An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 1, South west. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.
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34 HEREFORD (D.b.).
The City of Hereford includes the parishes of St. John the Baptist, St. Peter, All Saints, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and St. Martin Hereford, Holmer Within, Tupsley and Huntington. There are few remains of the town wall or castle, and the principal surviving monuments are the Cathedral with its subsidiary buildings, All Saints and St. Peter's Churches and the Wye Bridge. There are some much-altered remains of the Black Friars Priory and a series of interesting almshouses. The White Cross, outside the town, may also be noted. Since the destruction of the magnificent timber town-hall in the middle of the last century, the finest surviving domestic building is the Old House also called the Butchers' Hall, and there are interesting mediæval roofs at the Booth Hall and at Nos. 29 & 30, Castle Street. Many of the houses fronting on the main streets have mediæval cellars, and an unusually large percentage of the minor domestic buildings contain enriched plaster ceilings of the 16th and 17th centuries.
a(1). The Cathedral Church of St. Mary and St. Ethelbert (Plates 108, 109, 113) and subsidiary buildings stand on the S. side of the city. The cathedral is built almost entirely of the local sandstone (Old Red Sandstone) mainly of a reddish colour but with lighter coloured beds. Some of the carved work in the presbytery was apparently executed in Ketton or some kindred stone. The monolithic shafting in the N. transept is in Purbeck marble and the modern shafts are in slate. The roofs are covered with lead.
The Saxon See, subsequently called Hereford, was probably due to the reorganisation of the English Church by Archbishop Theodore late in the 7th century, but the precise date of its establishment is uncertain. It is recorded that Bishop Cuthbert (before 740) placed there a cross of great magnificence (William of Malmesbury). In 794 King Ethelbert of East Anglia was murdered by Offa of Mercia (Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) and is said to have been buried at Hereford. The church at Hereford was re-built by Bishop Athelstane II, 1012–56, but this building was seriously damaged by the Welsh in 1055 (Simeon of Durham and A.S. Chron.). Bishop Robert de Losinga (1079–1095) is recorded (William of Malmesbury) to have built a church at Hereford on the model of the minster at Aachen, and it is possible that this building is to be identified with the curious central-plan structure formerly standing on the S. side of the Bishop's Cloister, and destroyed by Bishop Egerton in 1737. The only documentary evidence of the date of the beginning of the existing cathedral is a statement (Calendar of Obits) that Bishop Reinhelm (1107–15) was the founder; the architectural details accord well with this statement and indicate that the E. end, presbytery, eastern towers, and south transept, with the sacristy to the E. of it, were begun quite early in the 12th century. The building of the church at Hereford was carried on throughout the first half of the 12th century and was finished (Anglia Sacra) under Bishop Robert de Bethune (1131–48); this work included the nave and aisles and probably a central tower; at the same time the earlier work of the presbytery was enriched with more elaborate carving. The presbytery aisles and probably the nave aisles had a stone vault, and it is not improbable that the presbytery itself had a vault divided into bays by broad bands, similar to those of which traces survive in the nave at Chepstow. During the restorations of 1842–49 remains of the internal curve of the apse terminating the N. presbytery-aisle were found, but whether the external face was round or square was not determined; of the building E. of the middle arch in the E. wall of the presbytery, presumably an apse of rather deeper projection, the side walls only were traced to a distance of some 5 ft. E. of the external face of the presbytery; of the apse at the end of the S. aisle no definite traces were found. The first important alteration to the completed church was probably carried out by Bishop William de Vere (1186–98) who, as recorded on his epitaph (Leland), is stated to have constructed many fine buildings; among these was probably the eastern transept which took the place of the three supposed apses terminating the Norman church; the central section of the transept was designed to extend eastwards, but this actual work stops immediately to the W. of the line of the Lady Chapel crypt and includes the pair of vaulting-shafts in that position. The next alteration was the addition of the existing Lady Chapel with its crypt which appears to have been begun c. 1220 or even earlier. Towards the middle of the 13th century the clearstorey of the presbytery was re-built and the upper part of the two eastern towers destroyed; at the same time the existing vault of the presbytery was built. The later alterations and additions to the Cathedral are mostly dated by the practice of burying the bishop or other person responsible for the work in or near the work for which he was responsible. The first alteration to which this applies is the rebuilding of the North Transept, probably begun by Bishop Peter de Aquablanca (1240–68) who lies buried under the arch, constructed, with his tomb, between the transept and the N. Aisle of the presbytery; with it was reconstructed the adjoining bay of vaulting in the aisle. The transept was perhaps completed under Bishop John le Breton (1269–75). The Central Tower was built over the arches of the Norman crossing c. 1300–10. This is indicated by the preamble of a papal bull of 1319 which refers to a sumptuous building, which the dean and chapter had some time since erected on an ancient foundation, which was thought to be firm and solid but which then threatened ruin. The measures taken to support the tower included the insertion of two sub-arches and a wall under the N. and S. arches of the crossing, the blocking of the arch at the E. end of the N. aisle of the nave and the partial re-casing of the tower-piers. The former W. Tower was of approximately the same date as that over the crossing, and works of the same period include the reconstruction of the aisles of the presbytery with the raising of their vaults, the reconstruction of the aisles of the nave with their vaults; the addition of the North Porch and the reconstruction of the North-East Transept; this last work may be ascribed to Bishop Richard Swinefield (d. 1316) who lies buried in it. The cost of all this work was presumably covered by offerings at the tomb of Bishop Thomas of Cantilupe (d. 1282) who was canonised in 1320. The reconstruction of the South East Transept was probably done (except the vault) under Bishop Lewis Charlton (1361–69) whose tomb it contains. The S. end of the S. transept was re-erected immediately after the death of Bishop John Trevenant (1389–1404), and the vault of the same transept and probably the former vault under the central tower were added later in the same century. The former W. window of the nave was inserted by Precentor William Lochard (d. 1438) who was buried below it. Other 15th-century additions of uncertain date include the former E. window of the presbytery and the small room now used as the Quire Vestry. During the 15th century, also, were erected the two Chantry-chapels of Bishop John Stanbery (1453–74) on the N. side of the presbytery and of Bishop Edmund Audley (1492–1502) on the S. side of the Lady Chapel. The vault of the S.E. Transept, with the central column, was reconstructed late in the 15th century, probably by Dean Harvey (d. 1500) whose tomb stands on the S. side. The outer North Porch, generally attributed to Bishop Charles Booth, (1516–35) was probably begun by his predecessor Richard Mayhew (1504–16) as it was certainly completed before 1519, the date on a small adjoining doorway the architectural details of which are cut into the pre-existing work of the outer porch. This doorway is generally connected with the Chapel of St. Mary "outside the N. doorway of the cathedral" and originally founded in 1367. Whatever may have been the original position of this chapel, it is not improbable that eventually it was represented by the chapel over the outer porch. It is also said to have been founded by Philip Delamere and Adam Esgar, who are credited with building an outer porch. Little seems to have been done to the cathedral for the next 200 years, but in 1717 the presbytery was refitted and a Renaissance reredos erected by Bishop Philip Bisse (1713–21). The W. Tower, the W. front and the whole of the adjoining parts of the nave and aisles fell down on April 17th, 1786. The W. front was re-built by James Wyatt, one bay E. of the old front, and he also re-built (in plaster) the vault of the nave, remodelled and entirely refaced the triforium of the nave and re-built the clearstorey. The timber spire of the central tower was also removed, to lighten the structure. The existing main pinnacles were added to the central tower in 1830. The condition of the central tower, the E. wall of the Lady Chapel and other parts of the structure was so insecure that a general restoration was undertaken in 1842–49 under Cottingham. The central tower was underpinned, the vault removed and the piers largely re-built with the adjoining arches over the aisles and in the main arcades; the supporting sub-arches on the N. and S. were removed; the E. arch of the presbytery was opened out and the wall and gable above re-built, with the adjoining vaulting of the ambulatory; the E. wall of the Lady Chapel was also re-built. During these alterations, Bisse's reredos was removed and the stone pulpitum under the W. arch of the crossing destroyed. The general restoration was carried on under Sir G. Gilbert Scott 1856–63; his work included restoration of the Lady Chapel, a new pinnacle on the W. side of the N. transept and the insertion of the circular work in the windows of the old Muniment Room (triforium of the N. transept). The quire-stalls were re-erected to the E. of the crossing with the loss of many of their number, and the iron quire-screen was erected. The W. front, built by Wyatt, was replaced by the existing W. front in 1904–8, the design being by Mr. Oldrid Scott. In 1926 the modern pinnacles and parapet of the tower were restored and repairs done to the decayed stonework of the tower.
The cathedral contains excellent examples of 12th, 13th, 14th and early 16th-century work. The plan of the Norman church has two remarkable features, namely, the two towers over the eastern bays of the quire-aisles, a feature elsewhere unparalleled in this country, and the large arch in the E. wall of the presbytery, which no doubt inspired the similar feature in the cathedral of Llandaff. The cylindrical piers of the nave follow the type of Gloucester, Tewkesbury and Pershore, but are on a much lower scale and the more normal proportions of arcade, triforium and clearstorey were observed at Hereford. The Lady Chapel, though much restored, is a rich example of the first half of the 13th century and is remarkable for having a crypt, which is not in any way demanded by the fall of the ground. The mid to late 13th-century N. transept is a complete, and in some ways unusual, example of its period. The early 14th-century work is of no great distinction, except the central tower, which is profusely ornamented with the characteristic ball-flower, and the N. porch has fairly elaborate carving. Of the later work the finest feature is the early 16th-century outer N. porch. The fittings include numerous items of considerable interest; among these may be specially mentioned the late 12th or early 13th-century wooden chair, the brasses of Bishop Trilleck, Richard Delamere and his wife and Dean Frowsetoure, the Limoges-enamel reliquary of St. Thomas of Canterbury, the coffin-chalices and a long series of monuments, of which the finest are those of Bishop Aquablanca, the base of the Cantilupe shrine, the Grandison and other tombs in the Lady Chapel, the Pembridge tomb in the nave, the Stanbery chantry and monument, and the late Gothic tombs of Bishops Mayhew and Booth. The series of monuments to the early bishops of the See, erected early in the 14th century, is curious rather than remarkable, and may be compared with the earlier series in the cathedral of Wells. The stained glass includes some good 13th and early 14th-century work in the Lady Chapel and S. aisles of the presbytery and nave. The 14th-century map of the world in the S. transept was found in the Audley chapel. The stalls in the quire, though moved from their original position and reconstructed with the loss of some of their number, are good examples of 14th-century woodwork, and there is some wooden arcading of rather earlier date at the back of the bishop's throne. Another fitting that may be specially mentioned is the font, which has good 12th-century carved ornament and figures.
Architectural Description—The Presbytery (56 ft. by 34 ft.) of the Norman church, of c. 1110, projects three bays E. of the crossing and is flanked by aisles of equal length with which it communicates by three open arches on each side. The presbytery is terminated on the E. by a square end pierced by one large arch; E. of this stood some building of uncertain form, probably an apse, and E. of the aisles were smaller apses; the foundations of these buildings, discovered in the restorations of 1842–9, are thus described "the E. end of the N. aisle of the choir was terminated by an apse, semi-circular in plan inside; its outside shape not definitely remaining, but probably square. Of the foundation at the end of the S. aisle very little remains . . . . Outside of the main arch of the choir for four or five feet, the massive foundation of the side-walls continued straight eastwards and then was broken up and lost" (G.M. Hills in B.A.A. Journ. xxvii, p. 503); the plan showing these discoveries is no longer available. Over the E. bay of each aisle stood a tower of which the E. walls stood over the two arches opening from the aisles into the apses and are still carried up, of the original thickness, well above the adjoining aisle-roofs; they are now finished with a plain raking coping. The N. wall of the N. tower has been entirely destroyed, but the corresponding wall of the S. tower is still represented by its chamfered plinth and clasping S.W. buttress, underlying the existing 14th-century wall; this plinth shows that the S. wall was of equal thickness with the E. walls. The inner walls stood on the E. bay of the main arcades of the presbytery and the eastern angles are represented by the flat pilaster-buttresses still running up the main E. gable and now finished with tabling. The W. walls of the towers were carried on arches over the aisles, and of these the cutting back of the broad respond on the first pier of the N. arcade is still apparent, though the corresponding evidence in the S. aisle has been obliterated by restoration. In the space between the aisle-vaults and roof on both sides the marks of the rough tearing away of these W. walls are still perfectly apparent, the walls being 6½ ft. thick in the lower part and 5½ ft. thick above an internal offset which is still visible on the E. wall of the N. tower. Both towers were destroyed when the main clearstorey was re-built in the 13th century. The arch in the E. wall of the presbytery is semi-circular and of five orders on the W. face, apparently all modern restoration; the corresponding orders of the responds are alternately shafted and square, with a pair of half-round shafts on the internal reveal; these shafts have moulded bases and carved capitals, but though the responds are partly original the capitals are all modern (the ancient capitals are preserved loose in the S.E. transept) and the bases also, except the inner shaft-bases on both sides, which have curious cable-enrichments and a crude foliate ornament and are of early section; the bases on the E. side of the modern reredos are also original, that on the N. having a Y-shaped binding over the moulding with a broachspur at the angle; that on the S. is of bulbous form roughly scored with curved lines and a crude diaper. The wall above the arch is mainly modern, but through the surviving ancient portions runs a wall-passage, level with the triforium and communicating with a round-headed doorway (now blocked) pierced in the E. wall of both towers and formerly opening into the spaces above the side apses; this passage is lit by a single round-headed window (now under the roof) in the southern of the two pilaster buttresses running up the E. wall of the presbytery. The modern part of the E. wall has a modern wall-arcade and three modern lancet-windows in the gable. The side walls of the presbytery are of three bays and are divided into main arcade, triforium and clearstorey; the two former are of early 12th-century date, but the clearstorey is largely of the first half of the 13th century as is the stone vault. The main arcades (Plate 151) have round arches of three orders, the two inner roll-moulded and the outer of square section enriched with lozenge-ornament on the face; the piers are compound and formed of two responds divided, towards the presbytery, by heavy pilasters carried up to the springing of the triforium arches and with attached shafts worked on the angles; these pilasters now have 13th-century twin-gabled cappings but may have once supported the main cross-arches of a 12th-century vault. The responds of the main arcades have a square outer order, an attached shaft to the middle order, and a pair of attached shafts on the reveal; the bases are mainly modern, but the capitals are partly old and have partly-restored moulded abaci; the capitals are carved as follows:—N. side, 1st arch, E. respond—(a) scrolled foliage, (b) crude foliage and scalloping, (c) foliage probably mid 12th-century, (d) crude grooving and volutes; W. respond —all capitals scalloped and re-cut; 2nd arch, E. respond —all capitals scalloped but upright faces of middle capitals with simple leaf-forms; W. respond— (a) simple scallops, (b) face on angle, (c) scallops, (d) crude scroll-ornament; 3rd arch, E. respond— (a) scalloped and restored, (b) spirals with modern Scandinavian beast-head at angle (original cap in S.E. transept), (c) scallops with grotesque human head at angle apparently modern, (d) modern bird and old crude scrolls; W. respond—(a) scallops, (b) crude volutes, (c) and (d) scallops. S. side, 1st arch, E. respond—(a) scalloped, with foliage, probably modern, (b) face and foliage, probably modern, (c) scalloped, with foliage, modern, (d) three ranges of scallops, old, abacus with lozengy carving; W. respond—all capitals simply scalloped and re-cut; 2nd arch, E. respond—(a) modern foliage, (b) scallops, crude foliage, (c) crude leaf and volutes, (d) as (c); W. respond— (a, b and c) modern scallops, (d) scallops with wavy lines over, partly old; 3rd arch, covered by organ.
The triforium has, in each bay, a round main arch of two orders, the outer enriched with cheveron-ornament and the inner moulded and enclosing two round sub-arches also with cheveron-ornament; the responds have large attached semi-cylindrical shafts with moulded caps and chamfered plinths, and the sub-arches rest in the middle on free round shafts; the tympana of the triforium arches have cheveron and other diapering. On the N. side the capitals of the three responds in the E. half are plain, the others are scalloped: the abaci are carved with wicker-work pattern; the capitals of the free shafts in the two E. bays are carved with volutes, etc., and have diapered abaci; the W. bay on the N. side has been entirely restored or re-built; below the triforium is a string-course, all modern, except in the middle bay, where it has cheveron and diaper-ornament; on the outside face of the E. bay, W. of the arch and above it (visible above the aisle-roof), is a narrow window-opening, now blocked and having a round head and a solid tympanum carved with crude foliage; if this window is in situ it is difficult to imagine what purpose it could have served. On the S. side the responds of the triforium-arches have scalloped capitals, all modern or re-cut; the capitals of the free shafts are old, carved with foliage, the westernmost hidden by the organ. The N. triforium is now blocked by the early 14th-century vault of the N. aisle, but the corresponding vault in the S. aisle has been carried up to a higher level, to admit of the insertion of unglazed windows opening into the aisle; these are of early 14th-century date and are each of two segmental-pointed lights in a segmental-pointed head with a solid spandrel; they are inserted at the back of the main triforium arches.
The clearstorey is of early to mid 13th-century date, but may include parts of the 12th-century walling, as there is a flat pilaster-buttress between the second and third bays on both sides; the flat buttress between the first and second bays on the N. is an addition, probably of the 13th century, as, below the aisle roof, it is set against the rough masonry of the destroyed W. wall of the N.E. tower. The clearstorey has in each bay, on the inside face, an open arcade of one main arch sub-divided and two side arches, undivided; the main arch has shafted jambs and a free quatre-foiled shaft, all with foliated capitals, and a moulded two-centred head with two-centred sub-arches and an open spandrel; the arches have no labels, but above the capitals are small bosses carved with human heads or foliage, the N.E. boss is missing; the side arches have shafted jambs with foliated capitals and moulded trefoiled arches with moulded labels which have foliated stops; at the back of this arcade runs the clearstorey-passage which has corbelled lintels behind the piers between the main and side arches, the inner corbels carved with foliage; at the back of each main arch is a clearstorey-window of two pointed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the window has shafted jambs externally with foliated capitals, moulded bands and bases, a moulded label, square reveals having shafts with foliated capitals, and a moulded rear-arch. At the base of the clearstorey inside runs a moulded string-course with dog-tooth ornament. The exterior of the clearstorey differs on the two sides; the N. side (Plate 116) has two ranges of wall-arcading, the lower and taller range, consisting of moulded two-centred arches, springing from grouped shafts (two to the responds and three between the bays) with capitals, one foliated, the rest moulded, to the responds and foliated capitals between the bays; the arcading is rendered unsymmetrical by the position of the buttresses between the main bays of the wall; the upper range of arcading consists of moulded trefoiled arches, with trefoils or quatrefoils in the spandrels, and springing from grouped shafts with foliated capitals and lines of pyramidal ornament between the shafts; the plain parapet rests on a trefoiled corbel-table with head-corbels or foliated terminations at irregular intervals; the buttress at the E. angle has moulded corners, and supports a modern turret; both ranges of arcading and the parapet are considerably restored. The S. wall has a single range of arcading, generally similar to the lower range on the N. wall with four foliated capitals; above it is a range of sunk and moulded panels, alternately round and lozenge-shaped, and with cusped or carved filling; the arcading on this side is continuous in the two E. bays; the trefoiled corbel-table has head or foliated corbels. The 13th-century stone vault of the presbytery is of three quadripartite bays with moulded cross, diagonal and wall-ribs; there are large foliated bosses at the intersections and smaller foliated bosses at the apex of the cross-ribs. The vault springs from shafts, single in the angles and triple between the bays, all with capitals mostly carved with foliage, but the S.E. capital has a human head in foliage and the third capital on the N. side is carved with a group of seven heads in foliage, three large and four small, including a bishop and several priests; one of the larger heads with a protruding tongue has its throat gripped by a large hand which is issuing from the foliage; the shafts rise from the 12th-century pilasters, already described, which are cut short half-way up the triforium and finished with a 13th-century capping; this capping consists of foliated capitals to the pilaster-shafts and a double gable with crockets and finials, the latter formed either of bunches of foliage or a head of a small figure; the tympana of the gables are variously carved with, on N.—(a) foliated stem, (b) cusped panel with a cross, (c) diaper and quatre-foiled panel, unsymmetrically arranged, (d) foliated sprig and diapering, also unsymmetrical; on S.—(a) window-tracery, (b) foliage, (c) tracery including a large quatrefoil, (d) cusped panel with foliage. The vault is supported on each side by two plain flying buttresses added or re-built early in the 14th century when the aisles were reconstructed.
The North Aisle of the Presbytery (55¼ ft. by 14 ft.) is of three bays and has an early 12th-century arch in the E. wall with a round head of two orders on the W. face, the inner plain and continuous and the outer roll-moulded and springing from attached shafts with carved capitals, moulded abaci with billet-ornament and moulded bases; the N. capital has a crude palmette on each face and the S. capital has foliage and volutes; the moulded plinth is carried along the reveal of the opening and has been cut back on the E. face of the wall, as though the former apse was continuous with the opening; the E. face of the wall on the N. has been cut back and refaced and the arch on this side overhangs and is supported on an early 14th-century corbel carved with a grotesque human figure; above the arch is a round-headed opening, now blocked, but formerly communicating between the triforium of the aisle and the roof-space over the apse; this opening is visible on the E. face of the wall and also on the W. face, in the roof-space, above the existing aisle-vault; on the E. face, also in the roof-space, is the mark of the S. slope of the former steep-pitched roof of the apse and on the W. face is the line of an earlier roof of the aisle, presumably of the 13th century, after the destruction of the N.E. tower. The aisle had an early 12th-century vault, destroyed when the existing one was erected; the springing lines of it are visible above the second pier of the main arcade of the presbytery together with the lines of the pilaster, now cut back, from which it sprang; the first pier, on the same side, had a much wider pilaster or respond, nearly the full width of the pier and also cut back; from it sprang the W. arch of the N.E. tower; the lines of the earlier vault are also visible above the arch in the E. wall and over the arch opening into the E. aisle of the N. transept. The existing vault is of two dates, the western bay being of mid 13th-century date and of the same build as the N. transept; it no doubt co-existed with the earlier vault to the E. The two eastern bays are of early 14th-century date when the arch between them and the W. bay was reconstructed. Each bay of the vault is quadripartite with moulded diagonal, transverse and wall-ribs with foliated bosses at all the intersections and at the apex of the crossribs of the 14th-century bays; the springers of the two E. bays rest on corbels, four carved with grotesque heads and two with free foliage; the arch between the second and third bays is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, dying on to the side walls; the vault of the third bay springs from small moulded corbels. The N. wall of the aisle is of early 14th-century date, except the W. bay which is of the 12th century. In the eastern part are two early 14th-century windows, the first of four trefoiled lights with boldly cusped tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs internally have each a shaft with a moulded cap and a moulded base; the middle mullion has a similar shaft with a foliated cap; the rear-arch and splays are continuously chamfered; there is a moulded external label, partly restored; the second window is of two narrow trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head, shafted internal jambs and a modern external label; below the windows runs a moulded internal string-course and below it again were contrived four recesses for effigies of early bishops; one of these recesses was removed when Bishop Stanbery's chapel was built, and re-erected within the chapel (see Monuments under Fittings); between the two westernmost recesses is a partly restored doorway with rounded jambs and segmental-pointed head; it opens into a large, round, early 14th-century stair-turret, carried up to the leads of the aisle, in two stages, the upper stage being twelve-sided, with a parapet and a gargoyle; the base of the turret is square with a moulded plinth, continued round from the aisle, and with broaches at angles as a transition from the square to the round plan; the stair is lit by four loops one above the other. The aisle wall has a plain parapet and a corbel-table resting on head-corbels. In the W. bay of the N. wall is a mid 13th-century arch, built to accommodate Bishop Aquablanca's tomb; it has plain responds splayed back at the angles, near the springing; the arch is segmental-pointed and of three orders, the two outer chamfered and the inner moulded and springing from moulded corbels, carved with human heads; the moulded labels have small head-stops. In the W. wall of the aisle is a modern arch of 12th-century form, opening into the N. transept.
The Chantry Chapel of Bishop Stanbery (17 ft. by 8 ft.) was built c. 1470–80 and projects from the N. aisle of the presbytery. It is of two bays with a moulded plinth, plain parapet and panelled buttresses. The upper part of the E. wall has stone panelling in the form of window-tracery and of four cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows of similar design to the panelling, and below the internal sills is a range of panels with cinque-foiled ogee heads and traceried spandrels; in the easternmost is a moulded bracket. The W. wall has tracery similar to the E. wall and below a transom a range of panels similar to those below the windows. The E. bay of the S. wall is similarly treated except that there is an arched tomb-recess in the lower part (see Monument 25); the W. bay has a window, opening into the aisle, similar to those in the N. wall but with a doorway rising to the two western lights with a four-centred head; the S. face has an enriched label, with headstops, in a square head with cusped panelling in the spandrels; the window is set in a recess, towards the chapel, with panelled reveals and arch. The chapel has a fan-vault (Plate 106) of two bays with moulded ribs and cusped panelling; it springs from wall and angle-shafts, flanked by vertical bands of vine and oak-leaf foliage, and finished at the springing-level with carved groups of fighting dragons or monsters, merman and mermaid, and angels. The wall-panelling on the N., S. and W. sides is enriched with a series of carved shields as follows—N. side, (a) the Deanery; (b) Stanbery; (c) See of Hereford; (d and e) Stanbery; (f) St. Ethelbert; (g) Stanbery; on S. side, (a, b and c) symbols of the apostles Matthias, Thomas and Bartholomew, with their names; (d) a cross with loaves and fishes, for St. Philip; (e) instruments of the Passion; (f) the Agnus Dei; (g) palm, chalice and dragon, for St. John; (h) mitre and croziers in saltire; on W. wall, (a, b, c and d) shields with symbols, devised for St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. James the Great and St. James the Less; (e) defaced; (f) See of Canterbury (?); (g) Stanbery; (h) bendy and a chief charged with three leopards' heads jessant-de-lis, probably for Trilleck.
