An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.
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28 GARWAY (C.d.)
b(1) Parish Church of St. Michael (Plate 95), stands near the middle of the parish. The walls are of sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material and some tufa; the roofs are covered with stone slates. It was founded as a preceptory of Knights of the Temple some time in the 12th century, and the church, consisting of the Chancel, perhaps with an apsidal E. end and a round nave, was built in the last quarter of the 12th century. The detached Tower was built early in the 13th century, and rather later the chancel was extended to the E. and the South Chapel added; the Nave was re-built on a rectangular plan late in the 13th century. Later alterations include the rebuilding of the E. wall of the chancel and the S. and W. walls of the S. chapel, and much reconstruction of the S. and W. walls of the nave, the former probably in the 16th century. A 14th or 15th-century N. porch has been subsequently destroyed. The corridor between the nave and the tower is probably a 17th-century addition, and the upper part of the tower was probably reconstructed at the same period.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (36½ ft. by 17¾ ft.) is mainly of the 13th century, except the late 12th-century W. half of the N. wall, but the E. wall was re-built, probably in the 16th century. In the E. wall are three re-set windows; the middle window is of c. 1250 and of two uncusped lights with a quatrefoil under a semi-octagonal label of four-centred form, and the two side windows are each of a single light with chamfered jambs and semi-circular head. In the N. wall are three windows of c. 1250; the two easternmost are each of a single lancet, chamfered and rebated externally, and the westernmost is a single light with a trefoiled head; the lower part of the window has been blocked, when the rood-stair was inserted in the embrasure. On the original part of the wall is a double-chamfered external string-course, cut through by the windows. In the S. wall is an arcade of c. 1250, of two bays with two-centred arches of three orders with a chamfered label on the N. side; the two outer orders are chamfered and the inner order rounded; the central pier is cylindrical with small attached shafts at the cardinal points and the responds are similar with three attached shafts each; all have moulded capitals and bases set on chamfered plinths, and a moulded band midway between capital and base; the E. respond has sunk considerably, making the first bay of the arcade very irregular, and much of the bases has been covered by the raising of the chancel floor. The chancel-arch (Plate 96), of c. 1175–80, is semi-circular, plain on the E. side and of three orders towards the nave, the outer carved with cheverons, the middle order with an interlacing cheveron pattern and the inner having each voussoir moulded across the arch; the inner order is supported on a plain respond, and the two outer orders are carried on detached shafts with carved 'water-leaf' capitals (Plate 10), except the inner shaft on the N. side which has a grotesque head and interlacement; the shafts have mutilated moulded bases; the abacus terminates on the N. side in a carved rosette and is continued round the whole respond on both sides; the W. faces of the capitals and bases to the detached shafts, together with the angle-dressings to the responds, have a marked outward curve towards the W., following the line of the former round nave, but on the N. side they have been cut back to conform with the line of the later walling. High up in the N. end of the wall is a late 15th or early 16th-century doorway to the rood-loft; it has a four-centred head, rebated on the E. side and approached by a flight of stone steps against the N. wall of the chancel.
The South Chapel (28¼ ft. by 13¾ ft.) was largely re-built, perhaps in the 16th century, but the lower part of the S. end of the E. wall is probably of 13th-century date. The E. window is of 14th-century origin re-set in the 16th century; it is of three lights, the middle light cinque-foiled, the side lights trefoiled, all in a four-centred head with a moulded 16th-century label with original carved head-stops. In the S. wall are two 16th-century windows each of two square-headed lights with chamfered jambs and heads. In the W. wall is a window uniform with those in the S. wall, and to the S. of it is a doorway of the same date with chamfered jambs and four-centred head.
The Nave (33¾ ft. by 22¾ ft.) has the original walling remaining on the S. side of the chancel-arch, from the ground to the level of the abacus, above which it has been cut back square with the existing side walls. In the N. wall are two 13th-century windows, the eastern of two lancet-lights with a trefoil in the spandrel, and the western a single lancet-light, now blocked; between the windows is a blocked 13th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head above which are visible the lines of the roof of a former porch; over the doorway, externally, carved in low relief, is a Dextra Dei. In the S. wall are two late 14th-century windows, each of three trefoiled lights in a square head with a rough relieving-arch above; there is a massive 17th-century buttress at either end of the wall and above the eastern one is a straight joint; between the buttresses is a stone seat. In the W. wall is a late 14th-century window, probably re-built and of three trefoiled lights in a segmental-pointed head; below the window is a 13th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a later moulded label; above the window is a stone carved with a phœnix in low relief; in the N. end of the wall, built of re-used 14th-century material, is a 17th-century doorway with stop-chamfered jambs and high four-centred head.
The foundations of the round 12th-century nave (about 43½ ft. diam.) were uncovered in 1927, on the N. and S.W. of the existing nave. The actual wall on the N. was 3½ ft. thick on a footing about 6 ft. thick. Overlying the foundation on the N. were parts of the side walls of the destroyed N. porch.
The Passage (14¼ ft. by 6½ ft.) connecting the nave with the N.W. tower is a 17th-century addition built mainly with re-used material. In the N.E. wall is a small square-headed loop and in the S.W. wall a small window formed by the head of a 13th-century lancet with a plain square-headed doorway to the S. of it.
