An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
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60. RADWINTER. (C.b.)
O.S. 6 in. (a)ix. N.E. (b)x. N.W. (c)ix. S.E.)
Radwinter is a parish and village, about 5 m. E. of Saffron Walden. The principal monuments are the Church, Grange Farm, Great Brockholds and Lower House Farm.
a (1). Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin stands in the village, and is built of flint with white limestone and clunch dressings. The roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The oldest part of the existing church is the S. arcade of the Nave, a S. aisle having been added c. 1280. In the 14th century, probably c. 1320–30, the chancel was rebuilt, and c. 1340 a N. aisle was added; a W. tower was built and the South Porch added c. 1350. In 1869 the church was restored and enlarged; the nave was lengthened one bay towards the E., the Chancel was rebuilt and lengthened, the South Aisle and the clearstorey were rebuilt with old materials, and the North Aisle rebuilt. In 1887 the West Tower was rebuilt; the North Vestry, South Vestry and Organ-chamber and the upper storey of the porch are modern.
The 13th-century detail of the S. arcade and the 14th-century detail of the S. porch are interesting, and the base and stem of the mediæval chalice are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (32¾ ft. by 17¼ ft.) is entirely modern, except the chancel-arch of c. 1300, re-set one bay east of its former position; the responds have clustered shafts with moulded capitals, modern bases, and hollow chamfers between the shafts; the two-centred arch is of three hollow-chamfered orders with a moulded label on the W. face; on the E. face is a roughly cut groove, probably for framework connected with the former rood.
The Nave (52½ ft. by 19¼ ft.) has a N. arcade of four bays; the E. bay is modern and the rest of c. 1340; the columns are octagonal with moulded capitals and modern bases; the responds have attached half-columns with original bases; the E. respond has been re-set and the eastern column is modern; the arches are two-centred and of two moulded orders with a hollow groove on the soffit and a moulded label on the S. face. The S. arcade was rebuilt in 1869 with the materials of c. 1280, and the eastern arch and column are modern; the columns are much restored and re-cut and have clustered shafts with moulded capitals and modern bases; the responds have attached half-columns and the two-centred arches are of two richly moulded orders with a moulded label on the N. face. The clearstorey has four modern windows on each side.
The North Aisle (9¾ ft. wide) has in the E. wall a re-set 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head, and a chamfered external label; the jambs and mullion are modern. In the N. wall are three windows; the two eastern are modern, and the western, apparently of the 14th century, is of two plain modern lights with a circle in a two-centred head; the external label is chamfered; the pointed rear arch is double hollow-chamfered. Further W. is the 14th-century N. doorway, much restored and now opening into a modern vestry; it has hollow-chamfered jambs and a two-centred arch; the segmental pointed rear arch is double hollow-chamfered. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the E. wall, but entirely of the 14th century, except the internal splays and rear arch.
The South Aisle (8¾ ft. wide) is modern and has three windows in the S. wall; the easternmost and westernmost appear to contain old stonework re-used, and the middle window has re-set splays and a two-centred moulded rear arch of the 14th century. Further W. is the modern S. doorway.
The West Tower is modern, but the tower-arch is of the 14th century, much re-cut; the double-chamfered responds have semi-octagonal attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the two-centred arch is of the same section as the responds, with a moulded label on the E. face. The modern W. window has some 14th-century stonework reused, including the moulded two-centred rear arch with a moulded label. In the middle of each wall of the bell-chamber, below the parapet, is a 16th-century gargoyle, re-set.
The South Porch (see Plate, p. 214) is a timber structure of two storeys, the lower of the 14th century, and the upper rebuilt. The S. angles have massive posts with a shallow moulding at the springing of the curved brackets supporting the upper storey. The outer archway is formed of two curved brackets, chamfered and enriched, externally and internally, with sunk tracery and carved leaves. In each side wall of the lower storey are three cinquefoiled ogee lights, two with traceried spandrels and one with carved leaves in the spandrels. The original work extends to the beams supporting the upper storey.
The Roof of the nave is of four bays with two 14th-century king-post trusses; the tie-beams and wall-plates are hollow-chamfered and the large curved brackets have pierced tracery in the spandrels; the octagonal king-posts have moulded capitals and bases and four-way struts which support the hollow-chamfered central purlin. The flat lean-to roof of the N. aisle is largely modern, but most of the moulded middle purlin and upper wall-plate and the embattled lower wall-plate are of the 16th century. The roof of the S. aisle is similar to that of the N. aisle, but the alternate principals have curved brackets at the lower ends, and one wall-piece terminates in a grotesque head; the old rafters have hollow-chamfered edges.