The South Aisle of the Presbytery (54¾ ft. by 14 ft.) is of three bays and has an early 12th-century arch in the E. wall, similar to that in the N. aisle, but it does not overhang on the E. face; the capitals on the W. face are both carved with crude grotesque faces and the base on the S. has a primitive spur-ornament at the angle; the moulded plinth is cut back on the E. face as in the corresponding arch in the N. aisle. Above the arch on the E. face is the blocked opening to the former triforium; the line of the N. slope of the apse-roof shows in the roof-space. There are few traces of the early vault or of the responds against the main piers of the presbytery, which have been refaced; there is, however, a set-back for the vault, over the arch in the E. wall and the line of one springing remains between the second and third bays of the main arcade. The existing vault is of three bays and is similar in every way to the 14th-century bays of the vault in the N. aisle, except that it is at a higher level. The S. wall is of early 14th-century date in its two eastern bays and has two windows uniform with the eastern window in the N. aisle; below them are four tomb-recesses, as in the N. aisle. The western bay of the wall is of early 12th-century date and contains a doorway with jambs and round arch of one square order; above the doorway is a 12th-century string-course with lozenge ornament. The arch in the W. wall is modern or re-cut below the springing-line, but the arch itself is partly 12th-century work re-set; on the W. face it is of three orders, the outer and inner moulded and the middle order square and carved with a conventional ornament of segments and pellets; on the E. face the inner order is moulded but the other two are concealed by the organ.
The Crossing (31¾ ft. by 31½ ft.) was originally of 12th-century date, but was largely re-built and refaced in the restoration of 1842–9. The facing of the four piers is entirely modern, but parts of the arches are original; the E. and W. arches are semi-circular, those on the N. and S. are stilted, but of the same form; they are all of two recessed orders, enriched with an elaborate treatment of cheveron-ornament; above them runs an internal string-course partly of the same date, but much restored. The N. and S. arches were formerly supported by arched substructures, perhaps of the 14th century, and removed in the restoration of 1842–9. The crossing formerly had a stone vault, removed at the same time.
It is probable that the crossing supported a 12th century tower, as there are apparently staircases in the N.E. and S.E. angles, starting from the level of the roof of the aisles; these staircases have been filled in, but one of the loops lighting each is still visible in the angle between the presbytery and the transept.
The Central Tower (Plate Frontispiece) was built early in the 14th century and rises two stages above the crossing. The lower stage is now open to the church and has on the internal faces an open stone grille, formed of heavy mullions; each face has thirteen lights with square heads and transom, and all narrow except the middle one, which is 1 ft. 5 in. wide. Level with the heads of the lights is a modern wooden ceiling. A wall-passage, 2½ ft. wide, runs round this stage and has in each outer wall a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred arch, opening into the roof-spaces of the presbytery, transepts and nave. Higher up, the outer wall, on each side of the stage, has two windows, flanked externally by blind windows, making four in all, and each of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; these windows are divided externally by tall raised panels with pointed heads, the middle panel being divided into two pointed 'lights' with a quatrefoil above.
The bell-chamber has in each wall two windows flanked by blind windows, as in the stage below, but with cinquefoils in the heads and all finished with gables; between the windows are panels as in the stage below, but finished with gabled heads; above these heads runs a moulded cornice and a modern embattled parapet. This stage has also a wall-passage communicating with the bell-chamber, by two pointed arches in each wall. Each angle of the tower contains a staircase, but only that on the N.W. is carried up to the roof; the turret-staircases are covered externally by a pair of buttresses of 'cut-water' plan, with panelled faces; the panels are finished, at the head of the lower stage, with heads similar to those of the middle panels between the windows; the cornice and band of lozenges, between the stages, are continued round the buttresses and half-way up the upper stage the buttresses are tabled back on to the tower leaving the outer section of each to be carried up as a lozenge-shaped pinnacle; these pinnacles have panelled faces and restored tops. The tower is decorated with a profusion of ball-flower ornament, which appears in the mouldings of the window-jambs, panels, buttresses, string-courses and labels. The four main pinnacles of the tower were completed in 1830.
The E. wall (Plate 107) has a main arcade of three bays, of which the southernmost is a modern copy of 12th-century work; the other two bays have richly moulded segmental-pointed arches, struck from well below the springing-line and enriched with dog-tooth ornament; the mouldings are in three orders and the moulded labels have two original and one modern head-stop. The pier, between the bays, is set diagonally and has four attached and filleted shafts and four detached and banded shafts, all with 'stiff-leaf' foliage capitals and moulded bases resting on a moulded plinth with sprays of foliage in the angles; the free shafts have been polished; the responds are similar to the pier but have plain moulded capitals, and the foliage-sprays have not been carved.
The triforium has in each bay a pair of segmental-pointed arches of three orders, the outer moulded and having a label, the middle order with dog-tooth ornament and the inner order forming a plane of tracery consisting of three trefoiled lights with three quatrefoils in the head; the tracery rests on slender mullions, with attached shafts, having moulded capitals and bases; the responds are moulded and have each three similar attached shafts; the wall-face above the triforium arches has foliage-diapering in squares all modern or re-cut; the triforium-passage is not continuous but is entered at the back of each arch, except the southernmost, by a doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and trefoiled head. The back wall of the southernmost arch is apparently of the 12th century and retains traces of a former wall-arcade of that date. Above the triforium is a string-course carved with dog-tooth ornament. The clearstorey has in each bay a window consisting of a large sex-foiled circle set in a triangle with curved sides; the rear-arch is moulded and two-centred and springs from shafted splays with moulded capitals and bases; the internal sills have deep tabling; the external arch is moulded and has a modern label. The parapet has panelling with trefoiled heads and trefoiled spandrels, and rests on a corbel-table with head and grotesque corbels, many of which are defaced; near the 12th-century angle of the crossing is a blocked 13th-century external doorway with rounded jambs and a square head, no doubt the former entrance to the stair-turret in the N.E. angle of the tower. The clearstorey has the seatings for flying buttresses, either never completed or now removed. The vault of the transept is in three quadripartite bays with moulded wall, transverse and diagonal ribs with foliated bosses along the ridge; the vault springs on the E. wall from single filleted shafts in the angles and grouped shafts between the bays, with moulded caps and foliated corbel-bases; on the W. wall the N. and intermediate shafts are carried right down the wall, and have moulded bases on the stone benches; the S. shaft stops on a head-corbel at the level of the clearstorey string-course. The N. wall contains a large window of two main divisions, each of three pointed lights with three quatrefoils in a segmental-pointed head; there is a large sexfoil and a small quatrefoil in the main spandrel, and the main head is segmental-pointed; the mullions, external and internal jambs and splays have shafts, with moulded capitals, some of which are carved with foliage, and bases; the detached shafts on the central mullion, the jambs and splays, are banded, the others are worked on the solid; the moulded rear-arch is carried up above the springing of the window-head; below the window-sill is a restored string-course, and there is a moulded external label with head-stops. The splays have each the opening of a wall-passage communicating between the N.W. stair-turret and the triforium of the E. aisle; the passage must have been continued across the window by a wooden gallery. In the gable, above the vault, is a window of three trefoiled lights with quatre-foiled tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded external arch and jambs and mullions, having moulded capitals and bases. At the N.W. angle is a round stair-turret, lit by a series of windows, mostly with moulded jambs and trefoiled heads, but some with square heads; against this stair-turret are placed two buttresses with one main offset and a spreading plinth; they are each finished with three crocketed gables; there is a similar buttress between the N. front and the E. aisle, with bases of shafts on the offsets. The W. wall has in each of the two northern bays a window, extending the full height of the transept and similar to the sub-divisions of the N. window, but some of the shafts have foliated capitals; the moulded rear-arches are of low segmental-pointed form; in the S. bay there is a similar window, but it only extends down to the top of the re-built triforium which has a blind round-headed arch of 12th-century character; the main arch below the triforium, opening into the S. aisle, is also modern; below the northern windows is an internal string-course, and below it, at the N. end of the wall, is the doorway to the stair-turret; it has rounded jambs and a triangular head. The parapet of the W. wall is similar to that of the clearstorey opposite, but has been more extensively restored; the two buttresses are similar to those at the N. end of the transept.
The East Aisle of the N. Transept (34¼ ft. by 17½ ft.) is of two bays and has in each bay of the outer (E. and N.) walls a window of normal size but with heads similar to the heads of the windows in the W. wall of the transept; below the sills runs a moulded string-course inside. Under the N. window of the E. wall is the segmental-pointed arch of a former doorway, and straight joints in the plinth show where it has been blocked; the blocking and the restoration of the plinth is old. The vault is of two quadripartite bays with foliated bosses to the ridge and with moulded ribs, springing, against the walls, from attached and filleted shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the capitals in the S.E. angle and those of the grouped shafts, between the bays, are foliated; the grouped shafts stand on the remains of a stone screen between the two chapels in the aisle; the corresponding portion of the main pier is probably modern restoration, so that it is now impossible to say if the screen butted against it or stopped farther E. The aisle has three buttresses, similar to but smaller than those of the main transept; each buttress has, near the top, a carved gargoyle; the offsets have cut on them the bases of angle-shafts, but these were apparently not proceeded with. The heads of the buttresses have seatings for proposed flying buttresses, probably never constructed.
The Old Muniment Room or triforium over the E. aisle has in each bay of the outer walls a window with moulded round head, rear-arch and labels, shafted jambs and splays with moulded capitals and bases; the openings have each been filled with a modern octofoiled circle. In the W. wall is a series of doorways with shouldered heads opening into the triforium bays of the transept; at the N. end of the wall is a doorway with splayed jambs and segmental-pointed head of two chamfered orders leading to the former gallery across the N. window of the transept. Across the S. end of the muniment-room is an oak-framed partition with moulded rails and uprights and moulded overlapping battens; it contains a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head and is probably of late 15th or early 16th-century date. The partition separates the muniment-room from the space above the vault of the W. bay of the N. aisle of the presbytery.
The South Transept (46 ft. by 31½ ft.) is mainly of early 12th-century date, with the S. end re-built at the beginning of the 15th century on the old foundations, though not quite on the same line. The E. wall (Plate 112) has a N. bay all modern internally except parts of the arch opening into the S. aisle of the presbytery (q.v.). The rest of the wall is divided into four storeys; the ground storey has three plain recesses with round arches; the middle recess is carried down to the bench which runs round the transept and has an attached shaft on each jamb with a capital carved with faces and volutes and moulded bases; the side recesses are stopped above a moulded string-course enriched with cable-ornament, below which runs a wall-arcade with round moulded arches resting on round shafts, mostly modern, with modern capitals and moulded bases, mostly modern. The two middle storeys correspond with the triforium and are divided from the stage below by a diapered string-course; between the two storeys is a hollow-chamfered string-course and below the clearstorey is a moulded string-course with cableornament; the lower of the two triforium-storeys has three bays of open arcading of three, two and three arches respectively; the round roll-moulded arches spring from round shafts with scalloped and foliated capitals and moulded bases; the abaci of the shafts are continued along the wall as a string-course. The upper triforium-storey has three bays of shallow blind arcading, with round arches of four diminutive recessed orders, springing from round shafts with scalloped or cushion-capitals and moulded bases. The clearstorey is designed without respect to the stage below and had originally three large round-headed windows with cheveron-ornament on the rear-arches, continued down the splays to short columns or shafts similar to those in the open arcade below; externally the windows have jambs and arches of two orders, the inner plain and the outer with shafts having cushion capitals and moulded bases; the outer orders of the arches in the two N. windows retain traces of the original cheveron-ornament, but in the southernmost window they are completely restored. Flanking each window-recess, internally, are small arches similar to those in the open arcade at the triforiumlevel; the middle window was blocked when the existing vault was inserted, but its rear-arch is visible above the vault. In the blocking the wall passage has steps made up of older stones including some of the small blind arcading displaced by the vault. To the N. of the northernmost window, externally, is a wall-arcade (Plate 111) of four arches similar to the blind arcade at the triforium-level inside; the shafts have scalloped or cushion capitals with simple leaf ornament and are partly restored; above this arcade are two round arches of the original corbel-table; the rest of the wall has a plain parapet. Butting between the two southernmost windows is an early 15th-century flying buttress, added when the vault was inserted. The S. wall, re-built at the beginning of the 15th century, stands on the plinth of the 12th-century wall which is chamfered; there were large clasping buttresses at the angles with round shafts worked on the inner angles; the stair-turret in the S.E. angle is perhaps also partly of the 12th century. The wall above has a large, early 15th-century window of six cinque-foiled lights with restored vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label; the internal reveals are casement-moulded, the recess being carried down to the bench; the space below the window has stone panelling with cinque-foiled ogee heads and tracery in three main bays and six sub-bays; the middle main bay is occupied by the tomb of Bishop Trevenant (d. 1404), who no doubt re-built the wall and window; above and flanking the window the wall has stone panelling, forming three stages at the sides, with cinque-foiled ogee heads; the panels of the two upper stages have head or angel-corbels for statues; the panelling above the window has trefoiled heads. In the gable is a trefoiled window, probably entirely modern. The W. wall has a modern N. bay, but the rest of the wall is partly of early 12th-century date with a considerable amount of early 15th-century or later rebuilding. The 12th-century wall was in three stages, of which the lowest had a central window flanked by plain, round-headed recesses; the northern of these recesses still remains, but much restored, together with one splay of the window, having an attached shaft. The middle or triforium stage of the wall is separated from that below by a diapered string-course; it had, probably, two windows of which one remains, now blocked; it is similar to the windows of the clearstorey in the opposite wall, but has no flanking internal arches; the outer order of the external head has cheveron-ornament. The clearstorey-stage of the wall had three windows similar to those in the clearstorey opposite and with flanking arches; of these windows the northernmost remains enlarged in the 15th century into a window of three cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a three-centred head; the S. splay is a thin facing to the original splay which remains with the adjoining flanking arch; the internal head of the middle window is visible above the vault, with its cheveron ornament; faint traces of the external head are also visible. Between these windows is an external wall-arcade of interlacing arches rising from attached shafts. Most of the S. part of the wall is occupied by a large, early 15th-century window of six cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with an external label; the transom has cinque-foiled ogee heads below it. Immediately S. of the windows is a flying buttress carried out over the E. alley of the Bishop's Cloister. The Transept had originally a timber roof, the sockets for the timbers of which are visible above the vault. The existing vault was added in the 15th century, probably by Bishop Spofford (1422–48), and is of two bays with moulded main, subsidiary, ridge and wall-ribs; the bosses at the intersections are all carved with foliage or roses except two which bear shields, (a) Spofford and (b) a winged heart. The rib against the S. wall has three carved bosses, that at the apex has the heads of a man and woman; the other two are about a yard away on either side; the western is a human head with long hair, the eastern is the bust of a little man with wide ears to which he holds his hands in the act of listening. The vault springs from modern corbels in the N. angles and in the S. angles from grouped shafts which have moulded capitals and are carried down to the bench; the intermediate springers rest on short, fluted shafts with foliated capitals and base-corbels carved with the heads of a king and a bishop respectively.
It is of early 12th-century date, but late in the 15th century the southern bay was extended to the E. The original building is of two bays, each with a plain groined vault and divided by a plain transverse rib and with wall-arches on each side; the cross-rib and wall-arches are carried down the walls as pilasters. In the E. wall, the S. wall arch has been cut through when the late 15th-century extension was built; the N. bay of the same wall (Plate 110) has an original window with a round head; externally it is of three orders, the inner rebated, the middle roll-moulded and the outer plain; the middle order rests on attached shafts, the southern with a cushion-capital carved with pointed oval ornament, the northern with a scalloped capital; the rear-arch is of two orders, the inner plain and the outer resting on attached shafts with capitals carved with volutes and semi-circles, and moulded bases; below the window are internal and external string-courses, the former with cheveron and cable ornament and the latter with lozenge ornament; below the string-course is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and restored four-centred head. In the S. wall is a 12th-century window generally similar to that in the E. wall but much restored on the outside; below it is an internal string-course with lozenge-ornament. The late 15th-century Sacristy (14½ ft. by 13¼ ft.) was formerly of two storeys or had a gallery. The upper storey has in the E. and S. walls a restored window with a four-centred head and a modern label; it is now devoid of either mullion or tracery. In the N. wall is a blocked doorway at the upper floor level with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; it formerly communicated with a staircase in the external angle of the old and new sacristies, now removed, but formerly approached by the still-existing doorway in the E. wall of the old sacristy. The vault is quadripartite with chamfered diagonal and wall-ribs and springs from round shafts in the angles, carried down to the floor of the lower storey and having crudely moulded capitals and bases. The building has diagonal buttresses at the E. angles, that on the N. being pierced by a rectangular hatch, now blocked.
The Nave (123¼ ft. by 31½ ft., formerly 141 ft. long) is now of seven bays but was formerly of eight. It was built in the first half of the 12th-century, and there are evidences of a break in the 'build' between the third and fourth bays on the N. and between the fourth and fifth bays on the S. The easternmost bay of the arcade on each side was re-built in the restoration of 1842–9. The remaining bays (Plate 114) are original work, very considerably restored; the columns are cylindrical and have each a pair of round attached shafts, towards the nave and aisles; the moulded capitals, all probably more or less restored, are carved as follows— N. side, 1st capital, interlacing and conventional ornament, palmette on abacus; 2nd capital, conventional ornament, interlace and beasts, conventional ornament on abacus; both the above capitals have a necking of cable-ornament; remaining capitals and W. respond, scalloped. S. side, 1st and 2nd capitals, conventional interlacing foliage and palmette, interlace on W. half of abacus of 2nd capital; remaining capitals and W. respond, scalloped. The arches are all semi-circular and have three orders on the nave side, but are variously decorated—N. side—2nd, 3rd and 4th arches have the outer and inner orders on the S. face, enriched with cheveron-ornament; the middle order is moulded with three rolls or reeds; the N. face of the 2nd and 3rd arches is of two orders only, the outer roll-moulded and the inner with cheveronornament; the 4th arch is similar but has an additional plain outer order; the 5th, 6th and 7th arches have on the S. face the inner order roll-moulded; the outer and middle orders are carved with cheveron-ornament; the N. face of these three arches is of three plain orders except the middle order of the westernmost arch which is roll-moulded. S. side—the N. face of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th arches is similar to that of the corresponding arches of the N. arcade; the S. face of these arches is similar to the corresponding face of the 2nd and 3rd arches of the N. arcade; the 5th and 6th arches have all three orders on the N. face enriched with cheveron-ornament; the S. face of these arches is of three orders, the two outer roll-moulded and the inner enriched with cheveron-ornament; the 7th arch is similar to the westernmost arch of the N. arcade. The 12th-century triforium had a pair of round arches in each bay, each with two sub-arches; the whole triforium was refaced, remodelled and partly re-built by Wyatt and now has no ancient features visible, though there are some remains of 12th-century work above the vault of the S. aisle and not now accessible. The clearstorey is entirely the work of Wyatt, as is the plaster vault. The W. front was built in 1904–8 in place of that erected by Wyatt after the fall of the W. tower. The 12th-century W. front stood one bay farther W. so that the last free pier of each arcade is now incorporated in the modern front.
The North Aisle (Plate 115) of the Nave (15 ft. wide) is of early 14th-century date except about 6 ft. at the E. end of the N. wall, below the string-course, which appears to be of the 12th century. In the N. wall are six windows, the easternmost is of three trefoiled lights with a trefoil in a two-centred head; the jambs, splays and mullions are moulded and shafted; the second window is similar but of two lights; the other four windows are each of four trefoiled lights with a cinquefoil and two trefoils in a two-centred head; the details are similar to those of the eastern windows, but there are shafts to the splays and main mullion only; all the windows have moulded labels with head-stops; some modern and some defaced. The N. doorway (Plate 121), between the second and third windows, has jambs of two shafted orders with moulded capitals and defaced bases; the arch is of two moulded orders, the outer two-centred and enriched with square paterae as sprigs of foliage and the inner of cinque-foiled form, with pierced spandrels and enriched with rosettes, etc. The W. wall is modern. The vault is of doubtful age, but as all the bosses and corbels appear to be modern, it is probable that the vault also is modern. The plain parapet has defaced corbels, some carved with heads and some with foliage; the buttresses have gabled heads.
The South Aisle of the Nave (15½ ft. wide) is of early 14th-century date and has in the S. wall seven windows similar to the western windows in the N. aisle; the lower part of the easternmost window is blocked by the roof of the adjoining cloister; below it is a doorway with a segmental-pointed arch of two moulded orders; the moulded jambs have each two attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases and a foliated sprig on the stop between them; above the head is a corbel-course to carry a thickening of the wall; the rear-arch, which is in the form of a lintel with a series of carved heads, is modern, but is said to reproduce an old feature. The W. wall is modern. The five eastern bays of the vault are of stone and are presumably of early 14th-century date; each bay is quadripartite, with moulded ribs and carved bosses; the bosses along the ridge are probably mostly old and are carved with foliage, foliage with heads, and a vesica with a figure; the corbels are mostly modern, but one or two, carved with heads, are probably old. The aisle has buttresses, parapet and corbel-table similar to those of the N. aisle, but the corbels are mostly modern.
The Ambulatory and Eastern Transepts were built at the close of the 12th century practically on the same plan as at present; this building involved the destruction of the side apses and main building E. of the presbytery, and the blocking of the arch in the E. wall of the presbytery. The two transepts were re-built and extended a few feet towards the E. during the 14th century. In the restoration of 1842–9 the blocking of the E. arch of the presbytery was removed and the adjoining column and part of the vault of the ambulatory re-built. The central division, serving as an ambulatory and vestibule to the Lady Chapel, is of two bays from E. to W. The western bay (15¾ ft. by 35 ft.) has a vault of two square quadripartite bays, partly re-built; the ribs are moulded and the diagonal and W. wall-ribs have cheveron-ornament; the western free column is entirely modern, but copies the old form; the eastern free column is round and has a moulded abacus, scalloped octagonal capital, re-cut shaft and modern base; the cross-arches opening into the transepts are moulded and two-centred and spring, on the E., from triple attached shafts with foliated capitals and modern moulded bases; on the W. the arches spring from short triple shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded abaci and standing on corbels with modern foliated terminations; the vault-ribs between the ambulatory and vestibule spring from triple shafts against the walls, similar to those on the E. side of the transept arches. The bay forming the vestibule (17¾ ft. by 30½ ft.) has solid side walls each pierced by a late 12th-century opening with a two-centred arch of two orders, the inner moulded and enriched with double cheveron-ornament and the outer roll-moulded and having a moulded label, the jambs have a keeled shaft to the outer order and three grouped shafts, the middle one keeled, to the inner order; all have moulded bases, 'stiff-leaved' foliagecapitals and moulded abaci carried along the wall as a string-course. The vaulting-shafts between this bay and the Lady-chapel are of late 12th-century date and were similar to those already described, between the vestibule and the ambulatory; the shafts were, however, raised some 3 ft. when the Lady-chapel was added; the N. capital is carved with a man's head and arms, grasping and peering through a cluster of free foliage and is probably of the 13th century; on the S. side is a 13th-century capital similar to those in the Lady-chapel. Both shafts retain the ends of an inserted moulded timber-beam, probably part of a screen. Below the openings in the side walls of this bay runs a moulding, on both sides of the wall, forming an offset; this moulding is returned vertically against the vaulting-shafts and finished in the form of a pointed arch; they indicate the form of the late 12th-century vault. The vault of this bay is of the date of the Lady-chapel and is of quadripartite form with three additional ribs springing from the free column on the W. and the start of a cross-rib, beyond the main diagonal, but this was never proceeded with; the ribs are moulded and have dog-tooth ornament. There is now no evidence as to how much farther E. the late 12th-century building was carried.
The North East Transept (35¼ ft. by 35 ft.) is nearly square in plan and retains its late 12th-century S. wall, the original E. wall was some 3 ft. W. of the existing wall, as is shown by the square chamfered plinth of the S.E. angle shaft which still survives. When the transept was re-built at the beginning of the 14th century the old vault-respond on the S. wall was cut back and the old E. wall cut away and the makinggood was plastered and painted. The whole of the rest of the transept, except the early 12th-century arch in the W. wall, already described, is of the beginning of the 14th century. Each bay of the E. and N. walls has a window of four lights similar in date and detail to those in the S. aisle of the presbytery. The vault is in four quadripartite bays with moulded transverse, diagonal and wall-ribs with oak-leaf and other foliated bosses, and one with a human face surrounded by a monster which is gnawing its tongue; it springs against the walls from corbels mostly carved with foliage, but two with grotesque heads and one with a bust; the central column is octagonal and has a moulded capital, carved with oak-leaves and a moulded base; the shaft of the column is run up, above the capital, into the vault. The N. side of the early 12th-century arch in the W. wall rests on an early 14th-century corbel carved with a grotesque squatting man and the beginning of a wall-shaft. The transept has three-stage buttresses with modern gabled heads; there is a low gable at the N. end of the building; below it and round the side walls runs a corbel-table, the corbels being mostly carved with heads and much defaced.
The South East Transept (34½ ft. by 36½ ft.) is similar in general arrangement to the N.E. transept. The surviving portions of the late 12th-century building are (a) the chamfered plinth of the central pier which was rectangular with a projecting pilaster, unsymmetrically arranged, on each face; (b) the base of the corresponding respond on the W. wall which had shafts, of which the moulded bases remain, cut on the main angles and a projecting pilaster; (c) the square base or respond in the S.W. angle and the chamfered plinth along the W. wall; (d) the base of the angleshaft on the W. splay of the doorway in the S. wall and the base of the external jambs, of two orders, the inner with a plain roll and the outer with a shaft having a 'hold-water' base, also the chamfered internal plinth extending about 7 ft. E. of the doorway. The rest of the transept, except the column and vault, was re-built about the middle of the 14th century. Each bay of the E. and S. walls has a window of four trefoiled ogee lights with tracery, including three elongated quatrefoils in a two-centred head with a moulded external label. Below the northern window in the E. wall is a modern doorway; S. of it is a 15th-century rectangular loop; on the E. face of the wall above both openings is a four-centred relieving-arch. Below the western window in the S. wall is an early 16th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. The vault was added or re-built at the end of the 15th or beginning of the 16th century and is of four quadripartite bays with moulded transverse, diagonal and wall-ribs and foliated bosses; it springs against the walls from foliated corbels, two having a lion's face in addition. The central octagonal column has a capital carved with paterae and leaves and a moulded base. The buttresses are of three stages with tabled offsets; the plain parapet rises in a low gable at the S. end, and in the gable are two single-light windows lighting the space above the vault.
