An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 1, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1916.
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65. SHALFORD. (D.c.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xv. S.E. (b)xvi. S.W. (c)xxiv. N.E. (d)xxv. N.W.)
Shalford is a parish and small village about 4½ m. N.W. of Braintree. The Church and Redfern's Farm are the principal monuments.
b (1). Parish Church of St. Andrew, formerly of St. Leonard, stands in the N.E. corner of the parish on the E. side of the main street of the village. The walls are of flint rubble, all covered with cement except those of the chancel; the dressings are of limestone and clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The lower part of the W. tower has clasping buttresses, which may indicate a 12th-century origin. Some re-set detail in the S. aisle is of the 13th century. The Nave was rebuilt c. 1330 when the North Aisle and a south aisle were added; c. 1340 the Chancel was rebuilt. In the second half of the 14th century the nave and aisles were much altered, the clearstorey was added, the South Aisle probably widened, and the South Porch built; about the same time the West Tower was rebuilt. The church was repaired and the walls covered with cement, probably in 1812. The combined North Vestry and Organ-chamber are modern.
Amongst the fittings the heraldic glass, the three large monuments, and the traceried S. door, all of the 14th-century, are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft. by 19½ ft.) has an E. window of c. 1340, partly restored, and of five lights; the middle light is cinquefoiled and the rest trefoiled, with modern tracery under a two-centred head; the jambs, splays, mullions, rear arch and labels are moulded; the internal label has head-stops. In the N. wall at the E. end is a 14th-century window partly restored, and of one trefoiled light with a moulded label. Further W. is a modern doorway and arch. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is of the same date and detail as that in the N. wall, but the label has a head-stop; the western window is of c. 1340, partly restored, and of two trefoiled ogee lights, with a quatrefoil under a segmental-pointed head; the detail is similar to that of the E. window. The 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred, and of two moulded orders with moulded labels on the E. and W. sides; the responds are of two chamfered orders, and the inner order has moulded stops at the base. S. of the arch is a small squint, with an ogee head, probably of the 15th century.
The North Vestry is modern, but re-set in the E. wall is a window of c. 1340, partly restored, and of similar design to the S.W. window in the chancel.
The Nave (45½ ft. by 20½ ft.) has 14th-century N. and S. arcades of three bays, irregularly spaced; the two-centred arches are of two moulded orders in the nave, and of one moulded and one chamfered order in the aisle, both sides have moulded labels with carved stops, much defaced; the piers are of quatrefoil plan with keeled rolls between the foils, and have moulded bases and bell-capitals; apparently most of the capitals have been re-cut; the responds have attached half-columns. The clearstorey has, on each side, three late 14th-century windows, each of two cinquefoiled lights, with tracery under a square head; those on the N. side have three-centred rear arches, and those on the S. side have modern internal lintels, and have been externally restored in cement. Below the sills internally is a moulded string-course.
The North Aisle (8 ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two late 14th-century windows; the eastern is of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a square head with moulded labels; the internal label has defaced angel-stops; the jambs, mullions and heads are moulded; the western window is similar to the other, but of two lights. Further W. is the early 14th-century N. doorway with jambs and two-centred head of two orders, the inner moulded and the outer chamfered; the labels are moulded. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century window of two cinquefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the rear arch and moulded internal label are both four-centred, and have probably been re-set.
The South Aisle (10 ft. wide) has a moulded plinth. In the E. wall is a 14th-century window of three cinquefoiled lights with leaf-tracery in a two-centred head; the labels are moulded; below the internal sill is a moulded string-course of the 13th century, re-set. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is of early 14th-century date, altered late in the same century, and of two cinquefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a four-centred head; the labels are moulded, but the external label is apparently modern; the western window is of the same date and detail as the eastern window in the N. aisle, with moulded internal and external reveals; the external label has a defaced head-stop. Further W. is the late 14th-century S. doorway, with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head, under a moulded label; the cusped spandrels have each a plain shield. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century window, probably re-set late in the same century; it is of two cinquefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a four-centred head.
The West Tower (11½ ft. square) is of three stages with a moulded plinth, plain parapet and pyramidal roof; the ground stage has clasping buttresses, but above that level they are diagonal. The late 14th or early 15th-century tower-arch is two-centred, and of two moulded orders on the E. side, and two hollow-chamfered orders on the W. side; the outer order is continuous, and the inner order springs from attached semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The late 15th-century W. window is of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery under a two-centred head. The S. and W. walls of the second stage have each a square quatrefoiled window, probably of late 14th-century date. The bell-chamber has, in the E. wall, a late 14th-century window of one cinquefoiled light; the N. S. and W. walls have each a late 14th-century window of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head.
