows, the later northern part was equipped with double-hung sashes, and in 1719 the transoms and mullions of the first were cut out and all were made to match; subsequently, in 1815, all the ground and first-floor windows of this front were lengthened by removal of the apron walls, probably on the advice of C. Humfrey, by Tomson, the contractor.
The E. side of the range, to the Court, is in eleven bays including the Gateway and frontispiece of 1705–7 in the centre (Plate 110). The round-headed archway with moulded imposts and archivolt, keystone carved with a man's head and panelled spandrels, is flanked by Tuscan pilasters supporting a plain entablature. The upper part of the frontispiece has colossal Ionic pilasters towards each side flanking the first and second-floor windows and supporting an entablature with broken pediment; the first-floor window has a moulded architrave, enriched flanking pieces with Ionic half-caps and ending in scrolls and an entablature with pulvinated frieze and segmental pediment; the second-floor window has a moulded architrave and apron. Standing between the sides of the main pediment is a lofty tabernacle-framing to a semicircular shell-headed niche, with side-scrolls and flanking urns, foliated spandrels and an entablature with segmental pediment surmounted by an urn; pilasters at each side of the niche have the shafts carved with flowers and their enriched caps are continued across as an enriched string. The flanking fronts of the range are exactly uniform with the general run of the fronts of the E. and S. ranges; only the doorway in the N. bay and the dormer-windows, which are similar to those on the N. range, vary. The N. doorway, to the Master's Lodge, of 1705–7, has a rusticated semicircular head with foliated keystone, panelled side-pilasters with enriched caps surmounted by vertical panels and brackets supporting a pedimented cornice; the woodwork of the door is of the early 19th century. The S. doorway, probably of 1662, is similar to that opposite of some twenty years earlier in the E. range. The three central chimney-stacks, symmetrically arranged, are similar to those of the other ranges. In the absence of any payment for balustrading the parapets, as exists for the E. and S. ranges, the presumption is that the newer building was completed in this way in conformity with the N. range and that the embattled parapet shown by Loggan on the S. part of the range was altered on completion of the whole range (Loggan's view, c. 1688, anticipates the building of the N. part of the range).
The W. side of the range, the river front (Plate 101), is in seventeen bays with a plain half-bay on the N., including the Gateway and frontispiece (Plates 104, 110) in the eighth bay from the S. projecting slightly forward from the main building-line. The W. arch of the Gateway has a semicircular rusticated head with moulded imposts and mask keystone and is flanked by attached Tuscan columns supporting a plain entablature; it is hung with a simple 19th-century wrought-iron gate in two leaves. The upper part of the frontispiece is of ashlar with rusticated quoins and, in the centre, a slightly projecting rusticated frame embracing the first and second-floor windows. The whole is crowned by an entablature; this breaks forward over the frame where it has a segmental pediment containing carved palm-branches in the tympanum; on the pediment and on the wings of the entablature stand elaborate urns on pedestals linked by a cresting of scrolls and wave-ornament. The first and second-floor windows have moulded architraves and are linked together by an apron of slight projection crossed by a continuous moulded string at second floor-level. The string marks the division between two stages of the frontispiece, but without undue emphasis, the pilaster-like effect of the rusticated frame with the flat lintel just beneath the entablature being reminiscent of, perhaps inspired by, the rather similar effect of the articulation of the individual bays of the S. side of the N. range.
The rest of the river front (Plate 104) has a high basement defined by a continuous entablature at the first-floor level breaking forward over Tuscan pilasters dividing and flanking the bays. Superimposed on the Tuscan order are colossal Ionic pilasters rising the full height of the second and third storeys. The Ionic entablature breaks forward over the pilasters and has a pulvinated frieze; on it stands the parapet-balustrading divided into bays by pedestals over each pilaster supporting balls and with carved and panelled dies. The cellar windows are of two lights with a stone mullion; they and the ground-floor windows, of which two are later insertions as described below, have moulded architraves. The first-floor windows are accentuated; they have moulded eared architraves and pedimented entablatures with pulvinated friezes; each window has a massive tripartite keystone extending upwards into the entablature and the centre part into the pediment, the apex of the pediment breaking forward over it. The second-floor windows have moulded architraves and are linked to those below by plain projecting aprons. The changes made in the windows S. of the Gateway have been described above and traces of the transoms and mullions remain except in the ground-floor windows in the first two bays from the S. which were never so divided. These two windows are in the blocking inserted in 1719 into two arches of an arcade; a base perhaps for the S. respond of a third arch is visible outside in the third bay. Most of the surviving features of the arcade appear in the Muniment Room and the cellar below and are there described. On the roof is a range of dormer-windows with timber pedimented cornices, semicircular and triangular, the first alternating with pairs of the second. The N. end of the range is of red brick with two blocked single-light windows on the ground floor and one similar window on each of the two upper floors, all with stone architraves.
