An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2, Central and South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1921.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
ROYAL COMMISSION ON THE ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS OF ENGLAND.
REPORT TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY.
1. May it please Your Majesty.
We, The undersigned Commissioners, appointed to make an Inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions connected with or illustrative of the contemporary culture, civilization, and conditions of life of the people in England, excluding Monmouthshire, from the earliest times to the year 1714, and to specify those which seem most worthy of preservation, humbly submit to Your Majesty the following Report on the Monuments in the Central and S.W. Division of the County of Essex, being the 5th Interim Report on the of the work Commission since its appointment.
2. We offer in the first place to Your Majesty our humble thanks for the encouragement given to the work of the Commission by the gracious words which accompanied Your Majesty's acceptance of our Inventory of North-West Essex.
3. It is with great regret that we place on record the death of our Chairman, Lord Burghclere, a Privy Councillor, by whose wise counsel and guidance the Commission was enabled to overcome the difficulties inherent in the preliminary organization of the scheme under which the work of the Commission was successfully started, and it is hoped will ultimately be completed; and the death of our colleague, Professor Francis John Haverfield, Doctor of Laws, Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, Fellow of the British Academy and the Society of Antiquaries, whose wide learning was invaluable to the Commission and whose special knowledge of Roman Britain it will be very difficult to replace.
4. We have also to deplore the loss of Sir William St. John Hope, who as an Assistant Commissioner placed his unrivalled knowledge and ripe experience at the disposal not only of ourselves but of our Investigating Staff as well. The two Lectures on Ecclesiastical Architecture which he delivered to the Staff, as well as the many visits which he paid in their company to trace the ground plans and to advise on the dating of monuments, will long be remembered by those who were privileged to be present.
5. We have to thank Your Majesty for the nomination of the following gentlemen as new members of the Commission:—
Sir Arthur John Evans, Knight, D.Litt., LL.D., Fellow of the Royal Society, and past President of the Society of Antiquaries.
Sir Charles Hercules Read, Knight, LL.D., F.B.A., President of the Society of Antiquaries of London.
Montague Rhodes James, Esq., D.Litt., LL.D., F.B.A., F.S.A., Provost of Eton College.
Duncan Hector Montgomerie, Esq., F.S.A.
William Page, Esq., F.S.A.
Charles Reed Peers, Esq., Director of the Society of Antiquaries and Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments under Your Majesty's Office of Works.
6. In view of the successful prosecution and termination of the Great War with Germany and her allies since the issue of our last Report we venture to bring to Your Majesty's notice the following notes on the War services of our Executive Staff:—
Lieutenant A. W. Clapham. Technical Editor. Enlisted 1915 in 2nd Artists Rifles; gazetted 2/Lt. 12th Royal Sussex Regiment, September 5th, 1916; served in France and Belgium and with the 4th Bn. in Palestine, E.E.F.; returned home February, 1919.
Captain J. Murray Kendall. A Senior Investigator. Enlisted in 23rd Royal Fusiliers (Sportsman's Bn.) October 6th, 1914; gazetted 2/Lt. 4th Bn. Royal Warwickshire Regiment; served in France and appointed Instructor at the 1st Army Sniping School; invalided home, 1919.
Major C. C. Durston. An Intermediate Investigator. Called up with the H.A.C. (Horse Artillery) August, 1914; served in Gallipoli and Egypt; transferred to R.N.A.S. and served in Macedonia; now holds regular commission in R.A.F., serving in India.
Captain W. B. Liebert. An Intermediate Investigator. Called up with 1st London Scottish, August, 1914; served in France and wounded November, 1914; gazetted 2/Lt. in 2nd Bn. London Scottish, January, 1915, and served in France, Salonica, Palestine, and again in France; M.C., November 6th, 1918; returned home, 1919.
Lieutenant R. Rahbula. An Intermediate Investigator. Called up with Yeomanry, August, 1914; served in Egypt; gazetted 2/Lt. R.F.A., November 7th, 1915; served in France; M.C., 1918; incapacitated by wounds.
Major R. E. M. Wheeler. An Intermediate Investigator. Joined University of London O.T.C., 1914; gazetted 2/Lt. R.F.A., November 9th 1914; served in France, Italy and Germany; M.C., August, 1918; mentioned in despatches, December, 1918; returned home Autumn, 1919.
