An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.
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42 LLANGARREN (D.d.).
(O.S. 6 in. (a)L.S.E., (b)LI, N.W., (c)LI, S.W., (d)LIII, N.E., (e)LIV, N.W.)
Llangarren is a large parish 5 m. W.S.W. of Ross. The church, Langstone Court, Bernithan Court, Ruxton Court and Treribble are the principal monuments.
c(1). Parish Church of St. Deinst (Plate 5) stands near the middle of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone with dressings of the same material; the roofs are covered with slates. The church, consisting of Chancel, Nave and West Tower was re-built in the second quarter of the 14th century, the tower being rather later than the rest. The South Porch was added in the 15th century and the chancel-arch was re-built in the 16th century. Late in the 17th century a N. aisle was added, but this Aisle was re-built in 1841.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (21½ ft. by 20¾ ft.) has a 15th-century E. window of two cinque-foiled lights with modern tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern of c. 1340 and of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the 16th-century western window is of two plain square-headed lights. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern of c. 1340 and of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head; the western window is uniform with the western window in the N. wall; between the windows is a 14th-century doorway with a modern head. The chancel-arch is of early 16th-century date; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders with moulded capitals; flanking it are narrow two-centred arches of one chamfered order, largely or perhaps entirely modern.
The Nave (49 ft. by 21 ft.) has a modern N. arcade. In the S. wall are four windows, the easternmost of the 16th century and similar to the N.W. window in the chancel; the middle window is of late 14th-century date and of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the third window is of the 16th or 17th century and of two square-headed lights; the westernmost window is probably of 14th-century material re-set in the 16th or 17th century; it is set in a dormer and is of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the 14th-century S. doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred head.
The West Tower (9 ft. square) and spire are of mid 14th-century date, the tower being of three stages with a moulded plinth and plain parapet; the stair-turret is square below, semi-octagonal above and terminates in a pointed capping set against a wall rising above the parapet. The ground stage has, in the N. wall, a doorway, of doubtful date, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; the tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner dying on to the responds. The W. window is of two septfoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The second stage has in the N. and W. walls, a window of one square-headed light. The bell-chamber has, in the E., N. and W. walls, a window of two pointed lights in a two-centred head; in the S. wall is a window of one pointed light. The octagonal spire is carried on segmental-pointed squinches of three orders, across the angles of the tower; the cardinal faces of the spire have each, near the base, a small lancet-shaped opening with a gabled head.
The South Porch is of the 15th century and has an outer archway with chamfered jambs and a two-centred arch of two orders, the inner dying on to the jambs; above it is a weathered quatre-foiled panel. The side walls have each a small square-headed window.
The Roof of the chancel is of the 14th century and of scissor-braced type. The modern roof of the nave incorporates some old rafters. The 15th-century roof of the porch has curved braces forming segmental arches.
Fittings—Altar: re-used as Floor-slab (1), with two formy crosses at one end and one in the middle. Coffin-lids: in chancel—re-used as sill of N.E. window, with traces of cross-head. In nave—re-used as lintel of S.E. window, part with cross-head of intersecting curves; in jamb of same window, fragments with part of cross-head. In E. wall of modern aisle—part with cross-head and rosettes. All 13th-century. Communion Rails: re-used as screen, etc., in chancel, with turned balusters and moulded rails, mid 17th-century. Communion Table: in N. aisle—with turned and twisted legs and moulded stretchers, late 17th-century. Door: in second stage of tower—of nail-studded battens with strap-hinges, 16th-century. Font: (Plate 39) octagonal bowl, each face with quatrefoil in circle enclosing rosette, panelled and splayed underside with quatrefoils and rosettes, stem with trefoiled ogee heads alternating with rosettes, 14th-century. Glass: in chancel—in S.E. window, fragment with oak-leaf, 14th-century. Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: in chancel—on E. wall, (1) to William Gwillym, 1698, Benedicta (Hoskins) his wife, 1693–4, William their son, 1706–7 and William, son by a second wife Elizabeth (Kyrle), 1709–10, etc., scrolled and draped oval tablet (Plate 55) with cherubs, cherub-heads and cartouche and two shields-of-arms. In nave—on S. wall, (2) to Rowland Scudamore, 1697, Margaret his wife, 1706, John his son, 1710, and Margaret his daughter, wife of Littleton Lawrence, 1716, scrolled and draped marble tablet with cherubs and defaced shield, by Fowler of Gloucester, 1717; (3) tapering slab with small effigy of man (Plate 43) in civil costume, in high relief, head on cushion, hands crossed, late 13th or early 14th-century. In N. aisle—on E. wall, (4) to Thomas Rawlins, 1676–7, who added the N. aisle, stone and black marble tablet with surround and cartouche-of-arms. In churchyard—on S. wall of nave, (5) to John Philpott, 1698, enriched tablet with scrolled top; E. of porch, (6) to Henry Philpott, 1687, headstone; S.W. of porch, (7) to Thomas Williams (?), 1691 (?), headstone. Floor-slabs: in chancel, (1) to Anne, wife of Richard Ballard, 1625, Richard Ballard, 1672–3, her son, and Anne his wife, 1687–8; (2) to Thomas, son of Richard Ballard, 1670; (3) to . . . . . . . Ballard (?), 1670. In nave—(4) to John Bond, 1698. Niche: over S. doorway—shallow recess with defaced arch in square embattled head, late 15th or early 16th-century. Piscina: in chancel—in sill of S.E. window, quatre-foiled drain, probably 14th-century. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1683, given by Ann Ballard, 1686; flagon of 1683, given by Thomas Gwillym, with shield-of-arms. Pulpit: (Plate 59) with five panelled sides, each side with enriched arcaded panel and fluted frieze, c. 1630. Recess: in nave—in S. wall, with cinque-foiled, moulded and segmental-pointed arch, 14th-century probably tomb-recess. Stoup: in nave—by S. doorway, bowl, formerly projecting but now cut back, mediæval. Miscellanea: in S.E. buttress of chancel— stone (Plate 9) with crude interlaced design, probably 12th-century. Incorporated in splays of E. window, fragments with parts of an incised figure, 13th-century. In churchyard—S.W. of tower, old capping of spire, used as pedestal of sundial.
c(2) Homestead Moat, S.E. of Langstone Court and ¾ m. N.N.E. of the church.
c(3) Langstone Court, house, now two tenements, stable and barn, 1,000 yards N.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick, stone and some timber-framing and the roofs are covered with slates. It is built round a courtyard with a projecting block on the S.E. The middle part of the S. wing was built early in the 16th century but incorporates a crutch-truss, probably of earlier date; this wing was extended W. late in the same century. The other ranges flanking the courtyard are of various dates in the 17th century and the S.E. block was added or re-built in brick c. 1700. The E. front of the S.E. block is symmetrically designed, with a hipped roof and two dormer-windows; the doorway has a moulded surround of c. 1700 but the hood is modern; the basement has two-light square-headed windows of stone. The S. range is of rubble and the late 17th-century W. range is faced with ashlar. The N. range is of rubble and has, in the W. wall, a three-light window with wood mullions.
Interior—The hall (Plate 172) in the S.E. wing is lined with bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1700 with enrichments of pomegranates and festoons of fruit and foliage; the plaster ceiling (Plate 29) has a geometrical design of panels with moulded bands, enrichments and a central oval panel with an oak-leaf border and vases. The drawing-room is lined with panelling of mid 17th-century date and of c. 1700; the plaster ceiling has a large round panel with a border of fruit and foliage; the centre and spandrels have small domed panels and the whole is surrounded by a deep border with arabesques. The main staircase (Plate 174) is of well-form with turned balusters, panelled newels and moulded strings; the ceiling has moulded ribs forming a geometrical design; the soffit of each flight has an oval panel in plaster. The second staircase (Plate 62), immediately W. of that just described, is of early 17th-century date and has flat, shaped and diminishing balusters, moulded rails and square newels surmounted by tall moulded terminals; the ceiling of the staircase-lobby retains some strapwork enrichment and a strip of running vine-ornament. The adjoining room on the W. has an early 17th-century plaster ceiling (Plate 29) with an elaborate strapwork design, enclosed in a border of running vine-pattern, with projecting finial-ornaments. On the first floor, the room over the drawing-room has bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1700, and a ceiling generally similar to that below, but with a double-headed eagle in the middle.