The South Porch is of late 14th-century date, and has an elaborately moulded, two-centred outer archway under a square head with a moulded label and panelled spandrels, each with a blank shield; the responds have clustered shafts with moulded capitals. The E. and W. walls have each a window of two trefoiled lights, formerly flanked inside by blind lights under a common square head; in the W. wall the northern blind light has been removed or blocked; the moulded label of the E. window has defaced head-stops, and that of the W. window has been repaired with cement.
The Roof of the nave is probably of the 17th century, and is of three bays; the heavy cambered and chamfered tie-beams have wall-posts and curved braces; the intermediate tie-beams are also cambered; the moulded and embattled corbels are of stone and wood; and one of them has a carved head. The lean-to roof of the S. aisle is partly modern, but the four western bays are partly of late 14th-century date; the principals are stop-chamfered, except that against the W. wall, which, with the purlin and the southern wall-plate of the W. bay is moulded. The ground stage of the tower has double hollow-chamfered ceiling-beams, with curved braces, probably of 1687, and framed round a square bell-way. The roof of the tower is probably of the same date. The late 14th-century roof of the S. porch is of low pitch and has moulded main timbers with bosses at the points of intersection carved with foliage, grotesques, and six shields (one modern)— (a) Vere, (b) Coggeshall, (c) Northwood, (d) Braybrooke, Bishop of London, (e) Mortimer.
Fittings—Bells: five, 2nd by Charles Newman, 1690; 3rd and 4th by Richard Bowler, 1601. Brass and Indents. Brass: In chancel—on E. wall, to William Bigge of Redfans, 1616, and Susanna (Jernegan) his wife, 1615, plate with skull and texts, two shields and inscription, all set in a moulded frame. Indents: (see Monuments). Chest: In tower—small, plain, with strap-hinges and three locks, 16th or 17th-century. Coffin-lid: In S. porch—of Purbeck marble, probably 14th-century, much broken and defaced. Communion Rails; with moulded rail, twisted balusters, and square posts, late 17th-century. Door: In S. doorway, two-fold—each fold with two bays of tracery divided by moulded ribs and cut from the solid, outer band of tracery carried down to base, late 14th-century, slightly restored. Font: of clunch, hexagonal bowl with cusped and panelled faces, alternate panels each with two shields, charged with the arms of Mortimer, Fitzwalter, Vere, a cheveron between three roundels with a border for Bray, six scallops for Scales, and a cross between four scallops for Coggeshall, stem with trefoil-headed panels, 15th-century, buttresses and base probably modern. Glass: In tracery of E. window—foliage, lions, etc. and shields of arms as follows—(a) gules three lions argent crowned azure, for Roos; (b) ermine a cross engrailed gules, for Northwood; (c) paly wavy argent and gules, (coloured yellow in glass), for Valoines; (d) sable billetty or a griffin argent, for Picot; (e) barry vert and or a bend gules, for Poynings; (f) Northwood; (g) vair a chief gules with two pierced molets or therein, for Fitz Barnard; (h) quarterly or and gules over all a bend vair, for Sackville; (i) Northwood with a boar's head sable in the quarter, for Northwood of Shalford; all 14th-century. In N. aisle—in N. W. window two heads of canopies, late 14th-century. In S. aisle—in tracery of E. window, similar glass with the following shields of arms—(a) Fitz Barnard; (b) Northwood; (c) Poynings; (d) Sackville, 14th-century, much restored; in heads of side-lights remains of tabernacle work, etc. late 14th-century, partly restored; in S.E. window, remains of tabernacle work, etc. late 14th-century. In tower—in W. window, in tracery of one light, foliage design, 15th-century. Monuments: In chancel in S. wall, altar tomb (see Plate, p. 262) with modern front, and Purbeck marble slab with indent of woman's figure, and crocketed canopy with side pinnacles, recess with four-centred cusped and sub-cusped arch, having carved spandrels and ogee crocketed and finialled label with pierced and traceried main spandrel; buttressed and crocketed pinnacles at sides, and embattled horizontal main cornice, enriched with carved heads; below the cornice, two cusped panels with shields of the arms of Northwood of Shalford and Picot, probably re-cut; late 14th or early 15th-century. In N. aisle—in N. wall, (2) tomb recess with cinquefoiled and sub-cusped two-centred arch, having crocketed and finialled ogee label, and traceried spandrels, side-shafts with diagonal buttresses, having crocketed heads to off-sets, horizontal main cornice, all c. 1360. In S. aisle—in S. wall, (3) altar tomb with five square cusped panels in front, each with a shield— (a) probably Northwood of Shalford, (b) Valoines, (c) Northwood of Shalford, (d) Northwood, (e) as (b); Purbeck marble slab with remains of indents of canopy, marginal inscription and