Lieutenant E. G. Newnum. A Junior Investigator. Gazetted Lieutenant R.N.V.R., September 8th, 1915; served in the Intelligence Corps in Malta, Egypt, Palestine; returned home, 1919.
2/Lieutenant C. Green. A Probationer Investigator. Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment. Killed in action in France, 1917.
M. L. Logan. A Junior Investigator. Enlisted in City of London Yeomanry, 4th September, 1914; served in Egypt, Salonica, and Palestine from April, 1915. Transferred to Middlesex Yeomanry, 1918; returned home April, 1919.
P. K. Kipps. A Junior Investigator. Joined R.N.V.R., December, 1915; released for post as Technical Assistant under Admiralty, March, 1918, to February, 1919.
Miss M. G. Saunders. Editorial Assistant. Personnel Secretary at Headquarters of the Scottish Women's Hospitals, Edinburgh; secretary, S.W. Hospital for Serbs, Ajaccio, Corsica: May 1917—May, 1919; secretary to the Scottish Committee of the Nurses' Demobilisation and Resettlement Committee, May, 1919—January, 1920.
While of those who by reason of age or other disabilities were precluded from joining the Fighting Forces of the Crown, Mr. G. H. Duckworth, Mr. J. W. Bloe, Mr. W. H. Godfrey, Mr. G. E. Chambers, Miss E. M. Keate and Miss K. A. Bloe were employed in the Ministry of Munitions.
7. We desire most sincerely to congratulate the following members of our executive staff on the gallant actions for which the coveted distinction of the Military Cross was awarded to them.
The Gazette of 10th December, 1919, reports of:—
Captain Wilfred Byde Liebert, 1/14th Bn. Lond. Regt.
"On 6th November, 1918, at Angre, he showed marked gallantry in leading his company. When his company arrived at the river bank the enemy opened very heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and put a heavy barrage in the valley. He immediately jumped into the water and led the advance. Throughout the day he displayed great disregard of danger in reorganizing the captured position on the high ground, this work being especially difficult, as his right flank was exposed."
The Gazette of 29th November, 1918, reports of:—
Major Robert Erik Mortimer Wheeler, R.F.A., T.F. Attd. A/76th Army Brigade, R.F.A.
"For conspicuous gallantry and initiative. While making a reconnaissance he saw two enemy field-guns limbered up without horses within 300 yards of the outpost line. He returned for two six-horse teams, and under heavy fire, in full view of the enemy, successfully brought back both guns to his battery position and turned them on the enemy. He did fine work."
The Gazette of June, 1917, reports of:—
T/2nd Lieut. Ernest Alexander Rahles Rahbula, R.F.A.
"As forward observing officer to his battery he showed great fearlessness in laying out telephone wires across the open to exposed posts, from which he directed the fire of his battery. He also showed great skill and resource in destroying enemy entanglements by the fire of his battery, and by personal observation he was able to render the utmost help to his brigade."
8. We wish also to congratulate our Secretary, Mr. G. H. Duckworth, on the award to him of a Companionship of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath "for War Services" at the Ministry of Munitions.
9. We have to deplore the loss through promotion, illness, or death of the following members of the executive staff:—
Mr. J. Murray Kendall, Senior Investigator, who has accepted a post as Assistant to the Secretary of the National War Museum;
Mr. C. C. Durston, Intermediate Investigator, who has joined the Royal Air Force in India;
Mr. R. E. M. Wheeler, Intermediate Investigator, who has accepted a post as Assistant Keeper of the Welsh National Museum and Lecturer on Classical Archæology at the University of South Wales;
Mr. C. E. Green, Probationary Investigator, who was killed in action;
Mr. E. A. Rahbula, Intermediate Investigator, grievously wounded in battle and still suffering from wounds and shell-shock;
Miss E. M. Keate, who has joined the Historical Records Department of the Admiralty; entailing a loss to the staff of one Senior Investigator, two intermediate Investigators, one Junior Investigator, and one Probationer Investigator.
10. In our last Report (Paragraph 5, Essex, Volume I) we expressed the opinion that the complete closing down of the office in 1915 and the dispersal of the staff would make it difficult to gather up the broken threads when the time came for the resumption of the Commission's work, though at the same time we accepted loyally the decision of the Treasury in the full belief that on the resumption of work provision would be made for a Staff at least as great as formerly. We regret, however, to state that it has not been found possible to make financial provision to meet the existing vacancies, and we regret still further to learn that in the coming financial year (1922–3) it will be necessary for the Commission to make additional sacrifices and to dispense with the services of a skilled Senior Investigator, as well as an Expert Assistant in order to secure the further 25 per cent. reduction in expenditure demanded by the Treasury.
