An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.
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10 BREDWARDINE (B.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXXI, N.E., (b)XXXII, N.W.)
Bredwardine is a parish on the right bank of the River Wye, 12 m. W.N.W. of Hereford. The principal monument is the church.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew, stands on the E. side of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone with dressings of the same material and of white tufa; the roofs are tiled. The Nave was built late in the 11th century and the church at this period possibly included a central tower and a chancel beyond it; this is indicated by the thick S. wall of the modern tower and the mass of masonry to the E. of it, which are otherwise unaccounted for. The Chancel was built late in the 13th or early in the 14th century, probably outside the earlier building, as its axis is acutely deflected. The middle part of the plan is probably slightly later in date, the S. wall being built outside the lines of the suggested early tower before its destruction. The existing North Tower is said to have been re-built in 1790, and it has been suggested that the position was then moved farther S.; this would appear to be very unlikely, though there are some foundations adjoining the N. wall of the tower. The church was restored in 1875, and the South Porch is modern.
The masonry, windows and doorways of the nave are interesting, and among the fittings the two recumbent effigies are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft. average by 20 ft.) is of late 13th or early 14th-century date and has an E. window of three trefoiled lights under a segmental rear-arch. In the N. wall is a restored window of one trefoiled light in the old splays. In the S. wall is a window of two trefoiled lights with modern jambs and mullion; farther W. is a doorway with chamfered jambs and triangular head.
The eastern part of the Nave (25 ft. by 18½ ft. average) has, in the N. wall, a modern doorway to the tower. In the S. wall is a late 13th or early 14th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head.
The Nave (38 ft. by 20 ft.) has, in the N. wall, two late 11th-century windows each of one round-headed light with dressings of tufa; below the western window is a doorway (Plate 83), of the same date, now blocked; it has plain square jambs, round head, square label and plain tympanum, all of tufa except the upper jamb-stones and an inserted 12th-century lintel carved with round geometrical figures and two small arches each containing a grotesque monster; the N. wall (Plate 3) is of rubble with some courses of herring-bone work. In the S. wall are two windows similar to those in the N. wall; between the windows is the S. doorway (Plate 83) of the same date; it has a round arch of two orders, the outer having a roll-moulding, and a plain tympanum; the jambs are of the same section as the arch, the rolls or shafts having moulded bases and carved cushion capitals with chamfered abaci; these capitals appear to be a 12th-century insertion, as is the lintel carved with a round geometrical design and diapering on the face and soffit; the original work is of tufa and the insertions of sandstone. In the W. wall is a round-headed window, modern except for part of the splays and rear-arch, and traces of a blocked W. doorway; below the window is an original string-course.
Fittings—Brackets: In E. part of nave—on S. wall, two mutilated corbels probably for rood-loft. Churchyard Cross: S. of church, moulded octagonal plinth on square base, with square sinking for shaft and rectangular cutting on N. face, late 14th or early 15th-century. Coffin-lid: In nave—fragment carved with small raised cross, 12th-century. Chairs: In chancel—two, one with turned front legs, guilloche ornament on rail and back posts and rail, shaped arms, back panel with arched enrichment and round ornament; second chair with turned front legs, shaped arms, enriched front rail, enriched back with carved arch enclosing two round geometrical designs, carved top rail with brackets, early to mid 17th-century. Font: large round bowl of breccia with central and four subsidiary shafts, the latter with cushion-capitals and bases, late 12th-century. Cover: of oak with central turned post and pierced terminal and four curved struts, 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel—against N. wall, (1) mutilated effigy (Plate 50) of man, perhaps a Baskerville, in armour, with bascinet, camail, jupon, etc., head on two cushions with supporting angels, late 14th-century, base modern; against S. wall, (2) alabaster effigy (Plate 49) of man, perhaps a Fouleshurst, in plate armour of c. 1450 with SS. collar, enriched hip-belt, head on helm, feet on mutilated beast, base modern. In nave—on N. wall, (3) to Elizabeth (Parrey), wife of Thomas Hodges, 1703, crudely carved cartouche. Floor-slab: In nave —to Elizabeth, wife of Walter Hill, 1677, and to Walter, her husband, 1706–7.
b(2). Homestead Moat, N. of Old Court, 400 yards N. of the church.
b(3). Bredwardine Castle (Plan, p. xxxvi), stood on the W. bank of the River Wye, immediately S.E. of the church. The earthworks consist of an irregular oblong-shaped bailey with a slightly narrower projection at its S. end on which stood the keep and which appears to have been originally divided from the bailey by a ditch. A slight mound on the site of the keep indicates the foundations of a rectangular building approximately 78 ft. by 45 ft. with a projecting bay on the W. side with two banks extending from either end of the S. side showing the position of a former curtain wall along the S. side of this projection. The enclosure was protected along the whole of the E. side by the steep scarp to the river, while on the N. and W. ran a ditch, though this has been largely filled in in the making of a garden N. of the site; this latter work is also responsible for concealing any further defences which may have existed at the N. end, and the construction of a road has destroyed any evidence of the probable N.W. entrance to the bailey. The S. end is protected by a double scarp with a berm which formed one side of a small valley across the mouth of which was thrown a bank to act as a dam to the stream which filled two fish-ponds in the bottom of the valley. At the W. end of the valley the S. end of the bailey ditch is continued along the S. scarp as a trackway to the edge of the Wye cliff, where there is a small mound about 4½ ft. high. From here the trackway follows the top edge of the Wye scarp southwards for approximately 100 yards when approaching the scarp of a second valley. There is a further mound approximately 14 yards in diameter at its base and about 4 ft. high; there is a ditch along the latter part of the W. side of the trackway. Beyond the second mound the trackway runs downwards towards the upper end of the second valley, which also has a bank across the E. side damming a stream which flows through it, and for flooding the valley. Farther S. the trackway continues towards Moccas.