The Lady Chapel (56¾ ft. by 31¼ ft.) (Plates 118, 119) is raised five steps above the vestibule and stands upon a crypt. It was built c. 1220 and is of three bays. The walls stand on an unusually deep moulded plinth and have two-stage buttresses, finished with square pinnacles and all very much restored. The E. wall is entirely modern externally, but is partly old though considerably restored internally; it contains a range of five graduated lancet-windows, with shafted and banded splays and free grouped and banded filleted shafts supporting the rear-arches, all with moulded bases and capitals at one level carved with stiff-leaf foliage; the arches and rear-arches, of which the three middle are stilted, are richly moulded and enriched with dog-tooth ornament; the moulded labels have stops carved with heads, a dragon, etc., the arch and rear-arch of the middle window are stilted on small side-shafts, with foliated capitals; the rear-arch of this window is septfoiled. Above the windows is a range of five sunk panels, three being of vesica-form and two round; all enclose quatrefoils; the three upper panels have carved brackets for figures, and all except the middle panel have 'dog-tooth' ornament; below the window-sills runs a moulded string-course. The N. and S. walls have or had in each bay a pair of lancet-windows; the external heads are of two orders, the inner chamfered and the outer moulded and with a moulded label; the jambs have each one free and banded and one attached shaft, mostly modern, with foliated capitals and modern bases; the splays have each five banded shafts with moulded bases and foliated capitals; the richly moulded rear-arches have moulded labels with head or foliage-stops and heads or figures at the apex as follows—N. side, (a) two heads and foliage; (b) head; (c) grotesque figure, head and foliage; (d) face; (e) crowned head; (f) standing figure of bishop; S. side, three heads, and, opposite (e), a bust of a man with arms outspread and hands resting on the label. Above each pair of windows inside is a sunk quatre-foiled circular panel with foliated cusp-points. That in the 2nd bay on the S. has been lifted up to the apex of the vaultrib. A string-course is carried along below the window-sills, but the sill is stepped up in the W. half of the second bay on the N. to avoid the roof of the porch outside; the string-course bands the vaulting-shafts, which are formed of three grouped shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases standing on a restored bench. The above arrangement of windows, etc., has been destroyed in the second bay of the S. wall (Plate 146) by the addition of the Audley Chapel. Below the string-course in the third bay of the same wall is a blocked doorway with sunk-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch (replacing an earlier doorway), and E. of it a loop-squint, both probably of the 15th century; the rear-arch has a re-used coffin-lid as a lintel. The vault is of three quadripartite bays with moulded transverse, diagonal and wall-ribs and a ridge-rib to the E. half of the E. bay only; the main intersections have foliage bosses and the vault-cells rise from the side walls towards the ridge. On the external face of the side walls, between the heads of each pair of windows is a round moulded panel with a continuous label and enclosing defaced carvings as follows—On N., (a) double-headed monster, (b) a Crucifixion with the Virgin and St. John (?), (c) a head; on S., (a and b) a head in a wreath. Above the windows is a range of enriched interlacing arcading on shafts with foliated capitals almost entirely modern but reproducing an original feature; the parapet and corbel-table are modern.
The Crypt of the Lady-Chapel (48 ft. by 30½ ft.) (Plate 117) is five bays in length and three in breadth and was built c. 1220. It is said to have been partly reconstructed in the 15th century, but no work of this date is now apparent. The quadripartite vault has plain chamfered ribs and carved bosses at the intersections in the middle alley only, as follows—(a) scrolled foliage, (b) foliage, largely defaced, (c) foliage with circle in middle enclosing six flowers, (d) foliage, (e) foliage and half-figure of man with two dragons. The vault rests on octagonal columns with moulded capitals and 'holdwater' bases, resting on square plinths set diagonally and having shaped stops; the two eastern pairs of bases are partly cut away, probably for screens. Against the walls the vault springs from triple attached shafts, one of which is filleted, and all with moulded capitals and resting on corbelled bases, one with foliage, the other plain, five or six feet above the floor. The middle bay of the E. wall has three graduated lights and each of the other external bays a single light, all with slightly trefoiled heads and moulded internal sills; the triple E. window has a common segmental head on the outside with a modern label continued along the wall as a base-string to the plinth; the other windows have two-centred external heads and labels as the E. window; all the windows have internal recesses, carried down to the floor and rear-arches, chamfered on the inside and moulded towards the window; the S.W. window is blocked and the two E. of it admit no light; the rear vault of the E. window rests on corbelling, with a scalloped termination on the N. and defaced carving on the S. In the fourth bay of the N. wall is a doorway with jambs and segmental-pointed head of two orders, the outer chamfered and the inner moulded and partly restored; the moulded label has defaced head-stops; this doorway is approached by a flight of steps and is covered by a porch. In the W. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head; it is approached by a flight of steps from the vestibule of the Lady Chapel.
The Porch to the crypt is of c. 1220, but is said to have been reconstructed. It has a partly restored outer archway, two-centred and of two orders, the outer moulded and continuous and the inner moulded, having cheveron-ornament on edge and springing from free modern shafts with defaced foliated capitals and defaced bases; the moulded label is continued along the S. wall of the porch as a string-course. The porch has a gable roof of stone with a trefoil-headed niche in the gable. The internal vault is of quadripartite form with moulded diagonal and wall-ribs, a central foliated boss and angle-corbels, each consisting of an early foliated capital, a short shaft and a foliated or head corbel. Flanking the flight of steps, within the porch, are stepped benches of stone.
The Audley Chapel projects from the S. side of the second bay of the Lady Chapel and was built by Bishop Audley (1492–1502). It is of two storeys and of semi-octagonal plan with panelled two-stage buttresses and a panelled and embattled parapet with pinnacles, all modern restoration. Towards the Lady Chapel the Audley Chapel is closed in by a stone screen (Plate 147) carried up to form a parapet to the upper chapel; above this level there is an open arch, moulded and four-centred and having a band of cusped panelling on the soffit; above the arch, on the N. face, are cusped and panelled spandrels, enclosing a Tudor rose and a shield with the Audley fret below a mitre respectively; the original 13th-century quatre-foiled panel has been re-set higher up in the wall. The stone screen is in two stages and of nine bays and two half bays; it has a moulded plinth with a band of enriched quatrefoils; alternate quatrefoils enclose carved shields-of-arms as follows—(a) the monogram I.R.; (b) argent a fesse azure between three Tudor roses with a fleur-de-lis on the fesse; (c) Audley; (d) the Deanery; (e) See of Hereford; (f) St. Ethelbert. The wall above is faced with moulded stone panelling; each bay has two panels with trefoiled ogee heads with rosette cusp-points, some damaged, and a band of quatrefoils enclosing foliage centres between the stages; the bays of the upper stage are finished with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads and crocketted ogee labels, standing free; the mullions between the panels are carried up into the trefoiled head; above the heads is an open parapet with trefoiled piercings and a moulded cornice. Four of the panels in the lower range are pierced, and there is a doorway, occupying two bays, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with foliated spandrels; one of the upper panels has a loop, lighting the staircase. For painted decoration see Fittings. The lower chapel has in both of the outer faces a window of two cinque-foiled lights, with tracery in a four-centred head, all much restored. The vault is of four-centred slightly domed form and springs from round angle-shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the ribs meet without a boss, and there are wall-ribs. Projecting into the N.W. angle of the chapel is the winding staircase to the upper chapel, entered by a doorway with a four-centred head and at the top is a similar doorway. The upper chapel has five windows, all of similar design, except that the two lights adjoining the Lady Chapel are blind; each window is of three cinque-foiled lights, with tracery in a four-centred head, an embattled transom and trefoiled and sub-cusped heads below the transom; below the window-sills is a moulded string-course, and in the angles of the building are vaulting-shafts, supporting the ribbed and panelled vault; the ribs are purely ornamental and the vault is a combination of inverted cones supporting a flat saucer-dome; the vault-cells are cusped and the central intersection has a boss carved with an Assumption of the Virgin; the surrounding diagonal panels have the following devices—(a) the Deanery, (b and c) foliage, (d) fleur-de-lis, (e) Tudor rose, (f) See of Hereford, (g) shield with monogram I.R., (h) St. Ethelbert.
The Quire Vestry in the angle between the Lady Chapel and the S.E. transept, was built some time in the 15th century, before the erection of the Audley Chapel. It was originally of rectangular form, and the plinth of the former E. wall projects from the W. wall of the Audley Chapel. There is now a wall across the S.E. angle, apparently modern, and containing a two-light window. In the E. wall is a loop-light, blocked by the Audley Chapel. The plinth of the Lady Chapel shows within the vestry, and part of one of the buttresses is incorporated in the E. wall.
The North Porch consists of two parts, the inner of early 14th-century date and the outer added early in the 16th century, before 1519; both are of two storeys. The inner porch has a two-centred outer archway of three moulded orders, each with a band of carving; the outer band starting from the E. springing has the following carved figures—(a) pilgrim with large hat, scrip and staff, (b) the Synagogue, blind-fold woman with book, (c) mermaid, (d) man playing bagpipes, (e) winged dragon, (f) and (g) man and woman, (h) and (i) as (f) and (g) rendered erotically, (j) human-headed monster, (k) winged human-headed monster, (l) couchant dog (?), (m) human-headed monster with tail terminating in small head, (n) and (o) monsters, (p) small male figure, perhaps censing, (q) bishop—crown of arch—(a-g) series of seven figures of men and women with no particular attributes, (h) bird and foliage, (i) and (j) human figures, (k) monster, (l) woman with high head-dress or crown, and holding a tower or similar building with two gables visible, (m) man looking up, in hood and long cloak, (n) monster, (o) bird, (p) man dancing (?), (q) man in short breeches with defaced object in hand. The middle band of carving consists of naturalistic foliage of different types, represented as continuous and with stem held at base, on each side, by a small figure of a man; at intervals above are small busts, mostly with one hand holding the stem of the foliage; the busts include bishops, women, a king, etc. The inner band of carving consists, almost entirely, of continuous foliage, but has the busts of a king (?) and a bishop at the bottom and occasional small figures above including a man with an axe. The jambs have each three free shafts with moulded capitals and bases; at the back a rough rebate has been cut for the insertion of a gate. The buttresses of the porch are of four stages with gabled and crocketted heads; cut through the base of the E. buttress is an early 16th-century doorway (Plate 121) with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a moulded label which cuts into the work of the outer porch and is therefore of later date; on the hollow-moulding of the label is a scroll inscribed ANNO DOMINI 1519, with two shields-of-arms, (a) Mayhew, (b) Booth; E. of the door, on the S. face, is a panel with a trefoiled head and on the S.E. angle of the buttress is worked a small shaft with a defaced base; this doorway appears to have opened into an enclosure of some sort, but the only evidence of a roof is a piece of raking weathering on the W. face of the transept-buttress, adjoining the aisle. The vault of the porch has moulded diagonal, ridge and wall-ribs with a large foliated boss at the intersection; the vault springs from short shafts in the angles with moulded capitals and foliated corbel-terminations. The upper storey is approached by a turret-staircase in the E. angle of the porch and aisle; the turret is square at the base, with the angles cut back above; it is finished with crocketted and finialed gables and has windows with moulded jambs and square splayed heads. The upper room has a lancet-window in the E., W. and N. walls; the two former have hollow-chamfered jambs, but the window in the N. wall has moulded jambs and the sill has been cut down to form a doorway. The roof is of flat pitch with cambered and chamfered tie-beams and chamfered purlins. The plain parapet has corbels carved with heads and foliage.
The outer porch (Plate 120) is of two storeys and has in the N.E. and W. sides of the lower storey a moulded two-centred arch, with the mouldings continued down the responds and the rolls interrupted by bands at the springing-level and terminating in moulded bases; the N. arch is set in a square head, the spandrels of which are enriched with cusped panelling, including large sub-cusped quatrefoils; the cusp-points are foliated. The outer angles of the porch have octagonal turrets of two stages, with small three-stage buttresses at the angles, flanked by rolls which are carried up to the cornice. Each turret contains a staircase, entered by a doorway with hollow-chamfered jambs and square head, and lit by loops; at the head of each staircase the newel is carried up to support a stone vault with simple rounded ribs. Between the stages and at the top of the turrets are moulded string-courses, and the upper stage has in each free face a partly restored window of two trefoiled and transomed lights in a square head; below the sill of each window, except on the S. of both and S.E. of the E. turret, is a pair of quatre-foiled panels, partly restored. The outer porch has a lierne-vault with moulded ridge, diagonal, wall and cross-ribs, with lozenge-shaped panels at the intersections; the middle panel has a large sub-cusped quatrefoil, but the carving in the middle has been broken off; the other panels have quatrefoils enclosing four-leaved flowers, all more or less defaced; at the heads of the wall-ribs are foliated bosses; the vault springs from shafts in the angles, with moulded and carved capitals and moulded bases. The upper storey of the porch has semi-octagonal buttresses at the northern angles and a plain moulded parapet with remains of small carved figures on the coping of the N. face. In the N. wall is a window with moulded external reveals and of five trefoiled lights, of which the middle one is twice the width of the others and has a sub-cusped trefoiled ogee head; the tracery is mainly vertical and is enclosed in a two-centred main head; the spandrels between the head and the gable are moulded and filled with sub-cusped panelling. The side walls have each a window of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded external reveals; flanking the window are panels with trefoiled heads, two on each side, one above the other. In the angle of the buttress of the inner porch on the W. side is a carved gargoyle. The room in the upper storey was formerly a chapel and has a boarded ceiling with painted decoration.
Fittings—Bells: ten; 2nd by Abraham Rudhall, 1698; 3rd probably by same founder, 1698; 4th by Abraham Rudhall, 1697; 6th (Plate 25) by Stephen Banastre, probably 15th-century; 7th by Abraham Rudhall, 1697; 9th inscribed in Lombardic capitals "Wilhelmus Warwike construxit me in Sancte Trinitatis honore," 15th-century; 10th probably from the Bristol foundry and inscribed in Lombardic capitals "Sancte Cuthberte ora pro nobis," 15th-century.
Brackets: In Stanbery chapel—on N. wall, semi-octagonal moulded bracket with leaf-terminal, 15th-century. In S. transept—on S. wall, four flanking S. window, semi-octagonal and moulded with concave faces, two lower brackets with half-figures of angels (one modern) and two upper with carved heads, early 15th-century.
Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In Lady Chapel— (1) of Richard de la Barre, 1386, canon, figure of priest in cope in head of octofoiled cross, stem on calvary inscribed with prayer, now in S.E. transept, finials of cross, two shields and marginal inscription lost. In N.E. transept—on W. wall, (2) of [John Stockton, 1480, mayor of Hereford], figure of civilian in long gown corded at waist, pointed shoes, standing on tun; (3) to William Hotale, 1432, inscription only; (4) to Richard Burgehyle, 1492, "grammarteacher of this city," inscription only; (5) figures of civilian and wife, achievement and shield-of-arms of Wilson, of c. 1600, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor; (6) of Richard Rudhale, Archdeacon of Hereford, canon and doctor of Canon Law, 1476, figure of priest with skull-cap and rich cope, parts of standards and canopy with figures of St. David and St. Anne and the Virgin, portions of canopy with figures of St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. John the Evangelist, St. Katherine, St. Ethelbert and St. Thomas of Hereford, with parts of marginal inscription in S.E. transept; (7) figure of man in armour with feet on hound, c. 1480; (8) figure of priest in mass-vestments, holding chalice and wafer, c. 1520; (9) to [William Porter S.T.B., warden of New College Oxford and precentor of Hereford, 1524], remains of canopy with figure-group of the Annunciation, two shields-of-arms, Porter quartering Hayward and figure of St. Ethelbert, figure of priest, standards, marginal inscription, etc., lost; (10) fragments including portions of tabernacle-work; two shields with merchants' marks, one with initials N. H. in addition; symbol of St. Mark; a shield-of-arms of Heveningham quartering Redisham; two other shields-of-arms; part of a helm; on S. wall, (11) to Catherine (Read) wife of Bridstock Harford, 1665–6, inscription and shield-of-arms; (12) to Elizabeth, wife of Bridstock Harford, 1669–70, inscription with shield-of-arms; (13) to Joyce, wife of Bridstock Harford, 1680, insciption and shield-of-arms. In S.E. transept —on S. wall, (14) of Thomas Chawndiler, S.T.P., Dean of Hereford and Chancellor of Oxford, 1490, headless figure of priest in cope, feet also lost; (15) to William Plott, 1628, inscription only; on W. wall, (16) figure of priest in cope, 1434, with defaced inscription; (17) of Edmund Ryall, Canon, 1428, headless figure of priest in cope, inscription fixed farther N.; (18) figure of civilian, with feet on dog, 1394, formerly in head of cross, inscription mostly lost; (19) to John Prat, canon, 1415–6, part of inscription only; (20) to Robert Jordan, canon, 1465, inscription only, figure and canopy lost; (21) to [William Webb, archdeacon of Hereford], 1522, part of marginal inscription, figure lost; on floor, (22) to [Thomas Downe, canon, 1489], pinnacled standard of canopy, with indent of figure, inscription and rest of canopy; (23) of Sir Richard Delabere, 1514, and Anne (Awdeley) and Elizabeth (Mores) his wives, figures of man in plate armour with head on helm, and of two wives in pedimental head-dresses with long girdles, groups of four daughters and one son of first wife and ten sons and six daughters of second wife, names of two daughters, three shields-of-arms, (a) Delabere, quartering 2 defaced, 3 two bars over all a bend and a chief checky, defaced; (b) Delabere impaling a defaced coat; (c) defaced coat quartering three bars with a bend over all, marginal inscription, one shield missing. In presbytery—on N. side, (24) of John Trilleck, bishop of Hereford, 1360, figure of bishop in mass vestments with mitre and crozier, under cinque-foiled and sub-cusped canopy with side standards and super canopy with quatre-foiled cornice, marginal inscription and two shields, canopy, inscription and shields restored. In E. aisle of N. transept—(25) of Richard Delamere, 1435, and Isabel his wife, 1421 (Plate 128), figure of man in plate armour, feet on lion, figure of lady in horned head-dress and SS collar, two dogs at feet, double canopy with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arches and crocketted ogee gables and upper cornice, parts of standards and pinnacles missing, foot inscription and three shields-of-arms (a) Delamere, (b) the same impaling Acton (?), (c) (a) quartering (b), one shield missing; (26) of Edmund Frowsetoure, S.T.P., dean of Hereford, 1529 (Plate 128), figure of priest in quire-vestments with cope and flat cap, elaborate triple canopy with eight figures in niches and four shields of arms, figures as follows—St. Katherine, St. John the Baptist, St. Ethelbert, Trinity, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Peter, St. Thomas of Hereford (?) and Trinity (?); shields of St. Ethelbert, the See, the Deanery and a fesse between three flowers, foot and marginal inscriptions; (27) to John Philips, 1708–9, lozenge-shaped plate with cross and enamelled border. In S. aisle of nave— on S. wall, (28) to Richard Phillips, mayor of Hereford and Anne his wife, c. 1532, inscription only. See also Monuments (20) and (38). Indents: In N.E. transept—(1) of priest under canopy, with marginal inscription, early 15th-century; (2) of man in armour and wife, marginal inscription, shields-of-arms, two encircled by garter, late 14th-century. In quirevestry—(3) of figure and inscription plate. In S. aisle of presbytery—on wall over Bishop Robert of Lorraine's tomb, (4) rectangular plate. In bishop's cloister—in E. walk, (5) of rectangular plate; (6) of two figures, and inscription-plate. See also Monuments (9) and (38).
Chairs: In presbytery—N. side (Plate 127), with turned posts, rails and subsidiary uprights, posts with turned terminals, front with range of open arcading in two bays having moulded shafts and round arches, one shaft and two arches missing; sides each with five moulded shafts supporting turned rail under elbow-rail, framing of turned bars at back of chair with middle part missing, early 13th-century. In lower library—with turned front legs, shaped arms, turned lower rail, upper rail carved with guilloche ornament, carved and arcaded back with pedimental head, early 17th-century, on modern platform with modern framing at back supporting early 17th-century rectangular sounding-board with cornice, arabesque frieze, panelled soffit with pendants at angles, cresting with blank shield.
Chest: In lower library—of hutch-type (Plate 131), about 6 ft. long carved with a continuous range of trefoil-headed panels with intersecting window-tracery above, uprights each carved with two round designs, three lock-plates, plain framed sides, late 13th or early 14th-century, lid modern.
Coffin and Coffin-lids. Coffin: In N. transept— against N. wall, tapering with semi-octagonal ends and shaped internal head, 13th-century. Coffin-lids: In N.E. transept—against E. wall, (1) fragment of upper end with elaborately foliated cross-head in circle, late 13th-century; (2) portion with foliated cross-head in circle and remains of Lombardic inscription, 13th-century; (3) with foliated cross and whole surface covered with elaborate scroll-work and conventional foliage (Plate 42), late 13th-century; against W. wall, (4) with worn cross in circle in relief and shield-of-arms, three eagles, on the stem, early 14th-century; against N. wall, (5) upper part with incised cross with conventional foliage, 13th-century; against S. wall, (6) fragment with incised cross having foliated ends, 14th-century. In yard between cloisters—(7) tapering slab with hollow-chamfered edge.
Cupboards: In muniment room over E. walk of Bishop's cloister—two, one divided into 36 divisions, with moulded styles and rails, painted cartouche and number on door, 17th-century; second cupboard similar but with 44 divisions, 18th-century.
Doors: In doorway of Audley chapel—of four linen-fold panels, styles and rails enriched with paterae in squares, carved dragon in top spandrel, vertical iron handle with crown on fixing plate, key-scutcheon with the Audley fret, the initials E. A. and the Audley badge of a butterfly; inner door to stairs, of four panels with moulded styles and rails and two strap-hinges; door at top of stairs, of three battens with strap-hinges; all 15th-century. In doorway of Stanbery chapel—of two panels with open wrought-iron framing above shaped to the door-head and enclosing four trefoiled lights under two four-centred heads, 15th-century. In N. aisle of presbytery—in doorway to stair-turret, with moulded fillets planted on, 15th-century; in doorway to library from turret, of battens, 16th or 17th-century. In central tower—in doorway to roof over presbytery, of battens, probably 14th-century.
Font: (Plate 127) deep cup-shaped bowl of rough, white sandstone with deep flat rim carved with fret pattern and sides divided into panels by continuous arcade of twelve bays with attached shafts enriched with varying design of interlaced cable-pattern, scalloped ornament, pellet-ornament, etc., and having defaced caps and moulded bases; semi-circular arches enriched with pellet ornament with conventional foliage of varying design in spandrels and in each bay a carved figure of a man, probably the twelve apostles, several apparently holding books and all badly defaced; base probably later and of harder and smoother yellow sandstone with roll moulding resting on chamfered plinth, with, projecting from the four cardinal points, the carved head and fore paws of a sitting lion, 12th-century with parts of plinth modern.
Gallery: (Plate 140) In S. aisle of presbytery—over tomb of Bishop Robert of Lorraine, of oak with moulded base and cornice and open arcade of trefoiled ogee arches on detached shafts and responds with moulded caps, bands and bases, central quatrefoil in circle, early 14th-century, probably for quire-organ.
Glass: In Lady chapel—in two western windows in S. wall, in first window (Plate 130), grisaille glass with a series of panels, (a) vesica-shaped panel with a Majesty and four small panels with the symbols of the evangelists and remains of their names; (b) small round panel with the Agnus Dei; (c) quatrefoil-panel with the Marys at the Sepulchre, modern head to angel; (d) quatrefoil-panel with the Crucifixion flanked by the Virgin and St. John; (e) quatrefoil-panel with the bearing of the Cross, three heads, modern; in second window grisaille glass with foliated designs only in panels, late 13th-century. In windows of upper Audley chapel—quarries with suns; roundels with wreaths, one enclosing the arms of Audley and one the arms of the Deanery; the initial T, a white rose, roundels with star, rosette, etc., 15th-century. In N.E. transept—in S.E. window, in four main lights, modern figures of St. Katherine, St. Michael, St. Gregory and St. Thomas of Canterbury, all under old canopies of tabernacle-work; fragments at sides, grisaille above and below; in tracery three shields of St. George, Devereux, and Morteyn, spandrels and small lights made up with fragments, early 14th-century, much restored and made up with modern work. In S. aisle of presbytery—in S.E. window (Plate 129), in four main lights, figures of St. Mary Magdalene with inscribed scroll, St. Ethelbert with sword and church, St. Augustine with crozier, and St. George in armour, all under canopies of tabernacle work, with fragments at sides; grisaille, in patterns, above and below; in tracery— three shields, the Deanery, vairy argent and gules two bars azure, and gules a cross or set in fragments, early 14th-century, partly restored. In N. transept—in northern window in W. wall, jumble of fragments, mostly 15th-century, various heads including head of angel, head of saint with crozier, monograms with letter A, and a fragment of inscription; in southern window in same wall, figures of the Virgin and Child, group of figures at top, jumble of fragments below, mostly 15th-century. In S. aisle of nave—in easternmost window in S. wall, in four lights, a collection of fragments, borders, tabernacle-work, etc., in first light remains of figure-subject of Joseph's dream of the wheat-sheaves, in second light fragmentary remains of a second subject, perhaps Joseph being cast into the pit; in tracery shield-of-arms of the Deanery, mostly 14th-century with much modern work. In upper storey of outer N. porch—in E. window, fragments with oak-leaf and border, early 16th-century.
Images: In S.E. transept—stone figure of St. John the Baptist (Plate 144) dressed in skins, feet bare, Lamb and book in left hand, 15th-century, head restored in plaster, said to have come from St. Nicholas Church. In presbytery—S. side, stone figure, probably of St. Ethelbert (Plate 148), with long robe and crown, hands missing, standing on moulded bracket with traceried panelling below, late 15th or early 16th-century.
Library: In the triforium of the N. transept—consisting of about 2000 volumes, mostly chained and including some 230 manuscripts. Among these may be mentioned the 8th-century gospels. The early printed books include a Caxton's Golden Legend of 1483, a Polychronicon of 1495, and a Lyndwood's Provinciale of 1475. The five bookcases of oak of c. 1600 have moulded cornices and, in some cases, painted contents-lists; the ends have frames with pediments and ball-terminals; the chained books are secured by iron rods locked at the ends.