Fittings—Bells: eight; 4th and 7th by Robert Oldfield, 1616; 5th by Robert Oldfield, 1629; 6th probably by Roger Reve, 16th-century, inscribed "Sancta Maria Ora Pro Nobis." Chair: In chancel—with turned legs, moulded upper rails, curved arms with turned supports and richly panelled back, early 17th-century, addition to back modern. Chests: In nave—(1) small hutch type, with two incised panels in front, 17th-century. In upper storey of N. vestry—(2) with richly panelled front and plainly panelled ends and lid, late 16th-century; (3) with richly panelled front, attached half-balusters to the muntins, stiles, etc., two incised panels at each end, plain lid, 17th-century. Door: In N. doorway—battened, with square framing, bottom rail, strap-hinges, and small drop-handle, probably 15th-century, plantedon modern frame. In S. doorway—modern door, with drop-handle, probably mediæval. Glass: In N.E. and S. windows of the chancel, and in all windows of N. vestry—fragments of borders, inscriptions, tracery, tabernacle-work, etc., 14th and 15th-century. Locker: In N. aisle—in W. respond of arcade, square with rebated edges. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Floor-slab: now set in external face of S. wall of S. aisle—to Robert Wall, 1705–6. Painting: In nave—on second and third arches of N. arcade, remains of painted decoration in red and yellow bands. In N. aisle, over altar, loose folding triptych of wood, middle panel with figures of the Virgin and Child; on left leaf, figure of male saint in loose tunic and cloak, book in one hand, sceptre in the other; on right leaf, figure of female saint in habit with lily in one hand and book in the other, foreign work, probably late 15th-century. Piscina: In N. aisle—in E. respond of arcade, with chamfered jambs and cinquefoiled ogee head, 14th-century, re-tooled and re-set. Plate: includes a silver gilt chalice having hexagonal stem with engraved panels and richly ornamented boss, concave hexagonal base set within a sexfoil foot, engraved crucifix on one face of base, foreign workmanship, probably late 15th-century, bowl modern. Reredos: In chancel—over altar, of wood, with six recesses, lined with elaborate tracery and each containing a carved figure-subject—the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, the Marriage of the Virgin, the Adoration of the Magi, the Death of the Virgin, the Nativity, and the Funeral of the Virgin, Flemish work, early 16th-century, recently brought from elsewhere. Miscellanea: In N. vestry, small table with turned legs and incised ornament to top rail, early 17th-century; also small box with fluted sides and ends, early 17th-century. In tower—brass candelabra with twelve branches, probably early 18th-century.
Condition—Good, much restored.
a (2). On the N. side of the Rectory, ¾ m. N.W. of the church, said to have been the site of the old Rectory.
a (3). At Broadysh Farm, about 1½ m. N.N.W. of the church, very incomplete.
b (4). At Swan's Farm, nearly 2 m. N.E. of the church, rectangular moat, very incomplete.
b (5). On site of Bull's Farm, 2¼ m. N.E. of the church.
c (6). Grange Farm (see Plate, p. xxvii), formerly the Manor House, 1,000 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with an attic, and faces E. The walls are timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. It was built in the second half of the 16th century, on a rectangular plan with a small staircase wing at the back.
The brick chimney-stack at the back is noteworthy.
The front elevation has been much restored and altered. On the back elevation the staircase-wing has a projecting upper storey and a projecting gable with a small turned pendant at each end; both projections have moulded bressumers; the original chimney-stack rests on moulded corbelling and is diapered in blue brick; above the corbelling is a plastered rectangular panel with a moulded sill and a corbelled head consisting of six pointed and trefoiled arches; the three shafts are modern.
Interior—On the ground floor the three main rooms have exposed ceiling-beams, and the S. room has a little early 17th-century panelling. The kitchen at the N. end has a wide open fire-place. On the first floor, two rooms are lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling, now whitewashed; on the same floor four doors are panelled and have ornamental hinges. In the attic is a door of moulded battens.
c (7). Great Brockholds Farm, house and moat, 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attic and cellar; it is timberframed and covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the middle of the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending N.W. and N.E. The walls were probably re-plastered in 1777, the date over the front door.
