An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Dorset, Volume 3, Central. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1970.
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37 PIDDLETRENTHIDE (7000)
The present parish incorporates two distinct parts, Piddletrenthide and Plush. The old parish of Piddletrenthide, with an area of 4,497 acres, occupies the valley of the R. Piddle or Trent, which flows S. through the village (Plate 1). The land is entirely Chalk and lies between 300 ft. and 700 ft. above sea-level. This part of the parish has always been divided into three tithings, called Higher, Middle and Lower or White Lackington Tithings. (fn. 1) Each tithing had its own open fields, suggesting that there were originally three separate settlements; extensive remains of open fields are still seen (40). Dole's Ash Farm (16) shows that the downland E. of the parish had already been partly enclosed in the 17th century, if not earlier.
Plush, a large tithing on the N.E., with an area of 816 acres, was joined to Piddletrenthide in 1933; previously it had been a detached part of Buckland Newton. The S. part of Plush is a deep valley of Chalk and Greensand draining S. into the Piddle valley; to the N. the land is of Gault and Kimmeridge Clay, rising steeply to straddle the main Chalk scarp and culminating in Ball Hill and Nettlecombe Tout. The settlement of Plush lies some 1¼ m. N.E. of Piddletrenthide village; it formerly had its own open fields. Armswell and Monkswood Hill farms are recorded from the 13th century and are probably secondary settlements with enclosed fields. (fn. 2) A well-preserved prehistoric or Romano-British settlement survives on West Hill (43).
(1) The Parish Church of All Saints stands at the N. end of Piddletrenthide village, to the W. of the R. Piddle. The walls are of ashlar, squared rubble, and banded flint and ashlar; the roofs are slated and of lead. The masonry includes limestones from both Marnhull and Ham Hill. The South Doorway and one respond of the Chancel Arch are of the 12th century. The Chancel, the North Vestry and the South Porch are probably of the first half of the 15th century. The West Tower is dated 1487; the Nave and the North and South Aisles are of c. 1500. The church was restored in 1852.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (16 ft. by 23 ft.) has a 19th-century E. window of five two-centred trefoil-headed lights below vertical tracery in a two-centred head. At the N.E. and S.E. corners are stout square-set angle buttresses of two weathered stages; the E. wall of the vestry takes the place of a N. buttress. The N. wall has, in the western part, an arcade of two bays opening into the eastern part of the N. aisle. The arches are four-centred and of three orders, with a wide hollow-chamfer separating two ogee mouldings; they spring from moulded respond corbels and an octagonal pier with a moulded capital and base; immediately on the N. is a segmental rear-arch; the arcade is of the 19th century but the faculty petition of 1852 (Salisbury Diocesan Archives) shows that it replaces earlier arcading of similar form. The S. wall has two windows, each of three two-centred trefoil-headed lights under vertical tracery in a casement-moulded two-centred head. Between the windows is a doorway with a chamfered four-centred head and continuous jambs with run-out stops. The chancel arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders; the inner order is wave-moulded, the outer is hollow-chamfered. The arch appears to be of the early 15th century, but the small size of the voussoirs suggests that they are earlier material, recut. Each respond is composed of a central half-round shaft flanked by smaller three-quarter shafts, all with scalloped and enriched capitals with chevron ornament above; each shaft has a moulded circular base above a chamfered square plinth, with spur spandrels; the S. respond is of the 12th century, with some restoration; the N. respond has been wholly restored. Adjacent on the N. is a narrow opening with a moulded square head. The North Vestry (9¾ ft. by 82/3 ft.) has, in the E. wall, a square-headed window of two trefoil-headed lights and, in the N. wall, a similar opening of one light. In the S. wall is a blocked two-centred doorway to the chancel.
The Nave (46 ft. by 21 ft.) has, on the N. side, an arcade of four two-centred arches; each arch is of three orders in which a wide hollow-chamfer separates inner and outer ogee mouldings. The arches spring from moulded capitals above columns and responds in which the hollow-chamfers are repeated while three-quarter shafts take the place of the ogee orders; the bases are polygonal. To the E. of the E. respond is a 19th-century opening with a two-centred head which rests, to the E., on an octagonal shaft. The S. side of the nave has a three-bay arcade similar in detail to the N. except that the moulded capitals are enriched with vine and leaf carving. The E. respond contains a small doorway for the former rood-loft stairs, with a moulded elliptical head and continuous jambs. Near the W. end of the S. side of the nave is the 12th-century S. doorway (Plate 11), with a segmental head enriched with vertical and horizontal chevron ornament, and responds with chevron ornament, three-quarter shafts and moulded abaci; the original masonry includes both Ham Hill and Marnhull stone. The segmental rear-arch is chamfered, with continuous jambs and run-out stops. The adjacent wall-faces are rendered and it is uncertain if the doorway is in situ or reset.
The North Aisle (59 ft. by 11½ ft.) has E., N. and W. walls of Ham Hill ashlar, with moulded plinths and string-courses, and embattled parapets with continuous moulded copings. Further E. the parapet continues, and oversails the western half of the N. gable of the vestry. The six buttresses are of two stages with weathered offsets; a subsidiary string-course formed by the continuation of the window hood-moulds passes around the upper stage of each buttress. At the E. end of the N. wall is a small blocked doorway with a moulded four-centred head. Adjacent is a large window of six trefoil-headed lights below vertical tracery in an elliptical head; the lights are grouped under two two-centred tracery heads; the rear-arch is four-centred and casement-moulded, with carved head-stops at the springing; the jambs are splayed. The abnormal size of this window and the presence of an adjacent doorway suggest that the E. end of the N. aisle was originally a chapel. The other four bays of the N. aisle have uniform windows, each of three trefoil ogee-headed lights, with vertical tracery in two-centred heads; the openings are casement-moulded internally and have moulded rear arches above hollow-chamfered shafts with moulded caps and, in two cases, with miniature bases.