Mappa Mundi: (Plate 150) In S. transept—on W. wall, in modern frame, with late 14th-century head having carved crockets and finial, map drawn on a sheet of vellum, 54 in. by 63 in. and of triangular form at the top, map itself round, with figure-subjects in the spandrels—(a) at top, the Last Judgment with angels, inscription in French, (b) left-hand lower spandrel, Julius Cæsar directing the three philosophers Nicodoxus, Theodocus and Policlitus, to survey the world, below, inscription in French inviting prayers for Richard de Haldingham; (c) right-hand lower spandrel, the author on horseback with page and hounds; on circumference of map, Latin inscriptions relating to the survey by the philosophers; map the work of Richard de Haldingham, who was a canon of Hereford in 1305.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Lady chapel—against N. wall, (1) to [Joan (Plunkenet), wife of Henry de Bohun, 1327], altar-tomb with effigy in wallrecess (Plate 132), plain altar-tomb with moulded top-edge enriched with paterae and heads alternately, at head recumbent canopy with ogee cinque-foiled arch, crockets and finial; effigy of woman in wimple and veiled head-dress, tight sleeves and loose gown, head on cushion and feet on dog; all set in a 13th-century recess with moulded and segmental-pointed arch and label with head-stops and apex turned up to mitre with string-course of chapel; remains of black and red colour on effigy and arch, traces of painted figure and arch on back of recess and remains of decoration in spandrels of arch, including a diaper of fleur-de-lis and rosettes and two shields-of-arms (a) Plunkenet and (b) formerly Bohun but now obliterated; (2) ascribed to Peter de Grandison, mid 14th-century, altar-tomb with effigy and canopy (Plate 133), altar-tomb with range of cinquefoil-headed panels in front and panelled buttresses at ends carried up to the cornice of the canopy, effigy (Plate 50) in mixed mail and plate-armour with camail and ridged bascinet, hauberk with scalloped lower edge, cyclas, enriched hip-belt with dagger hanging in front and sword at side, head on cushions and feet on hound; recess with panelled back, moulded jambs and square head enriched with paterae and trefoiled and sub-cusped pendant tracery below the head; vaulted soffit to canopy; canopy with range of six bays of open arcading with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, crockets and finials, in arcading two headless figures of the Coronation of the Virgin, headless figure with book, archbishop with cross-staff, St. John the Baptist holding a roundel with the Agnus Dei, and a bishop, last four figures brought from elsewhere; canopy finished with enriched cornice and pierced parapet with quatrefoils and cusped cresting; against S. wall, (3) chantry-chapel of Bishop Audley, see Architectural Description (p. 103b); (4) perhaps to a member of the Swinefield family, early 14th-century, effigy on plain altar-tomb in recess (Plate 137); effigy (Plate 46) vested in cassock and surplice, drapery very carefully rendered, Doctor's cap on head; recess with moulded two-centred arch, enriched with ball-flower and swine, some with the arms of the Deanery on their bodies, moulded label with head-stops; remains of painted figure-subject on back of recess, formerly showing kneeling figure of doctor before the Virgin, with attendant figure, early 14th-century. In crypt—at W. end, (5) to Andrew Jones and Elizabeth his wife, who reconstructed the crypt or charnel-house, 1497, plain low altar-tomb with alabaster slab (Plate 41) incised with figures of man and wife in civil costume, man's feet on tun, elaborate double canopy over each figure, marginal inscription and scrolls. In N.E. transept— against N. wall, (6) of [Bishop Robert Purfey or Parfew, 1558], altar-tomb with moulded capping and base, quatre-foiled panels with shields alternating with narrow trefoiled panels at side and ends; effigy in amess and surplice, much mutilated, head, hands and feet missing; (7) to Bishop Richard Swinefield, 1316–7, recess with moulded jambs, segmental-pointed arch, label with ball-flower ornament and head-stops and gable with crockets, finial and trefoiled spandrel; at back of recess slab with indent of crucifix with attendant figures, surrounding masonry carved with vineornament in relief, except below which has a later painted inscription in black-letter; against S. wall, (8) recess with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed arch enriched with ball-flowers and moulded label, modern altar-tomb with effigy of man in civil costume, head on cushions, feet on defaced beast, c. 1300; (9) tablet with moulded panel with cinque-foiled ogee head and embattled cornice, in panel, indent of kneeling figure, scroll, a Trinity, and inscription-plate, late 15th or early 16th-century; on W. wall, (10) to Luke Booth, 1673, tablet with cartouche-of-arms and modern stone frame; on floor W. side (Plate 43), (11) effigy of man in civil costume, defaced head on cushion, feet on beast, early 14th-century; (12) effigy of lady, with long gown and draped head-dress, early 14th-century, much defaced; (13) effigy of lady in long gown, face cut away, early 14th-century; (14) effigy of man in civil costume, head on cushions, feet cut away, early 14th-century; on W. wall, (15) five cartouches-of-arms and one achievement from 17th-century monuments. In S.E. transept—against N. wall, (16) of Bishop George Coke, 1646, effigy (Plate 143) in rochet, chimere, ruff and skull-cap, head on tasselled cushion, base and canopy modern; elaborate wall-monument, destroyed by Wyatt, inscribed slab now in Bishop's cloister; (17) of [Bishop Lewis Charlton, 1369], altar-tomb and effigy, altar-tomb modern except middle cusped panel and parts of adjoining panels, middle panel enclosing shield of his arms, at W. end, shield of the See, much defaced effigy in mass-vestments, with enriched apparels to amice, head defaced, feet on lion, former canopy destroyed; against S. wall, (18) of [Bishop Augustine Lindsell], 1634, effigy (Plate 144) in rochet, chimere, ruff and academical cap, head on tasselled cushion; (19) ascribed to Dean John Harvey, 1500, altar-tomb and effigy (Plate 144), early 15th-century altar-tomb, from the Trevenant monument (41), with quatre-foiled panels alternating with trefoil-headed panels, modern plinth and cornice, in larger panels shields-of-arms—(a) the Deanery, (b) Trevenant and (c) See of Hereford; much defaced alabaster effigy, of c. 1500, in mass-vestments, head on cushion, feet on lion. In presbytery—under first arch on N., (20) of Bishop John Stanbery, 1474, alabaster altar-tomb (Plate 135), effigy and brass, altar-tomb with enriched moulded capping and stone base, N. side and return ends with panels having cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads and each containing a figure of a saint or an angel holding a shield as follows— (a) bishop (Plate 136); (b) St. Ethelbert, with sword and model of church, (c) bishop with object in right hand, (d) the Virgin and Child, (e) bishop, (f) St. Edward the Confessor, with sceptre and ring, at ends, St. John the Baptist (Plate 136) and a bishop; the shields bear (a) See of Hereford, (b) St. Ethelbert, (c) the Deanery, (d) Stanbery, (e) the King, remains of colour and gilt decoration at back of panels; effigy (Plate 46) in mass-vestments, head on cushion supported by mutilated angels, feet on lion, crozier and hands broken off, on wall to W. brass plate re-set, with inscription; in second bay from E., (21) ascribed to Bishop Giles de Braose, 1215, late 13th-century freestone effigy (Plate 47) in mass-vestments holding model of building, head on cushion, feet on pedestal; (22) of Bishop Robert Bennett, 1617, alabaster effigy (Plate 144) in rochet, chimere, ruff and skull-cap, head on enriched cushion, feet on lion, hands broken off, shield-of-arms on base and on wall adjoining panel with shield-of-arms, and, below, two framed wooden panels with inscriptions, relating to the same monument, former canopy destroyed; on S. side, under first arch, (23) of Bishop Richard Mayhew or Mayo, 1516, altar-tomb, effigy and canopy (Plate 139), altar-tomb with eight trefoil-headed panels on S. side each containing a figure of a saint as follows— (a) St. Ethelbert with sword and church, (b) St. Peter, (c) St. John the Evangelist, with book and palm, (d) Christ, holding orb, (e) Virgin and Child, (f) St. John the Baptist, with lamb on book, (g) St. Paul, (h) bishop, probably St. Thomas Cantilupe; effigy (Plate 46) in mass-vestments with enriched mitre, maniple and apparels of alb, elaborate head of crozier with Tudor rose, head on cushion, two beasts at feet; triple-arched canopy, resting on moulded and buttressed piers with crocketted heads, and having moulded arches springing from piers and from two pendants on each face, ogee crocketted labels to each arch and crocketted pinnacles above pendants, subsidiary supporting ribs under side-arches, panelled and traceried fan-vault under canopy with central pendant; on two pendants, two shields, (a) St. Ethelbert, (b) Mayhew; at W. end, under canopy, shield of Mayhew; resting on the vault, an open stone screen running longitudinally with open tracery and an enriched cornice carried up in the middle in a low crocketted gable, at each end a higher range of open tracery, now incomplete; between northern supports of canopy, above altar-tomb, a stone screen with two ranges of open trefoiled lights and a moulded cornice; on N. face of screen grouped attached shafts against main divisions now supporting nothing but perhaps originally intended for the back of the sedilia of the presbytery; on wall farther E. in aisle, panelled slab with modern brass and inscription. In N. aisle of presbytery— against N. wall, (24) ascribed to Bishop Reinhelm, 1115, and erected c. 1300, low base with freestone effigy in mass-vestments, head on cushion, feet on pedestal, crozier-head broken off; recess with moulded segmental-pointed arch and label, both with carved paterae, head-stops at base and apex of label; in Stanbery chapel, in recess in S. wall, (25) effigy of bishop, similar to last and moved with a similar recess in the aisle-wall when the chapel was built; remains of W. part of original recess, to W. of doorway of chapel; (26) chapel of Bishop Stanbery, 1474, see Architectural Description (p 96a); (27) ascribed to Bishop Geoffrey de Clive, 1119–20, erected c. 1300, base, effigy and recess, similar to (24); (28) ascribed to Bishop Hugh de Mapenore, 1219, erected c. 1300, base, effigy and recess, similar to (24) and (27) but crozier complete; (29) of [Bishop Peter de Aquablanca, 1268], altar-tomb, effigy and canopy (Plate 138), in arch between presbytery and transept-aisle, plain altar-tomb with moulded capping, freestone effigy (Plate 47) in mass-vestments with crozier-head and left hand broken off, remains of colour on vestments, chasuble blue with a yellow border with red quatrefoils, maniple yellow with red and black lined and cusped squares at the ends, stole yellow, dalmatic red with yellow border and circles and quatrefoils in black and red, tunicle and alb white, shoes red with quatrefoils; over effigy, recumbent canopy with trefoiled head, traceried spandrels and side, standards with traceried panels and carved heads and standing on a three-arched base with heads below it; main canopy of three main bays on each side, each of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a moulded two-centred arch, surmounted by a lofty open gable with crockets, carved finial and trefoiled circle, partly broken away, in the tympanum; the central S. finial bears a carved crucifix (Plate 148); above main piers, grouped shafts terminating in crocketted pinnacles; main supports of canopy are of grouped shafts, with single intermediate shafts, all of dark slate or marble and with moulded capitals and bases. In S. aisle of presbytery—under second arch of main arcade, (30) ascribed to Bishop Robert of Lorraine (or Losinga), 1095, erected c. 1300, effigy (Plate 140) similar to (21) and also holding model of building and with oak-leaf ornament on crozier, under arch with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head, enriched with ball-flower, moulded label returned round masonry supporting gallery, see Gallery; in S. wall, (31–34) ascribed to Bishops William de Vere, 1198, Gilbert Foliot, 1187, Robert de Bethune, 1148, and Robert de Melun, 1166–7, all erected c. 1300, and with bases, effigies and recesses similar to (23, 26 and 27) in N. aisle, three of the croziers with foliated heads. In N. transept—against N. wall, (35) of Bishop Thomas Charlton, 1343–4, altar-tomb, effigy and canopied recess (Plate 145), plain altar-tomb with panelled front, effigy in mass-vestments, hands and crozier-head broken off, half round recumbent canopy over head with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped head, panelled sides and embattled cornice, buttressed and shafted standards at sides; recess with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arch with foliated cusp-points and spandrels carved with censing angels and foliage, crocketted gable above with finial and trefoiled tympanum, the whole flanked by buttressed pinnacles; (36) of [Bishop Herbert Westfaling, 1601–2], modern base with effigy (Plate 143) in rochet and chimere, with skull-cap and long beard, head on cushions, right hand raised to head, enriched base destroyed, back-piece now on N. wall of Bishop's cloister. In E. aisle of N. transept—on E. wall, (37) of Bishop Theophilus Field, 1636, alabaster bust (Plate 53) in rochet, chimere, ruff and skull-cap and holding book, re-set on bracket and retaining traces of colour; on floor of aisle, (38) ascribed to Bishop Thomas Cantilupe, 1282, monument in form of a shrine-pedestal and consisting of an altar-tomb and open superstructure (Plate 134), altar-tomb possibly slightly earlier than the rest, tapering on plan and re-assembled, long sides with six bays and W. end with two bays of cinque-foiled arcading on attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases, spandrels carved with varying naturalistic foliage; each bay filled with figure of knight (Plate 136) with long surcoat, heater-shaped shield and feet on lions and other beasts, faces all defaced; on slab, indent of brass figure of bishop with mitre and crozier and canopy; small brass figure of St. Ethelbert now in library; superstructure with six bays on long sides and two at W. end of open trefoiled arcading resting on shafts with moulded capitals and bases, spandrels carved with naturalistic foliage and winged beasts, moulded cornice at top and plain top slab; E. end of tomb, plain and not intended to be seen, with part of carved spandrel set in it; (39) ascribed to Dean John de Aquablanca, 1320, low altar-tomb with moulded capping and plinth, and effigy (Plate 47) in surplice, defaced head on cushion, feet on lion, remains of recumbent trefoiled canopy with crockets and trefoiled spandrels, drapery carefully rendered and perhaps by the same hand as the effigy of Monument (4). In S. transept—on floor, (40) of Alexander Denton and Anne (Wyllyson) his wife, 1566, alabaster altar-tomb and effigies (Plate 52), panelled altar-tomb with moulded plinth and capping with carved inscription, enriched pilasters and seven shields-of-arms in wreaths; effigy of man in plate-armour, with double chain round neck and cross at end, head on crested helm, feet on lion, gauntlets at side, woman in close gown with puffed shoulders, high collar and small ruff, girdle with enriched pendant, swaddled infant on left side; considerable remains of colour on monument; in S. wall, (41) of Bishop John Trevenant, 1404, effigy and canopied recess (Plate 142), plain base, forming a projection of bench along S. wall, effigy in mass-vestments, hands, crozier-head, face and mitre broken off, feet against lion and head on two cushions; canopy of three bays divided by pinnacles and with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads, crocketted and finialed ogee labels and traceried spandrels, at back of recess, cusped segmental arch with traceried panelling above, former panelled altar-tomb now in S.E. transept. In nave—in fifth bay of S. arcade, (42) ascribed to Sir Richard Pembridge, K.G., 1375, alabaster altar-tomb and effigy (Plate 142), altar-tomb with moulded base and capping, sides and ends panelled with alternate quatrefoils enclosing shields of his arms and trefoil-headed panels; effigy (Plate 51) in bascinet, camail, jupon with same arms as shields, hip-belt, garter on left leg, right leg modern, head on helm crested with a bush of feathers, feet on hound. In N. aisle of nave—in N. wall of second bay, (43) of Bishop Charles Booth, 1535, altar-tomb, effigy and canopied recess (Plate 141), altar-tomb on plain pedestal, front with six quatre-foiled panels enclosing shields as follows—(a) Booth; (b) See of Hereford; (c) Booth; (d) St. Ethelbert; (e) the Deanery; (f) Booth; effigy in mass-vestments with enriched mitre and broken crozier, head supported by angels, feet on pedestal; recess with cinque-foiled four-centred arch with rosette cusp-points and shields in the spandrels, two with the arms of Booth and two with a single boar's head, heavy ogee crocketted label above with large finial and trefoiled spandrel; canopy flanked by panelled standards with pinnacles and two shields-of-arms—(a) Booth impaling the See and (b) Booth impaling the Deanery; in front of tomb, iron railing with buttressed standards, plain strikes and embattled top rail with alternate roses and boars' heads on the face; in front of each standard a shield-of-arms of Booth. In S. aisle of nave—in S. wall, in second bay, (44) ascribed to Dean Stephen of Ledbury, 1352, but probably earlier, effigy in recess (Plate 137), effigy in surplice, broken head on cushion, feet against mutilated beast, recess with moulded segmental-pointed arch with septfoiled soffit, spandrels of foils, trefoiled, moulded label with three head-stops; in third bay, (45) ascribed to Treasurer Pembridge, 1328, effigy in recess (Plate 145), effigy in mass-vestments, head on cushion, two keys hanging from left arm, feet on beast, face cut away; recess with moulded cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arch, crocketted and gabled label with trefoiled tympanum, foliated spandrels to cusping, recess flanked by buttressed standards, tops missing. In yard between two cloisters—against E. wall, (46) sandstone slab and effigy, probably of woman in long gown, much defaced and head missing, 13th or early 14th-century. In Bishop's cloister—on N. wall, (47) to Joyce, wife of Samuel Aubrey, 1638, and to Samuel Aubrey, 1645, plain black marble tablet, rest of monument destroyed; (48) to James Clarke, 1640, wooden panel with painted inscription; on E. wall, (49) to Edward Gwyn, 1690, plain black marble tablet, surround missing; (50) to Sarah (Broome), wife successively of Robert de la Hay and William Johnson, canon, 1689, plain marble tablet; (51) to [William Evans, prebendary], 1659, and Mary his wife, portions of monument only, busts (Plate 53) of man and wife from this monument now in triforium of N. transept; (52) to Jane (Fell), wife of William Bowdler, 1660, oval black marble tablet, rest destroyed; (53) to Edward King, 1684, wooden tablet with painted inscription and cartouche-of-arms; (54) to Richard Philpotts, 1673, and his daughter Elizabeth, wife of Humfrey Walter, wooden tablet with painted inscription and cartouche-of-arms; (55) to William Barroll, . . ., and Mary his wife, 1698, wooden tablet with painted inscription; (56) to Hanna, wife of William Lowe, 1656, and Hanna their infant daughter, 1653, grey marble tablet with moulded and scrolled surround and cherub-head; (57) to Philip Hunt, 1698–9, and Martha his daughter, 1694, plain black marble tablet; (58) to Mary (Seaborne), wife of William Bowdler, 1665, plain black marble tablet. Floor-slabs: In quire-vestry—(1) to ... of John (Hington?) 1676 and to . . ., his daughter, wife of Francis Lambe, 1707. In N.E. transept—against W. wall, (2) slab with remains of figure of ecclesiastic under canopy and blackletter inscription, mediæval. In S.E. transept—(3) to Herbert Croft, Bishop of Hereford, 1691, with shield-of-arms; (4) to George Benson, Dean of Hereford, 1691, with shield-of-arms; (5) to Gilbert Ironside, S.T.P., Bishop of Hereford, 1701, with shield-of-arms, moved here from St. Mary Somerset, London; (6) to Humphrey Humphreys, Bishop of Hereford, 1712, with achievement-of-arms. In yard between the two cloisters—(7) to Cecilia (Coningsby), wife successively of David Hyde and Robert Woolmer, 1689, and to Philipa (Hyde), wife of Thomas Rodd, 1711, with shield-of-arms; (8) to . . . daughter of William Skinner, 1691–2 and another, with defaced shield-of-arms; (9) to Martha Greene, 1687; (10) to . . . Berington (?), 1657, with shield-of-arms; (11) to Lucy Broughton, 1684; (12) to Edward Gwyn, 1690; (13) to . . . (Godwyn), widow of James P . . ., prebendary of Hereford, 1616–7; (14) to Samuel Jenings, late 17th-century, with shield-of-arms; (15) to William C . . ., William Med . . ., 1694, and another, with defaced shield-of-arms; (16) to (Catherine?), wife of . . ., late 17th-century; (17) to Mary, widow of Gilbert Nicholett (?), 1702, with lozenge-of-arms; (18) to Richard Weaver, M.P., 1642, with shield-of-arms; (19) to ... of Thomas Bell (?) . . ., 1676, and others later; (20) to . . . dan Marten, 1674; (21) to Anne, daughter of Thomas Boycott, 1697, and William his son, 1698–9; (22) to . . . wife of Sir Walter Pye, 1698, with shield-of-arms; (23) to Thomas Boycott, 1698–9, with shield-of-arms; (24) to Bridget, daughter of Sir Herbert Croft, 1694 (?), with lozenge-of-arms; (25) to Thomas . . . ers, 1702; against E. wall, (26) to . . . Greene, 1699. In courtyard of Bishop's cloister—(27) name destroyed, 1687–8; (28) to Ursula Clarcke, 1666; (29) to Maud (?), wife of Thomas Aldorne (?), 1699 (?); (30) name defaced, 1705 (?); (31) to Elizabeth, wife of George Fletcher, sexton, 1688–9; (32) to Sammuell Russell, 1689, with achievement-of-arms; (33) to John Wade, 1643; (34) to Henry Price, 1682–3, on slab with brass-indent of two figures and symbols of evangelists at angles; (35) to John . . . yr, mayor of Hereford, 1632 (?); (36) to Dorothye, wife of John Gou . . ., late 17th-century; (37) to . . . ford, 1708. In Bishop's cloister —(38) to Cecily, daughter of Sir Henry Lingen, 1689, with lozenge-of-arms; (39) with foliated cross and remains of inscription, 15th-century; (40) to Edward Kemp, 16—, and his wife; (41) with foliated cross and remains of inscription, 15th-century.
Paintings: In Lady chapel—on front of screen of the Audley chapel, elaborate scheme of painted decoration (Plate 147), including spiral bands of black and white on the main shafts and round the doorway and other colours on the mouldings and tracery; in each of upper series of twenty panels a painted pedestal and canopy with elaborate crockets and finials, each, except the seventeenth, containing a standing figure, apparently Christ in the tenth panel, with the twelve apostles and six other saints; many of these are much defaced but to the E. of Christ are St. Peter (?), St. Andrew and St. Bartholomew, to the W. of Christ are apparently St. Paul, St. Thomas, St. John the Evangelist, St. James the Great, St. Jude and St. Philip; the seventeenth panel has the shield of St. Ethelbert in place of a figure. The lower range of panels apparently also had painted figures in canopied niches, but remains of only four of these survive, including a pope and St. Sebastian, late 15th-century. Outer arch and vault of upper Audley chapel also painted and gilt, vault with blue ground. In N.E. transept—on S. wall flanking and above opening into Lady Chapel, figure-subjects in several tiers each with inscriptions in Lombardic letters; figures outlined in black with washes of colour, but subjects indistinguishable, 14th-century. In upper storey of outer N. porch—on S. wall, remains of painting; boarded ceiling mostly old, painted white and powdered with stars; in middle a round panel, repaired with old boards painted with stars, early 16th-century.
Pavement: In upper storey of outer N. porch— altar-step across from E. to W., pavement N. of it mainly of plain red tiles but with one or two patterned slip-tiles; on altar-piece some heraldic slip-tiles including—(a) three piles and a border; (b) a double haded eagle in a circle; (c) Beauchamp; (d) barry a scutcheon; (e) Old France; (f) fretty quartering a bend and perhaps other charges, also some pattern-tiles.
Plate: includes dean's mace, with cup-shaped head with cresting of crosses and fleurs-de-lis, bowl of head with terminal figures alternating with the arms of St. Ethelbert, crowned fleur-de-lis, arms of the Deanery and crowned Tudor rose, all in repoussé work, on top the royal Stuart arms, shaft with knop and pear-shaped end, late 17th-century; bishop's mace, with cup-shaped head having cresting as on dean's mace, ribs on bowl, plain shaft with bands at top and bottom, mid 17th-century. In library—coffin-chalice of base metal, with shallow bowl, knop and spreading base, plain paten, from tomb of Chancellor Gilbert Swinefield, 1299; coffin-chalice (Plate 56) of silver with plain shallow bowl, knop and trumpet-stem, paten engraved in the middle with a hand blessing and the words Dextera Dei, both from the grave of Bishop Swinefield, 1317; châsse (Plate 152) of copper or latten with Limoges enamel, on an oak base, 7 in. long by 3½ in. wide and 8¼ in. high, it stands on four short legs and has a gabled and ridged top with a pierced ridge-plate; the front has the martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury, with the saint standing before an altar and three knights behind him, the figures have heads in relief; this side of the top has a representation of the saint's entombment with six attendant figures all with heads in relief; both these subjects have wavy borders; the back has a door divided into square panels each enclosing a quatrefoil and with wavy bands flanking the door; the top on this side is treated like the door; the gabled ends have each a full-length figure of a saint under an arch and with a quatre-foiled border; both figures hold books and one is represented in the act of blessing; the ridge-plate is pierced with a series of key-hole shaped openings and has on the front side three round ornamental bosses, early 13th-century. Inside the châsse the back of the front face is painted with a cross paty fitchy in red.
Pulpits: In nave—(1) against N.W. pier of central tower, of oak (Plate 154), hexagonal on plan, open for entrance on E. face and with standard for sounding-board occupying adjoining bay on right; remaining sides panelled, each with square bolection-moulded central panel surrounded by four L-shaped panels and flanked by detached Corinthian columns standing on jewelled panelled pedestals and supporting entablature with carved frieze and dentilled cornice; between pedestals to columns, band of reeded ornament, the whole standing on deep ovolo-moulded base enriched with carved strapwork, with projecting moulding below, and panelled soffit and supported on base of ogee tapering form with moulded ribs at angles, and now fixed on modern framework, early to mid 17th-century. Sounding board, 18th-century. In N.E. transept— (2) of oak, rectangular on plan, standing on four plain legs, with one side open; front divided into three, and sides each into two panels by projecting muntins, panelled on front in two trefoil-headed panels; head of each main panel pierced with circular quatrefoil with carved rosette in middle of quatrefoils in side panels of front; moulded cornice above, late 15th or early 16th-century, but roughly framed together and possibly made up from remains of screen or parclose.