The Interior of the Master's Lodge has been extensively altered and modernised; the Master was voted £1,500 for improvements in 1815. The basement contains offices connected with the College kitchen; in it are exposed stop-chamfered beams. On the ground floor the entrance-hall has a trabeated ceiling supported by Ionic columns and pilasters all of the early 19th century, probably of 1815; in the Dining-room is an enriched cornice of the same date continued round the encased ceiling-beams. In both the N. and S. walls of the stairhall is an original door-case with eared architrave, pulvinated frieze and cornice. The original staircase of c. 1710 (Plate 67), rising to the first floor, is of oak, with open strings with carved and foliated scroll-brackets supporting the square projecting ends of the steps, moulded ramped handrails, turned twisted balusters and Corinthian columns for newels; the fascia-board to the landing is carved with scrolls and foliage; the dado is of bolection-moulded fielded panels with Corinthian pilasters at the head of each flight. On the first floor opposite the head of the staircase are the double doors to the Library with the thickness of the wall between them lined with oak fielded panelling, all of the 18th century; the E. door is of eight fielded panels and the W. door is in two leaves each of two fielded panels. On the second floor one of the bedrooms is lined with original bolection-moulded panelling with moulded dado-rail and small cornice. Many rooms in the Master's Lodge retain 18th-century doors, generally of six fielded panels.
The Gateway has in each of the side walls an early 18th-century stone doorway with eared architrave, stepped keystone and flanking panelled pilaster-strips with caps decorated with guttae and with wedge-shaped brackets above supporting a boldly projecting cornice. The rest of the range southward contains stop-chamfered beams on the ground floor. The Bursar's Room has a dado of reset early 17th-century panelling. The W. wall of the Muniment Room, in the S.W. corner of the range, with that of the corridor adjoining it on the N., is in two bays divided and flanked by stone pilasters; the pilasters do not reach to the ceiling and are now without structural or decorative significance; in the S. wall is a semicircular-headed recess. The floor has been raised and, in the cellar below, the bases of the pilasters are visible flanked by the bases of stone responds. On the evidence of a College order of 1719 that the 'two arches' in this wall next the Fellows' Garden 'be made up', it is clear that the pilasters and responds are their remains. Any evidence, inside, of a third bay of the arcade has been destroyed or concealed. In the E. wall of the cellar, previously the back wall of the arcade, projecting below the new ceiling-level, is the lower part of a doorway, now blocked, with moulded stone architrave and flanked by a doorway on the S. and a blocked circular window on the N., both of reused materials.
Staircases 'F' and 'G' have close moulded strings, turned balusters, moulded grip-handrails and square panelled newels with ball-finials and turned pendants; both are of the date of the building, 1669–76. On the first floor are stop-chamfered beams and many 17th and 18th-century doors of two and six panels with bolection and ogee mouldings. The S. room is lined from floor to ceiling with mid 18th-century fielded panelling with dado and cornice; the doors are part of the same work. In the attics some of the main timbers of the collar-beam roof are exposed. In both the S. room and in the main room N. of staircase 'F' is an original stone fireplace with four-centred opening in a square head.
The Chapel (60 ft. by 26½ ft.) with octagonal Ante-chapel (26½ ft. diagonal), extending eastward from the Hall as far as Trinity Hall Lane, was built between 1763 and 1769 to the designs of Sir James Burrough and James Essex. Below both the Chapel and Ante-chapel is a vaulted undercroft. The E. and S. walls are of ashlar and the N. wall is of white brick in English bond with stone dressings; the roofs are lead-covered. The Ante-chapel is concealed on three sides, being within the re-entrant angle of the N. and E. ranges; the N. wall has a semicircular-headed brick recess in the centre with a stone sill, a segmental-headed doorway to the undercroft and three stone loop-lights to the N.E. stair.
Externally the E. and S. walls of the Chapel (Plate 102) are divided into bays by Corinthian pilasters, which stand on a rusticated podium containing the segmental-headed undercroft windows and support an enriched and modillioned entablature continuing round the building. The entablature is pedimented over the full width of the E. end and carries a balustraded parapet over the side walls. The E. end is in three unequal bays; in the wide middle bay is a round-headed recess with a continuous architrave, plain keystone and sill supported on scrollbrackets; in each narrow side bay is a plain round-headed niche with a plain rectangular sunk panel above and below. The S. wall is in seven bays; in the five centre bays are windows with surrounds similar to that of the recess in the E. wall; the end bays are narrower than the others and both contain a plain tall rectangular sunk panel with smaller sunk panels above and below, the lower pierced by a small oval light fitted with an original wrought-iron scroll-work guard.