The South Aisle has a hollow-chamfered plinth, a moulded string-course and an embattled parapet as in the N. aisle. The buttresses are of two weathered stages; the two square-set inner buttresses are enriched on the weathering of the lower stage with sculptured lions (Plate 18); the diagonal S.E. corner buttress has grotesque carving on the weathering of both stages. Grotesque gargoyles project from the parapet string-course above each buttress. The E. wall is unusually thick and, being in line with the chancel arch, may in part survive from the 12th century; it was refaced about the end of the 15th century and contains a casement-moulded, two centred window of three two-centred lights with cinquefoil cusping under vertical tracery; the hollow-chamfered label has carved angel-stops and the rear-arch is casement-moulded, with continuous jambs. In the S. wall are three windows similar to those in the western part of the N. aisle but with splayed interior jambs; the central window is larger than those to E. and W. and has four lights; the labels of all three windows have grotesque stops.
The West Tower (Plate 186) is of three stages, with a moulded plinth and an embattled parapet. At the N.W., S.W. and S.E. corners are square-set angle-buttresses of four stages, with weathered offsets intermediate to the tower stages; the N.E. corner has a polygonal vice turret. The tower stages are defined by weathered, hollow-chamfered and roll-moulded stringcourses. The string-course between the first and second stage is stopped against the sides of the buttresses while that between the second and third stage is continuous and constitutes the division between the third and fourth stages of the buttresses. The weathered tops of the buttresses are enriched with carved grotesques. Above the buttresses are diagonally-set pinnacle shafts with moulded and crocketed finials; other diagonally-set pinnacles rise from gargoyles on the parapet string-course at the centre of each side; the mouldings of the battlement coping continue around the pinnacles. At a slightly higher level, pinnacles with gabled sides and crocketed finials cap the N.W., S.W., and S.E. corners of the tower. At the N.E. corner the vice turret rises higher than the tower parapet and culminates in a flat-topped parapet with a string-course and gargoyles, and a moulded coping with six small crocketed finials.
The tower arch is two-centred and has a flat soffit and responds, decorated with paired trefoil-headed sunk stone panels; these are flanked on E. and W. by ogee-moulded ribs rising from carved capitals and three-quarter respond shafts with polygonal bases; these in turn are outlined by continuous hollow-chamfers and ogee mouldings. The vice doorway has a chamfered four-centred head and continuous jambs with moulded stops. The W. doorway has a two-centred head with ogee and casement mouldings, continuous on the jambs; these are enclosed in a casement-moulded square-headed surround, with leaf enrichment in the spandrels. On each side of the doorway are diagonally set standards, against which the plinth stops. The standards are capped by a hollow-chamfered string-course which continues from side to side above the doorway, stopping against the western buttresses; carved in relief within the hollow-chamfer is the black-letter inscription—
The figures 1487 have recently been restored in cement but the original stonework, much defaced, was verified by this Commission in 1948. Above, the two-centred, five-light W. window has a casement-moulded external surround and a label with carved grotesque stops; inside, it has a double casement-moulded rear-arch with continuous jambs, the casement-mouldings being separated by a fillet; the mullions and tracery are of the 19th century. The bottom stage of the tower retains fragments of 15th-century vaulting; the wall ribs survive, with leaf bosses at the springing and apex, and in each corner are two ogee-headed panels and the springing of the cross-ribs. The second stage has a small two-centred S. window of two trefoil-headed lights with a quatrefoil above, and a label with carved stops. In the third stage each face of the tower contains a pair of belfry windows, each window being of two transomed lights, with trefoil heads in each height and a quatrefoil above in a two-centred head. The labels have variously carved head stops, the middle stop on each side serving both windows; the lights are closed with perforated stone panels.
The South Porch has walls of banded flint and ashlar, with a hollow-chamfered plinth to the W. and a weathered string-course to the S. The buttresses are of two weathered stages; that to the S.W. is diagonal and that to the S.E. is square-set, probably having been rebuilt when the S. aisle was added. The S. archway has a wave-moulded two-centred head with continuous jambs. The S. gable has a moulded kneeler on the W. side; on the E. side the gable is incorporated in the parapet of the S. aisle. Below the string-course is a stone inscription panel with a moulded border; the inscription is illegible.
Fittings—Bells: five; 1st dated 1631; 2nd by T. Purdue, dated 1658 with initials AC. IC. CW. TP. IT.; 3rd inscribed in Roman capitals 'love God anno domini 1603'; 4th inscribed in black-letter 'Sancta maria ora pro nobis'; 5th inscribed 'com when I call to serve God all 1631'. Brass and Indent: In floor, immediately W. of chancel step, Purbeck slab with brass inscription plate (12½ ins. by 4½ ins.) inscribed in black-letter 'Here lyethe the bodye of John Colyer whiche departyde this lyfe the firste daye of June in the yere of or Lorde God MCCCCCLXIIII'; in same slab, indent for plate (17½ins. by 2½ ins.) Chairs: two, of oak, with shaped backs and flat seats, 18th century. Chest: In tower, of pine, with panelled sides, late 18th century. Coffin-lid: In churchyard, W. of S. porch, tapering slab with double hollow-chamfered margin, and cross with stepped base, broken in three pieces, top end missing, late 13th century. Coffin-stools: pair, of oak, with turned legs and moulded rails, late 17th or early 18th century. Communion Table: In S. aisle, of oak with turned and enriched legs, enriched rails, early 17th century. Door: to tower vice, of oak planks with four-centred head and hollow-chamfered cover-strips, on wrought-iron strap-hinges with incised design, and with iron ring and escutcheon plate, late 15th or early 16th century. Font: with straight-sided octagonal stone bowl, hollow-chamfered underneath, cylindrical stem and moulded octagonal base, perhaps 15th century, but recut; oak cover with central column surrounded by six scroll-shaped braces supporting vase finial, 17th century. Hatchments: Canvas panels in wood surrounds, partly gilt; in S. aisle, on S. wall, (1) arms of Newman with motto 'Lux Mea Christus', perhaps 18th century; (2) arms of Bridge with motto 'Resurgam', early 19th century; over S. doorway, (3) arms of Bridge impaling another coat, probably 19th century. Inscription: On W. tower, dated 1487, see architectural description, above.
Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel, on N. wall, (1) of John Bridge, 1834, large stone and marble wall monument with Gothic details; marble inscription tablet surmounted by portrait medallion and flanked by figures of Justice and Piety in canopied niches, by C. R. Cockerell, sculptor W. G. Nicholl; on S. wall, (2) of John Gawler Bridge, 1849, marble tablet; (3) of Charlotte Cox, 1806, marble tablet. In nave, on W. wall, N. of tower arch, (4) of William Constantine, 1723, draped marble cartouche with urn finial, cherub heads and winged skull; S. of tower arch, (5) of William Collier, 1655, and Francis (Deane) Collier, 1708, cartouche similar to foregoing but without finial; on N. respond of tower arch, (6) of Richard Exten, vicar, 1739, slate tablet. In N. aisle, on E. wall, (7) of Mary Cox, 1803, marble tablet surmounted by vase with flame finial; (8) of William Cox, 1799, monument of grey and white marbles with relief of mourning figure beside urn, above, oval inscription panel and arms; (9) of Elizabeth Story, 1802, small marble tablet; (10) of Edward Cox, 1796, grey and white marble tablet with shaped head and small urn. In N. aisle, on N. wall, (11) of Sydenham Baker, 1697, monument of slate and limestone with pilasters supporting cornice; (12) of Thomas Bridge, 1792, and Mary Bridge, 1779, monument in Grecian style by W. Theed, 1816, with double portrait medallion and, above, reclining figure holding inverted torch and gesturing toward butterfly, within elliptical-headed surround with bronze inscription; (13) of Robert Bridge, 1836, and Anne Bridge, 1830, tablet by W. G. Nicholl with relief depicting kneeling woman with angel. In N. aisle, on W. wall, (14) of William Cox, 1802, white marble tablet with fluted pilasters, supporting draped urn in relief against grey marble two-centred back-plate, with arms in apex, by P. Chenu, London; (15) of Robert Albion Cox, 1790, and George Cox, 1777, wall monument similar to (8), of white and grey marbles, with bas-relief, arms and oval tablet, by Ford of Bath; (16) of Louisa Bridge, 1841, wall tablet with Grecian enrichments surmounted by relief of mourning female, by W. G. Nicholl. In S. aisle, on S. wall, (17) of Thomas Bridge, 1826, marble tablet in form of Grecian sarcophagus with portrait medallion and festoons, surmounted by relief of weeping child, by F. A. Lege, London, 1827; on W. wall, (18) of John Bludworth, 1688, Elizabeth (Collier) his wife, and three children, monument of slate and limestone, with Ionic columns and entablature supporting shield-of-arms of Bludworth impaling Collier. In tower, on N. wall, (19) of William Collier, 1655, and Henry Collier, 1675, stone and slate wall monument with arms of Collier, erected by Frances Oxinbregge, wife of William. In churchyard, 3 paces S.E. of S. aisle, (20) of Thomas Dumberfeild, 1616, headstone; adjacent, (21) of William Dumberfeild, 1616, headstone; six paces S. of porch, (22) of John Arnold, 1678, headstone. Floor-slab: see Brass and Indent. Plate: includes silver cup with hallmark of 1699, silver alms-dish with hallmark of 1708 and arms of Collier, inscribed 'Ex Dono F:O. in memoria H:C.', cf. monument (19). Sundial: Above entry to S. porch, rectangular stone slab with enriched border, Roman numerals, wrought-iron gnomon and date 1602. Weather-vane: On tower vice turret, with scrolled iron brackets to cardinal points and copper weathercock, 19th century. Miscellanea: In W. tower, chamfered stone pedestal 3¼ ft. high, with circular basin at top, basin with central drain hole; incomplete, perhaps secular.
(2) The Church of St. John the Baptist, Plush (71770227), over 1¼ m. N.E. of the parish church, has walls of coursed rubble with ashlar dressings, and tiled roofs. It was designed by Benjamin Ferrey in the 'Decorated' style, and was built in 1848 to replace an earlier church which formerly stood ½ m. to the N.E. (see (39)).
Architectural Description—The Chancel (18 ft. by 19 ft.) has a gabled E. wall with a cross finial; the E. window is of three cinquefoil ogee-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head under a hood-mould with carved head-stops; in general all openings have similar hood-moulds. The angle buttresses are of two stages with weathered heads. A stone with the date 1848 is set at the centre of the plinth. Inside, a frieze of quatrefoil panels with foliate centres traverses the E. wall below the window sill. The N. wall has two windows, each of one light with a cinquefoil two-centred head and, between them, a N. doorway with a moulded two-centred head. The S. wall is similar but with only one window; adjacent is a doorway to the vestry. The chancel arch is two-centred and of three moulded orders; the inner order springs from three-quarter shafts with capitals of 14th-century style, the other orders are continuous; above is a moulded label. In the E. wall of the Vestry is a doorway with a moulded four-centred head; in the S. wall is a square-headed window of two trefoil-headed lights under a square label; in the W. wall is a doorway which gives access to the pulpit. Below the vestry is a heating chamber.
The Nave (47½ ft. by 23½ ft.) has, in the E. wall, S. of the chancel arch, a doorway with a four-centred head leading from the pulpit into the vestry. The N. and S. walls are uniform, each with four windows; each window is of two cinquefoil ogee-headed lights under a central quatrefoil in a two-centred head. Between the windows and at the four corners of the nave are buttresses of two weathered stages surmounted by diagonallyset pinnacles with crocketed finials; the pinnacles pass through an embattled parapet with a moulded string-course and coping. The W. wall has a projecting central bay which continues upwards, above the roof, to support a bell-cote. The W. doorway has a moulded two-centred head and continuous jambs; above it, the W. window is of two lights with cinquefoil two-centred heads under a central quatrefoil in a two-centred outer head. Above, in an intermediate stage, is a blind lancet light. At the top, the bell-cote has two cinquefoil two-centred openings under a central quatrefoil.