Stalls: (Plate 151) In presbytery—formerly farther W. but re-set in present position and reduced in number by Sir G. Scott; they now consist of two ranges of stalls on each side, sixteen on the N. end, fifteen on the S., with the bishop's throne at the E. and on the S. side. The upper range has shaped and moulded divisions, with traceried panelling below the seat, carved grotesques on the curved and moulded elbow-rests; standing on the curved divisions and passing through the elbow-rests are quatre-foiled shafts with carved and crocketted heads supporting the canopies; the backs are divided by moulded shafts with a foiled arch sprung across from the free shafts supporting the canopies; each bay of the backs has a panel with a trefoiled and crocketted head and foiled spandrels each with a central leaf-ornament; the canopies are of triangular plan with trefoiled ogee arches in front, traceried panelling above, and stopped under the broad overhanging coved cornice; the cornice has a cresting of 'Tudor' flowers; the canopy over the dean's stall has lierne ribs on the soffit. The carved misericordes (Plates 65–69) are as follows, upper N. range, from W.—(1) reclining 'woodman' with flat hat; (2) pair of half human monsters fighting; (3) squatting figure of woman; (4) lion and lioness; (5) two grotesque animals; (6) human head attached to double-winged body below; (7) 'woodman' fighting lion; (8) leopard seizing beast by neck; (9) modern; (10) reclining man in liripipe hood; (11) draped bust of man looking through legs; (12) birds pecking fruit on branch; (13) wyvern attacking horse (?); (14) two monsters, one winged; (15) head and two winged beasts; (16) two birds and a dog; the lower range of stalls is modern but incorporates two old misericordes— (12a) galloping horse ridden by nude man facing backwards; (16a) ape-like face. Upper S. range, from E. end; (17) griffin attacking ram; (18) two men, with cords round neck, struggling; (19) two deer and hound; (20) two birds with human heads; (21) centaur stabbing horned monster; (22) human head with double beast body; (23) modern; (24) man and woman with cauldron; (25) man and woman; (26) male harpy; (27) two monsters with single grotesque head; (28) fox and geese; (29) winged human head; (30 and 31) modern; the lower range of stalls is modern but incorporates nine old misericordes—(19a) foliage; (20a) bearded head; (21a) centaur; (22a) two beasts fighting; (25a) two hogs fighting (?); (26a) bat; (27a) goat playing lute and cat (?) playing a viol; (28a) mermaid suckling lion; (29a) hunter spearing boar in thicket; all misericordes have foliage bosses at sides except two which have lions' faces. The ends of the stalls on the E. and W. have three ranges of traceried panelling with panelled posts with crocketted gables and pinnacles. The bishop's throne has three seats divided by moulded arm-rests with carved grotesques; the back has panelling similar to that of the stalls; over the middle seat is a semi-octagonal canopy with trefoiled, sub-cusped and crocketted ogee arches and a lofty spire of tabernacle-work; the side seats have triangular shaped canopies with trefoiled, sub-cusped and crocketted ogee arches and a single crocketted spire above; the back framing is carried up behind the canopies with traceried panelling and returned at each side to form screens. The front enclosure or desk has panels with crocketted ogee heads and panelled posts similar to the lowest stage of the enclosure at the E. end of the stalls. In the triforium of the N. transept are numerous pieces of the stalls, not included in Sir G. Scott's reconstruction; there is also a misericorde carved with dragon looking at a snail on its tail. The stalls are of early 14th-century date.
Tables: In sacristy—(1) with turned legs, moulded rails and shaped brackets, early 17th-century; (2) similar but mid 17th-century. In library—(3) with turned legs, moulded top and shaped edge to upper rail, late 17th-century; (4) with turned legs, upper rail with carved enrichment, early 17th-century; (5) with turned legs and shaped brackets to upper rail, early 17th-century; (6) with heavy turned legs and shaped brackets to upper rail, early 17th-century.
Miscellanea: In S.E. transept—collection of 12th-century carved respond-capitals, etc. (Plate 149), including a number from the E. arch of the presbytery, now replaced by modern work; these include several figure subjects—the harrowing of hell, single figures, an angel, etc.; other capitals have various forms of scalloping, a bird, grotesque heads, etc. In bishop's cloister—a further collection of carved 12th-century capitals, bases and lengths of capping or strings. In yard between the cloisters—numerous similar capitals and fragments; in chapter-house vestibule, a number of 14th-century carved foliage-bosses. In triforium of N. transept—collection of fragments of monuments, coffin-lids, corbel, capitals, cartouches-of-arms, cherub-heads in wood, etc. of various dates.
The Precincts: In addition to the cathedral the precincts of Hereford contained a number of subsidiary buildings, including a cloister, chapter-house, the college of the Vicars Choral with a corridor connecting it with the cathedral, the bishop's palace, the deanery and various houses of individual canons.
The earliest in date of these buildings was the chapel of St. Katherine, originally the chapel of the bishop's palace, but of which the only surviving wall now forms part of the cloister; it may have been the church built by Robert Losinga, and in any case was built in the second half of the 11th century. It was pulled down, with the exception of the N. wall, by Bishop Egerton, soon after 1737. A part of the E. wall of the existing cloister was built late in the 12th century; the wall running under the chapter-house and continuing also to the east of it is of doubtful date, but as it aligns with the chapel of St. Katherine and not with the existing cathedral it may perhaps belong to the earlier lay-out of the buildings. The timber hall of the bishop's palace was built late in the 12th century.
A new chapter-house was begun about 1359 and finished about 1370; it remained intact until the lead of the roof was removed during the siege of 1645, and was reduced to its present fragmentary state by Bishop Bisse (1713–21), and by the Chapter in 1769. The E. walk of the cloister was built probably at the beginning of the 15th century, but the extant contract for the work is undated. The S. and W. walks of the cloister followed in due course and were still building in 1412.
The College of the Vicars Choral was incorporated in 1395, and to this date perhaps belong the remains of their earlier buildings in Castle Street. This position was found to be distant from the cathedral, and the college acquired the site of its present buildings in 1472; the buildings were completed about 1475, though the corridor connecting them with the cathedral would appear to be of rather later date.
The Bishop's Cloister (144 ft. by 116 ft., including the alleys) formed a slightly irregular rectangle with alleys on the E., S., and W. sides. The walls are of local sandstone, and the roofs are covered with lead. The cloister was built, in all probability, during the early years of the 15th century, but the W. alley was destroyed probably in the 18th century. The rest of the building has been extensively restored in recent years, and a portion of the W. alley was re-built in 1897 as a library.
The E. alley (Plate 122) is of eight bays, and probably occupies the site of a 12th-century corridor or pentise connecting the bishop's palace with the cathedral. This is indicated by the E. wall, which in its northern parts is of 12th-century date, and has a flat pilaster buttress; the rest of the wall is mainly a 14th-century rebuilding and the whole wall was refaced on the W. side at this period. The W. wall has been entirely restored externally except for portions of the northernmost and southernmost bays; each free bay, except the seventh, has a window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head, but in the N. bay the tracery is mostly blind owing to the presence of the adjoining buttress of the nave; this bay has also a modern doorway formed in the lower part of the S. light of the window; the fourth bay from the N. has a central doorway carried up into the two middle lights of the window; in the seventh bay is a window of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the wall generally has a moulded plinth and embattled parapet with trefoil-headed panels; the buttresses are similarly panelled and are finished with crocketted pinnacles. Above the seventh bay from the N. rises a second storey or tower, much restored externally and finished with an embattled parapet; in the W. wall of the upper stage is a window of six cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a square head; there are similar windows, each of four lights, in the N. and S. walls. The internal moulded reveals of the cloister-windows are mostly original. The six northern bays of the alley have a plaster vault probably of the 17th or 18th century, but with original stone springers and wall-ribs resting on attached round shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The three southern bays have an original stone vault; the vault of the seventh bay rises higher than the rest and is separated from them by a band or narrow arch; it was apparently first intended to vault the southern bays of the alley at the same level as the northern bay, but this was superseded by the existing vault of a steeper pitch; the lines of the vault as originally intended are visible on the E. and S. walls of the S. bay. The existing vault in each of the three southern bays has moulded ridge, diagonal, subsidiary and wall-ribs with bosses at the subsidiary intersections and an eight-pointed panel with a carved boss at the main intersection; the bosses are carved as follows— seventh bay, middle boss, pelican 'in her piety,' side bosses with foliage, grotesques, rose sprig and the name I. Baysham (Canon from 1406 onwards); eighth bay, middle boss, figure of bishop, flanked by censing angels, side bosses, foliage and a grotesque head; ninth bay, middle boss, possibly St. Anne and the Virgin, side bosses, foliage and a man's head. The vault springs from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the cross-arches flanking the seventh bay spring, on the E. side, from short moulded cornices, each resting on one triple shaft and one head-corbel. In the E. wall of this bay is the doorway (Plate 123) to the chapter-house; it is of c. 1360 and has moulded and shafted jambs with foliated capitals and a moulded two-centred arch enclosing two smaller trefoiled arches with blind tracery in the tympanum; the cusp-spandrels of the small arches are carved with figures representing the Annunciation, and a bishop with a censing angel; the shaft dividing the two openings is similar to the inner order of the jambs; flanking the doorway are panelled buttresses, set diagonally and terminating in pinnacles; from these rise a crocketted gable-mould over the main arch, with a finial at the top and a trefoiled panel in the spandrel. In the E. wall of the fourth bay is a doorway with a two-centred head and a moulded rear-arch, probably of the 14th century, but very largely restored externally. In the E. wall of the southernmost bay is an early 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the S. wall of the same bay are two doorways of similar date, one with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred head opening into the palace-garden, one a smaller one with chamfered jambs and a restored or modern head, now opening into a recess.
The S. alley is of nine bays, excluding the two anglebays. The windows are similar to those in the E. alley, and largely restored externally. In the seventh bay from the E. is a doorway similar to that in the fourth bay of the E. alley. The parapet and buttresses are also similar to the corresponding features in the E. alley except that all the buttresses, except the two easternmost, are pierced by small arches with panelled reveals and four-centred heads. The stone vault, which springs from round shafts with moulded capitals and bases on the N. wall and head-corbels on the S. wall, is similar to that of the southern bays of the E. alley. The main bosses are carved with (a, b, and c) figures of priests, (d and e) blank shields, (f) two figures, both headless, (g) figure of priest, (h) heart with cross in round border with 'black-letter' inscription; the subsidiary bosses are carved with roses, foliage, and a mask; the vault of the ninth bay has been re-built. Between the sixth and seventh bays of the S. wall is a blocked doorway. The S. wall of the first to the fourth bays formed the N. wall of the chapel of the Bishop's palace, dedicated to SS. Katherine and Mary Magdalene.
The Chapel of SS. Katherine and Mary Magdalene was built late in the 11th century as a two-storeyed building. It was destroyed, except for the N. wall, by Bishop Egerton about 1737. Before its destruction plans were made for the Society of Antiquaries. It was a square building with a projecting rectangular chancel and a deeply recessed W. doorway, flanked by stair-turrets. Four piers formed an inner square in the main building, and this was apparently carried up as a clearstorey or lantern above the second storey. The building was vaulted in stone. The surviving N. wall retains the three wall-arches of the lower chapel; they are semi-circular and above and between them is the rough cutting back of the former vault with its responds; the E. and W. bays have each an original round-headed window, with splays both inside and out, though the outer splay is shallower than the inner; the external face has been refaced c. 1400; the internal splays of the eastern window retain considerable remains of 13th-century scrolled foliage painted on the plaster; in the middle bay is a 15th-century doorway, now blocked; it has sunk chamfered jambs and a four-centred head. The upper storey of the wall shows the outlines of three round-headed wall-arches, now filled in flush with the wall-face. The three recesses had each a window of the 15th century; the jambs of all three windows and part of the four-centred head of the middle window are visible on the outside or N. face of the wall; the middle window was of three pointed lights and replaced an original 11th-century window, of which the W. part of the round head still remains.
The Chapter House (about 45 ft. diam.) was built c. 1360–70 and formed a regular ten-sided structure with a central pier supporting the vault. The building was mostly pulled down in the 17th and 18th centuries, and the only portions now standing are one complete side on the S. up to the string-course below the windows, portions of the two adjoining sides to the W. and the S. jamb of the entrance in the W. side. The surviving side has vaulting-shafts in the angles and a wall-arcade of five trefoiled arches with carved main and subsidiary spandrels and springing from free shafts of which only the foliated capitals and some of the moulded bases remain; half an arch of the wall-arcade in both the adjoining sides of the building also survives. The main spandrels are carved with much weathered figure-subjects as follows—(a and b) weathered, (c) double row of small figures facing towards a seated figure at W. end, (d) ship at sea containing two or more figures, (e) group of standing figures facing towards small kneeling figure in middle, (f) group of figures facing towards smaller figure in middle, (g) seated figure on E. with kneeling figure in front of it, (h) kneeling figure of man with standing figure to W.; all the above except (d) have embattled architectural borders perhaps indicating that the scene is within a building; it is possible that the series represents the miracles of St. Thomas Cantilupe. The subsidiary spandrels were carved with beasts, but most of these are now defaced. The fragments of the other sides of the building have no features of interest except the W. side which retains the base of the moulded S. jamb of the doorway; it is moulded and has the bases of two free shafts; the threshold is raised and has a moulded nosing on each side. Round the chapter-house ran a stone bench and a step below it; on the S. side there are remains of a moulded external plinth and radial buttresses.
The Vestibule (17 ft. by 12 ft.) between the chapter-house and the cloister retains portions of its S. wall and the start, at the W. end, of the N. wall. These portions show that it had a stone vault in two bays with wall, diagonal and intermediate ribs, of which the springers remain in the W. angles; at the apex of the wall-rib, at this end, is a foliated boss; on the S. side are the moulded bases of the intermediate vault-shaft, and of that in the S.E. angle; both these stand on a stone bench. The lines of the flat-pitched roof of the vestibule remain on the E. wall of the muniment room over the cloister.
Running under the chapter-house is an earlier wall, which is still standing, in part, to the E. and W. of the building. The wall is of coursed and roughly squared rubble, and excavation has proved that it continued up to and probably beyond the wall of the vicar's cloister; near this point was found the W. splay of a doorway dating from the 12th or 13th century.
The Bishop's Palace stands to the S. of the cathedralcloister. The walls are of brick and stone with some timber-framing in the kitchen-wing; the roofs are covered with slates. The earliest part of the palace buildings is the surviving wall of the late 11th-century chapel, which was a structure of the double-chapel type common in Germany and Northern France; the wall now forms part of the S. cloister and is described above. The great hall of the palace was built late in the 12th century, and was a large timber building with a stone base to the outer walls and perhaps a stone porch on the W. side; it had aisles and was at least three bays long; the bay at each end, N. and S., now forms cross-wings, but may originally have formed part of the hall, in which case it would have had five bays. The long range running W. from the N. end of the hall was built early in the 16th century, together with the gatehouse at the W. end. The main structure was completely remodelled by Bishop Bisse, 1713–21, who formed the present hall and partly cased the building in brick. The existing chapel was added in 1798, and further extensive alterations were made in 1841. The porch was re-built between 1852 and 1863, and the present drawing-room formed by Bishop Atlay (1868–95), the lower part of one of the original oak posts of the hall being removed for this purpose.
The elevations of the main block have no ancient features except the base of the E. and W. walls of the middle portion which are of stone rubble and probably supported the original timber-framing of the outer walls of the great hall. The stone porch on the W. side is of late 12th-century character and may represent an original feature, but the existing work is almost entirely modern. The inner doorway to the hall may incorporate some original stones. The cross-wings at the N. and S. ends of the main block have been either completely modernised or re-built.
The interior of the great hall was divided into at least three bays, with aisles, by square oak posts each having four round attached shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded abaci (Plate 24) from which sprang arches transversely across the body of the building, between the posts and forming arcades, and across the aisles; the shafts carrying the main transverse arches were carried up higher than those supporting the arcades. The upper parts of two of the main posts, in the E. range, are visible in the roof over the drawing-room; between them springs one of the semi-circular arches (Plate 24) of the E. arcade; it has large roll-moulded timbers with a chamfered outer member, partly missing, enriched with a row of large nail-heads; above the arch runs a plain plate or purlin with traces of a series of painted rosettes on the W. face; this is the only bay of the arcades which is now visible, but it is probable that two more arches, one on each side, are preserved under the plaster arches of the existing hall. Part of a third post, the southern one on the W. side, is visible in a room on that side of the house; it retains the attached shaft towards the W. aisle. The main transverse arches of the original roof have all been removed and replaced by plain tie-beams resting on original plates over the arcades; intermediate tie-beams have been inserted over the middle of each bay. The existing hall, re-modelled by Bishop Bisse, now extends completely across the building; the original arches have been cased and the aisle on each side covered with a plaster semi-dome; the ceiling of the main portion of the hall is flat; the arches spring from fluted Doric pilasters and an entablature, the frieze and cornice of which are continued along the walls of the middle portion of the building; the frieze is enriched with crossed croziers; the N. and S. walls have coupled Ionic pilasters, and the E. and W. walls of the aisles have Doric pilasters. The fireplace was inserted by Bishop Beauclerk (1746–87). Preserved in the hall is the scalloped oak capital of one of the shafts of the original building. In a corridor towards the S. end of the building are the following pieces of heraldic glass—(a) shield-of-arms of Bishop Bennet (1603–17) in an enriched cartouche; (b) crowned 16th-century shield of the Royal arms in a garter; (c) modern shield in a 17th-century cartouche. In the modern chapel is a Jacobean chair with turned front legs, panelled back and shaped arms.
The kitchen range is of early 16th-century date and has on the N. side a long added corridor on the ground floor which conceals the lower part of the building. The outer wall of the corridor is of roughly squared and coursed rubble, and the lower part of the main wall is of the same material. The upper storey is of exposed timber-framing and the windows have moulded oak sills. The gatehouse at the W. end of the range has a stone archway with jambs and four-centred arch of two chamfered orders with a moulded label. The two-fold doors are of early 16th-century date and of trellis framing in small square panels with nail-studded styles and rails; in the E. fold is a small wicket. The upper storey of the gatehouse is timber-framed and projects; below the projection is a plastered cove with moulded ribs and on the bressummer is a moulded fascia-board. The S. face of the kitchen-range and gatehouse have no ancient features. Inside the building most of the rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams, but some of the beams are chamfered. The staircase near the middle of the range is probably of the 17th century, and at the top is an original oak archway with a four-centred head. The roof is original and some of the timbers are exposed.
The College of the Vicars Choral stands to the S.E. of the cathedral, with which it is connected by a covered gallery or cloister. In 1473 Bishop Stanbery sanctioned the removal of the college from Castle Street (now No. 29) to the present site, nearer the cathedral. The main quadrangle was erected immediately after this date, with accommodation for 26 vicars and the Custos. As originally built, the N. range extended farther W. than at present, providing an additional residence, perhaps that of the Custos. The corridor or cloister giving access to the S.E. transept of the cathedral was added, probably towards the end of the 15th century. Early in the 16th century the S.E. bay of the corridor was replaced by a two-storeyed porch, and the adjoining bay was re-built at the same time. Early in the 17th century a part of the E. range was converted into a chapel with an added extension towards the E. About the same time the hall in the S. range was re-built, and it was again re-built and extended towards the S. at the end of the same century. The college has been much altered and re-modelled internally in modern times, and in 1862 the parapet of the E. wall of the corridor was removed and the buttresses re-built.
The external walls of the main quadrangular building are of two storeys, ashlar-faced and have a plinth; the chimney-stacks are modern above the roofs, and almost all the window-openings are modern. The E. wall retains one original window-opening with a four-centred head. The N. wall has a blocked doorway towards the E. end and a blocked window above it. Two windows are original and of two four-centred lights in a square head; a third window retains its moulded label. The S. wall has a blocked original window, towards the E. end, with a four-centred head; above the doorway E. of the projecting hall is a wooden cartouche-of-arms of Dr. Gardiner, 1670, Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. West of the hall is a blocked doorway, and above it a blocked window with a four-centred head; farther W. is an original window of one four-centred light; at the extreme end of the wall are remains of a second blocked doorway. The hall-wing butts against the earlier wall on both the E. and W., but there is a projection on the face of the original building on the E. which may represent a destroyed chimney-stack. The W. wall retains some original windows and a doorway, with four-centred heads; the doorway has a square moulded label. The wing projecting W. from the N. end of the block retains its N. and part of its S. wall. In the N. wall is a blocked original doorway with a four-centred head; farther W. is a window of one four-centred light in a square head, with a moulded label. In the remains of the S. wall is part of an original window.
The elevations to the cloister (Plate 124) are of two storeys and are divided into bays by three-stage buttresses. The windows lighting the alleys of the cloister, on each side, are of two wide, four-centred openings in a four-centred outer head. The upper storey has windows of a single four-centred light; those of the S. side have been re-built and widened.
The interior of the main block has been much altered, but a number of the original fireplaces, with four-centred heads remain, and also some of the original internal doorways. The 17th-century chapel in the E. wing has a roof of three bays with curved braces below the collar-beams, resting on moulded and shaped corbels. The main ranges retain, in great part, their original roofs of braced collar-beam type, with curved braces and a trefoiled cutting above the collar-beam and foiled wind-braces; much of these roofs is now concealed. One room, N. of the chapel, contains part of a late 14th-century screen with trefoiled ogee heads to the lights. The rooms of the first floor of the E. range retain some original moulded ceiling-beams, and in the N. range is an old staircase and a mid 17th-century panelled door; there is some panelling of the same date in the E. range. The range has two early 17th-century tables (Plate 72) with S. common room, at the E. end of the first floor of the enriched upper rails and carved bulbous legs, one has a brass plate recording its gift by William Taylor.
The porch, on the N. front, is of early 16th-century date and of two storeys with a moulded plinth. The outer archway is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the square moulded label encloses traceried spandrels; flanking the archway are tall niches with trefoiled heads and shallow pedestals. The window on the first floor is modern, but the corresponding window in the E. wall is original and of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head; it is now blocked. In the W. wall of the porch is an archway similar to the outer archway. The late 15th-century inner entrance to the college has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with rose-sprigs and shields in the spandrels; above it are three panels with defaced shields, partly covered by the later vaulting. The door is original and is divided into six cinquefoil-headed panels with tracery in the head; the central wicket has two trefoil-headed panels with a shield in the spandrel. The early 16th-century fan vault springs from angle shafts and has elaborately traceried cones and four foiled circles on the flat central soffit. The adjoining bay of the corridor is of the same date as the porch and has a window, originally of four lights, but with two of them now blocked.
The main corridor (Plate 125) is of late 15th-century date and of ten bays, divided on the E. face by buttresses. Each bay, except the southernmost, has a window of three four-centred lights in a square head with moulded external reveals and label; the window in the last bay but one to the N. has been replaced by a modern doorway. The W. wall has remains of three ruined buttresses. The timber roof (Plate 126) of the corridor is of twelve bays including the two return bays on the S. It has moulded timbers and cambered tie-beams supporting king-posts with curved braces to the ridge; the tie-beams and principal rafters above them are carved as follows, beginning from the N.—(a) N. side, pelican in her piety, eagle and scroll, foliage and a gryphon and hound; S. side, an ox reading from a book held by two hands, face and foliage; on principals, coiled serpent and conventional foliage; (b) both sides, conventional foliage and ragged staff; on principals, falcon and rabbit; at base of king-post, angels holding shields with two scourges and a cheveron respectively; (c) both sides, tracery with foliated spandrels; on principals, conventional foliage; angel on N. side with shield, two cheverons between four crosses formy; (d) both sides, tracery; on principals, head and foliage, nude figure in hood and holding a comb; angels holding shields with nails and heart and three dice respectively; (e) both sides, tracery; on principals, beast with horn and erotic figure; angels holding shields with the seamless robe and pincers and hammer respectively; (f) both sides, tracery; on principals, conventional foliage and shield of Devereux, within a Garter; angels holding shields with rods and column respectively; (g) both sides, quatrefoils; on principals, stag-hunt, falcon, tree and vine-branch, swine, oak branches and acorns; (h) N. side, tracery, S. side, quatrefoils; on principals, knots or serpents, head and shoulders of human figure and human head; angel holding shield of Stanbery; (i) both sides, tracery; on principals, salmon, two men carrying poles and other objects, fishes and the fore part of a saddled sow; (j) both sides, lozenge-shaped quatrefoils; on principals, conventional foliage and ostrich-feather badges; (k) against S. wall, conventional foliage and tracery. The beam between the S.W. bay and the return bay on the S. is moulded and embattled and has the soffit carved with foliage and small shields. The roof of the return bay is generally similar to, but is later than, that of the other bays; the tie-beams and principals are carved with foliated tracery and the gable above has barge-boards with traceried panelling.
a(2). Parish Church of St. Peter stands on the N. side of St. Peter's Square. The walls are of rubble or ashlar, all of local sandstone; the roofs are covered with slates. The oldest part of the existing church is the Chancel which is of late 12th or early 13th-century date. The Tower with a chapel to the E. of it was added in the second half of the 13th century. The Nave was re-built c. 1300 and the North and South Aisles added; early in the 14th century the South Chapel was re-built and probably enlarged. The church was restored in 1793, and a further extensive restoration took place about 1880–85, when the nave, S. aisle and S. porch were reconstructed. The S. chapel and tower were restored in 1905.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (59¼ ft. by 22¼ ft.) is of late 12th or early 13th-century date and has clasping buttresses at the eastern angles. The much restored late 13th-century E. window is of five pointed lights in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern is perhaps an original lancet-light, but almost completely restored except the external sill; it is now of one trefoiled light; the much restored western window is of early 14th-century date and of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery, above the side lights, in a two-centred head. In the S. wall are two arches, the eastern is of the 14th century, two-centred and of two chamfered orders with a moulded label; the responds, of the same section as the arch, have moulded imposts and a moulded base to the W. respond, perhaps re-cut early in the 16th century; the western arch is of the second half of the 13th century; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds are chamfered and have each an attached and filleted shaft with moulded capital and base. The early 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous on the W. face, and the inner springing from attached semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals; the N. respond has been partly cut away for the 15th-century rood-loft doorway, which has a shouldered head; the upper doorway is square-headed.
The South Chapel (32¼ ft. by 14¾ ft.) has been largely refaced externally. The much-restored early 14th-century E. window is of three pointed lights in a segmental-pointed head. In the S. wall is a two-light window completely restored except perhaps the splays; farther W. is a completely restored doorway.
The South Tower (15¼ ft. by 12¾ ft.) is of late 13th-century date, and of three stages (Plate 5) with a modern parapet and pinnacles. The ground stage has in the E. wall a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the S. wall is a window, all modern except the splays and rear-arch. The W. wall originally stood free of the church and contains a doorway, formerly external, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The second stage has in the E. and S. walls a partly restored window of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head with a blank spandrel. The bell-chamber has in each wall a partly restored window of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head of four orders, with a moulded label. The spire was probably added early in the 14th century; it is octagonal with ribbed angles and rises from within the parapet; the cardinal faces have each a much-restored window of two pointed lights with a pierced spandrel in a two-centred head, capped by a gable with a trefoiled spandrel; each window is flanked by pinnacled buttresses.