On the N.E. front of the N.W. wing the upper storey projects; above the entrance door is an original window of three lights with moulded mullions and a plain frame. There is a similar window of four lights at the end of the N.W. wing. The original chimney-stack in the middle of the N.W. wing has four attached diagonal shafts on a rectangular base. The shaft of the chimney-stack near the S. angle is built of late 17th-century bricks.
Interior—On the ground floor of the N.E. wing two rooms have moulded ceiling-beams, and the wall-post at one end of the cross-beam has a small attached shaft with a flat embattled capital. The rooms in the N.W. wing and some rooms on the first floor have plain open timber ceilings.
The Moat, S.W. of the house, is rectangular, with some traces of foundations on the island.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (8). Bendysh Hall, now a farmhouse, and moat, about 11/8 m. N. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. It was built probably in 1659, the date on the chimney-stack, but the S. part of the house was recently burnt down and has been rebuilt in modern brick; the extension at the N. end is modern.
The 17th-century plaster panel on the first floor is interesting. On the W. front the upper storey projects at the N. end and rests on two curved brackets. The original central chimney-stack is of cross-shaped plan, set diagonally on a square base; on the W. face is a plastered panel inscribed 1659 T.F. (for Sir Thomas Fisher) and against each shaft is a small moulded pilaster.
Interior—On the ground floor the middle room has a hollow-chamfered cross-beam in the ceiling; over the fireplace is an elaborate plaster panel in three divisions, with foliage, grotesque birds feeding, etc. Under the stairs is a cupboard door of 17th-century panelling. On the first floor a fireplace has a moulded cornice and above it a plaster panel of grotesque ornament and a moulded pediment surmounted by two nude reclining figures of boys. On the same floor is a 17th-century panelled door and a heavy chamfered and cambered tie-beam.
The Moat surrounding the house is almost rectangular, and there are traces of a second enclosure on the S.E.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (9). Lower House Farm, house and outhouse, on the W. side of Water Lane, nearly ¾ m. N. of the church. The House is of two storeys, timberframed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 15th century on the usual mediæval plan with the great Hall in the middle, a Buttery wing on the S. and a Solar wing on the N. In the 16th century the Hall was divided into two storeys and a chimney-stack inserted. The Buttery wing has recently been extended towards the W.
A truss of the original roof of the Hall is noteworthy.
The elevations have no ancient features.
Interior—The Hall has passages partitioned off on the W. and S., and a floor inserted to divide it into two storeys. The ground floor has a large moulded 16th-century beam and moulded joists. The wide open fireplace, also of the 16th century, has been partly filled in. On the first floor there is one truss of the original roof of the Hall; it has a massive chamfered and cambered tie-beam and an octagonal king-post with moulded capital and base and four-way struts, of which one is missing; the roof was originally of three bays, but the second truss has been destroyed; the upper part of the original S. end of the Hall retains the ornamental plastering. A small room in the Buttery wing has exposed joists, and a room at the N. end has a large chamfered beam with curved brackets. In the dairy at the N. end of the Solar wing is a piece of early 17th-century panelling.
The Outhouse, S. of the house, is of two storeys, timber-framed, partly weather-boarded and partly covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. It was built in the 17th century. On the ground floor one room has a chamfered beam and exposed joists in the ceiling.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Most of the buildings are of the 17th century, and many of them have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
a (10). Cottage, two tenements, 60 yards W. of the church, with a small modern addition on the S. side.
a (11). The Old Vicarage, at the S.W. corner of the churchyard, is of late 16th or early 17th-century date, with a modern addition on the S. side. The gable at the E. end has original moulded and carved barge-boards. The doorway on the S. side has a richly moulded oak frame. Inside the building, one room on the ground floor is lined with original oak panelling. Across the entrance lobby at the ceiling level is a low balustrade with turned balusters. The staircase has an original octagonal newel and, at the top, a short balustrade with a moulded handrail and turned balusters. In the attic is an original panelled door.
a (12). House, now three tenements, 80 yards S. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It is of late 16th or early 17th-century date, and of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. There are three small modern additions. At the E. end of the N. front the upper storey projects. At the S. end of the S. wing the upper storey also projects. Inside the building, on the ground floor one room has a large moulded ceiling-beam and moulded joists.
a (13). The Red Lion Inn, 50 yards N.E. of the church, is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end. It has been much altered and restored.
a (14). Cottage, two tenements, opposite the school, 130 yards N. of the church, with a small modern addition at the N. end. On the E. front there are two gabled dormer windows.