The N. wall is in seven bays, the westernmost projecting slightly to contain the staircase to the organ-loft; the remainder have a plinth with a plat-band for capping at the floor-level and contain shallow wall-recesses, the easternmost rising to and stopped by the entablature, the others with semicircular brick arches on plain stone imposts. In each of the five centre bays is a window similar to that opposite and with a low segmental recess below in the basement. The staircase-bay contains an elliptical-headed window with plain stone surround below a stone plat-band with a circular window above; only the cornice of the main entablature is continued across the staircasebay.
On the roof of the Ante-chapel is a large octagonal timber lantern (Plate 106) with Ionic pilasters at the angles supporting an entablature mitred forward over them and with a lead-covered dome with pineapple finial; in each face, between the pilasters, is a semicircular-headed window with moulded archivolt, plain keystone and moulded imposts; the glazingbars in the window-heads are set radially.
Approach to the Chapel and Ante-chapel is by the doorway in the N.E. corner of the Court into a passage adjoining the E. end of the Hall. The passage has ashlar walls divided into three bays by plain pilaster-strips with continuous bases and cappings; from the last springs a semicircular groined plaster vault. The tympanum at each end is panelled. In the E. wall, the doorway in the centre bay, to the Ante-chapel, has an eared architrave; the doorways in the side bays have architraves and sunk panels above. In the W. wall recesses take the place of the doorways opposite. This internal treatment of the passage is contemporary with the Chapel building.
The Chapel undercroft is divided into five bays and two half-bays in the length and three in the width by square piers and responds with plain bases and stone imposts supporting a segmental groined vault turned in brick. The two and a half bays on the N.W. are divided off by a later partition. The Ante-chapel undercroft is similar to the foregoing in detail, with four piers arranged in a square.
The Interior of the Chapel (Plate 111) has an elliptical barrel-vaulted plaster ceiling and an inset elliptical apsidal E. end with semi-dome. The wall-treatment is a unity according to classical formula, the wood panelling from floor to sill-level with projecting bays at intervals forming in effect a high plinth with pedestals for the coupled Corinthian pilasters between the windows. The pilasters support a continuous enriched entablature with a dentilled modillion-cornice, with floral festoons in the frieze across the E. end. The E. wall is astylar, with plaster panelling. The barrel-vault is panelled to simulate coffering; the square and oblong panels have enriched framing of slight projection and contain bosses of a variety of designs, except the alternate panels in alternate rows which are left empty; the whole is coloured, red, blue, green and gilded. The semi-dome of the apse is divided into sectors by enriched radiating ribs; each sector is filled with a net-like pattern of six-sided geometrical panels containing foliate bosses and all coloured and gilded. Over the arch to the apse a broad band of anthemion-ornament replaces an archivolt. The windows have semicircular heads, panelled reveals and soffits, moulded archivolts and moulded imposts continued between the pilasters.
At the W. end the panelling incorporates the Master's and President's stalls flanked by Ionic pilasters, the inner ones framing the central semicircular-headed entrance-archway to the Chapel (see Panelling below). The archway has panelled jambs with moulded bases and enriched cappings and foliage carved in the spandrels. The wood casing is returned along the short passageway below the organ-loft and in each side is a doorway between panelled pilasters with enriched caps continued as a crowning member from which springs the panelled wood semicircular soffit of the ceiling. The gallery-front is panelled and divided into bays by pedestals with panelled dies but in part concealed by the early 20th-century organ-case filling the whole of the space to the ceiling above. The stair to the organ-loft is lined with finely tooled ashlar with raking elliptical barrel-vault springing from continuous neckingmouldings at the wall-head.
The Ante-chapel is a regular octagon with a round-headed arch in each side, a continuous heavy enriched entablature at the wall-head and an enriched octagonal dome rising to the central octagonal lantern already described with the exterior. The walls are ashlar-faced; the entablature and dome are plaster. Each arch has a panelled soffit, a moulded archivolt with plain keystone and panelled responds with moulded impost-caps and bases; the E. arch is open to the Chapel (Plate III), the W. frames the square-headed entrance-doorway with eared architrave, and the remaining arches frame wallrecesses with sunk panels in the back-wall; the moulded imposts are continued and mitred across the recesses and sinkings. The dome rises from a low panelled drum with an upper cornice; each side of the dome is panelled; the panels taper and have enriched mouldings framing stylised foliations (Plate 60). The domed roof of the lantern is similarly panelled and has a large boss in the centre.