The Garden in front of the S.E. wing has a pair of early 18th-century rusticated gate-piers with cornices and ball-terminals; the gates have an enriched wrought-iron overthrow.
The Stable, E. of the house, is of c. 1700 and of brick with stone dressings. It has several original windows and doors and a central clock-turret with an ogee capping.
The Barn, S.W. of the house, is of late 17th-century date and of stone and timber-framing. It is of two storeys, the lower having an open colonnade of three bays with moulded cappings to the columns.
c(4) Bernithan Court (Plate 173), house and barn, about ¾ m. E.N.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick on a stone base and the roofs are tiled. The front block was built c. 1695, perhaps incorporating part of an earlier stone structure, and is symmetrically designed with a hipped roof, coved cornice and dormer-windows; the main windows have solid frames with mullion and transom; the front doorway has a moulded architrave and a pedimented hood carried on shaped brackets. The lower part of the N.E. side has square-headed doorways and a two-light window of stone; there are similar windows on the N.W. front lighting the basement and the doorway on this front has a bolection-moulded architrave.
Interior—The Hall has a fireplace with a bolection-moulded surround. The room N.W. of the hall is lined with mid and late 17th-century panelling, and the fireplace has a surround like that in the Hall. The ceiling has moulded ribs forming a geometrical design and an enriched cornice. The next room to the N.E. has a ceiling enriched with grapes, pomegranates and fleurs-de-lis; the small room in the N. angle has a ceiling with an oval panel and fleur-de-lis enrichments. The main staircase (Plate 174) is very similar to that in Langstone Court; it has turned balusters, panelled newels and moulded strings; the newels are supported on those below by slender columns. The ceiling of the staircase-hall has geometrical plaster panels, and that of the first-floor landing has enrichments of vases of flowers; the soffit of the attic-stairs has an oval panel with a fox and goose (?) and enrichments. The ceiling of the W. room on the first floor has moulded panels. There are several 17th-century doors, and the upper part of the second staircase is of this date.
At the back of the house and separated from it by a yard is an early 17th-century building of two storeys and of brick. In the N.W. wall are three original windows of two lights with moulded labels. The chamfered ceiling-beams are exposed.
The garden on the S.W. side has walls of c. 1700; the two stone gate-piers have cornices and tall enriched vases; the gates have an enriched wrought-iron overthrow with a shield-of-arms of Philip Hoskyns and Catherine (Gregory) his wife. Other enclosure-walls are of the same age.
The Barn, E. of the house, is of stone with a tiled roof. In the N.W. gable is a panel inscribed "Ano. Dn. H.E. H.E."; the S.E. gable has the inscription "Ano. Dn. 1695." The roof is of seven bays with queen-post trusses.
e(5) Ruxton Court (Plate 17), 1¼ m. S.E. of the church, is of two storeys, partly with attics and cellars; the walls are of rubble and timber-framing and the roofs are covered with tiles, stone slates and modern slates. The E. half of the house was built in the 15th-century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The W. cross-wing was built late in the 16th century, and the range between it and the older building was re-built in the first half of the 17th century with a N. porch.
The E. part of the N. front has close-set timber-framing of the original building; the middle part has exposed framing of the 17th century, a gable enclosing a seven-light window with moulded frame, mullions and transom. The porch is of two storeys with lower walls of stone and a gabled upper storey projecting on a moulded bressummer and brackets; in this storey is a projecting window of five lights with a moulded sill; in the gable is a two-light window making a triangular projection. The late 16th-century wing is of stone and has several windows of this date with moulded labels. The E. end of the house is of rubble and has a 17th-century window of four lights with a wood frame.