11. In spite, however, of these losses we are glad to be able to report the completion of our enquiries in Central and S.W. Essex—an area containing 1585 monuments in 109 parishes, with an average of 14.5 monuments per parish as compared with the averages of 24 monuments per parish in North-West Essex, 10 per parish in North Buckinghamshire, 15 per parish in South Buckinghamshire, and 8 per parish in Hertfordshire.
12. The illustrated volume containing the full Inventory of these monuments is issued under the advice of the Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury as a separate Stationery Office publication.
13. No alteration has been found to be necessary in the descriptions of the monuments, which follow exactly the order and method of the previous volume.
14. As in the previous volume, these descriptions have been referred for revision to special representatives of the Essex Archæological Society and to the Clergy and principal owners in each parish. We are satisfied that no important example dating from the earliest times up to the year 1714 has been omitted.
15. The index has again been submitted to criticisms by the special SubCommittee whose first report was published in Essex, Volume I, and we attach to the present volume some additional recommendations of this Committee which have been adopted by the Commission.
16. We humbly recommend to Your Majesty's notice the following monuments, within the area investigated, which, in our opinion, are especially worthy of preservation:—
Secular:—(4) Eastbury House; a complete and well-preserved example of a mid 16th-century brick manor house.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Laurence; remains of nave of a mid-12th-century priory church, with a fine 15th-century timber belfry at the W. end.
8. BLACK NOTLEY.
Secular:—(6) Stanton's Farm; remains of a timber-framed 14th-century house with an aisled hall.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew; dating from early in the 12th century, with a central tower and good 16th-century monument.
Secular:—(4) New Hall; surviving late 16th-century wing of a palace built by Henry VIII.
Secular:—(5) "Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge"; a 16th-century "Standing" (or building from which to view the hunting). Probably unique.
Condition—Good, much altered externally.
19. CHIPPING ONGAR.
Secular:—(3) Castle; well-preserved earthworks.
22. EAST HAM.
Ecclesiastical:—(2) Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalen; a complete 12th-century church with apsidal chancel.
Condition—Good, except parts of tower.
Secular:—(3) Boleyn Castle; remains of a large 16th-century and later house, with good staircases.
Condition—Of house, poor; of tower, fairly good.
24. EPPING UPLAND.
Pre-historic:—Ambresbury Banks; a good example of a plateau camp.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin; dating from the 12th century, with extensive remains of wall-paintings.
Condition—Good, except for some cracks in the walls.
Secular:—(3) Faulkbourne Hall; a very fine example of a 15th-century crenellated house of brick.
Condition—Good, except for some cracks.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of the Holy Cross; dating from the 12th century, of considerable size, with a good 16th-century monument.
Secular:—(9) Gate House Farm; a late 14th-century timber-framed house.
(13) Old School House; a mid 16th-century timber building for a school, founded by the first Lord Rich.
(15) Boote's House; an early 17th-century house, with carved grotesques.
(111) Mill Basins; at Leighs Priory.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Nicholas; cruciform, dating from the 12th century, with elaborate 14th-century chancel.
Condition—Good, much repaired.
30. GREAT CANFIELD.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary; dating from the 12th century, with good early wall-paintings.
Secular:—(2) Castle; earthworks of a mount and bailey castle.
31. GREAT HALLINGBURY.
Pre-historic:—(1) Wallbury Camp; cliff camp with complete outline of defences.
32. GREAT ILFORD.
Unclassified:—(7) Uphall Camp; fragment of a large entrenchment of doubtful date.
35. GREAT WALTHAM.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary and St. Laurence, a large church dating from c. 1100, with 14th-century stained glass and a noteworthy early 17th-century monument.
Condition—Good, except cracks in E. wall of chancel.
Secular:—(8) Langleys; a house containing two richly ornamented Jacobean rooms.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew; with a timber nave of split logs, probably of pre-conquest date.
Condition—Good, much restored.
Ecclesiastical:—(3) Chapel at Harlowbury; dating from late in the 12th century, now desecrated.
38. HATFIELD BROAD OAK.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin; being the 12th-century and later nave of a priory church, with a good 13th-century monument.