The Roof of the chancel is of two bays, with an arch-braced collar truss on moulded stone corbels; the collar supports a king-post. The nave roof has three hammer-beam trusses supporting moulded purlins, with curved wind-braces.
Fittings—Bells: two, probably of 1848. Chairs: two, of oak, with legs in form of clustered column shafts, moulded seats, arms terminating in carved head-stops above column-clusters, and gabled backs with two-centred tracery panelling and crocketed finials, 19th century. Communion Rails: of oak, with four-centred arcading enclosing cinquefoil ogee-headed tracery, 19th century. Communion Table: of oak, on cinquefoil ogee-headed arcading with quatrefoil spandrels, 19th century. Fonts: two; one, of stone, unattached, monolithic, with rude fluted bowl and cylindrical stem with coarse roll-mouldings, late 12th century; the other, perhaps of Coade stone, with octagonal bowl with quatrefoil panels, and moulded octagonal stem, 19th century. Lectern: of oak, with moulded and arcaded desk on brackets with king and bishop head-stops, 19th century. Plate: includes silver cup with hallmark of 1571 and original strapwork decoration, with 19th-century repairs and engraved monogram. Pulpit: of oak, with three sides, each of two cinquefoil ogee-headed panels, 19th century. Screen: to W. doorway, of panelled oak surmounted by openwork arcading, 19th century. Stalls: In chancel, of oak with traceried panelling, 19th century. Tables of Creed and Decalogue: In chancel, painted on E. wall, 19th century.
(3) The School (70669960), ¾ m. S. of the parish church, was built in 1848 and has walls of flint, rubble and brick, with ashlar dressings. Inside is a terracotta bust of John Bridge, by E. H. Bailey, R.A., dated 1821. At the entrance to the forecourt is a pair of iron gates (Plate 62) that were formerly in John Bridge's collection of antiquities. From their similarity to the 16th-century railings at the tomb of Lady Margaret Beaufort in Westminster Abbey it is evident that the gates were among items that were removed from the abbey c. 1820 (Report of Select Committee, 1841) and acquired by Bridge. Much of this material was re-purchased by the National Art Collections Fund in 1911 and returned to the abbey, but the gates were excluded from the sale. Each gate is 3½ ft. wide, 3¾ ft. high and has 13 diagonally-set spearheaded uprights joined by horizontal rails, and a broad top rail with cable mouldings above and below a row of lozenge-shaped jewels. The iron hinge-posts are square-set and are decorated with miniature three-stage weathered buttresses; above the level of the top rail each hinge-post is produced in the form of a spiral-shafted Doric column supporting an open-work finial.
(4) The Manor House (70330000), ½ m. S. of (1), is of three storeys above a semi-basement, and has rendered walls and slated roofs. The main part of the house is of the late 18th century but the third storey was added in 1832; previously there was a balustraded parapet above the second storey. Traces of an earlier house are perhaps recognisable in the banded flint and rubble walls of the outbuildings to the N.W., and in the reset stone-mullioned windows of the semibasement. The park contains a late 18th-century Dovecote and a 19th-century Gazebo.
The E. front of the house is symmetrical and of five bays, the middle bay being wider than the others. At the centre, on the ground floor, is a projecting porch with a balustraded parapet; above the first-floor windows is a cornice. The sashed windows have moulded stone architraves. The front door is approached by curved double flights of stone steps with iron balustrades. The S. front is four-storied and of two wide bays. In the basement the E. bay has a square-headed four-light stone window, probably of the 17th century and reset; the ground floor has two 19th-century bow windows; the first and second floors have sashed windows of three lights. The N. front has reset stone basement windows of four and two lights, and, on the other floors, windows approximately as in the S. front. Inside, the hall contains an open-string staircase with a moulded mahogany handrail and reeded cast-iron balusters with volute capitals; the newel-posts are octagonal with palm-leaf capitals. The principal rooms have moulded and enriched cornices. A fireplace surround in a second-floor chamber has a frieze decorated with a human mask flanked by flower swags.
The circular Dovecote (70430012) is 27 ft. high and 15¾ ft. in diameter. It has walls of flint and rubble, partly rendered, with some ashlar dressings, and tiled and lead-covered roofs. At the base is a tall octagonal flint plinth with an ashlar capping. In the E. side of the plinth is a square-headed doorway; above, in the cylindrical wall, are four cross-shaped stone loops with moulded square surrounds. At the centre of the roof is an octagonal arcaded wooden turret, with a tent-shaped lead roof with a ball-finial. Inside, the cylindrical wall is lined with brick and stone nesting-boxes and at the centre is a pivoting ladder.
The octagonal Gazebo (70470008) has rendered walls and slated roofs. It stands on a wide octagonal brick podium which forms a terrace around it, with geometrical iron railings; to the S. is a flight of stone steps. The doorway in the S. side of the upper structure has a square head and, above, a square-headed window of three lights; similar windows occur in the N., E. and W. sides. Inside, each wall except those to N. and S. has mounted upon it a rectangular plaster-cast of a bas-relief by John Flaxman, depicting a scene from the Iliad or the Odyssey.
Immediately N.W. of the house are Stables, in part dated 1832 and in part incorporating late 16th or early 17th-century walls of banded flint and rubble. On the roof is a square wooden clock turret and bell-cote, with a circular tent-shaped lead roof and a weather-vane; the turret is of the 19th century.
(5) Mullett's Farm (71269796), house, on the S. boundary of the parish, is single-storied with dormer-windowed attics and has walls of banded rubble and flint, and tiled roofs. Although recently rebuilt the house is probably of 17th-century origin; over the N. doorway is a moulded label with returned stops. The banded brick and flint-work in the upper part of the N. wall, and the brick chimneystacks, are of the 18th century.