Inside the building, the original part of the house has four 15th-century crutch-trusses. Here and elsewhere much of the timber-framing is exposed. The W. wing has moulded ceiling-beams and the E. wall projects on shaped brackets.
a(6) Treribble, house and outbuildings about 1¼ m. N.W. of the church. The House is of three storeys with cellars, the walls are of stone and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. The kitchen-wing of the house was built late in the 16th century, and to this were added, in the 17th century, an extension to the N. and two wings to the W. About 1700 a new block, of three storeys, was added to the E. of the older building and two smaller symmetrical blocks built to the S.E. and S.W. forming the Stable and Granary, the whole intended to form an architectural composition. The late three-storeyed block has been rendered in cement on the N. front, but on the S. front it is ashlar-faced with bands between the storeys and moulded key-stones to the windows. The porch on the W. side of the older building has an elliptical-headed doorway with the initials and date E. T. (probably for Taylor) 1694. There are also some late 17th-century windows with solid frames. Inside the building, some of the ceiling-beams are exposed. A partition on the S. side of the kitchen is lined with mid 17th-century panelling, and there is a considerable amount of late 17th-century panelling in the hall and the N.E. room. The hall-fireplace has an iron fire-back with an achievement-of-arms and the date 1673 (?). The late 17th-century staircase in the S.W. wing has panelled casing and a moulded newel with a ball-terminal. The stone fireplace, in the N.W. wing, has a four-centred head. On the first floor is a panelled cupboard of c. 1650, and on the second floor two fixed cupboards of the same date with fluted friezes.
The Stable and Granary are generally symmetrical and were built c. 1700. They are of two storeys with brick walls, stone quoins and hipped roofs. The stable has a doorway with a moulded frame and an early 17th-century nail-studded door. The staircase in the granary has turned balusters.
The Barn, E. of the house, is timber-framed and of the 16th century. The roof is of queen-post type.
c(7) The Grove, house and barn 1 m. S. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of stone and the roofs are covered with corrugated iron. It is of 16th-century origin but has been completely re-modelled. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams. The S.E. room has an original plaster ceiling (Plate 29) of six bays with moulded ribs forming a geometrical design in each bay; it has fleur-de-lis enrichments and small shields with the initals I.B. for John Ballard; one also with the date 1594.
The Barn, E. of the house, is partly of stone and partly of weather-boarded timber-framing. It was built late in the 16th century and is of five bays with queen-post trusses.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys. The walls are of stone and the roofs are covered with tiles or slates. Some of the buildings have old chimneystacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
c(8) Cottage, 180 yards N.W. of the church, is partly timber-framed.
c(9) Three Horse Shoes Inn, 200 yards S.E. of the church, is modern, but to the E. of it is a building of c. 1600, partly timber-framed.
c(10) Trereece, house 660 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The main block was built in the 15th century; there are 16th-century additions on the W. and an addition of c. 1700 on the E., making the plan Z-shaped. The roof of the original block is of braced collar-beam type, with tie-beams.
c(11) Treverven, house 1420 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the E. end. The W. wing is partly of mid 16th-century date, but the rest of the building is of the 17th century. The E. front has late 17th-century windows with solid frames, mullion and transom. Inside the building is an original stone fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred arch and a conventional incised design at the apex.
e(12) Little Trewen, house about 1¾ m. S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The E. wing was built in the 15th century and subsequently shortened; the N. wing is an early 17th-century addition. Inside the building is an original doorway with a four-centred head and an original roof-truss with curved braces under the collar. There is also a simple stone bracket, probably of the 15th century.
e(13) Ragged House, 300 yards S.S.W. of (12), has some original stone windows with mullions and moulded labels.
e(14) Simmonds Trewen Farm, house 120 yards S. of (13), has two windows with moulded labels.
e(15) Royal Arms Inn, nearly 1¼ m. S. of the church.
d(16) Treworgan, house 1½ m. S.W. of the church.
d(17) Kilreague, house about 1 m. W. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. The W. wing was built c. 1600, and the N. wing c. 1700. In the W. wall of the older wing is an original window of four lights with a square label.
a(18) Turner's Place, house about 2 m. W. of the church, has an original window of five transomed lights in the E. wall, and a similar window in the N. wall of four lights.
b(19) Trebumfrey, house and barn nearly 1 m. N.N.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with cellars and attics and has an early 18th-century addition on the N.
The Barn, N. of the house, has a panel in the S. gable with the date 1707.
b(20) Biddlestone, house and pigeon-house, nearly 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The House is of c. 1700 with a later 18th-century addition on the W. The walls are of brick.
The Pigeon-house or summer-house, E. of the house, is a square building with a low pyramidal roof and some original windows.