two shields; recess with shafted jambs and two-centred cusped and sub-cusped arch, much damaged, having a crocketed and finialled ogee label, and a traceried spandrel, crocketed side-pinnacles with panelled and crocketed buttresses, horizontal main cornice with carved sprigs of foliage, all c. 1340, much damaged. Piscinæ: In chancel—with cinquefoiled ogee head and octofoil drain, 14th-century. In vestry—with moulded jambs and pointed head. early 14th-century, probably not in situ. In S. aisle, in S. wall, with moulded jambs and trefoiled head with defaced label and drain, probably 13th-century, re-set. Plate: includes small cup and cover paten of 1562, and pewter flagon, possibly late 17th-century. Screen: Under chancel arch— with two-fold door and three bays on each side, upper panels all with trefoiled traceried heads; buttressed posts, moulded cornice and close lower panels, in lower panel on N. side, two trefoil-headed piercings, and over them two quatrefoil piercings in the middle rail, late 14th-century, partly restored. Stalls: In chancel—against S. part of screen, two, with curved backs and shaped elbow-rests, desk with panelled and carved front, having twisted foliage pattern at base, shaped and buttressed standards, and original popeys, one carved with pelicans and foliage, early 16th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—three, with octagonal shafts and shafted jambs, with moulded capitals and bases; moulded two-centred heads, trefoiled and sub-cusped, with moulded label, and square outer label having modern stops, 14th-century, partly restored. Weathervane: On tower—pierced, with date and initials, 1687, S.H. Miscellanea: Over chancel-arch—on W. side, moulded beam, late 14th-century.
Condition— Structurally sound; stonework much weathered.
b (2). Shalford Hall, 80 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick, and the roof is tiled. The base of the walls and the cellars are probably of the second half of the 16th century, but the superstructure was rebuilt late in the 17th century. The present house formed one wing of a larger building which formerly extended towards the N.E. Many of the windows on the N.E. front and at the back have been blocked. The eastern part of the N.E. front is plastered, and shows the extent of the wing which formerly adjoined it. At the back are six hipped gables, and a late 17th-century projecting chimney-stack with a modern top. Inside the building the floor levels have been considerably altered. Some rooms have exposed ceiling-beams, and at the top of the back staircase is some early 17th-century panelling, and part of a fluted frieze, all re-used. In the cellar is a moulded door-frame of re-used 16th-century material, and a 17th-century battened door.
b (3). Nichol's Farm, formerly a manor house now two tenements, nearly ¾ m. S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th century, and the S. half of the building was originally of one storey, but a floor was afterwards inserted in it. At the junction of the higher and lower parts of the house, is an original chimney-stack with six octagonal shafts which have moulded bases; the caps have been removed. Inside the building many of the rooms have open timber ceilings. All the roofs have cambered tie-beams resting on shaped wall-posts. In the S. part one tie-beam is only a few feet above the first floor and has been cut through for a doorway.
d (4). Sheering Hall and barn, 1¾ m. S.S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with a cellar; the walls are timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th century, and the middle part of the present house is of that date; it was extended towards the W. c. 1600 and there are modern wings on the N. and S. sides. At the S. end of the original block the upper storey projects on two moulded brackets and a moulded and dentilled bressumer. The western of the two chimney-stacks is of c. 1600, but is modern at the top.
Interior—On the ground floor of the original block the E. room has ceiling-beams with moulded 17th-century casings; the fireplace has a late 16th or early 17th-century architrave with carved frieze and moulded cornice; it is flanked by fluted pilasters and has a panelled overmantel with three round-headed arches divided by fluted pilasters; the walls are lined with panelling of the same date as the fireplace, and have a carved frieze. The rooms in the 17th-century extension of the house have exposed ceiling-beams and shaped wall-posts. On the first floor the E. room is lined with panelling similar to that in the room below, and has a frieze carved with guilloche ornament. One door is made of late 16th-century panelling, and has three cock's-head hinges. The cellar has exposed ceiling-beams, and a door has cock's-head hinges.
The Barn, N.W. of the house, is probably of the 16th century; it was altered to form a brew-house, but is now disused. In it is a moulded beam of early 15th-century date, said to have been brought from Braintree church.
