An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Dorset, Volume 3, Central. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1970.
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21 HAZELBURY BRYAN (7508)
Hazelbury Bryan is a large parish of 2,400 acres, undulating between 240 ft. and 300 ft. above sea-level and drained by several small streams which flow N. and N.W. to the R. Lydden, and N.E. to the R. Stour. A broad band of Corallian Limestone and Sand traverses the area from S.W. to N.E.; to N.W. the soil is Oxford Clay, to S.E. it is Kimmeridge Clay.
The somewhat scattered pattern of occupation seems to have developed from the three settlements of Droop, Wonston and Kingston, which all lie at about 300 ft. altitude on the Corallian Limestone. Whether each had a separate mediaeval open field system is not known; such fields as existed were partly enclosed by the middle of the 14th century, (fn. 1) and the map of the parish made in 1607 by Ralph Treswell (fn. 2) shows that they had been entirely enclosed by that date. On the other hand the hamlet of Woodrow seems to represent an extension of settlement into the waste area to the N.E. (where Treswell shows 'common closes'); monument (26) was probably built in consequence of this movement, while monuments (27) to (31) represent further encroachment on the waste between the early 17th century and 1858, when enclosure was completed. (fn. 3) The group of cottages at Park Gate is a 19th-century settlement on land which, as Treswell shows, was already enclosed by 1607; indeed this enclosure may even go back to the 14th century. (fn. 4)
(1) The Parish Church of St. Mary and St. James (Plate 5) is in the hamlet of Droop. It has walls of roughly coursed rubble with ashlar dressings; the nave and the N. aisle are roofed with stone-slates, the chancel is tiled and the other roofs are lead-covered. The entire building, comprising Chancel, South Chapel, Nave, North and South Aisles, West Tower and South Porch, dates from the second half of the 15th century. The chancel and tower appear to have been built first and the nave and other parts subsequently, and over a number of years since the S. arcade is stylistically about twenty years later than the N. arcade. The chancel was restored in 1827 and general restorations were undertaken in 1895.
The church is a good example of 15th-century architecture with few later alterations. The roofs are original and richly decorated and some interesting mediaeval glass is preserved. (For plan, see p. 106.)
Architectural Description—The Chancel (25½ ft. by 15½ ft.) has a casement-moulded 15th-century E. window of three two-centred lights with cinquefoil cusping and vertical tracery; the two-centred head has a hood-mould with head-stops. The N. wall, largely rebuilt in ashlar in 1827, has two restored windows each of two cinquefoil-headed lights with a quatrefoil above, under a main head of shallow triangular form with casement mouldings which continue on the jambs; above are hollow-chamfered hood-moulds with square leaf stops; the rear arches are stone slabs pitched together at the apex. The S. wall of the chancel has one window uniform with those of the N. wall. Further W. is a segmental-pointed archway to the S. Chapel; it is of three orders, comprising ogee mouldings on each side of a hollow-chamfer; the ogee mouldings spring from capitals enriched with conventional foliage. On the responds, the inner ogee is carried on attached shafts while the hollow-chamfer and the outer ogee are continuous; the moulded bases have hollow-chamfered polygonal plinths. Both in the arch and in the responds the continuous hollow-chamfer is decorated at intervals on the N. side with square foliate bosses. The chancel arch, partly rebuilt in the 19th century, is two-centred and of three orders. It resembles the archway to the S. Chapel except that the inner ogee is replaced by a roll-moulding and there are no foliate bosses. The mouldings continue on the responds but they are interrupted at the springing by horizontal fillets in place of capitals. The stairs to the former rood-loft are entered through a square-headed doorway in the S. face of the S. respond and a corbelled step appears on the W. face of the respond where the vice emerges at the top.