(6) Colescote (70799898), 1,000 yds. S. of (1), is a two-storied house with walls of banded flint and rubble, and of cob, mostly rendered, and with a thatched roof. The E. front is of five bays with windows irregularly disposed. The S. bay is of banded rubble and flint; the three middle bays have rubble and flint near the ground but the upper parts are of cob; in the N. bay the lower part is wholly of flint and the upper part is cob. The central bay has a projecting two-storied porch with a square-headed doorway, above which is a stone inscribed 'MFS 1692'. Except for the porch and the N. bay the range probably dates from the late 16th or early 17th century, much of the front having been subsequently rebuilt in cob. The porch was added in 1692; the N. bay is later. Inside, some rooms have roughly chamfered beams. (S. bay demolished, 1965.)
(7) South House, 60 yards N. of the foregoing, is two-storied with rendered walls and slated roofs; it is probably of the first half of the 19th century. The main elevations are symmetrical and of three bays, with rusticated quoins, large sashed windows with margined glazing-bars, wide eaves embellished with shaped brackets, and roofs of low pitch. A two-storied bow window has been added to the S. front. Inside, the door-cases have reeded architraves with corner roundels and the staircase has a moulded mahogany handrail and a newel-post in the form of clustered shafts with bands of leaf enrichment.
(8) Brick House, 200 yards N. of the foregoing, is two-storied with a brick W. front and other walls of flint and brick, and a tiled roof. The three-bay front is symmetrical, with a round-headed central doorway in a moulded and pedimented wooden surround, sashed ground-floor windows of three lights, and corresponding openings on the first floor. There is a stone plinth, a stone plat-band, and an eaves cornice of saw-tooth brickwork. The house was advertised as 'new-erected' in the Salisbury Journal of 15th Feb., 1802.
(9) Cottage (70549968), nearly ¾ m. S. of (1), of one storey with attics, has walls of cob and timber framework, and thatched roofs; it is of the 17th century. The N.E. front is of three bays and has, to the N.W., a gabled attic dormer window with timber-framed walls and brick nogging. Inside, the N.W. room has an open fireplace with a chamfered bressummer, and one room has a stop-chamfered beam. The S.E. part of the house is probably a later extension.
(10) Pear Tree Cottage (70549976), 100 yards N. of the foregoing, is of one storey with dormer-windowed attics and has walls of banded flint and coursed rubble, with squared rubble quoins, and thatched roofs. The present cottage was built in the second half of the 16th century but the records of tenancy go back to the beginning of the same century. The cottage is of interest in that its history is well documented and it retains an unusual number of original features. Especially notable is the re-use, as the lintel of a fireplace, of an altar-stone that must have been removed from a church at the reformation. In 1506 and again in 1771 the property was regarded by its owners, Hyde Abbey and Winchester College, as comprising two tenements; hence it is not unlikely that it was built as two dwellings with a common through-passage.
The approximately symmetrical S.W. front has a central doorway flanked by wooden three-light casement windows with segmental brick heads; the upper part of the wall is of banded brick and flint and the front appears to have been extensively repaired in the 19th century. The S.E. gable and chimney-stack have recently been rebuilt; the N.W. end wall is masked by the adjoining 19th-century cottage and the N.E. side is partly concealed by outbuildings. Inside, the front door opens into a through-passage, now flanked by modern partitions, but formerly with plank-and-muntin partitions, as peg-holes in the chamfered wall-plates testify; by the same token, the original doorways to the two ground-floor rooms were towards the N.E. end of the passage. At the N.E. end of the passage is a doorway with a heavy chamfered oak surround, having a head with a raised centre.
In the S.E. room the ceiling is supported on two intersecting beams of deeply chamfered cross-section, and four similar wall-plates. The open fireplace in the S.E. wall has been rebuilt, but it probably replaces an original one. The N.W. room has similar ceiling beams and, in the N.W. wall, an open fireplace with a chamfered stone surround with a four-centred head; the latter is cut from an altar-stone 7 ft. 3 ins. long, 3 ft. 1 in. wide and 6 ins. thick, set on its side with its original surface facing the room; the edges are not visible, three being built into the chimneybreast and the fourth having been cut away to make the four-centred fireplace head. Incised on the surface are five consecration crosses, one at each corner and one in the centre. Inscribed on the stone is the date 1776 and the letters I V, for James Vincent who was tenant from 1770 to 1803 (Winchester Coll. Muniments). Beside the fireplace is a doorway with a four-centred oak head leading to a winding stone stair with oak-covered treads. A small blocked opening half-way up was probably a window. At the top of the stairs the doorway to the N.W. attic has a four-centred oak head and continuous jambs; the door is a single oak plank. In the chamber is a fireplace with a moulded stone surround with a shallow four-centred head, on the spandrels of which are carved the initials E.C. and A.C., the former for Edward Cole who was the tenant certainly in 1603 and probably from before 1584. The S.E. attic chamber is entered through a 19th-century doorway and its fireplace has been rebuilt in recent times.
(11) West House (70329978), 1,100 yards S. of (1), is of two storeys and has walls of banded rubble and flint, and of brick, and tiled roofs. In the L-shaped plan the W. range, running N.–S., is perhaps of 17th-century origin and the S. range, running E.–W. and joining the W. range at its S. end, is of the 18th century. The N. end of the W. range has a modern two-storied bow window and, to the E. of this, an early 19th-century doorway with a pedimented hood. The E. side of the range has a round-headed 18th-century staircase window and, to the N., traces of an early window, now blocked. The W. and S. walls of the range have modern openings and are rendered. The S. range has a S. elevation of Flemish-bonded brickwork and sashed windows with gauged brick heads, except near the E. end of the ground floor where there are two stone windows, each of two square-headed lights. Inside, a room in the S. part of the W. range has a ceiling of four panels with intersecting beams of square section. The stairs are of the late 18th century, with panelled pine dadoes, moulded handrails, newel-posts with clustered shafts, and geometric trellis in place of balusters.
In the garden to the S.E. is a small late 18th or early 19th-century Granary, with arcaded brick walls and a tiled roof; the walls rise from timber beams on staddle stones. Stables to the N. of the granary are of the 19th century.
