An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
53. MANUDEN (A.c).
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xiii. S.E. (b)xxii. N.W. (c)xxii. N.E.)
Manuden is a parish and village about 3 m. N. of Bishop's Stortford. The principal monuments are the Parish Church, Manuden Hall and Battles Manor House.
c (1). Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin stands in the middle of the village. The walls are built of flint rubble, and the dressings, where ancient, are of clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles. There is no evidence of the date of the Nave, which is probably the oldest part of the building. A short S. aisle or transept was added in the 14th century, and c. 1400 the North Transept was built. In the 19th century the S. aisle was pulled down, and the present South Aisle built; the Chancel and the West Tower were rebuilt, and the South Porch was added.
The early 15th-century screen is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (33 ft. by 19 ft.) is modern.
The Nave (58 ft. by 20½ ft.) has, in the N. wall, opening into the N. transept, an early 15th-century arch of two pointed and chamfered orders, the outer order is continuous, and the inner springs from attached semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals and hidden bases; further W. are three modern windows. The S. arcade is of four bays, of which the two eastern, with two piers and the eastern respond, are of clunch, and apparently of the 14th century, but entirely re-cut; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders, and the octagonal piers have moulded capitals and bases; the two western bays are modern.
The North Transept (17 ft. by 16 ft.) is of c. 1400, and the outer angles have diagonal buttressess with gabled heads, repaired with 18th-century brick. In the E. wall is a pointed window of two cinquefoiled lights with tracery and a moulded external label with defaced head-stops. The S.E. angle of the transept is splayed off, probably to enclose the stairs to the rood-loft. In the N. wall is a square-headed window, also of c. 1400, of three ogee trefoiled lights with tracery and a chamfered segmental-pointed rear arch; one mullion has been repaired with brick, and above the head are two modern wood lintels, to which the tracery is clamped. In the W. wall is a modern doorway.
The South Aisle, West Tower and South Porch are all modern.
The Roof of the nave is of the 15th century, and has three king-post trusses with moulded wall-plates and tie-beams with curved braces; the king-posts are octagonal, and have moulded capitals and bases and four-way struts; the roof is ceiled below the rafters and collars; the wall-plates of the W. bay are modern. The roof of the N. transept is of the same date and similar character, with a central truss and two wall-trusses.
Fittings—Bells: five; 3rd and 4th by Miles Graye, 1620. Communion Table: large turned legs, mid 17th-century, the rest modern. Glass: In N. window of transept—in tracery, one quarry with yellow flower, 15th-century. Monument: In N. transept—on N. wall, to Sir William Waad, 1623, marble and black stone tablet with side pilasters, cleft pediment and two shields of arms. Plate: includes an Elizabethan cup and cover-paten, both repaired and without hall-marks. Screen: (See Plate, p. 195) under chancel-arch— of eight bays, three on each side of the entrance, modern cornice, upper panels open, with ogee cinquefoiled and sub-cusped heads and carved foliage-spandrels, middle rail panelled, with running tracery; close lower panels with traceried heads and foliage-spandrels; entrance with depressed cusped and sub-cusped head and double gates having close panels, and row of quatrefoils at base; mullions moulded and buttressed, with crocketed heads above the middle rail, early 15th-century, slightly repaired.
Condition—Good, practically rebuilt, except N. transept, which is in bad repair.
c (2). Manuden Hall, 200 yards E.N.E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of red brick and the roofs are covered with slate. It was built c. 1540, but completely gutted by fire late in the 19th century; the W. front and N. end walls are all that remains of the original building.
The W. front has a double-chamfered plinth and four crow-stepped gables; the two northern gables are modern; the southernmost, and probably also the next gable, are original, and each has, at the apex, a brick pinnacle, with moulded base and cap. The entrance doorway has a moulded four-centred head, but is coated with modern cement; the windows S. of the entrance are probably also original, but have been similarly treated; the lights have rounded heads, and those on the ground-floor have transoms. At the N.W. angle of the front is a small recess, under an extension of the chimney-stack; it has two openings with arched brick heads. The chimney-stack at the N. end of the house is original, and has two octagonal shafts with moulded caps and bases. The S. wall is modern, though built of old materials; the original house extended further towards the S.
a (3). Battles Manor House, now a farmhouse, and moat, about 1¼ m. N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and cellar; the walls are of brick and plastered timberframing; the roofs are tiled. The original house probably stood S.W. of the present structure, which was apparently erected c. 1660, and incorporates a considerable amount of material of an earlier date. The plan is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the N. and W., and with a staircase in the angle between them. A modern wing at the back was added in 1913. All the roofs are hipped, and the ground-floor walls are of red brick, probably re-used material. On the E. front is a projecting porch, of two storeys with a hipped roof and a square-headed outer archway which has an original chamfered oak frame; the inner doorway has a 16th-century moulded frame with stops, and a moulded panelled door of the 17th century. One window S. of the porch is original, with a solid frame, mullion, and transom. The central chimney-stack is original, with a modern top and a moulded string-course at the base.
Interior—The porch opens into an entrance-hall in the middle of the main block, which contains an original wide fireplace with a heavy oak lintel and a fine iron rack and hook; on the N. wall is a 17th-century panelled and carved overmantel, formerly in a room on the first floor. The panelled oak door to the cellar is original. On the first floor one room is panelled to the ceiling, and has an early 17th-century strap-work frieze. The box-room has late 16th-century panelling on two walls, and a conventional carved frieze.
The garden, S.W. of the house, is partly enclosed by a brick wall, of which portions appear to be older than the house; two blocked four-centred arches remain and in the middle of the W. wall is a pair of brick gate-piers with moulded rustications of early 17th-century date, and modern tops.