Fittings— The fittings are contemporary with the building unless otherwise described. Bell: now in E. range, of 1727, unhung and without clapper. Cupboard: in Ante-chapel, made up of 17th-century material carved with arabesque and reeding. Doors: in entrance-doorway, of oak, in two leaves, each of four panels with projecting moulded framing; two, under organgallery, of oak, each of six panels, of similar style to the foregoing; to organ-loft, of pine, of two panels, as before. Gallery: See general description of W. end above. Inscription: in Antechapel, in tympanum over entrance-door, on round white marble tablet with enriched frame, recording the laying of the first stone of the building by Dr. P. S. Goddard, S.T.P., Master and Vice-Chancellor, on 3rd May 1763, and the consecration of the building by Richard [Terrick], Bishop of London, on 5th July 1769, and subscribed 'Jacobo Burrough Milite et Jacobo Essex Architect'.
Monuments: In Ante-chapel—on N. wall, (1) of John Wilcox, S.T.P., 1762, Master, the major benefactor to the Chapel building-fund, buried in St. Edward's Church, white and grey marble wall-tablet on scroll-brackets with enriched entablature and scrolled broken pediment framing a pedestal carrying a draped flaming urn, erected by College order, 1767; on S. wall, (2) of Samuel Blythe, S.T.P., 1713, Master, a benefactor to the College building-fund, similar tablet to (1) and probably of the same date. Organ: at W. end, brought from Honington, Lincolnshire, and enlarged and apparently entirely modernised in 1910. Painting (Plate 113): Set in reredos, with rounded top, the Annunciation painted on canvas by Cipriani (1727–85), bought for £100 and put up when the Chapel was fitted. Panelling: In Chapel—walls lined to sill-level with tall oak panels above a low panelled dado; where wall-benches replace the dado the upper rail continues as a plinth on the benches; the capping-moulding is enriched with honeysuckleornament in the frieze. The projections forming the pedestals of the main pilasters are panelled and the bays below the windows contain a wide central panel flanked by narrow panels. On the W. return, Ionic pilasters flanking the Master's and President's stalls support a full dentilled entablature interrupted by the archway into the Chapel; small enriched pilaster-strips standing on the ends of the entablature support a pediment over the arch, with carved wreaths and branches in the tympanum and spandrels. See also general description above and Seating below. Pavement: in Chapel, of black and white marble squares, with black marble altar-steps; in Ante-chapel, of stone with small square insets of slate. Reredos (Plate 112): with coupled Corinthian columns and pilasters on a panelled pedestal at each side supporting an enriched pedimented entablature with dentilled modillion-cornice and an open book with crowned wreath flanked by palm-branches carved in the tympanum; the whole frames the Cipriani painting (see above) set in a round-headed recess with moulded archivolt, enriched impostcaps, panelled and carved responds, and palms and wheat-ears in the spandrels; all the enrichments are gilded and the Corinthian capitals and entablature are coloured. Seating: The Master's and President's stalls at the W. end are integral with the panelling; both have Ionic columns and pilasters on panelled pedestals supporting an entablature returned as a canopy with a segmental pediment to the E.; the seats are in niches with enriched semi-domes each with a continuous band of fluting at impost-level and with carved festoons in the spandrel above; the arms are formed of foliated scrolls and the doors are in two heights of panelling, the upper panel containing carved foliage. See also general description and Panelling above. The benches and desks are arranged in two tiers, as shown on the plan, the benches on shaped supports, the desk-fronts in two heights of small panels with slightly projecting mouldings, the moulded cappings of the fronts with continuous bands of guilloche-ornament and the ends in the form of attentuated scrolls with carved acanthus enrichments.
The Bridge over the river, W. of the College, was built between 1638 and 1640 (Plate 107): it is therefore contemporary with the E. range, one of the first works undertaken in rebuilding the College, and logically may be assumed to have been put in hand at this stage to facilitate bringing building materials to the site. It is of Ketton stone ashlar. In January 1638–9 Thomas Grumbold was paid for 'a draught of a bridge', and it has been presumed that the existing building is to his design. In February 1639–40 he was paid for working the rail and balusters. The total cost has been computed at £284.