(12) Cottage (70429995), ½ m. S. of (1), is two-storied, with walls of rubble and flint on the ground floor and rendered on the first floor, and with thatched roofs. The ground floor is probably of the 17th century and the heightening is of the 18th century. In the N. wall is a small two-light casement window with a moulded timber surround. An exposed beam inside is unworked.
(13) Southcombe Farm (70320052), house, 300 yards S.E. of (1) is two-storied and has a 17th-century E. range of banded flint and rubble with a slated roof, and an 18th-century N. range of flint, partly rendered, with a thatched roof. Some windows in the E. front of the earlier range have wrought-iron casements and leaded lights; one has a scrolled quadrant stay. To the S. is an 18th-century outbuilding with flint and cob walls and a thatched roof.
(14) Cottage (70180062), 120 yards S. of (1), is single-storied with dormer-windowed attics and has rubble walls and a thatched roof; it dates from the 17th century. The W. front has been modernised and heightened to two storeys. Inside, there is a large open fireplace with a chamfered bressummer and jambs, part of a plank-and-muntin partition with moulded muntins of the late 17th or early 18th century, and two large stop-chamfered beams.
(15) Barn, 100 yards S. of (1), has walls of banded rubble and flint, with cob in the upper parts, and thatched roofs with collar-beam trusses; it is probably of the early 17th century. The Farmhouse immediately to the N. is of the 19th century.
(16) Dole's Ash Farm (72130028), house, 1¼ m. E. of (1), is two-storied on the S.W. front and three-storied on the N.E., in consequence of the sloping ground. The walls are partly of banded flint and rubble, partly of banded flint and brick, and elsewhere are rendered; the roofs are slated. The lowest storey of the N.E. part, corresponding with a cellar under the S.W. part, is of the 17th century. On the N.E. front the lowest storey is of banded flint and rubble, and of three bays; to the S.E. of the doorway is an original stone window of four square-headed lights; the other openings are of the 19th century. The first and second storeys are of banded flint and brickwork, and have 19th-century casement windows. Banded flint and rubble continues in the lowest storey of the N.W. front and at the centre of the front is a 17th-century stone window of four square-headed lights; above, the wall is of the 19th century. The S.E. front is masked by a later addition. The S.W. front is of the 19th century and comprises a symmetrical three-bay façade with rendered walls, a central doorway, and sashed windows. The roof is masked by a parapet. Inside, the ground floor of the N.E. part, now used as store-rooms and cellars, retains a heavily moulded ceiling beam and some 17th and 18th-century wooden panelling, reset to make partitions. On the first floor, (the ground floor with respect to the 19th-century S.W. elevation) the S. room contains an early 17th-century carved oak overmantel, reset. It has two main panels alternating with three grotesque caryatid pilasters, and, below them, a carved frieze and cornice. The frieze is composed of two panels, with winged creatures flanking cartouches, alternating with three corbel brackets carved with guilloche and acanthus patterns. The cornice is of ovolo profile and is decorated with a guilloche of alternating round and square panels. The side pilasters of the main height represent bearded figures holding serpents; the central pilaster depicts a dancing woman in a short skirt with a jewelled girdle; all three are crowned with Ionic capitals. The two main panels of the overmantel are square and have bolection-moulded borders enriched with strap-work decoration. At the centre of each panel is a rich strap-work cartouche with a shield-of-arms; to the left, Collier impaling Jordan; to the right, Collier impaling another coat (unidentified 11). The central passage contains some 17th-century oak panelling reset as a dado. The stairs are of the early 18th century and have close strings, moulded handrails and turned balusters with acanthus enrichment.
Immediately N.E. of the house is a Barn of banded flint and rubble, with some weather-boarded timber framing, and a thatched roof; it is probably of 17th-century origin. To the E. is a long Stable Range and a Cottage, of rubble, cob and thatch; these are probably of the late 17th or early 18th century. In the stable is reset an early 17th-century moulded beam or wall-plate. The cottage has chamfered beams and two open fireplaces with stop-chamfered bressummers.
(17) Barn (72779987), 1¾ m. E. of (1), has walls of banded flint and rubble in the lower part, and of cob above, and thatched roofs. It is of the late 17th or early 18th century and has transeptal bays with doorways in the N. and S. sides. At right angles, to the S.W., is a long byre with walls of cob, flint and clunch, and a thatched roof.
(18) Cottage (70310071), 100 yds. E. of (1), is of one storey with a dormer-windowed attic, and has a symmetrical two-bay S. front with a central doorway. A stone over the doorway is inscribed 'C.W.E. 1770'.
(27) Plush Manor House (71650225), 130 yds. W. of (2), is two-storied and has rendered walls and slated roofs. The S.W. front is symmetrical and of five bays; the three centre bays are recessed and are flanked by projecting wings with three-sided two-storied bow windows. All windows are sashed and have margined glazing-bars. The three middle bays are of the late 18th century, the side wings are later. The central doorway, with an elliptical head and a fanlight, is sheltered by a later porch with a flat roof and a moulded entablature supported on two Tuscan columns. Inside, the central hallway and the adjacent room on the N.E. have been thrown into one by the removal of the former partition. The hall ceiling is a light plaster vault of elliptical cross-section. The stairs have open strings, plain balusters and a moulded mahogany handrail. Several door-cases have reeded architraves with angle roundels.
A Gazebo at the E. corner of the walled garden has walls of brick, and a thatched roof. At the apex of the gabled W. front is a stone gable-head surmounted by a crocketed finial; these are probably reset mediaeval pieces.
(28) Harvey's Farm (71550234), house, is two-storied and has walls of banded flint and brick, and slated roofs. The 19th-century main range has a symmetrical W. front of three bays; at the centre is a doorway with a wooden surround and a pediment, and on either side are three-light sashed windows. The service rooms at the N. end of the range are of the 18th century and have iron casement windows with leaded glazing; one room contains an open fireplace with a chamfered bressummer with a raised centre.