The North West Tower (15¾ ft. square) is of early 13th-century date, except the top storey which was partly re-built, perhaps early in the 17th century. It is in two stages and of three storeys internally; it has a pyramidal roof. The ground stage has in the S.E. wall a segmental-pointed archway with chamfered imposts. In both the S.W. and N.W. walls is a single lancet-light with chamfered jambs and head. The second storey has in each wall, except the N.E., a single lancet-light with chamfered and rebated jambs and head; the lower part of the S.E. window has been blocked and the N.W. window has been entirely blocked. The third storey has about six feet only of the 13th-century walling with the splays of the original windows, one in each wall except the S.W. wall which had two windows. In the upper part of the top storey in each wall are two small round-headed lights.
The Roof of the chancel is of late 14th or early 15th-century date and of three main bays with modified king-post trusses; subsidiary trusses have braced collar-beams only, forming flat segmental arches; the wind-braces are cusped to form trefoiled arches. The roof of the S. chapel is of 16th-century date, and of four bays with moulded tie-beams, except the easternmost which is a re-used chamfered beam; part of the roof is hidden by modern boarding. In the N.W. corner, re-used as a corbel, is part of a 13th-century moulding or string. The roof to the N.W. tower is carried on a timber-framed structure, with two rows of vertical struts to the wall-plates.
Fittings—Altar: In chancel—stone slab with chamfered edge and five crosses on top, framed into modern communion table, mediæval. Bells (Plate 25): five, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, all by Abraham Rudhall, 1710. Brackets: In nave—on N. wall, octagonal capital with moulded upper edge, re-used, c. 1500. In passage, on S.W. wall, with plain top tapering to semi-octagonal base, 15th-century, re-set. Chair: In chancel—of oak, with grooved legs, posts and stretchers, fluted rails below seat, shaped arms, panelled back with guilloche ornament to top and bottom rails and scalloped top, first half of the 17th century. Chests: In S. chapel—(1) large oak 'dug-out' with flat coped top and lid hung on three big strap-hinges carried round chest; ends bound by single straps, 13th-century or earlier, much decayed; (2) of oak, hutch type, with moulded top and bottom edge, notched ends to front with three sinkings for lock-plates now missing, three plain lock-plates remaining and lid in two pieces each with two strap-hinges, 17th-century or earlier. Churchyard Cross: S. of S. chapel—octagonal to square base, 15th-century, shaft modern. N.W. of tower—octagonal shaft, square at base, on round stone slab and with modern dial on top. Coffin-lids: In chancel—(1) re-used in step, with chamfered edge and carved with quatre-foiled head of cross in low relief and stepped base, late 13th-century; (2) adjoining above, with one edge moulded, one cut away, carved with incised cross with long shaft and stepped base; (3) adjoining (2), plain with moulded edge; (4) re-used as tread to step of rood-stair, carved with part of circular foliated cross, late 13th-century; (5) part, re-used in step between chancel and nave, carved with incised circular quatre-foiled cross. In passage—(6) part, re-used in soffit of window in N.E. wall, with hollow-chamfered edge and foliated cross, 13th-century; (7) part, re-used on seat, with row of circular sexfoils on either side of stem and foliated cross, late 13th or early 14th-century. In N.W. tower, with circular quatre-foiled and foliated cross, late 13th-century. Communion Rails: with moulded top and bottom rails and turned balusters, probably early 18th-century. Door: to N.W. tower-stair, mostly modern, but incorporating portions of 17th-century door of battens with strap-hinges. Font: octagonal bowl with top rim carved with modern ornament and modern cross in small panel on one side, octagonal stem with moulded capping and chamfered base, 14th-century. Glass: In S. chapel—in E. window, re-set, some lozenge-shaped quarries with foliated designs, 14th-century. Inscriptions and Scratchings: In S. Chapel—on head of piscina, in deep incised lines, a chalice and wafer with, on one side, a fish, and on the other side a snake; between head and rear-arch of W. door, incised emblems of the Passion; on S. jamb of W. door, partly obliterated, a fish or human leg; on W. wall, two fishes. On exterior face of E. wall of chancel and walls of S. chapel, Maltese cross and numerous scratchings, probably masons' marks. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Monuments. In churchyard—W. of S. chapel, (1) to Mary Phillips, 1702, headstone; near S.W. buttress of nave, (2) similar to (1) with illegible inscription, early 18th-century. Floor-slabs. In chancel—partly hidden by steps to altar (1) to William Evans, 1704; later inscription to his daughter Anne. In N.W. tower— (2) to Ann Morgan, 1642–3. Niche: In S. chapel—in E. wall, plain rectangular opening covered with plaster. Panelling: In chancel—forming back to seat against N. wall, mid 17th-century. Piscina: In S. chapel—in S. wall with stop-chamfered jambs, trefoiled head and sex-foiled drain, late 13th or early 14th-century, re-set. Plate: includes a cup of 1576, with incised band of ornament round bowl and enrichment round base. Seating: In nave—thirteen benches, of oak, with heavy ends, outer shaped, inner plain, and plain backs with chamfered edges to rails, 16th or 17th-century. In N.W. tower, shaped end of another bench. Stalls: In chancel—on S. side, made up with modern seats, backs and ends of early 17th-century panelling, in three heights with arabesque work in most of panels in the top row. Stoup: In chancel—re-set in N. wall, with chamfered two-centred head and projecting semi-octagonal bowl. In nave—by W. door partly hollowed out of wall, with projecting curved bowl, with rim partly broken away, possibly 16th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel— three Prayer-desks and also Reading-desks to choirstalls, incorporate early 18th-century turned balusters. In nave—set on bracket on N. wall, gable-cross with four heart-shaped piercings and, in centre, hand in blessing, 17th-century. In S. chapel—on sill of easternmost window in S. wall, rectangular block of stone, carved on four sides with conventional oak foliage.