The Nave (67¼ ft. by 31 ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1300 and of four bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, struck from well below the springing, with a label on the S. face and defaced head-stops over the responds; the columns are of quatre-foiled plan with small rolls in the angles and have moulded capitals and modern bases, except for a few stones; the responds have attached half-columns. The S. arcade is similar in all respects to the N. arcade but was entirely reconstructed in 1884–86, when the stones were either re-tooled or renewed. The W. wall is completely modern externally and contains a modern window.
The North Aisle (21½ ft. wide) is of c. 1300, and has a partly restored E. window of five pointed lights in a segmental-pointed head with an internal moulded label and one carved head-stop. In the N. wall are four windows, each of three pointed lights in a segmental-pointed head with a modern internal label and stops; the third window is partly blocked by a modern doorway and the westernmost window is entirely blocked. In the W. wall is a three-light window with a two-centred head and modern mullions and tracery.
The Roof of the chancel is possibly of early 16th-century date, and is of pointed waggon-form, boarded on the soffit and with moulded purlins, ridge and ribs, moulded and embattled wall-plates with foliated bosses. The late 15th-century roof of the S. chapel is of king-post type and of four and a half bays, with moulded main timbers; the king-posts have small curved braces to the ridge; the main spandrels of the trusses have cusped tracery. The late 15th-century roof of the N. aisle is of king-post type and of five bays with moulded main timbers and intermediate principals, foliated bosses at the intersections of the intermediates and purlins, curved braces from the king-posts to the ridge, figures with blank shields below the braces, and traceried filling in the main spandrels of the trusses.
Fittings—Bells: five and small bell, 1st inscribed "Sancta Maria" in Lombardic capitals, perhaps 14th-century; 2nd and 4th, 1648; 3rd, 1680; 5th, 17th-century; small bell in spire, 1709. Bracket: In N. aisle—on E. wall, moulded polygonal bracket of stone, 15th-century. Chair: In S. chapel—with turned front legs and stretcher, moulded rails and shaped and moulded splats to back, late 17th-century. Communion and other Tables: In chancel—with turned legs and club-feet, moulded rails, c. 1700. In S. chapel— with turned legs and moulded upper rails and top, early 18th-century. In second stage of tower— modern table incorporating four 17th-century turned legs and other portions. Cupboard: In second stage of tower—with three drawers, panelled doors, iron hinges and drop-handles, c. 1700, reconstructed. Lockers: In chancel—in E. wall, rectangular and rebated for door. In S. chapel—in E. wall, rectangular and rebated for door. In N. aisle—in N. wall, double recess with hollow-chamfered and rebated rectangular openings and pointed opening between the two recesses. All mediæval. Niche: In N. aisle—in N. wall, with ogee head, 14th-century, much defaced. Organ-case: (Plate 61) In chancel—reconstructed with old material and now of two stages, lower with plain panelling and upper in three bays and panelled, two panels filled with carved musical instruments and palm-branches, also two panels in middle bay with heads of carved foliage, side-bays finished at top with shaped cornice and a band of carved and pierced foliage and cherub-heads. Incorporated in ends some early 17th-century panelling with arabesque ornament; rest of material, c. 1700. Piscinæ: In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with chamfered jambs and square head, cinque-foiled drain, 14th-century; in W. wall, recess with moulded jambs and cinque-foiled ogee head, hexagonal drain, 14th-century. In N. aisle—in S. wall, recess with hollow-chamfered jambs and trefoiled head, drain in mutilated corbelled projection, c. 1300. Plate: includes cup of 1713, given by Bridstock Harfford, with shield-of-arms, cover-paten of the same date with crest, stand-paten of the same date with 1713 engraved on the base and a flagon of the same date. Royal Arms: In S. aisle—over S. doorway, of William III, carved in wood. Scratchings: On stonework of tower—various masons' marks. Seating: In second stage of tower—bench, made up of 17th-century materials. Sedile: In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with rebated and chamfered jambs and two-centred head, subsequently fitted with doors, 14th-century. Stalls: (Plate 64) In chancel—two ranges each of nine stalls, the two westernmost on each side being modern, surmounted by a continuous canopy; stalls divided by moulded and shaped arm-rests and seats with corbelled misericordes finished with carved roses; panelling at back with traceried head behind each stall; moulded cornice to canopy with a frieze of quatrefoils and pendant tracery below; desks in front with trefoil-headed panels to end-standards and panelled fronts with two ranges of trefoil-headed panels and moulded book-rest; c. 1430–50, partly restored. Miscellanea: In chancel—re-used in platform to stalls, a number of stones with quatre-foiled panels, 15th-century.
a(3). Parish Church of All Saints stands opposite the N. end of Broad Street. The walls are mainly of rubble with ashlar dressings, all of local sandstone; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. There are remains of an early 13th-century church of considerable size and richness of detail, incorporated in the side walls of the present Chancel. These consist of parts of a large pier with arches springing all four ways, at the N.W. angle of the chancel, the E. respond and part of an arch in the S. wall of the chancel. These remains indicate a church consisting of a chancel with N. and S. chapels, chancel-arch and nave with a N. and probably also a S. aisle. Foundations found under the existing N. aisle and chapel indicate that the previous aisle and chapel were narrower than their successors, and that the chapel did not extend so far E. Late in the 13th century an extensive rebuilding took place in a much plainer style; the chancel was probably first undertaken followed by the S. arcade of the Nave and the South Aisle; a little later the N. arcade and North Aisle were re-built and the ground stage of the North-West Tower added; c. 1300 the North Chapel was re-built and enlarged. About 1330 the walls of the S. aisle were raised; soon after, the upper stages of the tower and the spire were added, the South Chapel re-built and the South Porch added; the E. end of the Chancel was re-built towards the end of the century. The church has been considerably restored in modern times: the spire in 1885, the nave and N. aisle in 1892–4, the chancel and S. aisle in 1902 and the tower in 1915. During one of the restorations the South Porch was removed and re-built on the S. side of the S. chapel, and the E. end of the S. chapel entirely re-built.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (42 ft. by 23¼ ft.) has a restored late 14th-century E. window of five trefoiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; below the internal sill and flanking the altar are two late 14th-century doorways, now blocked and each with chamfered jambs and ogee head; they presumably opened into a former vestry or sacristy outside the E. wall. In the N. wall is a late 13th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders, with modern labels; the half-round responds are modern but have late 13th-century moulded capitals with semi-octagonal abaci; at the E. end of the wall is a partly restored late 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the splays are skewed to avoid the E. wall of the N. chapel; under the N.W. angle of the chancel is the base of an early 13th-century pier, from which arches sprang in all four directions; the base of the former chancel arch consists of one triple and two single attached shafts with moulded hold-water bases; the single shaft on the W. face is filleted and the shaft itself remains to its full height, embedded in the later wall; it has a moulded capital with defaced 'stiff-leaf' foliage; the base of the respond to the N. chapel-arch is similar, but the single shafts were both round; the later respond stands on this base; the E. respond of the early N. arcade of the nave has a series of grouped shafts and the respond itself remains embedded in the wall; the capitals with 'stiff-leaf' foliage are at a much lower level than the springing of the early chancel-arch, and above them are the lower stones of the moulded arch; the respond-base of the early arch at the W. end of the N. chapel had three attached shafts, but the bases of only two of these are visible. In the S. wall is a late 13th-century arch, perhaps re-constructed in the 15th century; it is two-centred and of two continuous chamfered orders, with a chamfered label on the N. face with one king's head and one rough square stop; at the E. end of the wall is a partly restored late 14th-century window similar to the corresponding window in the N. wall but not skewed; farther W. is a round relieving-arch, over the sedilia and a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; between the doorway and the arch is part of the shafted E. respond of an early 13th-century arch with 'stiff-leaf' capitals embedded in the wall; the springer of the moulded arch itself is also exposed and a further portion of the arch is visible on the S. face of the wall; at the W. end of the wall is a projection containing the 15th or early 16th-century rood-loft staircase; the upper doorway in the N.W. face has chamfered jambs and a shouldered head. There is no chancel-arch.
The North Chapel (36 ft. by 20½ ft.) is of late 13th-century date, and has in the E. wall a much-restored window of four lights with modern tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are two windows, the eastern of two pointed lights, with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the western window is much restored and of three lights, the side lights pointed and with the mullions run up to the two-centred head to form the middle light; there is a straight joint at the W. end of the wall. On the S. wall above the arch is a projecting corbel-table contemporary with a lower and earlier N. chapel. There is no structural division between the chapel and the N. aisle.
The South Chapel (46 ft. by 17½ ft.) has a modern E. wall with the stones of a blocked window, re-set in their original position; higher up in the wall is a modern window. Near the W. end of the N. wall is the lower doorway to the rood-loft staircase; it has rebated jambs and square head. In the S. wall are three late 14th-century windows, all much restored and each of two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; below the middle window is a much restored 14th-century doorway with roll-moulded jambs and two-centred head.
The Nave (74¼ ft. by 22½ ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1300 and of three bays with two-centred arches of three chamfered orders with chamfered labels; the cylindrical columns have moulded capitals and bases; the responds have attached half-columns. The late 13th-century S. arcade is of five bays, the easternmost being half the width of the others; the arches are two-centred and of three chamfered orders, with chamfered labels; the cylindrical columns have moulded capitals and bases; the E. respond has a moulded corbel, supporting the inner order, with 'stiff-leaf' foliage and a restored triple tapering shaft below it; the W. respond has an attached half-column. Above the arcade is a clearstorey with four windows each of one pointed light and all modern externally; E. of the easternmost window is a straight joint of doubtful significance. The W. wall has been largely refaced and contains a much-restored window of c. 1300 and of five pointed lights in a two-centred head; the head of the window has been raised but the original springers remain on each side; the W. doorway is of c. 1300 and has chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head.
The North Aisle (20¼ ft. wide) has in the N. wall three partly restored windows of c. 1300 and each of three pointed lights in a two-centred head; below the westernmost window is a doorway, with a two-centred arch of two orders, the inner rounded and continuous, and the outer moulded and springing from detached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the E. shaft is modern and the W. shaft is either concealed or destroyed by an added buttress of the tower; the doorway appears to be of early 13th-century date re-set.
The South Aisle (12½ ft. wide) has at the E. end a 14th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders; it springs on the N. from above the first pier of the S. arcade and the inner order rests on moulded corbels; above the arch is a window of the same date and of two trefoiled lights in a square head. In the S. wall are four 14th-century windows, the easternmost and two western windows are all more or less restored and are each of three trefoiled ogee lights, with net-tracery in a square head; the second window, also restored, is set higher in the wall and is of three ogee lights in a square head; below it is the late 14th-century S. doorway with restored moulded and shafted jambs and a moulded two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a modern label. In the W. wall is a much-restored window probably of the 15th century; it is of four trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head, with a moulded label.
The North-West Tower (about 17¼ ft. square) is of three stages (Plate 5) with a moulded plinth and a modern embattled parapet. The ground stage is of late 13th-century date, and has in the E. wall a distorted segmental-pointed arch of four chamfered orders, the three outer dying on to the splayed responds and the inner springing from half-round attached shafts with moulded cappings and bases; in the W. wall is a partly restored window of a single trefoiled light. The upper stages of the tower were added c. 1300; the second stage has in the N. and W. walls a small window of one trefoiled light. The bell-chamber has in each wall a partly restored window of three trefoiled lights with blank spandrels in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The octagonal 14th-century spire rises from within the parapet, and has rolls at the angles. In each of the cardinal faces is a restored window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a gabled coping and a trefoiled panel in the spandrel.
The Roof of the chancel is of 15th-century date, and of waggon-form with a modern boarded soffit and divided into panels by moulded ribs with foliated bosses at the intersections; two bosses have human faces in addition; the wall-plates are also moulded. The mid 15th-century roof (Plate 23) of the N. chapel and aisle is of seven bays with hammer-beam trusses, moulded main timbers, curved braces, moulded and foliated pendants to the side posts and traceried filling to the main spandrels above the hammer-beams; the braces of the collar-beams meet in foliated bosses and the soffits have traceried panelling; some of the wall-posts stand on stone head-corbels and two terminate in carved heads; each bay of the roof is divided into twelve panels by purlins and subsidiary principals with carved bosses at the intersections. The late 15th-century roof of the nave is of seven bays, with king-post trusses, the king-posts rising from the tie-beam to the ridge; the main timbers are moulded and the spandrels between the tie-beams and the principal rafters are filled with open vertical tracery; the king-posts have attached shafts from which spring curved braces to the ridge; the curved brackets to the tie-beams have foliated spandrels and spring from carved figures holding blank shields; each bay of the roof is sub-divided by purlins and a subsidiary principal with carved bosses at the intersections; the wall-plates are moulded and embattled except on the N. side of the three W. bays. The much-restored roof of the S. aisle is of c. 1500, low-pitched and of four main bays with king-post trusses; the tie-beams are moulded and cambered and have curved braces with carved spandrels including leaves, dragon, Tudor roses, a shield and a male figure; the E. truss rests on old stone corbels, that on the N. being carved with a lion's head.
Fittings—Bells: eight and a small bell, the last by Abraham Rudhall, 1706. Books: In S. chapel— library of 286 books given to the parish by William Brewster who died in 1715; the books are all chained to the shelves of two bookcases; the earliest book is a "Destructorium vitiorum" by Alexander Carpenter, printed in Paris in 1497. Bracket: In N. chapel—on S. wall, semi-octagonal with head of woman, 15th-century. Chest: (Plate 131) In N. aisle—at W. end, of oak and of hutch-type, uprights, top rail and front enriched with elaborate chip-carving, including a range of arcading with intersecting tracery above, filled with a series of circles containing various designs, at feet of uprights incomplete panels with tails of monsters, plain lock-plate, 14th-century with some modern repair. Communion Tables: In chancel—(Plate 72) of oak, with two leaves for extension, top rails carved with conventional foliage, bulbous legs with gadroon-ornament and other enrichments and Ionic capitals, moulded lower rails resting on square carved pedestals, c. 1620– 30. In N. chapel—similar table but without leaves or lower rails and with back legs turned but not carved, c. 1620–30. Communion Rails: In chancel—of two bays with square panelled posts, moulded rail and plinth and turned balusters, early 18th-century. Cross: In N. aisle—on N. doorway, small equal-armed cross, carefully incised on E. jamb. Doors: In doorways flanking altar, two, each of three moulded panels, late 17th-century. Font: octagonal bowl with rounded underside, plain stem and hollow-chamfered base, 16th or 17th-century. Hour-glass: In S. vestry—in wooden frame with round ends, four slender turned uprights, 17th or 18th-century. Lockers: In chancel —in E. wall, rectangular, with wooden door. In N. chapel—in N. wall, rectangular recess; in S. wall, tall recess, about 9 ft. high, with rebated jambs and plain head. In N. aisle—in N. wall, large rectangular recess with rebated reveals, slot for shelf. All the above, mediæval. Painting: In chancel—on E. wall, traces of large painting on plaster, of standing figure of female saint, with book (?) in left hand, under a canopy with a chalice on the left of the figure and a dove near the right shoulder, figure in blue and white robe and outlines in black, 15th-century. Piscinæ: In chancel—recess with moulded jambs and trefoiled ogee head, trefoiled drain, partly cut away, late 14th-century. In N. chapel—in S. wall, recess (Plate 60) with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, enriched with ball-flower ornament, label cut back, quatre-foiled drain, early 14th-century; W. of preceding and set lower in the wall, recess with moulded jambs and sill and later square head, quatre-foiled drain, 13th-century, part of trefoiled head, perhaps of this piscina, built into wall near by. In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, quatre-foiled drain, 14th-century, re-set. Plate: (Plate 57) includes cup of 1570, with band of incised ornament round bowl, cover-paten with the inscribed date 1571; cup and cover-paten of 1634, the gift of Francis Pember, and a stand-paten of 1707 given by T. Frizer. Pulpit: (Plate 154) of oak, octagonal with attached semi-Ionic columns at angles, frieze enriched with arabesques, each face divided into two stages by a band of vine-ornament, upper stage with moulded panels surrounding an arched and enriched panel, lower stage with an enriched arch enclosing a cartouche with a mask; sounding-board with moulded and dentilled cornice, frieze with inscription, "Howe beutyful are the feete of them that bring glad tidinges of peace R.O. 10.15," carved and pierced acanthus-ornament below frieze and carved pendants at angles with shields, three of which bear the date 1621, soffit with octagonal central boss and radiating ribs; all early 17th-century, stem and steps modern, and some repair on S. side. Reredos: In N. chapel—of wood, in three bays divided by pilasters; the pilasters flanking the middle bay have cherub-heads at the top and support a segmental pediment; below it are two semi-circular panels with round heads; above the pediment is a continuous cornice, two urns and a centre-piece with two cherub-heads, supporting a book and crown; the side bays have each one round-headed niche flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting a pediment and an attic with two urns and a mitre, late 17th or early 18th-century. Scratchings: In N. chapel—on stonework, various masons' marks. Screen: In S. chapel—of oak and of six bays, one forming a doorway, moulded middle rail and posts, close lower panels and open upper panels with modern tracery and mullions, doorway with two-centred head and traceried spandrels; cornice partly old, 15th-century, much restored. Sedilia: In chancel—in three bays divided by free-standing hollow-chamfered piers, supporting arched heads and canopies, ogee trefoil-headed panel at back of each bay, late 14th-century, much mutilated. Stalls: (Plate 155) In chancel —range of five stalls on each side, with shaped arms, misericordes, panelled backs, canopies, cornice and cresting; the moulded divisions and arms support quatre-foiled shafts with crocketted cappings, from which spring the triangular-shaped canopies (Plate 64), each with a trefoiled and sub-cusped head with carved cusp-points, crockets and finial, and open traceried sides to canopy, finishing under main cornice; panelling at back of each stall with cusped heads similar to canopy and cusped or traceried spandrels; ends of each range of stalls finished with close panelling divided into three stages by bands of paterae and flanked at front and back by panelled and enriched posts terminating in pinnacles; the misericordes (Plates 70, 71) are carved as follows—N. side, from E., (a) man's face between two leaves, at sides two monsters, (b) bearded human head in hood, supported by shoulders and hands, at sides conventional flowers, (c) double-bodied monster with crowned and bearded human face, at sides sun-flowers with human face in middle of each flower, (d) two bear-like beasts, back to back, at sides conventional flowers, (e) man's head with leaves issuing from mouth, at sides roses; S. side, from E., (a) two reptiles fighting, at sides foliated bosses, (b) two winged monsters fighting, at sides flowers with human face in middle of each flower, (c) bearded man on hands and knees, in shirt, at sides conventional flowers, (d) two small beasts back to back, head of third at top, at sides conventional flowers, (e) bearded man's head between his legs, two leaves and hands, at sides flowers; the elbow-rests are carved as follows—N. side, (a) beast, (b) winged monster with man's head, (c) and (d) beasts, (e) winged angel's head, a 17th-century repair: S. side—(a) monster, (b) beast, (c) monster with human head and draped head-dress, (d) monster with bearded human head and plain cap, (e) monkey-like beast; stalls 14th-century, not in situ and partly restored. Return stalls, three on each side with desks and lower desks in front; stalls with moulded divisions and arm-rests; misericordes carved as follows—N. side, (a) two beasts face to face, at sides round foliated bosses, (b) bearded man with spurs riding, face to the tail, on a horse, at sides round foliated bosses, (c) half-figure of angel, at sides triple rose-sprigs; S. side—(a) two mermen each with club and one claw-foot, at sides human and beast-head in sunflower, (b) two lion-like beasts face to face, at sides foliage, (c) lion-like beast without forelegs, at sides two sunflowers with human face in each; the arm-rests are carved as follows—N. side, (a) beast, (b) monster with human head, (c) rabbit-like beast; S. side, (a) monster, (b) a woodman, (c) monkey, end of stalls finished with traceried panelling; late 14th-century; at back of stalls, 17th-century moulded panelling; desk-fronts divided into two main bays each with four and a half panels with traceried heads, moulded top rail and plinth, late 14th-century; incorporated in modern western gallery, desk-fronts each of six panels with trefoiled tracery and buttresses, moulded top and bottom rails, late 15th-century, book-rests modern; all with some modern repair. Stoup: In chancel—by S. doorway, mutilated recess with two-centred head, bowl cut away, probably 14th-century, re-set. Tiles: In N. chapel—slip tiles with tracery, letters IHC, crowned initial I and a set of tiles with the black-letter inscription, "Shewe mon thi liffe | Mai not ev~. endure | That thou dost thi self | Of that thou art sure | But that thou keepest un to thi secturs cure | and ev~ hit availe ye | Hit is but aventure," 15th-century. Miscellanea: In tower—part of 13th-century shafted column and portion of 15th-century capping decorated with paterae. In nave—14th-century head-corbel. In N. aisle—on W. wall, breadshelf, of oak with small turned Doric columns supporting an entablature, with the painted inscription, "The Gift of G. Phillips and A. Martin A.D. 1683," on cornice, small obelisks and a strapwork cartouche-of-arms.
a(4). The Castle, earthworks and house called Castle Cliff, occupies the S.E. angle of the walled town. It is said to have been built by William Fitz Osbern, Earl of Hereford, soon after the Conquest, and originally consisted of a motte with a quadrilateral bailey to the E. The motte has been entirely removed, but the bailey with its enclosing banks is now a recreation-ground. The rampart on the N. rises 21½ ft. above the water-level of the castle-pool, a part of the moat still filled with water; beyond the moat to the E. the ground outside is 29 ft. below the top of the rampart. The ditch has been obliterated by a modern road on the E. and there is only a low rampart on the S. towards the river. On the W. a slight scarp indicates the position of the ditch between the bailey and the former motte. A late 17th-century plan indicates the former existence of a round tower at the N.E. angle, a square tower at the S.E. angle, and a gatehouse in the middle of the N. side, but of these there are no remains. The existing house at the S.W. angle of the bailey is perhaps of 13th-century date, and the earliest surviving detail is of c. 1300. The house was long used as the city Bridewell and has been largely re-constructed in modern times. The N. front retains a doorway of c. 1300 with jambs and segmental-pointed head of two chamfered orders, and farther E. is an ashlar-faced buttress and another doorway with chamfered and two-centred head. Inside the building is a doorway similar to that last described, and in the main chimney-stack is an arched opening with a segmental head. At the W. end are some 17th-century chamfered ceiling-beams.
a(5). The City Wall enclosed an area, including the castle, of about 93 acres, which was apparently defended on the S. side, only by the river. The surviving remains indicate that it was of various dates of which perhaps the earliest goes back to the 12th century. There were five gates on the landward side, called, from E. to W., St. Owen's, Byester's, Widemarsh, Eign and Friars' gates; there was a sixth gate at the head of Wye Bridge. All these gates were finally demolished in the latter part of the 18th century. There was apparently a more or less accentuated break in the line of the wall at each landward gate. Between the gates the wall was further defended by a series of semi-circular towers, of which sixteen are shown on old plans of the city, and remains of two survive.
The city wall joined the castle at its N.E. angle by an arch across the castle ditch; N. of this point there is a surviving stretch of about 30 or 40 yards of wall bending round to the W. St. Owen's Street was crossed by the gate of the same name just E. of Gaol Street. Between this point and the site of Byester's Gate on the N. of Commercial Square are a number of fragments of wall including one about 8 ft. high to the S. of No. 26 Gaol Street. A passage has been cut through the wall between Bath Street and Gaol Street, at which point it is 15 ft. thick; about midway between this passage and Kyrle Street is a section about 12 ft. long and 14 ft. high, built of rather small rubble; to the S. and N. of Delacy Street are considerable stretches of the wall. At the E. end of Maylord Street are about 15 yards of wall, 5 ft. high and with roughly squared and coursed facing and a further short stretch standing about 15 ft. high; to the S. of Blue School Street is a length of about 40 ft., 8 to 9 ft. high and built of regularly coursed and squared stones, perhaps of 12th-century date; between this and the site of Widemarsh Gate, crossing Widemarsh Street, is a further length of wall much involved in buildings. Between Widemarsh Street and the site of Eign Gate in Eign Street, the wall followed the outer line of Wall Street and several portions remain incorporated in modern buildings and much altered. Between Eign Street and St. Nicholas' Street, which was crossed by Friars' Gate, are considerable remains of the wall; the first of these, in Gunners Lane, is about 4 ft. thick and 12 ft. high; it is of roughly coursed rubble; in a timberyard S. of West Street are remains of a semi-circular tower and at the back of Nos. 38–42 Berrington Street is a well-preserved stretch, 5 to 6 ft. high and with a series of shallow pilaster-buttresses on the inner face, perhaps of 12th-century date; the wall is here 11 ft. thick, is faced with rough uncoursed ashlar, and has a short stone staircase perhaps leading up to the former parapet walk. S. of St. Nicholas Street is a long stretch of wall (about 160 yards) with a semi-circular tower standing about 25 ft. high; S. of this tower are four ashlar-faced buttresses. Near the point where the wall now terminates it formerly turned eastwards to the head of the Wye Bridge; at the angle was a round tower which was demolished in 1806.
a(6). Wye Bridge (Plate 153) crosses the river near the S.W. end of the town. It is of sandstone rubble faced with ashlar. A wooden bridge existed here from pre-Conquest times, and from the architectural evidence some part of it was re-built in stone perhaps in the 14th century. The bridge was re-built in stone with a gatehouse at the S. end in 1490. During the siege of 1645 the third bay from the N. was broken down; it was subsequently re-built together with much of the piers and cut-waters supporting it. In 1826 the bridge was widened, and it has subsequently been frequently repaired. The bridge is of six bays; the first from the N. has a late 15th-century four-centred arch of two chamfered orders; the first pier has a moulded string-course carried round the cut-waters; below the string on the N. side is a recess with a square chamfered head; the arch has been widened on both sides. The second bay has a late 15th-century four-centred arch of two chamfered orders; the widening is carried on arches above the original arch; the old arch is set slightly on the skew; the second pier has a moulded string carried round the cut-waters. The third bay (Plate 11) has a 17th-century segmental arch with three shallow ribs on the soffit, with a modern strengthening beneath each; the modern widening is carried on a higher arch on each face. The fourth bay has a late 15th-century four-centred arch of two chamfered orders partly concealed by the modern widening; below the springing on the N. side is part of an earlier arch with three ribs and a much steeper curve. The fifth bay has a late 15th-century arch like those already described, with modern widening on each side. The sixth bay has an 18th-century or modern segmental arch supporting a second arch probably of the 17th century or earlier, and of one plain order; there is a modern widening on each side; the last pier has been much altered and re-built. All the piers have cut-waters and triangular refuges at the road-level; the parapets have been re-built.
a(7). The White Cross (Plate 156), at the road-fork 1¼ m. W.N.W. of the cathedral, is of local sandstone. It is said to have been erected by Bishop Lewis Charlton (1361–70); it was restored in 1864. The cross consists of a shaft and pedestal standing on a hexagonal base of eight steps. The pedestal, of the same form, has a moulded and embattled capping, and each face has a moulded panel with a trefoil and sub-cusped arch in a square head; in each panel is a shield-of-arms of Charlton, alternating with the personal arms of the Bishop. The moulded base of the shaft is ancient, but the shaft itself and the head are modern.
a(8). St. Ethelbert's Well, on the N. side of Castle Hill, has a modern superstructure, incorporating the late 14th-century head of a crowned king said to have come from the destroyed W. front of the cathedral.
a(9). Blackfriars Ruins and Preaching Cross stand to the S. of Coningsby Hospital and E. of Widemarsh Street. The walls and dressings are of local sandstone. The Dominicans appear to have definitely acquired their site in the Widemarsh suburb only in 1322, and to about this date may be assigned the surviving range, the W. range, of this convent. After the dissolution of the house under Henry VIII the major part of the buildings, including the church, was demolished, but portions were retained as a house. The surviving W. range was much altered by Thomas Coningsby early in the 17th century, but by the 18th century the structure was ruined and reduced more or less to its present condition.