(37) House (72820318) at Folly, formerly an inn, is two-storied and has rendered walls and tiled roofs, but until recently was thatched. It is probably of the late 18th century. Some first-floor windows have iron casements with leaded glazing. Inside, is an open fireplace with a chamfered bressummer with a raised centre.
(38) Little Monkwood Hill Farm (72950449), house, 1½ m. N.E. of (2), of two storeys with walls of coursed rubble and tiled roofs, is of the late 18th century. The S. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a chamfered plinth and a first-floor string-course. The wooden casement windows have square heads with stone flat arches with large keystones. The central doorway is sheltered by a stone and brick porch with an elliptical arch. Between the ridge of the porch roof and the central first-floor window-sill is a date stone inscribed 'I.A. 1788'. Reset in the E. gable wall are three carved stone fleurs-de-lis.
Mediaeval and Later Earthworks
(39) Chapel Yard (72450288), belonging to the former chapel of Plush, lies on a small S-facing spur, ½ m. N.E. of (2). The area is almost square, with sides about 30 yds. long, and is bounded by a low bank 12 ft. wide and up to 2½ ft. high on the outside; the entrance is at the centre of the E. side. The S. quarter of the area is separated from the rest by a low bank 15 ft. wide and 6 ins. high. The chapel, which was pulled down in about 1848 (Hutchins III, 710), lay in the S. part of the yard; an old engraving shows it as a simple nave with a small tower at the W. end. (S. & D. N. & Q., X, (1906–7), 356.)
Strip fields of the former open fields of Higher Tithing remain in four places. On a N.W.-facing slope (700006), some 250 yds. W. of (1), five contour strip lynchets were probably once part of the North Field (Enclosure Map 1817, D.C.R.O.). About 300 yds. S.W. of these, on the N. side of Kiddles Bottom (698005), are some 10 acres of contour strip lynchets; before enclosure these lay in Middle Field. On the S. side of Rogers Bottom (700999) are the fragmentary remains of at least ten flat strips, 25 yds. to 40 yds. wide, bounded by low banks 1½ ft. high; these lay in the South Field. On the S. side of East Hill (704002) are the remains of four contour strip lynchets with very low risers; they formerly were part of East Field. Ridge-and-furrow on Lower Down (692012) suggests cultivation beyond the open fields at some period (see Group (38)).
Strip lynchets of the former open fields of Middle Tithing cover some 30 acres on both sides of King's Grove Bottom (693992–703996); they are arranged in at least six interlocked furlong blocks. Before enclosure, the three W. furlongs lay in King's Grove Field and the three E. furlongs lay in Dutnole Field.
Extensive remains of contour strip lynchets, covering some 25 acres, exist in two groups on the W. side of the R. Piddle in both Middle and White Lackington Tithings (705992–705988); in 1817 all these remains lay in an area of 'old enclosures'.
The open fields of Plush were finally enclosed in 1825 (Map and Award, D.C.R.O.). Immediately W. of Plush (711021), a well-preserved group of contour strip lynchets covers 16 acres (Plate 192); an area of ridge-and-furrow on the N.W. side of the area is clearly secondary to the strip lynchets; these all lay in Middle Field before enclosure. To the N.E. of Plush, on the S.E. slopes of Ball Hill (721027–723031), are very fragmentary remains of other strip lynchets; at their N.W. ends they run into and over 'Celtic' fields (see Group (43)); these formerly lay in High Field. To the S. of Plush (714014, 713015, 713018), slight remains of strip lynchets together with ridge-and-furrow occur in an area that was already enclosed in 1770 (I. Taylor, Map of Plush, B.M. Maps, 2159 (37)). To the N.E. of Plush (728028) further strip lynchets, now very fragmentary, occur in an area that was also enclosed by 1770.
Roman and Prehistoric
(41) Occupation Debris (727008), Romano-British, is found on Dole's Ash Farm on a S.W.–facing slope of the Chalk at about 500 ft. above O.D.; 'finds' include samian ware, 3rd and 4th-century coarse ware, and roof and flue tiles (Dorset Procs. LXX (1948), 62).
(42) Roman Building (presumed), is indicated by a mosaic pavement that was found c. 1740 near the Manor House (Hutchins IV, 486). The site is suitable for a villa, being close to the E. bank of the R. Piddle and at the W. end of a re-entrant valley at about 330 ft. above O.D. However, the pavement is not certainly Roman.
(43) Settlement (710020), prehistoric or Romano-British, on West Hill in Plush, is sited at about 600 ft. O.D., below the shoulder of a hill and on a slope facing E. across a valley (Plate 192). The settlement lies among 'Celtic' fields (Group (42), p. 327) and is approached by a trackway from the S.W. Strip lynchets, part of the open fields of Plush (40), have cut into the lower part of the settlement and have destroyed part of one platform, but probably little more. Later cultivation intrudes into the area on the N. The three-acre core of the settlement is a series of platforms with flat or gently sloping floors cut into the hillside; from their shape, some of them appear to have accommodated circular rather than rectangular structures; the floor of one of the best preserved platforms measures 35 ft. by 25 ft. Associated with the platforms are larger areas where there has been little or no deliberate levelling; the shape and position of these areas suggest that they were part of the settlement and not merely fields. The double-lynchet trackway from the S.W., laid out over 'Celtic' fields which continued in cultivation, turns N. into an open space on reaching the settlement (cf. Winterborne Houghton (9)); thereafter it continues to the N.E. for a short distance.
(44) Platforms (716017), probably a settlement, lie at just over 600 ft. above O.D. on the shoulder of Plush Hill, on the opposite side of the valley from (43). Of about six rounded platforms set into the hillside, three may be convincingly interpreted as levelled areas for small huts; the largest platform measures 30 ft. by 20 ft. Among the platforms are five smaller levelled areas or hollows, the largest being 10 ft. across.
Three Cross-dykes lie roughly parallel to one another at over 700 ft. above O.D. on the high ridge in the extreme E. of the parish; the most north-easterly of the three is much the biggest. A fourth slight but possibly ancient bank, with a ditch on the uphill or N.E. side, partly crosses the ridge where it is broader, between the first and the second dykes; other banks between this and the first dyke are probably more recent. The dykes are part of a complex around Lyscombe Bottom, discussed in 'Celtic' Field Group 44 (see p. 330).