The South Chapel (17 ft. by 9 ft.) has a three-light E. window similar to that of the chancel; the hood-mould has square stops with flower centres. The S. wall contains a two-light window uniform with those in the side walls of the chancel, and a narorw doorway with a two-centred wave-moulded head, continuous jambs and broach stops. The S. and E. walls have embattled parapets with hollow-chamfered string-courses and moulded copings; a grotesque gargoyle is set in the string-course above the E. window. A diagonal buttress of two stages with weathered offsets strengthens the S.E. corner and a similar buttress is set square against the S. wall; it marks the W. end of the chapel but there is no internal feature, except a change in floor level, to distinguish the chapel from the S. aisle. Above each buttress a grotesque gargoyle protrudes from the string-course.
The Nave (41½ ft. by 16½ ft.) is flanked on the N. by an arcade of four bays with two-centred arches of three orders (Plate 138), similar to those of the archway to the S. Chapel, described above, but without foliate bosses. The piers consist of four attached shafts alternating with hollow-chamfers; the shafts have simple moulded capitals and moulded polygonal bases; at the level of the caps each hollow-chamfer is ornamented with a foliate boss. The responds are similar half-piers but part of the E. respond has been cut away, probably to make room for a former pulpit. The S. arcade corresponds with that on the N. in spacing, but the arches are slightly lower and the mouldings, particularly those of the capitals, are coarser.
The North Aisle (41¾ ft. by 7¾ ft.) must have been built after the W. tower because the profile of the vice turret appears internally on the W. The gabled E. wall has a weathered ashlar coping with a cross finial. The 15th-century E. window is of three cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery and a casement-moulded two-centred outer head with continuous jambs; the rear arch is two-centred and hollow-chamfered. The N. wall has three square-set buttresses of two weathered stages and the N.E. and N.W. corners have similar buttresses set diagonally; between the buttresses are four three-light windows, uniform with the E. window of the aisle but set at a lower level.
The South Aisle (39 ft. by 9 ft.) has a S. wall continuous with that of the S. Chapel and with a continuous string-course and parapet mouldings, and similar buttresses. Gargoyles protrude from the string-course in correspondence with the buttresses, and chamfered standards above them are probably the bases of former pinnacles. A two-light window near the E. end of the S. wall is uniform with the adjacent window in the S. Chapel. The S. doorway has a two-centred moulded head of two orders, ogee and hollow-chamfered, with continuous jambs and moulded stops, and a rear arch composed of two chamfered stones pitched together at the apex. W. of the doorway the S. wall has buttresses as before described and two two-centred two-light windows with cinquefoil cusping and vertical tracery; the heads and continuous jambs are casement-moulded.
The West Tower (11 ft. by 14 ft.) is of rubble with occasional courses of roughly squared stone; it has four external stages between the moulded and chamfered plinth and the embattled parapet. Each stage is marked by a weathered string-course and a slight recession of the wall-face. Five-stage diagonal ashlar buttresses with weathered offsets strengthen the N.W. and S.W. corners, a similar buttress is set square at the E. end of the S. side and the N.E. corner is strengthened by the vice turret, which has three principal stages. The embattled parapet has a continuous moulded coping and a pinnacle with a crocketed finial at each corner; the vice turret stands a little higher than the main parapet and has similar terminal features. The tower arch is two-centred, with a panelled soffit and continuous jambs; the trefoil-headed panels are set in pairs, in four heights. The vice doorway has a chamfered four-centred head and continuous jambs. The W. doorway has a two-centred head with three orders of mouldings and continuous jambs; it is surmounted by a square label and the spandrels between the arch and the label have trefoil panels. Above, the two-centred W. window is of four cinquefoil ogee-headed lights with vertical tracery; the hood-mould is an extension of the lower string-course. In the lower stage the external face of the S. wall is decorated with a small niche, rectangular in plan, with an ogee canopied head flanked by crocketed finials. In the second stage two similar niches occur on either side of the W. window head. In the third stage is a square-headed N. window of two pointed lights with trefoil cusping. The fourth stage has in each face a casementmoulded belfry window of two transomed and trefoil-headed lights with a quatrefoil under a two-centred head with a hood-mould. The lights below the transoms are blocked with stone panels; those above are louvred.