Condition—Of house, good.
a (5). Redfern's Farm, formerly a manor house (see Plate, p. xxvi), about ¾ m. W.N.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are partly of brick and partly of plastered timberframing; the roofs are tiled. The N. wing of the house was built early in the 16th century, and formed part of a larger building, which probably extended towards the W.. On the S. is an Hshaped block with the cross-wings at the N. and S.E. ends, which may have formed the original building with a Hall in the middle, but it contains no detail of earlier date than the 16th century. There are 18th century or modern additions on the N. and N.W. On the E. Front the end of the early 16th-century N. wing is of red brick diapered with blue brick; at the N. end of the front is a gable; the windows have plastered brick jambs and heads, but the frames are modern, except two on the ground floor, which are each of two four-centred lights under a square label; above them are two similar windows, one now blocked. The S. part of the house is timber-framed and plastered, and has a projecting porch with an overhanging gabled upper storey which has a moulded cornice and a cove; the gable also projects and has a moulded bressumer. The inner doorway of the porch has a 16th-century studded and battened door, with strap-hinges and an ornamental scutcheon with a ring-handle. The W. Elevation of the N. wing is of brick, and has a four-centred arch, now blocked, and two windows of one light and three lights respectively, with four-centred heads, both windows are now blocked; S. of the second window, at the first floor level, is the outline of a blocked doorway. The S. part of the wing is covered by a modern addition, but in the original wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred arch, now blocked; above it is a 17th-century chimney-stack, modern at the top. Another chimney-stack on the W. side and one at the S. end are also of the 17th century, modern at the top.
Interior—Many of the rooms have chamfered ceiling-beams, and in the S. wing are some moulded ceiling-beams. In the N. wing, on the ground floor, are two 17th-century panelled doors. On the first floor, a room is lined with 16th and early 17th-century panelling with a fluted frieze, and fluted pilasters flanking the fireplace; the mantel-shelf has also a fluted frieze, and above it are two large panels. In the S. wing two rooms are lined with early 17th-century panelling, now painted. The two lower flights of the main staircase have solid oak treads, and the attic staircase in the N. wing is of similar construction. The roof of the N. wing has heavy queen-post trusses, and in the attics over the main block is an elaborately moulded 16th-century door, re-used; a shutter in another attic is made up of a similar door.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Most of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
Main Street, S.W. side
b (6). Cottages, range of four tenements, 200 yards S.W. of the church, with modern additions at each end and at the back.
b (7). Cottage, 50 yards N.W. of (6), with modern additions at each end and at the back. The original central chimney-stack has a shaft, cross-shaped on plan, and set diagonally.
b (8). Cottage, 120 yards N.W. of (7), with an addition, probably of the 18th century, at the S.E. end. Inside the building is an original door of oak battens.
b (9). Cottage, 50 yards N.W. of (8), with an 18th-century addition at the back.
b (10). Brick House, N.W. of (9), is of L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The extensions and additions at the back are modern. The walls of the original building are mainly of brick.
b (11). The George Inn, 200 yards W.S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, on an H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the N.E. and S.W. ends. Early in the 18th century the S.W. wing was extended towards the N.W., and there are two small modern additions. At the S.E. end of the N.E. wing the upper storey projects. At the N.W. end of the S.W. wing is an original window-frame with an ornamental iron latch. Inside the building are two old battened doors.
b (12). The Old Vicarage, N.E. of (11), was built early in the 16th century. The additions on the N.E. and N.W. are modern. Inside the building the middle room on the ground floor has an original moulded ceiling-beam and joists.
b (13). House, 150 yards N.W. of (12), with large modern additions at the back and N.W. end.
b (14). Cottage, 770 yards W.N.W. of the church, with modern additions on the E., W. and S. On the N. front is an original window with an ornamental latch. A similar latch remains on the window of the modern scullery.
b (15). Cottage, 50 yards S.W. of (14), with small 18th-century or later additions on three sides. In the W. wall is an original window-frame with an ornamental iron latch.
a (16). Hunt's Farm, house, about 1 m. W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.E. end. The main block was extended probably in the 18th century. The gables of the cross-wing have plain barge-boards. The original chimney-stack of the cross-wing has grouped diagonal shafts.
c (17). Cottage, two tenements, nearly 1¼ m. S.W. of the church, with an 18th-century extension at the W. end.
c (18). Dine's Farm, house, about 1¼ m. S.W. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S.E. end. Early in the 17th century an addition was made, filling in the N. angle between the wings, and early in the 18th century a similar addition was made in the W. angle, so that the plan is now rectangular. The early 18th-century addition has brick walls with a plain band between the storeys. The central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters. Inside the building, the original cross-wing has in the upper storey cambered tie-beams on shaped posts.
c (19). Whitehouse Farm, house, now two tenements, 100 yards S.S.W. of (18), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.