(45) Cross-dyke on Higher Hill, runs N.N.W.–S.S.E. (72660218–72710208) for some 130 yds. on the N.W. slope of the ridge, and curves W. near its N. end. To the S.E. it now ends against the ridgeway track and any continuation that there may once have been is ploughed out. The bank is 16 ft. wide and 1 ft. high; the ditch, which lies on the downhill or S.W. side, is 10 ft. wide and 1 ft. deep.
(46) Cross-dyke, 530 yds. N.E. of the foregoing, on Lyscombe Hill, runs N.W.–S.E. (73000251–73100241) with its ditch on the uphill or N.E. side; its length is about 140 yds. The bank is 16 ft. wide and 1½ ft. high, the ditch is 18 ft. across and 1 ft. deep. The dyke is broken near the centre by a modern track, and the E. end, which lay in Cheselbourne, is now destroyed.
(47) Cross-dyke, 250 yds. N.E. of the foregoing and parallel to it (73120271–73240257), also has its ditch on the uphill side; its length is about 180 yds. The bank is 20 ft. across and 2½ ft. high, the ditch is 25 ft. wide and 4 ft. deep; recent ploughing has given the effect of a counterscarp bank on the N. side. A gap with a causeway across the line of the ditch, 20 yds. from the S.E. end, may be original. A modern track cuts the dyke near the N.W. end.
Five of these fifteen barrows, (54–58), form a group on Plush Hill. Barrows at 69419903 and 68360013, and mounds that were probably barrows at 72090181 and 72080179 have been destroyed. Cunnington records the excavation of three barrows 'on the high ground above Plush' (Cunnington MS. Nos. 46–48); they were probably among or near the Plush Hill group. No. 46 was 40 ft. in diameter and 7 ft. high; it was destroyed when the down was broken up in 1872. Inside it was a large flint cairn containing 'between thirty and forty sepulchral urns' all with cremations; they included globular and bucket urns, but few have survived (Proc. Soc. Ants. Ser. ii, V (1873), 112–3; Dorset Procs. XV (1894), 57; Ant. J. XIII (1933), 444; Arch. J. CXIX (1962), 57, 65). No. 47, opened in 1879, was a flinty cairn 20 ft. in diameter and 3 ft. high; near the centre was a cremation, probably primary, in a small urn surrounded with large stones (Dorset Procs. XV (1894), 57). No. 48 lay just N. of 46 and was a small mound 6 ft. in diameter and 3 ft. high; it contained a cremation in a crude urn, probably primary.
(48) Barrow? (69879772), 200 yds. N. of Lackington Drove on the N. edge of a ridge, over 400 ft. above O.D., lies at the angle of a 'Celtic' field and has been heavily ploughed. Diam. about 50 ft., ht. 2 ft.
The Plush Hill Group (54)–(58) lies over 700 ft. above O.D. on the top of a broad ridge, in an area that is interrupted by many depressions that are probably old chalk pits; traces of 'Celtic' fields (Group 44) also occur. All the barrows except (54) have been heavily ploughed.
(61) Saucer-barrow ? (73000230), 35 yds. N.N.E. of (60), is covered with trees; it consists of a small mound surrounded by a well-marked ditch and an outer bank; the latter has been destroyed on the E. side by an old copse bank. Diam. of mound 18 ft., ht. 1 ft. Ditch 4 ft. across and 6 ins. deep; bank 7 ft. across and 1 ft. high.
(63) Enclosure (693011), on Lower Down, lies at about 450 ft. above O.D. on a gentle slope on the N. side of a dry valley. An area of 1½ acres with straight sides of unequal length is bounded by a bank 3½ ft. high and 10 ft. wide, with an external ditch 1½ ft. deep and of similar width, except on part of the S. side where a double scarp 3 ft. high replaces the bank. This scarp is not connected with a similar scarp to the E., in the same alignment but at a lower level; the latter is apparently the result of flint digging. An entrance 15 ft. wide occurs in the S. side of the enclosure and has a circular, embanked pond 4 ft. deep outside it. Internal features include traces of a scarped platform near the centre of the W. side, and a semicircular scarp, 1½ ft. high and 30 ft. across, 30 yds. E. of the entrance; both features are probably building sites. Lying against the N. side is a broad terrace 40 ft. wide and 116 ft. long with a scarp 10 ft. high on the S. The enclosure is probably later than the fragmentary 'Celtic' fields (Group 38) in the area (Dorset Procs. XXXIII (1912), 41).
(64) Enclosure (72250097), at the head of a shallow combe 750 yds. N. of (16), consists of a rectangular area of just under 1 acre, bounded by a bank 4 ft. high and an outer ditch 2 ft. deep. The original entrance is a gap 12 ft. wide in the E. side; the gap in the W. side is probably modern. Within the enclosure, on the S. side is a scarped and embanked platform, probably the site of a building; in the N. half of the enclosure are two other slight platforms and a circular hollow 2 ft. deep. Outside the enclosure on the E. are two circular hollows, possibly ponds, that to the N. being 5 ft. deep. H. S. Toms (Dorset Procs. XXXIII, (1912), 40) considered that the enclosure was later in date than 'cultivation scarps' (i.e. 'Celtic' fields) in the surrounding area. (Destroyed.)
(65) Enclosure (730008), now largely destroyed, comprising an irregular pentagon of 13 acres, lay at just over 500 ft. above O.D. on a S.W.-facing slope N., of Pond Eweleaze. The S.E. angle of the enclosure indents the parish boundary with Cheselbourne and a fragment of it is there preserved; it is a low bank up to 5 ft. across, with an external ditch 4 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep. Air photographs (R.A.F. CPE/UK 1974: 4344–5) suggest that there was possibly an entrance in the S. side. The N. angle appears to be linked with Cheselbourne (22) by a scarp (see also 'Celtic' Field Group (44)).