The Moat was rectangular and enclosed the garden and site of the former house. Only the broad N. and S. arms remain.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (4). Pinchpools Manor House, now a farmhouse, 1,050 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster, except the front, which is faced with modern brick; the roofs are tiled. The House was built c. 1560, but has been much altered; at the back is a late 17th or early 18th-century addition, and there is a modern addition at the W. end. The central chimney-stack is original, and has two octagonal shafts with moulded bases and a modern capping. At the W. end is a late 17th-century stack, with a plain panelled face and a modern top.
Condition—Fairly good; much altered.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster or weather-boarding. Many of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams. The roofs are tiled or thatched.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
The Clavering Road, W. side
c (5). The Jolly Waggoners Inn, house and tenement, 420 yards N.W. of the church, is built of red brick with a chamfered plinth and a plain band between the storeys. At the S. end are two partly blocked windows with four-centred heads, and in the gable is a blocked round-headed window.
c (6). Cottage, 50 yards S. of (5), with a half-hipped gable at the N. end.
c (7). Cobb's Farm, house and outbuilding, 30 yards E. of (6). The House is of irregular T-shaped plan, with the cross wing at the W. end. The E. wing is of early 16th-century date, but the cross-wing was largely reconstructed in the 18th century, and there is a low modern addition at the back. At the E. end of the E. wing the upper storey projects, and has a moulded and carved bressumer.
The Outbuilding is probably of late 16th-century date, and has timber-framing and a curved brace exposed on the S. side.
Main Street, N. side
c (8). Cottage, two tenements, 70 yards N. of the church. On the S. front the upper storey projects. The roof is brought down low at the back over a modern addition.
c (9). The Yew Tree Inn, 30 yards E. of (8),is probably of late 16th-century date, with a large wing at the back of c. 1730. On the S. front the upper storey projects, and rests on three main beams with curved brackets.
c (10). Margarets, house, 70 yards N.W. of the church, was probably built c. 1550 on a half-H-shaped plan. The space between the wings on the N. front has been filled in recently, and there is a modern wing at the back, making the present plan L-shaped. At each end of the front is a gabled wing which has original foiled barge-boards with blunt cusps. Inside the building, the E. room has an original moulded beam, and on the first floor the timber framing is exposed.
c (11). Cottage, now two tenements, E. of (10), is of two storeys with attics. The upper storey projects both in front and at the back, and the roof is hipped at both ends.
c (12). Cottages, range of four, E. of (11), are of late 16th-century date, with a low modern addition along the whole length at the back. On the N. front the upper storey projects, and has exposed joists and six main beams with curved brackets. The projecting chimney-stack at the E. end is of the 17th century, and has four offsets. At the back the projection of the upper storey is now concealed, except at the W. end. Inside the building, the ground floor has moulded ceilingbeams; the transverse beams rest on wall-posts with curved braces or brackets.
c (13). Cottage, now two tenements, in a range with modern buildings, S. of the churchyard. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S., and was built early in the 16th century. The front has been entirely altered, but at the back is a projecting gable which has an original moulded bressumer with carved running foliage.
c (14). Rectory Farm, house, 130 yards S.W. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E.; in the middle of the W. side is a small staircase wing, and, on the same side, a modern addition. The roof is carried down low at the N. end, and the original central chimney-stack has one attached diagonal pilaster.
The Bishop's Stortford Road, W. side
c (15). Cottage, now two tenements, 350 yards S. of the church. On the E. front the upper storey projects, and rests on five main beams with curved brackets. Over the door is inscribed "M.J.P., 1768," the date of the plaster-work. The gables are half-hipped, and the original central chimney-stack has a diagonal and a square pilaster.
c (16). Cottage, 110 yards S. of (15).
c (17). Broom Farm, house, 700 yards W.S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, on a rectangular plan. A modern wing on the E. side makes the plan L-shaped, and there is a modern porch. Inside the building, on the first floor, the original cambered tie-beams and shaped wall-posts are exposed.
b (18). Cottage, now two tenements, on the S. side of the road, nearly 1½ m. W. of the church, with a modern addition at each end.
b (19). White's Farm, house, now two tenements, 520 yards W.N.W. of (18), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; there is a modern addition at the back. The wings are of slightly different date, and the gables are all half-hipped.
b (20). Cottage, 70 yards N.E. of (19), on the opposite side of the road, has, at the N. end, an original oak-framed window with sliding sashes. At the back is a modern addition.
b (21). Mallow's Green Farm, house, now two tenements, and barns, 1¼ m. W. of the church. The House is probably of late 16th-century date, much altered and restored. In front the upper storey projects.
The Barn, S. of the house, is of the 17th century, and of five bays with side-aisles. A second barn, S.W. of the house, is of similar construction, and probably of the same date as the other.
b (22). Saucemere's Farm, house, 250 yards N.E. of (21), is probably of late 16th-century date, much altered; it has modern extensions on the N. side and at the W. end, but the original plan was Tshaped, with the cross-wing at the W. end. At the S. end of the cross-wing the upper storey projects, and has two curved brackets.
Maggot's End, S. side
a (23). Cottage, nearly 1 m. N.W. of the church, with half-hipped gables at each end.
a (24). Cottage, 50 yards N.N.W. of (23).
a (25). Cottage, 300 yards E.S.E. of (24), with a modern addition at the E. end. The roof is hipped at one end and half-hipped at the other.
a (26). Barn at Peyton Hall, 1 m. N.W. of the church, stands S.E. of the house, and is of five bays with side-aisles.
Maplestead, Great and Little, see Great Maplestead and Little Maplestead.