39. HATFIELD PEVEREL.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew; being the 12th-century and later nave of a priory church, with interesting 15th-century stall work and late glass.
Condition—Fairly good, much restored.
41. HIGH EASTER.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary; dating from the 12th century, with late 14th-century screen and early 16th-century roof.
Condition—Good, but some cracks in lower walls.
44. HIGH RODING.
Secular:—(6) New Hall; remains of an early 16th-century brick and timber house, with a fine timber barn.
Condition—Good, except porch.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary and St. Edmund; dating from the 12th century, with a fine brick tower and with good 16th- and 17th-century monuments.
Secular:—(3) Ingatestone Hall; remains of a large early 16th-century house of brick.
Condition—Good, much altered.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Giles; important as probably the only surviving specimen of a W. apse in the country.
Condition—Good, much restored.
Ecclesiastical:—(2) Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin; dating from the 12th century with interesting late 15th-century chapel and monument, paintings and roof.
Condition—Good, but much restored with cement.
(3) Latton Priory; the 14th-century crossing and part of the nave of a priory church.
51. LITTLE BADDOW.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin; dating from the 12th century, with fine 14th and 17th-century monuments.
Condition—Fairly good, except tower.
56. LITTLE LEIGHS.
Secular:—(2) Leighs or Leez Priory; extensive remains of a large mid 16th-century house of brick, with foundations of the priory buildings.
Pre-historic:—(1) Loughton Camp; a good example of a plateau camp.
61. MAGDALEN LAVER.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalen; dating from the 12th century, with timber tower and 14th-century screen.
Condition—Good, much restored.
62. MALDON ALL SAINTS.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of All Saints; dating from the 13th century, with triangular tower and rich 14th-century S. chapel.
Secular:—(5) Moot Hall; an interesting late 15th-century brick building in the form of a large tower.
64. MALDON ST. PETER.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) St. Giles Hospital; ruins of a late 12th-century hospital.
Secular:—(2) Plume Library; an early 18th-century building adjoining the 15th-century tower of the former church.
(3) Beeleigh Abbey; remains of 13th-century and later monastic buildings, now a dwelling house.
65. MARGARET RODING.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Margaret; dating from the 12th century, with good detail.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Margaret; dating from the 12th century, with good timber tower and stained glass.
Secular:—(2) Killegrews; a moated site with ornamental brick turrets and retaining wall of c. 1500.
Secular:—(13) Marriage Feast Room; an interesting 16th-century church-house.
Condition—Good, much altered.
Secular:—(3) Castle; extensive earthworks and 15th-century brick bridge.
Secular:—(2) Nether Hall; ruins of a 15th-century crenellated house of brick.
Condition—Much ivy on gatehouse.
85. SOUTH WEALD.
Secular:—(2) Weald Hall; a much altered 15th-century house of large size.
(10) Tower Arms Inn; a good and complete dated example of a house of 1704.
88. STAPLEFORD ABBOTS.
Secular:—(2) Albyns; a courtyard house mainly of early 17th-century date, with good ceilings and woodwork.
93. THEYDON GARNON.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of All Saints; dating from the 15th century, with dated tower and north aisle and timber arcade.
94. THEYDON MOUNT.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Michael; a late 16th-century brick church, with fine 16th and 17th-century monuments.
Secular:—(2) Hill Hall; a large 16th-century courtyard house with early 18th-century alterations.
96. WALTHAM HOLY CROSS.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Abbey Church; being the 12th-century nave of large cruciform church and remains of monastic buildings.
Condition—Of church, good; of ruins, poor.
100. WHITE NOTLEY.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church; dating from the 12th century, with interesting detail and early glass.
Secular:—(2) Hall; an early 16th-century and later house, of brick and timber framing.
Condition—Good, much restored.
101. WHITE RODING.
Secular:—(13) Colville Hall; a 15th-century and later house with timber-framed granary and brick gateway.
Condition—Of house, fairly good; of outbuilding and gateway, poor.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of St. Nicholas; dating from the 14th century, with good details, screen and monuments.
Condition—Good, but some cracks over chancel-arch.
Secular:—(2) Burg; remains of important Saxon earthwork.
(41) House, near Bridge; a good early 16th-century house with exposed timber-framing.
Ecclesiastical:—(1) Parish Church of All Saints; a large 13th-century and later church, with added chapels and a monument by Stone.