The South Porch (8½ ft. by 8 ft.) has a string-course and an embattled parapet resembling those of the S. aisle but at a lower level; the string-course has a gargoyle at each corner. The porch entry has a two-centred arch with double ogee mouldings, continuous jambs and run-out stops; the hollow-chamfered label terminates in square stops with flower centres.
Roofs. The Chancel has a plaster barrel-vault of the 19th century divided into panels by moulded transverse and longitudinal ribs. At the springing are heavily-moulded wall-plates, and the intersections of the cross-ribs with the wall-plates are masked by painted shields, some with heraldic emblems, others with initials and one dated 1827. The Nave has a 15th-century wagon roof, four-centred in cross-section; the transverse members which were originally intended to be visible are moulded, and they are intersected by moulded longitudinal members to form panels; the panels must originally have been plastered but the plaster has now been removed to expose the intermediate timbers. The intersections of the moulded members are decorated with leaf-bosses. The transverse members spring from wall-plates with mouldings in two orders, decorated with carved bosses. The roof of the N. Aisle is of the same date and type as that of the Nave but narrower and more steeply pitched; blank shields decorate the wall-plates at the springing of the moulded transverse members. The S. Aisle and the S. Chapel have a continuous flat roof of twelve bays defined by heavily moulded transverse beams with slightly raised centres; the beams are intersected by a moulded longitudinal member and they rest on moulded wall-plates, thus forming square coffer-like panels (Plate 21); the panels are spanned alternately by joists set E.-W. and N.-S. Carved wooden leaf-bosses at the junctions of the main members are perhaps not original. The Porch has a similar roof of four panels with no bosses.
Fittings—Bells: six; 2nd inscribed 'Feare God IW 1613'; 3rd inscribed 'Ave gracia [pl]ena' in Lombardic letters, c. 1400; 4th inscribed 'Sancte Andrea' in floreated Lombardic letters, c. 1400; 5th inscribed 'Remember thy end IW 1613'; others modern. Benefactors' Tables: In S. aisle, on W. wall, endowment record, 1709. In porch, endowment record, 1843; adjacent, matching table of kindred and affinity. Brackets: In chancel, below piscina, moulded polygonal stone bracket with angel head retaining traces of red pigment, 15th century. In nave, on E. respond of S. arcade, stone head-corbel with flat top, with traces of pigment, 15th century. Chest: of oak, with panelled front and sides, enriched styles and rails, 17th century. Coffin-stools: two, of oak, with square legs, 18th century. Doors: In S. doorway, of oak, with vertical external planks and internal battens, wrought iron strap-hinges, ring-handle, escutcheon-plate and lock, probably all 15th century; in tower vice doorway, with original planks and hinges, 15th century; in W. doorway, dated 1827. Font: of Purbeck marble; octagonal bowl decorated on each face with two shallow round-headed panels and with chamfered lower edge, cylindrical pedestal surrounded by eight smaller shafts on chamfered octagonal base, late 12th century. Font cover of oak, octagonal, with fretted cornice and tent-shaped head, 18th century, formerly part of pulpit sounding-board (see old photograph in church).