b(4). Old Court, house, 300 yards N. of the church, is of two storeys. The walls are of stone rubble and the roofs are covered with stone slates. The house was built in the 14th century and had a central hall open to the roof, and N. and S. cross-wings. An upper floor was inserted in the hall, probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and the S. cross-wing may have been re-built in the 17th century. The upper part of the N. cross-wing is now used as a granary and is approached by a flight of external steps. The upper part of the gables to both the cross-wings on the E. side of the house have been re-built. There is a large projecting chimney-stack in the middle of the E. side with splayed offsets. The hall has chamfered beams in the ceiling of the ground floor. In the N. wing is a moulded beam. Two of the original roof-trusses over the hall remain. One of these was apparently over the original screens and has the tie-beam supported by two posts, a short distance from the outer walls, and from which spring curved braces forming a two-centred arch below the tie-beam with traceried spandrels; the truss is of collar-beam type with sloping struts between the tie-beam and collar-beam and collar-beam principal rafter, all of which are cusped and form a series of open trefoiled panels with a quatrefoil in the head of the truss. The second truss is of a modified scissor-form, but with a central suspended post and with traceried spandrels. In the granary one old queen-post roof truss is visible. The 17th-century staircase has a square newel with shaped finial and a moulded handrail.
a(5). Lion Inn, 320 yards W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The front walls are of red brick on a stone plinth and the other walls are of rubble; the roof is covered with stone slabs. It was built probably early in the 18th century. The N.E. front has a projecting band at the first floor level and a dentilled brick cornice, above which rises a central gablet pierced by a round-headed window and flanked by two hipped dormers. The windows have plain keystones and are divided into two or three lights with oak mullions and transoms; two have been filled with later sashes. Inside the building some of the rooms have exposed ceiling-beams.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys or one storey with attics. The walls are of stone rubble and the roofs are covered with stone slates or modern slates. Some of the buildings have old chimneystacks and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
a(6). House and barn, adjoining (5) on the S. The House has been considerably altered and heightened in modern times. Part of the W. wall is timber-framed with brick filling. The Barn is timber-framed on a stone base; the walls are partly weather-boarded with the upper part of interlacing slats between the framing. It is in four bays and has queen-post roof-trusses.
a(7). Lower House Farm, cottage, outbuilding and barn, nearly ½ m. S.W. of the church. The Cottage is of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Inside the building is an original cross-partition with stop-chamfered posts and narrow vertical panels. The Outbuilding and Barn are probably contemporary with the house. The latter building is timber-framed on a stone base. Both have doorways with old chamfered frames.
a(8). Oldhouse Farm, cottage, 360 yards S. of (7), is of two storeys with attics. One or two of the windows retain their thin stone labels and one window on the E. front has an original frame, chamfered mullions and vertical iron bars. Inside the building is an original timber cross-partition of the usual local type.
a(9). Bottrell Farm, house (Plate 15), 400 yards W. of (8), was built probably in the 16th century. A few of the windows retain old frames. Inside the building a cross-partition between the two westernmost rooms is of crutch-form. A doorway in the westernmost room has a chamfered frame and segmental-pointed head cut in the lintel.
a(10). Fine Street Farm, house, barn and cowshed, 360 yards W. of (7). The N.E. wall of the House is timber-framed, and one three-light window in the N.W. wall has diamond-shaped mullions. Inside the house is an original timber partition with chamfered posts and narrow vertical panels. The Barn and cowshed, N.E. of the house, are of early 17th-century date and are timber-framed, partly weather-boarded and partly with interlacing slats.
a(11). Benfield Farm, house and barn, about ¾ m. W. of the church. The House was probably built as a timber-framed building, but was encased in stone in the 18th or early in the 19th century and subsequently extended westward. The Barn S. of the house is of weather-boarded timber-framing, and is in four bays with a projecting porch on the S.W. side.
a(12). Old Weston Farm, cottage, about ½ m. N.N.W. of (11), is a fragment of a larger building. The upper part of the N. and S. walls are timber-framed with wattleand-daub panels and there is one old gabled dormer on each side. In the E. wall is a wide fireplace spanned by an oak lintel; it belonged to the destroyed part of the original building and has now been filled in.
a(13). New Weston Farm, house, barn and tallat, 500 yards N.E. of (12). The House was probably originally timber-framed, but was encased in stone rubble in the 18th century, and in the 19th century was enlarged and heightened. The Barn, N.W. of the house, is now one long structure of twelve bays and over 150 ft. in length. It was originally two barns each of five bays which have been connected together by two further bays made up of old timbers. It is of timber-framing on a stone base and is mostly covered with weather-boarding, but retains some of the original infilling of interlacing slats; the timber-framing is exposed at the N. end. Inside the building the roof-trusses in the five southern bays are generally of the tie-beam and collar-beam type with sloping struts between the tie-beams and principal rafters. The trusses in the northern part of the barn are without collar-beams and have four or six radiating struts between tie-beams and the rafters, but these are mostly old timbers re-used. The trusses between the two inserted bays and the two original barns show evidence of having formed the framing of external gables. The Tallat to the N. of the barn is a long building of twelve bays and of two storeys. The lower storey is of stone rubble and is used as a cowhouse; the upper storey is for the storage of fodder and is timber-framed; it is completely open on the S. side and along the top of the N. side to allow a free passage of air for the rapid drying of the fodder; the closed portion is weather-boarded. Inside the building the lower part is open from end to end with a passage along the N. side divided from the cow-stalls by a low wall. The roof-trusses are of queen-post type.