a (15). Cottage, two tenements, 80 yards N.W. of (14), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. On the E. front is a small gabled dormer window.
a (16). Newhouse Farm, house, ¾ m. W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. At the back is a large modern addition. The E. front has been re-faced in modern brick. The square central chimney-stack is original, with seven diagonal pilasters on each face.
a (17). Gibb's Farm, house, 1 m. N.W. of the church, is of modified H-shaped plan with the wings at the E. and W. ends.
a (18). Cottage, 50 yards S.W. of (17).
a (19). Cottage, three tenements, on the E. side of Water Lane, 800 yards N. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E.
a (20). Tile Kiln Farm, house, about 1 m. N. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The plan was originally T-shaped with the cross-wing at the S. end. On the W. side is a modern addition. The original central chimney-stack of the cross-wing has four attached diagonal shafts.
Interior—The dining room at the W. end of the cross-wing has an original fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred arch under a square head; above it is a plaster panel ornamented with a lozenge containing a lion reversed, and flanked by circular flowers, fleurs de lis and small birds. A window, in the study in the N. wing, has original panelled shutters with guilloche ornament. In the attic is an original door of moulded battens. The plain staircase from the first floor to the attics is original.
a (21). Cottage, two tenements, 250 yards N.N.W. of (20), has an original central chimney-stack with two attached diagonal shafts.
a (22). Payne's Farm, house, 100 yards N.W. of (21). The walls are weather-boarded; the addition at the back is modern.
a (23). Cottage, nearly 1 m. N.N.E. of the church, with a modern addition at the W. end.
a (24). Richmond's Farm, house, about 1½ m. N.E. of the church, with a small modern addition at the N.E. corner.
b (25). Cottage, two tenements, 70 yards N.E. of (24).
b (26). Cottage, 130 yards N.E. of (25), has an original chimney-stack with a cross-shaped shaft set diagonally on a square base.
b (27). House, 170 yards N.E. of (26), with a modern addition at the back. The walls are partly weather-boarded. The original central chimney-stack has three diagonal shafts modern at the top.
b (28). Park Farm, house, 2 m. N.E. of the church, was originally of modified H-shaped plan with the wings on the E. and W. sides. There is a modern addition on the N. In the W. gable of the S. front is a round panel inclosing a heart.
b (29). Godfrey's Farm, house, nearly 1¾ m. N.E. of the church.
a (30). Cowless Hall Farm, house, nearly 1 m. N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. On the W. side is a modern addition.
b (31). Seldon's Farm, house, and barns, ¾ m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the S.E. and S.W. There are modern additions on the N.W. The original central chimney-stack of the S.E. wing has three attached diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the entrance lobby, with a cupboard over it, and one bedroom on the first floor, have dados of early 17th-century panelling. On the ground floor another room has a piece of similar panelling.
Two Barns, S. of the house, each with a projecting bay, are both possibly of the 17th century.
b (32). Cottage, two tenements, 150 yards E. of (31).
b (33). Cottage, two tenements, 170 yards S.W. of (31), with a modern addition on the S.W. side.
The Great Sampford Road, S.W. side
a (34). Cottage, two tenements, about 700 yards E.N.E. of the church, with a modern addition at the back. In front there are two gabled dormer windows.
a (35). Cottage, two tenements, 80 yards S.E. of (34) is of two storeys with a cellar. It is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N. end. The walls are partly weather-boarded.
a (36). Cottage, 70 yards S.E. of (35), partly weather-boarded.
a (37). Cottage, three tenements, S.E. of (36).
c (38). Mortlock's Farm, house and barn, nearly 1 m. S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics and the walls are partly weather-boarded and partly of modern brick. The original central chimney-stack has five attached diagonal pilasters on two sides and two pilasters at each end.
The Barn, W. of the house, is of three bays, partly weather-boarded.
c (39). Little Brockholds Farm, house and barn, nearly 1¼ m. S.E. of the church. The House is of Lshaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The S. wing has a gable at each end with original enriched barge-boards; those at the N. end are dentilled and carved with scroll-ornament and those at the S. end with guilloche ornament.
The Barn, N. of the house, is weather-boarded and has a projecting entrance bay.
c (40). Jenkinhoy Farm, house, ¾ m. S. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W.
c (41). Moated mound, or site of mill, about 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the church, about 60 ft. in diameter.