Glass: In chancel, in tracery of E. window, centre quatrefoil with blue Tudor rose with yellow rays, N. trefoil with shield-of-arms quarterly of Montagu and Monthermer, S. trefoil with shield-of-arms paly of Bryan and Bures; in lower tracery lights, in N. spandrel, leaf pattern, in adjacent cinquefoil, winged seraph in silver-stain, in next three cinquefoils, reset Tudor roses and sun, in S. spandrel, plain blue glass, all 15th or 16th century; in S. window, quatrefoil with leaf patterns and, in place of central roundel, fragment of glass with lettering, 15th century. In S. chapel, in E. window, tracery lozenge with fragment depicting tonsured head, 15th century; in centre light, reset fragment of canopy. In N. aisle, in E. window, in centre quatrefoil, inverted yellow and white crown; in two trefoil-headed tracery lights, lion and eagle symbols of Evangelists, each named on scroll; below, in two lights, fragments of crocketed canopies. In N. side of N. aisle, in easternmost window, rose in top quatrefoil and seraphs in three of four tracery lights (Plate 139, b), fragments of canopies in cinquefoil heads of main lights below; in second window, rose in top quatrefoil and angel bearing shield with monogram in each tracery light (Plate 139, a, c and f), also fragments of canopies below; in third window, angels holding shields with monograms and emblems in three tracery lights (Plate 139, d and e), also fragments of canopies below; in fourth window, small fragments; all 15th century. In tower, in W. window, another mediaeval fragment. Inscriptions: On plinth on S. face of tower, 'W.P. 1739'.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel, on N. wall, (1) of Francis Reed, rector, 1821, marble tablet with arms, by Gray of Weymouth. In churchyard, against S.E. buttress of S. Chapel, (2) of Nicholas Kellaway, 1714, headstone with cherubs' heads (Plate 32); S. of S. porch, (3) of Mary Strange, 1840, 17th-century table-tomb reused. Floor-slabs: In nave, W. of chancel step, (1) of Richard Hill, 1764; adjacent, (2), (3) and (4) of Eliz. Woodrow, Elizabeth Hill Woodrow and . . . Woodrow, three worn 18th and 19th-century Purbeck slabs forming pavement; further W., (5) illegible, 1696, similar slab. Niches: In porch, on E. wall, (1) shallow niche with chamfered trefoil head; to E. of doorway to S. aisle, (2) roughly scooped round-headed niche. In N. aisle, in N.E. corner, (3) and (4), with shafted jambs, rib-vaulted canopies with rich crocketed cresting and angel-brackets, 15th century; on N. wall, (5) large reset niche, perhaps originally sedile, with grotesque-headed corbel, banded lateral shafts with crocketed finials, and ogee canopy with cusping and crockets; canopy flanked by quatrefoil spandrels with flower centres and surmounted by tall finial prolonged beyond square outer head, 15th century; niche now used as setting for modern sculpture. On S. and W. faces of W. tower, see Architectural Description. Paintings: On S. wall of nave, texts in two panels, that to E. with angel supporters; late 16th or early 17th century. Piscinae: In chancel, on S. side, lower part of piscina comprising bowl with central outlet and chamfered jambs of niche with broach-stops, 15th century; head of niche formed from fragment of window tracery, 14th century. In S. chapel, on S. wall, with chamfered round head and cutback basin. Plate: includes silver cup with hallmark and inscription of 1630, paten of 1813, and candlesticks, pair, silver-plated, late 18th century. Pulpit: of oak, octagonal, inscribed 'Ben Lidford 1782', with later pedestal and stairs; above, sounding-board with inlaid soffit and fretted cornice, suspended by chain from nave roof, 18th century; for former head to sounding-board see font-cover. Royal Arms: At W. end of N. aisle, square panel painted with arms of Queen Anne, superscribed G.R. 1715. Sundials: On tower, on third stage of S.W. buttress, inserted rectangular stone slab with iron gnomon, 18th century. Miscellanea: Reset at N.E. and S.E. corners of S. chapel, two capitals, one with crowned monogram 'S T' in deeply undercut foliage surmounted by a moulded abacus (Plate 16), the other with foliage only, 14th century.
(2) Malthouse Farm (74990835) is a two-storied house with walls of squared rubble and slated roofs; it is of the late 17th century with 18th-century additions. A few windows have stone mullions and weathered hood-moulds. A Barn to the W. is of the 18th century. Treswell's map shows a house in this position.