The church of the friars would appear to have stood on the S. side of the cloister, of which the existing building formed part of the western range. As in many friars' houses, the cloister alley was included in the ground storey of the range. The outer walls on the E. and W. are probably of 14th-century date, and the E. wall still retains two openings and part of a third which opened on to the cloister-court and lighted the W. alley. These openings are of three unglazed lights with cinque-foiled arches under a square main head; the lights are divided by octagonal shafts with defaced moulded capitals and bases, and the jambs have attached half-shafts. The northernmost of the three openings has been mostly destroyed, except for one light, by later alterations, and the original extent of the cloister in this direction is not now ascertainable. S. of the openings the wall has perhaps been re-built in the 17th century, and contains an archway; it has plain responds and a segmental-pointed head. At the S. end of the E. front is an added stair-turret of circular form and of 16th or early 17th-century date. High in the wall near the N. end is a round window.
The W. front has at the S. end three buttresses, probably original; farther N. are two added projections, one to enclose a fireplace, one a small garderobe tower, and a third, apparently original and of uncertain purpose; the windows, some of which are blocked, are, with one exception, all of late 16th or early 17th-century date, and have square heads. In the second bay from the south is an early 17th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and round head, and above it is a round window; the next bay has a window formerly of a single trefoiled light, perhaps original; above the later window in the same bay is a corbelled projection to carry a former window of the floor above.
In the S. wall of the building is an early 17th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and round head. In the N. wall is a wide opening of the same date, with plain jambs and four-centred arch; farther W. is a two-light transomed window with the head removed.
Inside the building the former wall shutting off the cloister alley has entirely disappeared. In the W. wall are two early 17th-century fireplaces, one above the other; they have moulded heads; the head of the upper fireplace has the initials T. P. C. for Thomas Coningsby and Philippa his wife.
The Preaching Cross stands 30 yards W. of the building just described. It is the only surviving example in this country of the preaching-crosses erected by the friars in their cemeteries. The structure is of stone, hexagonal on plan with three-stage buttresses at the angles and standing on four steps. Each face has an open cinque-foiled arch in a square head, the lower part filled with an open stone balustrade, having two cinque-foiled openings; one side formed an entrance but the balustrade is now continued across it; the structure is finished with a moulded and embattled cornice. The interior has a stone bench round a central pier with six small shafts with moulded bases and capitals from which spring the moulded ribs of the stone vaults; there are similar shafts in the internal angles of the structure. The front of the bench has cinquefoil-headed panelling, and from the central pier rises the restored shaft and cross, above the roof. The building is of the 14th century, but has been considerably restored.
a(10). Coningsby's Hospital (Plate 158), on the E. side of Widemarsh Street, 700 yards N. of the cathedral, is a quadrangular building, mainly of two storeys; the walls are of local red sandstone and the roofs are covered with stone slates. The site was formerly occupied by a house of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem and portions of the hall and chapel range appear to belong to this building and to date from the 13th century. The hospital or almshouse was founded c. 1614 by Sir Thomas Coningsby when the hall and chapel range was partly reconstructed and the three other ranges surrounding the courtyard were added, together with the gatehouse-range. The building was very thoroughly restored in the 19th century.
The external elevations, generally, have a chamfered or moulded plinth and restored windows with trefoiled heads. The chimney-stacks have tabled offsets and modern tops. At the N. end of the E. front is the gable of the chapel; it has three dwarf buttresses and three graduated lancet-windows; the windows are restored but represent an old, perhaps 13th-century feature, and the splays and rear-arches are old; on the apex of the gable is a finial formed of re-used material and bearing the Coningsby initials T.P.C. The doorway to the passage through the E. range has chamfered jambs and round head, with the Coningsby initials. The N. front has at the E. end a modern lancet-window to the chapel, and farther W. an early 17th-century window with a trefoiled head and the Coningsby initials; towards the W. end of the range is a gabled porch, largely reconstructed; at the W. end is a doorway, with a four-centred head and the Coningsby initials, opening into a stair-turret. The W. front has at the end of the hall-range, a 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head; on the gable above is a 17th-century bell-cote with two trefoil-headed openings, one containing a bell, and a capping of re-used material. The doorway in the W. range has chamfered jambs and round head with a tablet above it bearing the Coningsby achievement and initials, flanked by Ionic columns on scrolled brackets and supporting a cornice. The range projecting towards the S. contains an early 17th-century entrance-archway, probably the gatehouse of Coningsby's house; it is now blocked and has moulded jambs and elliptical arch, and is flanked by much decayed Doric columns, standing on pedestals and supporting the remains of separate entablatures and a continuous cornice. The archway, also blocked, on the other side of the range is of similar form but without columns and entablature. The N. wall of the courtyard (Plate 158) has two doorways to the chapel and hall, both with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads; above the chapel-doorway are the Coningsby initials and above the hall-doorway is the Coningsby crest. On the other sides of the courtyard the doorways to the tenements have restored four-centred heads and the archways to the passages, elliptical or four-centred heads; above the archway on the E. side is a cartouche of the Coningsby arms. On the N. side of the courtyard are some worked stones including one with the Coningsby initials.
Interior—The Chapel has a trussed-rafter roof and contains the following fittings—Coffin lid: with plain incised cross, 13th-century. Communion Table: of oak with eight legs in the form of Doric columns and supporting round arches with key-blocks and turned pendants, moulded bottom rail, early 17th-century. Glass: In N. window, achievement-of-arms of Coningsby impaling Fitzwilliam, with date 1614, enclosed in a later elliptical border, also quarries with Coningsby crest and initials and fragments; in E. window, quarries with the Coningsby crest and initials and a double-headed eagle. Pulpit: semi-octagonal and made up with 17th-century carved and moulded panels. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1675, the former inscribed "Provided by Fitz. Wm. Coningsby Corporall" and the latter with the date 1677, also a pewter plate probably early 18th-century. Seating: at W. end, pew (Plate 61) with panelled front, upper panels with arabesque ornament, high back with similar panels and flat tester with moulded cornice, strapwork frieze and turned pendants, early 17th-century. Miscellanea: incorporated in reading desk, carved 17th-century panel. On W. wall, stone panel with the Coningsby arms, initials and the date 1597. The Hall has simple moulded ceiling-beams. In the N. wall is a fireplace with chamfered jambs, four-centred head and the Coningsby initials. In the W. wall are two doorways with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads, all framed in oak. There are twelve tenements and one additional one in the former gatehouse range.
a(11). St. Giles' Hospital, chapel and tenements, on the N.E. side of St. Owen Street, was founded in the 12th century. The chapel was re-built by Richard Cox in 1682, but this building was demolished in 1927, to widen the road, and a new chapel built of the old materials 620 yards S.E. of St. Peter's Church. During the demolition the foundations were uncovered of the N. side of the 12th-century chapel. This was a round structure, about 26¾ ft. in internal diameter with walls 6 ft. thick; there were indications of an apsidal chancel to the E. of it with a wall 4½ ft. thick. A mid to late 12th-century carved tympanum (Plate 8), presumably from this building, is now built into the W. wall of the modern tenements of the hospital; it is semi-circular with a deep band of interlacing ornament round the outside; the middle is occupied by a carved Majesty set in a vesica-shaped panel supported by four angels; the carving is much weathered. In the westernmost tenement is a re-set niche, with a moulded head, perhaps of the 14th century.
The modern chapel incorporates much material from the 17th-century building, including the doorway with a stone tablet above, inscribed "Ut celebretur nomen Dei Opt. Max. aedem precationis a solo et e ruderibus instauravit Ricardus Cox Colleg. Heref. Custos. Anno Salutis MDCLXXXII."
Fittings—Bell: one, dated 1682, but perhaps recast. Book: prayer-book of 1681. Communion Rails: with moulded rail and turned balusters, larger balusters of the same form at corners, early 18th-century. Door: in doorway, of nail-studded battens, strap-hinges with fleur-de-lis ends, late 17th-century. Glass: one quarry with shield-of-arms and date 1683. Panelling: forming lobby, late 17th-century. In N.E. angle, pew of similar panelling. Pulpit: hexagonal, of oak, with panelled sides, projecting book-rest with shaped brackets at angles, panelled standard at back supporting sounding-board with moulded cornice, panelled soffit and turned pendant in middle, early 18th-century. Seating: benches with turned legs, moulded upper rails and panelled backs; also five free benches with turned front legs, shaped arms and open backs, late 17th-century.
a(12). Williams' Almshouses, tenements, immediately N.W. of the tenements of St. Giles' Hospital, were re-built in 1675 and again in modern times. The modern building incorporates some walls of the 17th-century building, and re-set in the front wall is a stone panel with the inscription "Mr. Williams Hospitall re-built 1675 Bridstock Harford of ye City Esq. being then Custos of the same and a good benefactor therein. Feare God, Honor ye King, Relieve ye Poor. Haec tria sunt ommia." Elsewhere in the building are re-set two capitals, a head-corbel and some fragments of ornament, all of 12th-century date, and probably from St. Giles' Hospital.
a(13). St. Ethelbert's Hospital, on the S. side of Castle Street, was entirely re-built in 1805, but re-set in the walls are a number of carved stones, mostly from the destroyed portions of the cathedral chapter-house. These include two carved spandrels from the wall-arcade, foliated corbels or bosses, piece of wall-panelling or the side of a tomb, etc., all of the 14th century.
a(14). Aubrey's Almshouses stand on the E. side of Berrington Street, 230 yards N.W. of the cathedral. They form a block of six tenements of one storey with attics; the walls are timber-framed and plastered with some stone at the back; the roofs are tiled. The charity was founded by Mrs. Mary Price in 1630 for six poor women, and the building is approximately of this date. The W. or street-front (Plate 157) has exposed timber-framing and three gables symmetrically spaced and projecting; the side posts of the gables terminate in square moulded pendants, and there is a similar pendant at the apex of each; the bressummer and bargeboards are moulded. The doorways, which are in pairs, have moulded frames, the uprights of which act also as posts in the timber-frame of the building. At the back the lower parts of the three chimney-stacks are of stone. The doorways form part of the timber-frame, as in front, and have chamfered jambs and flat pointed heads. There are two old battened doors, one of which is hung on strap-hinges. Inside the building each tenement has a chamfered ceiling-beam and a staircase with an octagonal newel-post.
a(15). Price's Almshouses stand on the N. side of White Cross Street, 1100 yards W.N.W. of the cathedral. The building is of two storeys; the walls are of stone and brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built by William Price c. 1665, and consists of a long range running E. and W. and containing ten tenements and the chapel and a short wing at each end containing an additional tenement.
The S. front has a gabled wing at each end, all of stone. The main range has a stone lower storey and a brick upper storey, divided by a moulded string-course; in the middle is a gable with a stone tablet inscribed "Mr. William Price Citizen of London founded this Hospital in the Year 1665"; on the gable is a square louvered bell-cote of timber. The doorways, generally, have original oak frames with square heads, those at the back have four-centred heads within the frame. The windows are square-headed and most of the frames are modern, but some windows at the E. and W. ends have original moulded oak frames. The E. window of the chapel, at the E. end of the building, is of stone and of three three-centred lights in a square head with a moulded label.
Interior—The Chapel (21 ft. by 15¾ ft.) has a moulded cornice and an original roof of two bays ceiled below the collars; the truss has modified hammer-beams supported by curved brackets and having upright posts tenoned on to the ends of the hammer-beams; these posts terminate in shaped pendants. On the W. wall at the first-floor level of the adjoining tenement is a moulded beam. Fittings. Communion Table: with turned legs and shaped brackets to top rail, 17th-century. Panelling: under E. window, panelled dado with enriched guilloche-frieze, 17th-century. Pew and reading-desk: with panelled front and sides, back of seat made up of old panelling, late 17th-century, top modern. The tenements have each two rooms, one on each floor; the lower room has a chamfered ceiling-beam and in some tenements the joists are exposed. The fireplaces have oak lintels, but most of them have been filled in. The enclosure-wall in front is original and of brick with a stone base and a modern top; flanking the central entrance are square piers. The garden-wall to the W. of the building is also original but has a modern brick top.
a(16). Lingen's Hospital, range of six tenements, on the N. side of White Cross Road, W. of (15), is of one storey with attics; the walls are of stone and the roofs are tiled. It was founded by Mrs. Jane Shelley in 1609, and the building is of that period; it was restored and partly re-built in 1801, and again in 1849. The front is symmetrically designed with the square-headed doorways in pairs and a dormer above each pair; the lower windows are square-headed with wooden frames. The back has projecting chimneystacks with offsets and four doorways have chamfered frames, probably original. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams.
a(17). The Old House (Plate 159) or Butchers Hall, in the middle of the road between St. Peter's Street and High Town, is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. It was built in 1621 and formed the end house of Butchers' Row. It was restored in 1882, and the N.W. and S.E. ends have modern windows.
The timber-framing is exposed on all the fronts; there is a modern projecting pent-roof between the ground and first floor and the top storey projects on the N.E. and S.W. fronts. The N.E. front has a partly original central bay-window, on the ground floor, with canted sides, mullions and transom and supported on scrolled brackets. The first floor has three similar bay windows each with two brackets and a cornice; there is also a small three-light window. The projecting top storey has a moulded bressummer and four carved brackets with pendants in front carved to represent grape-bunches; this storey has three gables with barge-boards carved with scrolls, birds, etc. and carved pendants one of which bears the date 1621; the three bay windows are generally similar to those below but have each one bracket and a tiled roof. The S.W. front is generally similar to that just described; it has two bay-windows partly original, to the ground floor, and a partly restored porch (Plate 35), with richly carved barge-boards and carved pendants supported on carved brackets; at the base of the gable is a richly carved beam and above it is fixed a carving of the arms of the Butchers' Company; the door-frame is moulded and in the square head is set a flat four-centred arch with carved spandrels. The upper floors have each three bay-windows, as on the N.E. front; below the ridge-pieces of the gables are carved cherub-heads and a half-figure of an angel with a shield dated 1621. The partly restored chimney-stack of brick has angle-pilasters, stone terminals, and embattled capping. Inside the building, the N.W. room has original moulded ceiling-beams and panelling, perhaps incorporating some old work. The S.E. room has a plaster ceiling enriched with cherub-heads, cartouche and flowers; on the S.E. wall is a painted plaster panel with a man holding a spade and hoe and a background of trees; the fireplace, brought from No. 9 Eign Street, has moulded stone jambs and a square corbelled head, probably of the 15th century. On the first floor is a ceiling with fleur-de-lis enrichment, and a fireplace flanked by enriched pilasters and with an arcaded overmantel with half-figures supporting a strapwork frieze, all much restored. On the second floor is a moulded ceiling and surround to the fireplace, both of early 18th-century date.
a(18). House, No. 15, 50 yards W. of St. Peter's church, is modern but has a 17th-century wing at the back, of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. The cellar below the main building has stone walls and one jamb and part of a four-centred head of a doorway probably of late 15th-century date.
a(19). House, No. 16, W. of (18), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and modern brick. It was built probably in the 16th century, but the front is modern. Inside the building are some original moulded and chamfered beams and a room on the second floor has a coved ceiling with a cornice, probably of early 18th-century date.
a(20). House, No. 17, W. of (19), is of three storeys with cellars and attics, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, but was altered in the 17th and refronted late in the 18th century. The W. side faces a passage and has exposed timber framing; the second storey is carried over the passage and at the S. end is part of a wooden two-centred arch. The timber-framing is also exposed at the back. Inside the building, the former projecting upper storey in front has been enclosed, but retains three original brackets carved with naturalistic vine-ornament. The two back rooms have moulded ceiling-beams; the fireplace in the kitchen has moulded stone jambs and depressed arch. Two rooms on the first floor have moulded ceiling-beams. Other rooms in the house have exposed ceiling-beams and there are three 17th-century panelled doors. The cellar has stone walls, a series of three recesses in the E. wall and one recess in the N. wall, all with arched heads; also in the N. wall is a doorway with moulded stone jambs. The chimney-breast above is supported on re-used sections of 14th-century columns brought from elsewhere; the ceiling has a re-used moulded beam.
a(21). The Booth Hall, W. of (20), is of two storeys with cellars, the walls are timber-framed and plastered. The building is said to be referred to in a document of 1392, but the existing roof would appear to be of rather later date. It was restored in 1921, before which date the hall was cut up into rooms and divided into two storeys.
In the passage-way from the street is part of a four-centred timber-arch. The hall, on the first floor, about 43½ ft. by 27 ft. is now of six bays. The roof (Plate 24) has alternate hammer-beam and tie-beam trusses; the former have moulded hammer-beams terminating in carved half-figures, and chamfered beams above forming two-centred arches under the collars; the tie-beams support panelled king-posts under the collars and there are ranges of open trefoil-headed panels between the tie-beams and collars and above the collars; the curved and traceried braces below the tie-beams and hammer-beams are, with one exception, modern, and there is much modern work in the rest of the roof; between the trusses are cusped wind-braces forming trefoil-headed arches in the lower range and quatrefoils above. The cellars have stone walls and there is a square-headed fireplace of stone.
a(22). House, at back of No. 18 and W. of (21), is of two storeys; the walls are of timber-framing and modern brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. The upper storey formerly projected on the E. side and has a moulded bressummer; the framing above is exposed and in it is a bay-window with moulded frame, mullions and transom and shaped brackets below. In the N. wall is a similar window. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams, one with enriched mouldings and two with curved braces and trefoiled spandrels. On the first floor is some original panelling and moulded wall-posts supporting the ceiling-beams. The room at the S. end has a plaster ceiling with moulded ceiling-beams and fleur-de-lis and rose enrichments in the panels.
a(23). House, No. 19, W. of (22), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 17th century, but has been largely reconstructed and the front re-built. The upper storey projects at the back and inside the building is an original ceiling-beam.
a(24). House, No. 20, W. of (23), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 17th century, but has been completely modernised. The cellars have stone walls, and in the wall between them is a doorway with a four-centred head. The back cellar has a four-centred barrel-vault. This work is probably of late 15th-century date, and there is a moulded beam of the same date, re-used as a post.
a(27). Houses, Nos. 3 and 4, 10 yards E. of Widemarsh Street, are of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick. They were built early in the 18th century and have brick bands between the storeys. Inside the buildings are original staircases with straight strings, turned balusters and square newels. On the first floor of No. 4 is a room with bolection-moulded panelling, cornice and dado-rail; another room has plain panelling. The cellars are partly of stone and probably of mediæval date; in No. 4 is a re-used 15th-century beam with cusped panelling.
a(28). House, No. 5, E. of (27), is of similar date and character to (27). The front room on the first floor has moulded panelling with cornice and dado-rail; the staircase is similar to those in (27). A partition is formed of early 17th-century panelling.
a(29). House, No. 11, 50 yards E. of (28), is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 17th century but has been completely transformed in the 18th century. Inside the building, the front room on the first floor has a coved ceiling enriched with cherub-heads. The 18th-century staircase has mouldings returned round the end of the stairs, turned balusters and square newels.
a(30). House, Nos. 14 and 15, 20 yards E. of (29), is of four storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century, but the front part was remodelled in the 18th century. The timber-framing is exposed at the back of No. 14. Inside the building, the back room on the first floor of No. 14 is lined with original panelling. The ceiling-beams are moulded or chamfered, and the early 18th-century staircase has moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels. There is some original panelling in No. 16. At the back of the house is a 17th-century outbuilding, altered in the 18th century and with the date 1795 cut on a beam.
a(31). House, No. 3, 40 yards E. of Broad Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 16th century, but the lower part of the front is modern. The W. bay of the front has projecting third and attic storeys with moulded bressummers and carved brackets terminating in masks; the gable has ornamental timber-framing and carved barge-boards; on the second floor is an original window with moulded frame, mullions and transom. The E. bay has two gabled dormers with enriched barge-boards and shaped pendants. Inside the building are some original moulded and chamfered ceiling-beams and some early 18th-century panelling. On the first floor is some mid 17th-century panelling and a staircase with late 17th-century twisted balusters. The cellars are probably mediæval; the walls are of stone and there is a doorway with a four-centred head and a four-centred barrel-vault over one compartment.
a(32). House, No. 4, W. of (31), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are partly timber-framed and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 17th century or early in the 18th century, but has been much altered. The interior retains some chamfered ceiling-beams. The walls of the cellars are partly of stone and perhaps of mediæval date.
a(33). City Arms Hotel, 20 yards S. of High Street, is modern, but at the back is a three-storey building of which the lowest storey is probably of 15th-century date and has original moulded main and subsidiary ceiling-beams.
a(34). House, No. 35, 55 yards N. of King Street, is modern, but at the back is a length of about 30 ft. of late mediæval rubble walling and including parts of a bay-window of which parts of the trefoiled heads of the lights and the cornice remain.
a(35). House, No. 46, 80 yards N. of (34), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 16th century, but has early 17th-century additions and later alterations. Inside the building, a part of the original moulded bressummer of the front is exposed in a passage. On the first floor a room at the back has early 17th-century panelling and moulded ceiling-beams; the plaster ceiling, of the same date, has two whole and two part panels with moulded ribs forming a geometrical design and having a shallow pendant in the middle. Another room has some 17th and 18th-century panelling including two carved frieze-panels; the ceiling-beams are moulded. There are several 17th and early 18th-century panelled doors. The cellars have stone walls and are probably mediæval; a moulded beam is re-used as a post, and there is one jamb of an original stone doorway.
a(36). House, No. 47, N. of (35), is of two storeys with cellars, the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the first half of the 16th century but has been much altered. Inside the building is an original doorway with moulded jambs and square head, also some exposed timber-framing. On the first floor is some 17th-century panelling (Plate 32) with carved frieze-panels. The cellar is probably mediæval and has stone walls; in the front wall are the jambs of a doorway. In the yard, at the back of the house, is the capital and base of a 15th-century column.
a(37). White Hart Inn and house, Nos. 48 and 49, N. of (36), are of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are tiled. The building dates from the 17th century. The first floor originally projected in front and retains one carved bracket. Inside the building the ground and upper floors have moulded ceiling-beams and some exposed timber-framing; the front part of the ground floor has a plaster ceiling with moulded ribs forming rectangular panels; the room above has a ceiling (Plate 37) in twelve bays with moulded ribs forming a geometrical design with fleur-de-lis enrichments; the corresponding room on the second floor has a ceiling (Plate 37) with differing geometrical designs and enrichments of vine-leaves, grapes and moulded bosses. The cellar is probably mediæval and has stone walls; in the front part is a cylindrical stone pier.
a(38). House, No. 53, 40 yards N. of (37), is modern, but beneath it is a stone basement, probably of mediæval date. The W. division has a four-centred barrel vault and there is an original opening in the front wall.
a(39). House, Nos. 54 and 55, N. of (38), is of two storeys; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. The back part with its projecting wing was built early in the 17th century, but the front block is modern. The S. side of the projecting wing has an open loggia of three bays with posts in the form of diminishing pilasters, supporting a moulded bressummer. Inside the building are some moulded ceiling-beams and original panelling.
a(40). House, No. 1 at the corner of Palace Yard, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built in the 16th century, but has been much modernised. The first floor projects on the N. front and the second floor on both the N. and E. fronts. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.
a(41). Spread Eagle Hotel, W. of (40), is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 17th century and has an early 18th-century wing at the back. Inside the building is some original panelling and two early 18th-century staircases with straight strings, square newels and heavy turned or twisted balusters. The cellar is perhaps of late mediæval date and has stone walls and a central octagonal column with a moulded capital.
a(42). House, No. 3, W. of (41), is of three storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed with a re-built brick front, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 17th century but has been altered late in the 18th century. Inside the building, the front room on the ground floor has a plaster ceiling with moulded panels; the ceiling of the room above is divided into six bays each with a double oval wreath of moulded plaster foliage; the two middle panels have an additional moulding enclosing the wreaths. The staircase, from the first to the second floor, is original and has heavy moulded rails and strings, turned balusters and square newels.
a(43). House, Nos. 4 and 5, W. of (42), is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built probably late in the 15th century and has exposed timber-framing in front and two gables; the bargeboards of the W. gable are carved with a series of cusped arches and those of the E. gable with leaves and animals. Inside the building, in a passage, is a fragment of guilloche ornament, and the ground floor has chamfered ceiling-beams.
a(44). House, No. 12, 50 yards W. of (43), is of two storeys, timber-framed and with slate roofs. It was built probably early in the 17th century, but the front dates from the 18th century. Inside the building, is an original moulded ceiling-beam.
a(45). Orange Tree Inn, opposite the end of Bridge Street, is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are timber-framed and plastered and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century and retains some original ceiling-beams and moulded panelling. The cellars have stone walls.