Condition—Fairly good, but some walls out of perpendicular.
Secular:—(12) Aubyns; a complete house of c. 1500, with exposed timber-frame and moulded beams.
17. We offer grateful thanks to Mr. M. R. James, Litt. D., LL.D., F.B.A., F.S.A., Provost of Eton College, for revision of the descriptions and inscriptions of Glass; to Mr. J. Murray Kendall, F.S.A., for revision of the descriptions of Armour; to the Reverend E. E. Dorling, F.S.A., for revision of descriptions of Heraldry; to Mr. Oswald Barron, F.S.A., for revision of the descriptions of Costumes and spelling of names; to Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A., for revision of descriptions of Brasses, and to Mr. R. P. L. Booker, F.S.A., and Mr. R. E. M. Wheeler, M.C., Litt. D., F.S.A., for revision of descriptions of Roman remains; to Mr. Albany Major, O.B.E., Secretary of the Committee on Ancient Earthworks and Fortified Enclosures, for revision of the accounts of earthworks; and to Mr. F. S. Eden for his descriptions and illustrations of the Ancient Glass in the county.
18. We desire to call attention to the assistance given to our work by the members of the Essex Archæological Society, and we have pleasure in acknowledging the courtesy and hospitality extended to ourselves by the Clergy and owners of houses in the County.
19. We have also to thank the Bishop of Chelmsford for his letter of introduction to the Clergy of his diocese; the Clergy who have freely opened their churches for investigation; the Reverend Canon Galpin and the Reverend T. W. Curling, respectively President and Secretary of the County Archæological Society, and Mr. Wykeham Chancellor, F.R.I.B.A., Mr. Miller Christy, Dr. P. Laver, F.S.A., and Mr. A. G. Wright, Curator of the Colchester Museum, for assistance given to the investigators.
20. We desire also to refer to the Report of a special Committee consisting of Mr. Philip Norman, LL.D., F.S.A., Mr. William Page, F.S.A., General Editor of the Victoria County Histories, Mr. A. W. Clapham, F.S.A., and Mr. G. H. Duckworth, F.S.A., who were appointed to consider and make recommendations with regard to the convenient division of the Counties of London and Middlesex in connection with the Inventories of the Ancient and Historical Monuments within these Counties. Their recommendations, which we have adopted, may be summarised as follows:—
(1) Middlesex to form one volume.
(2) The County of London to form two volumes. The Eastern volume to contain the City of London, Holborn and Southwark as the centres of archæological interest. The Western volume to include the monuments of Westminster, Lambeth and Chelsea.
(3) The unit of description to be the Parish in the County of Middlesex, the Ward in the City of London, and the Borough in the County of London.
(4) The order of publication to be:—
(a) The Western Division of the County of London.
(b) The Eastern Division of the County of London.
This Report, with the detailed reasons for the conclusions arrived at, will be published with the London Volumes, of which the first is now well advanced, and will be completed in the near future.
21. We are glad to report that at the request of Lord Muir-Mackenzie, representing the Committee entrusted with the restoration of the windows of Lincoln's Inn Chapel that were damaged in the air raids during the Great War, we have been able to render material assistance to the firm engaged in the actual repair work by placing our photographs and records at their disposal.
22. We desire to express our acknowledgment of the good work accomplished by our Executive Staff in the persons of Mr. A. W. Clapham, F.S.A., Mr. J. W. Bloe, Mr. W. H. Godfrey, F.S.A., Mr. W. Byde Liebert, Mr. G. E. Chambers, Mr. M. L. Logan, and Mr. P. K. Kipps; Miss M. G. Saunders, on whom has devolved the work of checking the proofs of the Inventory and making the Index of this Volume, and Miss M. V. Taylor, M.A., who has investigated the Roman Remains of this portion of the County of Essex.
23. We desire again to express our high opinion of the services of our Secretary, Mr. G. H. Duckworth, C.B., F.S.A., whose devotion to the interests of the work of the Commission in all its branches continues to be of inestimable value.
CRAWFORD & BALCARRES.
HENRY H. HOWORTH.
J. F. F. HORNER.
J. G. N. CLIFT.
E. J. HORNIMAN.
ARTHUR J. EVANS.
C. HERCULES READ.
M. R. JAMES.
D. H. MONTGOMERIE.
C. R. PEERS.
GEORGE H. DUCKWORTH (Secretary).
15th November, 1921.