c (20). Bay's Farm, house, 200 yards S.W. of (19), was built, probably in the first half of the 16th century, on a rectangular plan. Probably early in the 17th century a long wing was added, projecting towards the W., and making the plan L-shaped. The extension of the original wing towards the S. is modern. At the N. end of the original wing the upper storey projects on curved brackets. Inside the building, the original wing has two roof-trusses with cambered tie-beams, curved braces and shaped wall-posts.
c (21). Cottage, about 200 yards S.E. of (20).
c (22). Cottage, about 70 yards E. of (21).
d (23). Parsonage Farm, house, nearly 1½ m. S.S.W. of the church, with an addition on the S. side, probably of the 18th century.
d (24). Bartlett's Farm, house, now two tenements, 200 yards S.E. of (23), was built late in the 16th century. There are traces of the foundations of a former wing on the N.E. side. The central chimney-stack has four octagonal shafts with moulded bases; the upper part of the shafts has been removed. Inside the building, there are several moulded and battened doors, with iron hooks and strap-hinges. The staircase in the N.W. tenement has a central newel and oak treads; at the top is a balustrade with original flat, shaped balusters. The staircase in the S.E. tenement is of oak and has a moulded rail to the landing and a square newel with a moulded terminal. On the first floor the middle room has an original fireplace now blocked, with moulded stone jambs and three-centred head.
d (25). Cottage, on the N. side of the road, ¼ m. S. of (24). The N. half was apparently rebuilt in the 18th century.
d (26). Cottage, 200 yards S.E. of (25), with a low modern addition on the N.
d (27). Cottage, about 180 yards E. of (26), with a modern addition on the N. side.
d (28). Burnt House Farm, house, 200 yards E.S.E. of (27), has, on the W. front, an original door of moulded battens, re-used.
d (29). Roselands Farm, house, 250 yards S. of (28), and 1¾ m. S. of the church, was built possibly in the 15th century; on the N. side there are 18th-century and modern additions which make the plan L-shaped. In the W. gable of the original block the central purlin and collar of the original roof are exposed. The late 16th-century centra chimney-stack has a shaft cross-shaped on plan, and set diagonally. Inside the building, the cambered tie-beam and one curved brace of an original roof-truss are exposed.
d (30). Lowlands Farm, house, about 400 yards S.S.W. of (29), has an 18th-century wing on the E. side, making the plan T-shaped, with the cross-wing at the W. end.
d (31). Cottage, on N. side of road, about 1¼ m. S. of the church. Inside the building there is a large round oven adjoining the fireplace.
d (32). Cottage, about 600 yards N.E. of (31), has an 18th-century extension at the W. end.
d (33). Cottage, 150 yards E.N.E. of (32), on the E. side of the Braintree road. The central chimney-stack has a moulded capping. Inside the building is an original moulded and battened door with a drop-ring handle. Adjoinging the fireplace is a round oven.
d (34). Cottage, now two tenements, 200 yards S. of (33), and opposite Goldsticks Farm, with modern additions at the N. end.
b (35). Tan Office, house, nearly 1 m. S.E. of the church, was built late in the 16th century, on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. There are 18th-century and modern additions on the W., making the plan roughly rectangular. On the E. front are three gables and the central chimney-stack has a quatrefoiled panel at the base, and clustered diagonal shafts.
b (36). Cottage, 350 yards N. of (35), was built c. 1600. The central chimney-stack has a shaft cross-shaped on plan, and set diagonally, probably rebuilt in the 18th century.
Condition—The thatch is decayed and the chimney is out of the perpendicular.
b (37). House, now two tenements, 140 yards N.N.W. of (36), has a short cross-wing at the N. end. The walls are partly weather-boarded. The S. chimney-stack, which was in the middle of the original roof, has a square shaft with clasping pilasters at the angles and a moulded string-course.
b (38). Ironbridge Farm, house, 1,000 yards S.E. of the church, was built in the first half of the 16th century, on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end. There are two gables on the W. side of the main block. Inside the building, the middle room on the ground floor has a moulded ceiling-beam, and there are various fragments of 16th-century panelling, re-used. The roof is original, and has collar-beams, principals and wind-braces.
b (39). Cottage, now four tenements, on the N. side of the road, about ½ m. S. of the church.
b (40). Cottage, now three tenements, on the S. side of the road, 100 yards S.S.W. of (39), with an 18th-century extension at the N. end.
b (41). Cottage, now two tenements, 200 yards S.W. of (40), with a modern addition at the S. end.
b (42). Cottage, 100 yards S.W. of (41), with a modern addition at the W. end.