(3) Barn, 50 yds. S. of the church, is of the 16th century with later repairs. The walls are of coursed rubble and the roof is thatched. The E. wall contains a doorway 10 ft. wide located 20 ft. from the N. end, and what is probably the jamb of a second doorway 30 ft. further S.; beyond this the building has been rebuilt. The W. wall has one jamb of an original doorway opposite to the first but the N. and S. extremities of the wall are secondary. A cross wall half-way between the two E. doorways divides the original barn into two parts. The roof is supported on a series of jointed cruck trusses spanning E.–W. and set 10 ft. apart; the N. half retains three nearly complete trusses and the remains of a fourth; the truncated S. half retains two. The vertical members of each truss start at ground-level and stand 9 ft. high; they curve inwards at the top and are notched into the principals and fastened with pegs and free tenons. The principals are tenoned and pegged at the apex and support three purlins on each side; collar beams occur at the level of the middle purlins. Treswell's map shows a building in this position.
(4) Droop Farm, 200 yds. S. of the church, is a two-storied house of coursed rubble with a thatched roof. The S.W. front has four bays with sashed windows set at wide intervals; an old gable-line on the end wall shows that it has been heightened. A stone casement window in the S.E. wall has hollow-chamfered jambs and a square head. The house was probably built in the late 17th or early 18th century and remodelled in the 19th century.
(5) Cottage (75360805), perhaps of the late 16th or early 17th century, is built of rubble in two storeys with an iron roof. It contains elements of cruck trusses and an 18th-century plank-and-muntin partition.
(7) Mount Pleasant Farm (77000837) is an L-shaped two-storied building with rubble walls with some brick dressings, and slated roofs. The oldest part, at the angle of the L, is an 18th-century cottage with wooden three-light casement windows; this was extended to the E. in the later part of the century, and to the S. in the 19th century.
Unless otherwise described, the following monuments are of the 18th century and are two-storied, or single-storied with dormer-windowed attics; they have rubble walls, brick chimneys, thatched roofs and casement windows.
(8) Cottage (74420806), has some original leaded casement windows of the early 18th century. Inside, a large fireplace with a chamfered bressummer stands against the E. end wall and has the stairs beside it to the S.
(12) Cottages (74380808), four, stand in a row facing S.W. Treswell's map shows that cottages were set close together here in 1607, as is the case today, but none can be positively identified. The most southerly is two-storied, of coursed rubble with a slated roof, and is probably of the early 19th century. The next has brick walls on a high ashlar plinth and may go back to Treswell's time although the brick upper part, in English bond, was probably rebuilt early in the 18th century. The thatched roof continues over the next cottage to the N.W. which has similar brick walls and is probably contemporary. The next cottage is also contemporary with and in the same alignment as the foregoing; it has been heightened by the insertion of 19th-century semi-dormer attic windows.
(13) Cottages, two adjoining, continue the line of the foregoing towards the N.W. and are probably of the early 18th or possibly of the late 17th century. The S.W. fronts are rendered and the interior has been much altered in the conversion of the two dwellings into one.
(14) House (74280818), 100 yds. N.W. of the foregoing and on the opposite side of the road, is built of rubble to the height of the first-floor window-sills; above, it is of brick and the gabled S. end wall is patterned with blue headers. The roofs are slated and the windows are sashed. Presumably the original rubble house was heightened when the brick walls were built, and this work is probably dated by a stone plaque over the doorway, inscribed 'J.S.S. 1812'. The original building may date from the late 17th or early 18th century.
(17) House (74220837), perhaps originally of the late 17th century, was refronted with brick and divided into three tenements in the 19th century (date-stone 'WJM 1821'); it is now reconverted to a single house. Inside, the N. end room has a large fireplace, now blocked, with a wooden staircase beside it, and each of the other ground-floor rooms has a similar fireplace. One room has a chamfered beam.
(25) Inn, 150 yds. S.W. of the foregoing, is a mid 18th-century building with walls of Flemish-bonded brickwork patterned with blue headers; the roofs are tiled. The symmetrical three-bay S. front has casement windows of three and two lights, and a plat-band at first-floor level. A rear wing at right-angles to the front range has walls of the same type of brickwork but with lower eaves. The E. room of the S. range has a corner fireplace, with an 18th-century stone surround with a fluted keystone and a moulded cornice. The room is lined with fielded oak panelling in two heights with a moulded dado rail.