a(47). House, No. 16, W. of (46), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed with a brick front of 1745, and the roofs are covered with slates. The house was built early in the 17th century. Inside the building is some original panelling and some of the rooms are lined with 18th-century panelling. The S.W. room, on the ground floor, has chamfered ceiling-beams and plaster panels with cherub-heads. The original staircase has moulded strings with jewel-ornament and square newels with pendants; the balusters and rails are an 18th-century renewal; the soffits are plastered and have oval panels with cross-shaped enrichments; over the landing is a lozenge-shaped panel with cherub-heads. The ceiling over the staircase has a round panel with spandrels of which there are some remains.
a(48). House, Nos. 42–3, 20 yards S. of St. Nicholas Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was built early in the 17th century and has an 18th-century front. Inside the building, a room on the first floor has an original ceiling with two oval moulded panels and modelled birds. There is some original panelling in the attics.
a(49). Building, at rear of No. 41, S. of (48), is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built in the 17th century and has exposed timber-framing with three cusped braces below the eaves.
a(50). House, No. 40, S. of (49), is of two storeys, timber-framed with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 16th century, but the main block was re-built in the 18th century. The N. front to the adjoining alley has exposed timber-framing and a projecting upper storey with a moulded bressummer and curved brackets.
a(52). House, No. 33, 55 yards S. of (51), is modern but incorporates an elaborate carved overmantel (Plate 37). It is in three richly carved and arcaded bays, divided and flanked by terminal pilasters and with a shield in the middle bay bearing the initials and date R. and E.P. 1632; the room has a panelled dado with a carved frieze and a shield with the same initials and the date 1630. In the garden are some fragments of late 14th-century wall-arcading and window-heads.
a(53). Black Lion Inn (Plate 16), No. 31, 10 yards S. of (52), is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 17th century, incorporating parts of an earlier stone building. The plan is half H-shaped with the wings extending towards the S. The upper storey projected on both sides of the E. wing but has been under-built. The timber-framing is partly exposed. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams and panelling. The middle room, on the first floor, has an overmantel (Plate 37) of four arcaded bays divided by diminishing pilasters, with a band of foliage-ornament above and below; the fireplace has a moulded four-centred head and round the walls is a panelled dado with an enriched frieze; the ceiling is divided into panels by moulded beams and one bay (Plate 30) has an enriched oval band with foliage, vases and a cherub.
a(54). Wye Bridge Hotei, 45 yards S. of (53), is of three storeys with attics, timber-framed and with slate roofs. It was built early in the 17th century but has been largely refaced with later brickwork. Inside the building is some original panelling and chamfered ceiling-beams.
a(55). St. Vincent's Orphanage, house, 40 yards N. of St. Nicholas Street, is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was built early in the 17th century, but was refitted and refronted in the 18th century. Inside the building, the hall has ceiling-beams with plaster cornices and an oval panel. The large room on the first floor has a plaster ceiling with enrichments of fleurs-de-lis, cross-shaped ornaments, pomegranates, etc.
a(56). Houses (Plate 16), Nos. 38 and 39, 40 yards N. of (55), are of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. They form a mid 17th-century range with exposed timber-framing. Inside the building, a staircase has twisted balusters.
a(57). Houses, Nos. 41 and 42, 10 yards N. of (56), appear to be entirely of mid 18th-century date, but in the front room of No. 42 is a 17th-century ceiling with an oval panel, two double-necked swans, birds, etc.
a(58). Houses, Nos. 47–49, 40 yards N. of (57), appear to have been almost entirely reconstructed in the 18th century, but the front rooms of Nos. 48 and 49 have 17th-century plaster ceilings with oval panels, birds or cherubs.
a(60). House (Plate 16), Nos. 4 and 5, on the S. side, 20 yards W. of Audrey Street, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was built late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. The timber-framing is exposed on the front and the upper storey has a deep projection.
a(61). House, Nos. 21 and 22, on the N. side, 30 yards W. of Audrey Street, is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built in the 17th century and has exposed timber-framing.
a(62). Nelson Inn, 40 yards W. of Broad Street, is of two storeys with cellars, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 17th century and has chamfered and moulded ceiling-beams.
a(63). Grapes Inn, 90 yards E. of Broad Street, is of two storeys with attics and cellars, timber-framed with a tiled roof. The E. block on the front was built early in the 17th century, and the back wing and western extension were added later in the same century. The timber-framing is exposed on part of the back wing and there are exposed ceiling-beams within the building. The cellar has stone walls and is probably mediæval.
a(64). House, No. 9, 60 yards W. of Broad Street, is partly of two storeys and partly of three, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built probably in the 16th century, but the front has been much altered and reduced in height. The timber-framing is exposed above the shop-fronts and includes the projection and lower part of an upper storey now removed; it has curved braces in the panels of the framing. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams.
a(66). Houses, Nos. 21 and 22, 35 yards W. of (65), are of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with a slate roof. They were built in the 17th century and the upper storey projects in front. In No. 21 is some early 17th-century panelling.
a(67). Houses, Nos. 23 and 24, W. of (66), are of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with tiled roofs. They were built early in the 17th century, but have been much altered. Inside the building are some moulded ceiling-beams.
a(68). House, No. 89, W. of All Saints Church, is modern, but below it is a cellar probably of the 13th century. The walls are of stone and the N. chamber has a quadripartite vault of two bays with chamfered ribs; the web has been largely removed together with part of the ribs. The S. chamber has a stone fireplace with shouldered corbels under the lintel. The walls have various recesses, some of which are original.
a(69). House, No. 43, 40 yards W. of Widemarsh Street, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was built probably in the 17th century and contains some early 18th-century panelling.
a(70). House, No. 2, at the N. corner of Bewell Street, is of late 18th-century date, but beneath it is a 15th-century basement. The walls are of squared stone with ashlar dressings and the plan is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The E. room of the E. wing has heavy ceiling-beams, but the other two rooms have four-centred barrel-vaults; in the vault of the room in the N. wing is an air-vent cut as an octofoil with carved cusp-points and central ornament. There are two original doorways, one leading into a corridor in the angle between the wings; they have moulded jambs and two-centred arches. In the N. wall of the E. wing is a window retaining its original iron bars and stancheon.
a(71). Houses, Nos. 3 and 4, N. of (70), are of two storeys; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are of slate. The timber-framed back building is of early 17th-century date, but the brick front portion was re-built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, and subsequently much altered. The upper storey projects at the back and has a moulded bressummer. Inside the earlier part of the building are moulded ceiling-beams and a stop-moulded post. A staircase has original flat, shaped balusters. The main room in the back block has original panelling on the S. wall with a fluted Ionic pilaster, and remains of a second pilaster opposite; the ceiling is divided by a coved and plastered beam between the pilasters, with modelled ornament; W. of this the ceiling is panelled, with fleur-de-lis, leaf, lion's mask and rose enrichments. The small room to the N. has a late 17th or early 18th-century panelled dado.
a(72). House, No. 6, 6 yards N. of (71), is of two storeys, timber-framed with a tiled roof. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but the front has been entirely re-constructed.
a(73). Black Swan Inn, N. of (72), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of timber-framing and brick and the roof is of slate. It was built in the first half of the 17th century, but the front was re-built late in the 18th century and there is an early 18th-century back addition. This addition has a gallery on the S. side supported on columns and now enclosed to form a corridor on the first floor. Inside the building, there is some original panelling, and the large room, on the first floor of the main block, has an original plaster ceiling with elliptical panels, modelled birds and conventional designs. There are some early 18th-century doors and a fireplace with a moulded surround in the back addition.
a(74). The Mansion House, 20 yards N. of (73), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slate. It was built early in the 18th century, but the front has been mutilated by modern shop-fronts. It has a range of five windows on the first floor, a highly enriched eaves-cornice with modillions and three dormers with cornices and pediments. The back has a simpler eaves-cornice. Inside the building, two rooms, on the first floor, are lined with original panelling and one of these has a plaster ceiling with modelled roses, oakleaves, etc. The upper part of the staircase remains and has moulded strings, turned balusters and a panelled dado. In the attics is some early 17th-century panelling.
a(75). House, Nos. 15 and 16, 20 yards N. of (74), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of timber framing and brick, and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century, but the front was re-built in the 18th century. At the back is a gable with exposed timber-framing, and below it is a post with a moulded bracket. In the passage-way is some moulded timber-framing. Inside the building are moulded ceiling-beams; the ground-floor room in No. 16 has an original plaster ceiling, with a moulded border, a band of vine-leaf ornament and fleur-de-lis and other enrichments. On the first floor of No. 15 is some original panelling and an arabesque friezepanel; the front room has an original ceiling with moulded border and a band of grapes and vine-leaves.
a(77). House, Nos. 20 and 21, 10 yards N. of (76), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slate. The front part was built in the 16th century, but the back part is an early 18th-century rebuilding or extension; the front to the street is modern. The back has three gables with a band-course at the base. Inside the building, front rooms on both the ground and first floor have original moulded ceiling-beams. In No. 20 the ground-floor rooms are lined with early 18th-century panelling; the N. room has a moulded surround to the fireplace and a corner-cupboard of quadrant plan. In the hall are elliptical arches with panelled soffits and moulded imposts. There is also some early 17th-century panelling. The early 18th-century staircase has moulded strings, turned balusters and newels formed of four twisted balusters; the walls have cornices and plain panelling, and in the ceiling is an altered lantern-light.
a(79). Oxford Arms Inn, 400 yards N.N.E. of (78), is of two storeys, timber-framed with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 17th century, but has been much altered. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams and panelling.
a(80). Essex Arms Inn, 150 yards N. of (79), is of one storey with attics, timber-framed, and with a tiled roof. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century and has some exposed timber-framing.
a(81). House, Nos. 108 and 109, 70 yards N. of Catherine Street, is of one storey with attics; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably in the 17th century and has exposed framing at the back. Inside No. 109 is some early 17th-century panelling.
a(82). House, Nos. 127 and 128, 10 yards N. of Blue School Street, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 17th century, and the upper storey formerly projected in front and has a moulded bressummer. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.
a(83). House (Plate 80), No. 131a, 10 yards S. of Blue School Street, is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are mainly timber-framed, and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built early in the 17th century, and the N. wall is on the line of the town-wall.
The northern part of the front has been refaced with modern stone, presumably where the former Widemarsh Gate adjoined the building. The S. part of the front has exposed timber-framing except for the modern ground-floor; the attic-storey projects on a moulded bressummer with three moulded brackets and pendants; the two gables have moulded barge-boards and modern pendants. The modern doorway has a hood with two original brackets carved with grotesque human figures. The back elevation has a projecting attic-storey with a moulded bressummer and four gables. In the stone N. wall is a doorway with a flat four-centred head and the initials and date T.C. 1626; the attic-storey projects on four carved and scrolled brackets and a moulded bressummer and has a gable with moulded barge-boards and pendant. Inside the building, some of the rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams, and there is a wall-post with an attached shaft and bracket perhaps of earlier date. The S. room has some refixed original and later panelling, the former with arabesque frieze-panels. The hall has early 18th-century Ionic pilasters below the ceiling-beams, and between them is original panelling with incised designs in the panels; the stone fireplace has a four-centred arch, perhaps restored and above it are carved arabesque panels; other walls are covered with early 18th-century panelling.
a(84). House, No. 10 on the N. side, 20 yards E. of Gomond Street, is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed and with a tiled roof. It was built early in the 17th century, and has a late 18th-century front. The timber-framing is exposed at the back.
a(85). House, No. 54, on the S. side and nearly opposite (84), is of three storeys, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was built probably in the 17th century, but has been much altered and the front re-built.
a(86). House, No. 55, W. of (85), is modern, but has a timber-framed back addition, of two storeys and of early 17th-century date. A room on the first floor has an original ceiling with a moulded cornice and fleur-de-lis enrichments.
a(87). House, No. 61, 40 yards S.W. of (86), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built late in the 17th century, but the front is modern. The cellars are of earlier date and have stone walls incorporating a fragment with 15th-century panelling.
a(88). Cellar at rear of Nos. 51–54, on the S. side of the street and 30 yards N. of St. Peter's church, is probably of the 15th century, and has stone walls incorporating 13th-century fragments. The cellar has a later brick vault.
a(89). House, two tenements, on the W. side of St. Peter's Close, N. of St. Peter's church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and timber-framing, and the roofs are covered with tiles and slates. It was built early in the 17th century and refronted in brick early in the 18th century. Inside the building is some original panelling with a fluted frieze.
a(90). White Horse Hotel (Plate 16), on the N. corner of Gaol Street, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built early in the 17th century, and has exposed timber-framing; the upper storey projects on the W. front.
a(91). House, No. 6, 90 yards S.E. of St. Peter's church, is of three storeys with cellars, timber-framed, with a slate roof. It was built early in the 17th century but was much altered and refronted late in the 18th century. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams, and there is an earlier moulded beam in the back addition. The cellars are perhaps mediæval and have stone walls; a beam, re-used as a post, has part of a carved 17th-century bracket.
a(93). House, No. 13, 20 yards S.E. of (92), is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built early in the 18th century, but has been much altered and refaced externally. Inside the building is a considerable amount of early 17th-century panelling, fluted friezes and carved and arcaded panels, all re-set. There is also some early 18th-century panelling, and a staircase of the same date with moulded strings, turned balusters and heavy moulded rails.
a(94). House, No. 22, 100 yards S.E. of (93), is of three storeys, timber-framed with later brickwork and slate roofs. It was built early in the 17th century and has 18th-century additions at the back. The front is of 18th-century and modern date. At the W. end is an original stone chimney-stack, and at the back is a porch partly made up of original panelling. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams. The hall, two rooms on the ground-floor and one on the first floor are lined with original panelling. The staircase, of the same period, has moulded rails, panelled newels and flat balusters in the form of diminishing pilasters. The fireplaces have early 18th-century moulded surrounds.
a(95). House, No. 116, at the S.E. corner of St. Ethelbert Street, is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed, with a slate roof. It was built early in the 17th century, but has been refronted and altered. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams and some refixed original panelling, with a fluted frieze.
a(96). House, No. 129, 100 yards N.W. of St. Ethelbert Street, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built early in the 18th century and has a symmetrically designed front with a moulded band between the storeys, modillioned eaves-cornice and three dormers with pediments. The windows have flush frames and the central doorway has a moulded surround. Inside the building, the staircase has moulded strings, turned balusters, square newels with pendants and a panelled dado against the walls.
a(97). House, No. 133, 25 yards N.W. of (96), is of two storeys with cellars and attics, timber-framed and with a tiled and slate-covered roof. It was built early in the 17th century, but the front is modern. The timber-framing is exposed at the back, with moulded bressummers at the floor-levels. Inside the building, the ground floor has moulded ceiling-beams and the front room is lined with original panelling with an enriched frieze; in the passage is a panelled dado of the same period. On the first floor, the front room has moulded ceiling-beams and a dado of original panelling with an enriched frieze; above it, on the S.E. wall, are paintings (Plate 32) on plaster of three of the muses—Euterpe, Urania and another; they are in panels with a landscape background and have been retouched. The back room has moulded ceiling-beams and a panelled dado with a fluted frieze; above the fireplace is a cupboard with a panelled door. The cellar, perhaps of earlier date than the house, has stone walls.
a(98). House, No. 28, 150 yards E. of the cathedral, was almost entirely re-built in the 18th century. The staircase is of c. 1700, with a broad well; it has turned balusters, straight strings and square newels; the enclosing walls are lined with panelling of the same period. In the hall is some mid 17th-century panelling with an enriched frieze. A fireplace in a room S.E. of the hall has a surround of re-used woodwork including a richly carved early 16th-century frieze of running foliage and side-pieces of late 16th-century guilloche-ornament.
a(99). House, Nos. 29 and 30, 130 yards E. of the cathedral, is partly of two storeys, the walls are of stone, brick and timber-framing, and the roofs are slate-covered. The house incorporates the early hall of the Vicars Choral, which was built probably late in the 14th century. The vicars were transferred to the existing college-building in 1473. A wing was added, S.W. of the hall, in the 17th century, and there is an 18th-century range towards the street. Modern additions have involved the removal of the S. wall of the hall.
The hall has stone walls on the E. and W. The E. wall has a blocked doorway at the N. end, with a segmental-pointed head; further S. are the jambs of two original windows. The W. wall retains a buttress with moulded offsets and, at the N. end, an original doorway with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head; further S. are remains of two original two-light windows with two-centred heads. There is some exposed timber-framing in the 17th-century wing, and on the modern N. front is some re-used tracery from 15th-century barge-boards. Inside the building is a considerable amount of 17th-century panelling, and one room is lined with panelling of c. 1700. The staircase (Plate 63), of the same date, has moulded strings, twisted balusters and square panelled newels. The hall is now of two storeys; the roof (Plate 23) is of nine narrow bays with moulded main timbers; above the collars are raking struts forming three cusped openings; the tie-beams, if they exist, are now covered by the later inserted floor; the top and bottom compartments between the purlins have curved wind-braces forming sub-cusped arches, and the fourth bay from the N. has an additional purlin and a range of quatre-foiled panels. The bays at the S. end have been much mutilated and there is some modern repair.
a(100). Harley House, on the W. side of the court, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of stone with some brick and the roofs are tiled. The walls of the cellars and the narrow S.W. block are probably mediæval, and the upper part of the S.W. block was partly re-built in the 16th century. In the 17th century the S.E. wing and the N. stable-wing were added. The S.E. wing was refaced in ashlar in 1739, with stone said to be derived from the destroyed chapter-house. The stable-wing is timber-framed and retains a 17th-century window with a moulded mullion. Inside the building, the kitchen has a 17th-century overmantel with an enriched Doric entablature, and there is some 17th-century panelling.
a(101). House, No. 5 on the E. side of the court, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are of stone, timber-framing and brick. The cellar and part of the roof of the S. wing date from the 14th century, but the rest of the house is of 18th-century and modern date. Inside the building are remains of a 14th-century roof, apparently of four bays, with cambered tie-beams, collar-beams, shaped and moulded wall-posts and moulded wall-plates; most of the work has been ceiled and is not visible. The cellars have remains of an original window and doorway. On the ground floor is some 17th-century panelling.
a(102). House, No. 3, 20 yards N. of the Close, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are of stone, timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are tiled. The N.W. wing was built late in the 14th or early in the 15th century, and the cross-wing at its E. end was added or re-built in the 16th century; the staircase-wing is also of this date. The cross-wing was extended to the S. in the 17th century, and there are later additions on the W. On the E. front are two 16th-century windows, with four-centred lights in square heads. Inside the building, the ground floor of the N.W. wing has a blocked 15th-century doorway with a four-centred arch in a square head with foliage and trefoils in the spandrels. The roof of this wing is of c. 1400 and of five bays, with simple hammer-beam trusses, very much restored; the side-posts lean inwards and from them spring curved braces under the collars. The main staircase is modern but incorporates some 17th-century material.
a(103). House, No. 8, 45 yards N. of (102), is of three storeys, the walls are of timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built in the 17th century, but was almost entirely reconstructed in the following century. In the hall is some original panelling.
a(105). Constitutional Club, on the S. side of the street, 40 yards E. of Church Street, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are slate-covered. The S. wing was built early in the 16th century and reconstructed about the middle of the 17th century; the block fronting the street was re-built in the 18th century.
The W. wall of the S. wing has been refaced in brick, but retains its three gables with moulded barge-boards and shaped pendants. Inside the building, the ground floor of the S. wing has original moulded ceiling-beams forming square panels. The room on the first floor is lined with mid 17th-century panelling, with an enriched frieze; the fireplace has an overmantel, of the same period, resting on grouped shafts and having a strapwork shelf and three bays above; the middle bay has a round-headed niche, and the side bays have each a square panel with side-shafts and broken pediment; the panels have emblematic carvings of Spring and Winter. The plaster ceiling (Plate 160) is divided into nine bays by moulded trabeations enriched with foliage and other ornament; the bays are sub-divided by enriched bands and have conventional and other enrichments; under the main E. and W. trabeations are carved wooden brackets on fluted Ionic pilasters.
a(106). House, 20 yards N. of the Close, is of two storeys; the walls are of stone, timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are slate-covered. The main wing was built in the 15th century. In the 17th century the N. wing was largely re-built and the kitchen-wing built as a separate house. There are various modern extensions. The main and N. wings retain the lower parts of original chimney-stacks of ashlar. Inside the building is some 17th-century panelling. The original roof of the main block is of three bays, with cambered tie-beams, curved braces and king-posts with four-way struts.
a(107). House, No. 14, 65 yards N. of (106), is of two storeys with cellars and attics, timber-framed and with tiled roofs. It was built early in the 17th century, but has been much altered. Some timber-framing is exposed at the side and back and part of the upper storey of the back addition projects, and has a moulded bressummer. The cellar-walls are of stone.
a(108). House, No. 24, 40 yards N. of the Close, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are of stone, timber-framing and brick, and the roofs are tiled. It was built probably early in the 16th century, but has an earlier cellar beneath the N. part.
The upper storey projected on the E. front, but has been under-built; the timber-framing is exposed, and the southern of the two gables has a barge-board carved with trefoiled arches and foliage. Inside the building, the stone-built cellars have two 15th-century doorways and the remains of a third; the middle room has a four-centred barrel-vault. On the ground floor is some exposed timber-framing and a doorway with a four-centred head. The mid 17th-century staircase has heavy turned balusters and hand-rails, and square newels; it has been re-set. The S. room on the first floor has an early 17th-century plaster ceiling (Plate 30) in three bays, following the rake of the roof and the collars; the beams are plastered and have running foliage and other enrichments; the main posts have ribs forming geometrical designs and various enrichments, foliage-sprigs, leopards' heads, fleurs-de-lis, etc.; on the W. wall is a panel (Plate 160) with conventional enrichment and a shield of the arms of England.
a(109). House, No. 29, 30 yards N. of (108), is of three storeys, timber-framed and with a slate roof. It was largely re-built in the 18th century, but in the cellar is a 16th-century stone fireplace with moulded jambs; there is also an early 17th-century moulded ceiling-beam.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with tiles or slates. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams and old chimney-stacks.
a(115). Causeway Farm, house on the N.W. side of Belmont Road, 400 yards S.S.W. of the bridge, is of irregular T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S.E. end. The front has been refaced in brick, but the timber-framing elsewhere is mostly exposed. Inside the building are some original ceiling-beams.
a(116). Pool Farm, house 20 yards S.W. of (115), was built in the 15th century, but except for the central hall, was largely reconstructed early in the 16th century. The porch was added in 1624. The plan is now L-shaped with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.E. Much of the timber-framing is exposed; the porch, on the S.E. front, has moulded barge-boards and a small shield dated 1624; the entrance has a flat four-centred head, and above is trellis-framing; below the base of the gable are carved brackets; the wall-plates are moulded. Inside the building, the original hall in the S.W. wing, formerly of one storey but now sub-divided, appears to have been of two bays; the central truss has attached shafts with moulded capitals on the wall-posts, from which spring curved and chamfered braces. The inserted floor has early 16th-century moulded ceiling-beams and chamfered joists.
a(117). Range of three tenements (Plate 16) on the E. side of Belmont Road, 30 yards S.W. of the roadfork, was built probably in the 16th century. The upper storey projects in front and the timber-framing of the upper storey is exposed. Inside the building, the roof is of king-post construction.
a(121). Hinton Court (Plate 20), on the S. side of Hinton Road, 300 yards S.E. of Ross Road, has had an 18th-century brick building, forming the present main block, added on the S.E. side. The original building has exposed timber-framing and a two-storeyed porch with the upper storey projecting at the side. Inside the building, in the hall is a collection of fragments of painted glass, partly mediæval and including two fragments with a fleur-de-lis coming out of a leopard's head, etc.
b(122). Putson Manor House, on the right bank of the river, 1200 yards S.E. of Wye Bridge, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It was built early in the 16th century, probably on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. Late in the 17th or early in the 18th century the stone kitchen-wing was added as an extension of the N. wing, and about the same time the former projecting upper storey on the E. front was under-built. There are later or modern additions. The timber-framing is exposed on the E. front and the former overhang rests on curved brackets and semi-octagonal moulded corbels. Inside the building, the S.E. room has plastered ceiling-beams and moulded panels of early 18th-century date; the walls have a dado of late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. There is some panelling of the same date on the floor above. At the top of the staircase is an original opening with a four-centred arch.
a(126). Castle Inn, on the S. side of Stonebow Road and 220 yards S.E. of Commercial Street, is modern, but the N. wall is largely built of 13th-century and later stone work; in the garden is a gable-cross.
a(128). Plough Inn and barn, on the N. side of White Cross Street at the W. corner of Plough Lane. The Inn was built probably in the 16th century, but has been refronted in brick. The Barn, N. of the house, is timber-framed.
a(129). Cottage and barn, at Crossway Farm, 1¼ m. N. of All Saints Church. The Cottage is of stone and was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. There are some original windows of stone. Inside the building is an original stone fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred head. The Barn forms an extension to the cottage and has exposed timber-framing; the roof is of three bays with chamfered timbers and queen-posts.
a(130). The Moor, house (Plate 20) 650 yards N. of the White Cross, is of two storeys with attics and of irregular plan. Some of the timber-framing is exposed, and on the S.W. front is a porch with a projecting upper storey on moulded bressummers and shaped brackets; the lower storey is open and has shaped balusters at the sides; the front has a moulded frame with slatbalusters above, and the gable has moulded bargeboards and a shaped pendant. The chimney-stack, on the same front, is original and has four shafts with diagonal nibs. The entrance door is made up of original panelling. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams with plaster mouldings to the panels between them. In the Old House at Hereford is an iron fire-back, dated 1683, and said to have come from this house.
a(131). Court Farm, house 230 yards W. of Huntington church, was built probably early in the 18th century and subsequently refaced in brick. Inside the building, the staircase has moulded hand-rails and flat balusters shaped to resemble turned balusters.
a(133). Row Ditch, is in two portions, the eastern extending E. from Bartonsham Farm, E. of the river, and the western extending W. from Victoria Bridge. The eastern part consists of a broad ditch with the counter-scarp on the N. side rising 6½ ft. above the bottom of the ditch. At the top is a garden-wall. This portion of the ditch appears to be in three lengths with rough traverses between them. The western part consists of a slight bank, not more than 5 ft. high; it has been much defaced by the modern path which runs along the top.