The bridge is in three spans of segmental, nearly semicircular, arches with plain archivolts and keystones separated by cutwaters, triangular on plan, with weathered tops. The cutwaters are set against shallow projections and these and pilasterlike strips rising from the weatherings are continued up to form articulated pedestals with carved and panelled dies in the balustraded parapets; secondary pedestals with carved dies are placed in the balustrading centrally over each span. The continuous parapet-strings are mitred round the projections and keystones, the square moulded balusters are set diagonally, and the moulded parapet-rails surmounted by balls, thirteen and three-quarters in all, over the pedestals. The central parapets are horizontal, the parapets over the side spans slope downwards to the banks and, on the W., the balustrading turns N. and S. to border a rectangular gravelled enclosure at the bridge-foot.
The main pedestal-dies are carved on the outer face only, on the N.E. with a sea-horse in an oval panel, the S.E., Arion with a harp riding a dolphin in a square panel, the N.W., a Triton wielding a club in a square panel, the S.W., a sea-horse in an oval panel.
The secondary pedestals are carved on both N. and S. faces with rupilations resembling rockwork and shells, except the following— on the N.E., inside face, with leaves and flowers of ranunculus, on the centre, inside, Europa, on the N.W., inside, leaves and flowers of ranunculus, outside, rocks and seashells with a man's head and hands appearing above them; on the S.E., outside, rocks and river creatures, on the centre, inside, Andromeda, outside, rocks and a lizard-like beast, on the S.W., outside, rocks and a frog.
The Causeway to the bridge from the College is bounded by low brick walls with stone copings now surmounted in part only by 18th-century wrought-iron railings with spear-headed uprights, stanchions with vase-finials, and scrolled standards adjoining the bridge; the surviving railings on the western half of the N. wall contain a small gate into the Master's Garden; the short length at the W. end of the S. wall incorporates the gateway to the Scholars' Garden, originally the Fellows' Garden, with overthrow and central lamp-cage.
On the boundaries of the College are three sets of gates. The Entrance from Trinity Hall Lane (Plate 102, p. 392) has rusticated stone piers built by Grumbold in 1673, with pilaster-like strips on the E. and W. faces, moulded bases and entablatures surmounted by urns carved with lion-masks and filled with carved flowers; short wing-walls support scrolls against the piers. The original timber gates were replaced in 1714 by wrought-iron gates made probably by a local smith named Warren; they are in three bays, hinged in two leaves, with plain uprights linked by a band of scroll-work at the base and rails with pendants and cresting; in the head of the centre bay is a semicircular pattern of radiating scrolls. The elaborate overthrow consists of scrolls with cut-sheet acanthus foliage. Flanking the piers is a stone dwarf boundary-wall surmounted by railings, also of the 18th-century, with spear-headed uprights and stanchions with urn-finials; wall and railings are returned on the S. to divide the forecourt from King's College; the railing is also returned across the end of Trinity Hall Lane and fitted with double gates.
The enclosure at the foot of the bridge is bounded on the N., S. and W. by railings incorporating, on the N., a gate to the Master's and Fellows' Garden and, on the W., a triple Gateway to the causeway over Butt Close (Plate 57). All are of 1714 and probably the work of Warren. The gates are divided and flanked by open standards containing scroll-work; the standards support an overthrow with elaborate cresting incorporating cut-sheet acanthus and laurel foliage and, symmetrically arranged, three spires, with the tallest over the centre gate incorporating a renewed plate painted with the arms of the College. The Gateway (Plate 56) at the W. end of the causeway, to Queens' Road, has tall ashlar piers with moulded bases, panelled dies, crowning modillion-cornices and ball-finials on flared pedestals enriched with gadrooning; on their outer sides are buttresses with scrolled weathering and, beyond, short flanking palisades ending in small replicas of the main piers. The wrought-iron wicketed gate between the main piers is of the early 18th-century, perhaps of 1714 although not clearly specified in the College order concerning the gates already described; it consists of plain uprights and rails with some scroll-work and with an elaborate scrolled overthrow containing a modern plate painted with the College arms. The later side-palisades are plain, with modern chevaux-de-frise added, and replace brick screen-walls with ramped copings existing c. 1730; with these last complete, the piers would resemble those shown to the W. of the bridge in Loggan's engraving of the College (published 1690) and to which an account of 1691, for money already expended on freestone copings, perhaps, refers.
The Boundary-wall S. of the Fellows' Garden is ancient and no doubt that shown in the same position in the 17th-century drawing (in the College Treasury) of the College before the rebuilding. It is of random clunch rubble with a heightening of limestone rubble and a further heightening of brick and in all some 12 ft. high on the N.