(26) Farmhouse (74250953), 1 m. N.W. of the parish church, is two-storied and has cob walls and a thatched roof (Plate 59). A house is shown here on Treswell's map of 1607 and it is probable that this is the actual building; Treswell makes a distinction between houses with central fireplaces and those with the fireplaces against the end walls, and the building corresponds with the map in this respect as well as in location; thus the house may be assigned with some probability to the end of the 16th century. To the N. is a single-storied extension, probably of the 19th century, containing appliances for cider making. Inside, the former open fireplace and oven have been blocked. The stairs are modern. The first floor rests on rough stop-chamfered beams.
(28) Common Farm (73520960) is one-storied with attics, with rubble and brick walls and thatched roofs, and is of the 18th century. Inside, there are a stop-chamfered ceiling beam and a plank-and-muntin partition.
(29) Hazelbury Mill (73140975) is an 18th-century structure of rubble and brick in two storeys with tiled and stone-slated roofs. Later remodelling is attested by a stone inscribed 'WSA 1817'. A mill stood here in 1607.
(32) Farmhouse (74940987) consists of two parts, a front range facing E. and a rear range at right-angles; the latter was originally an independent cottage. Both ranges have thatched roofs. The E. range, of Flemish-bonded brickwork patterned with blue headers, is of the 18th century and has a symmetrical, two-storied front of five bays, with a central doorway and casement windows; the first floor is marked by a plat-band and there is a coved eaves cornice; the gabled end walls are surmounted by chimney stacks. The cottage at the rear is of the 17th century. It has one storey with an attic; the N. and S. walls are of coursed rubble and the gabled W. wall is of cob. A small three-light window on the N. side has chamfered wooden mullions. Internally, the original partitions of the cottage are lost but the ceiling is supported on large stop-chamfered beams, one transverse and one longitudinal. At the W. end is a large open fireplace and to the S. of the fireplace is space for a winding stair; both these openings are spanned by a continuous chamfered beam with splayed stops on which is carved the date 1666. A house is shown in this position on Treswell's map of 1607.
(35) Cottage (75050972) is timber-framed and probably of the 16th century, but most of the original fabric was hidden or replaced by rubble walling in the 17th or 18th century. In the 19th century the walls were heightened in brickwork and the cottage now has two storeys. It is identifiable on Treswell's map.
(39) Cottage (75080980), 15 yds. N. of the foregoing, is two-storied and of coursed rubble with a tiled roof; it is of the early 18th century. The rendered S.E. front of the original range has a central doorway flanked by casement windows, and three corresponding windows on the first floor. The building was extended S.W. in the 19th century.
(40) Back Lane Farm (75250944) is a single-storied rubble and cob building with attics under a thatched roof; it is probably of the 17th century. The N.W. front is of two bays with a central doorway. Inside, at the N.E. end is an open fireplace with an oven; a second chimney-stack occurs at the centre of the plan. Treswell's map of 1607 shows a house in this position.
Late 18th and early 19th-century monuments also include— Almshouses, immediately N. of the church, with a lengthy poem incised on two marble wall tablets by Marshall of Blandford; Sunday School, 275 yds. N.W. of the church, dated 1832; House (73950950); Kingstag Bridge (72711035), apparently a mid 19th-century structure although a bridge is shown on the plan of 1607; Lyddon House (73200974), with brick stables and barn; Smithy and House (75300996); two Cottages at Woodrow (74120962 and 30 yds. to the S.E.); Cottages at Park Gate, at the S. end of the parish; Stockfield Farm (75500902).
Mediaeval and Later Earthworks
(41) Cultivation Remains. Treswell's map shows that the open fields of the parish were already enclosed by 1607. Fragmentary remains of ridge-and-furrow occur in a few places, for example at 769084 and 769077; these and other traces that appear on air photographs (R.A.F. CPE/UK 1974: 1180–4, 3180–5) clearly antedate the field boundaries of 1607. The ridge-and-furrow was arranged in curving furlongs.