b(2). Church House Farm, immediately S. of the church, is a modern building on the site of a preceptory of the Knights Templars, subsequently a commandery of the Hospitallers. The 14th-century Dovecot built by the latter still exists, and to the W. of this there is an early 17th-century barn.
The Dovecot (Plate 97) is circular, with an internal diameter of 17 ft. 6 in.; the walls are 3 ft. 10 in. thick and are built of local sandstone, roughly squared and coursed, and retain some external plaster; there is an external chamfered and stepped plinth. The flattened domical roof has a circular opening in the middle, carried up into a square; the roof is covered with stone slates. The original doorway faces S.W.; the jambs are chamfered and have rounded shoulders; the head is formed of a triangular shaped tympanum with traces of a partly defaced inscription in Lombardic capitals said to read—"A. Dn~i. Mmo. CCC mo. XXVI fact. fuit id. colūbar, per (fratrē?) Ricm~." (Archaeologia, XXXI, p. 182). Inside the building, the wall is sixteen feet high and has 19 rows of dove-holes, L-shaped on plan. Opposite the original door are some scratched crosses and the name T. Gilbert in 14th-century capitals. There is said to be a circular cistern in the floor.
The Barn is of weather-boarded timber-framing on a stone foundation. The S. side and part of the W. side have been re-built in stone. There is a modern addition at the S.E. corner. The roof is of stone slates and some modern slates; it is in five bays and is of queen-post type. There is an original door with chamfered battens.
b(3). Black House, 350 yards N.E. of church, is of two storeys. The walls are of rubble and the roof is of stone slates. It was built late in the 16th century and has modern additions to the N. and W. Inside the building there is some exposed timber-framing, and the northern part has a queen-post roof.
b(4). Cottage, two tenements, on the S. side of the main road, 80 yards E.N.E. of (2), is of two storeys. The walls are of stone rubble and the roof is of stone slates. It was built in the first half of the 17th century and has modern additions at the N. and S. ends. Inside the building there are some exposed timber-framing and ceiling-joists.
a(5). Trolway Farm, house and barn, nearly 1 m. N.E. of the church. The House was originally of two storeys, but is now ruinous and only the external walls remain; these are of roughly coursed stone rubble. The roof is gone and the interior is gutted. It was built in the 16th century. The S.E. front has a two-light square-headed window with a moulded mullion and frame and a doorway with an original chamfered frame and a door with strap-hinges. The N.W. front has two-light and three-light windows with diamond-shaped mullions and chamfered frames, of wood, and a small one-light window with chamfered jambs and square head.
The Barn is possibly mediæval and retains one truss of 'crutch' construction, strengthened late in the 16th century with squared timber-framing and a queen-post truss. The stone rubble walls and the two other roof-trusses are of 16th-century date. The N. and S. walls have loop lights. There are modern extensions on the W. and N. sides, and the roof is of corrugated iron.
c(6). Broad Oak Inn, about 1¾ m. S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of ashlar and brick, with plastered timber-framing internally. The roofs are of modern slates. It was built early in the 17th century and has a modern porch and other modern additions to the N. and S. The S. doorway has moulded jambs with shaped stops and a square moulded head; the original door has strap-hinges with shaped ends. Inside the building there are some stop-chamfered ceiling-beams.
c(7). Cwm Maddoc, farmhouse, about 550 yards S.S.W. of (6), is of two storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of brick and roughly coursed stone rubble with ashlar dressings. The roofs are covered with slates. The plan is T-shaped with the cross-wing at the S.W. end; the main block was built about the middle of the 16th century and the cross-wing added or re-built in the 17th century. The upper part of the N.E. wing is modern, and there are modern additions at the S.W. corner. The N.E. wing has a chamfered plinth and part of the original string-course between ground and first floors. Inside the building there are some exposed ceiling-beams in the S.W. wing and an original square-headed stone fireplace with radiating voussoirs.
c(8). Barn at Great Demesne, about 1000 yards W. of the church. The walls are of stone rubble and timber-framing; the roof is of stone slates. It was built in the 17th century on an H-shaped plan; there are wide doorways in the middle of the E. and W. walls and loop lights in the N. and S. walls. There are modern additions on the N., E., and W. sides. The roof is in six bays and has braced collar-beams.