An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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8 BODENHAM (B.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XX, S.W., (b)XXVII, N.W., (c)XXVI, N.E.)
Bodenham is a large parish and village, formerly a market-town, 7 m. N.N.E. of Hereford. The church, Broadfield Court, Moat House and Maund Farm are the principal monuments.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Michael (Plate 84) stands in the village. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; there is also some tufa; the roofs are covered with tiles. The extensive use of tufa perhaps indicates the existence of a 12th-century building on the site, but there are no surviving remains of it. The angles of an aisleless nave of not earlier than c. 1200, remain in the four corners of the existing Nave, Early in the 14th century the North and South Aisles were added to the nave, N. and S. arcades built, the chancel probably re-built, and the West Tower added. The aisles at this date had gabled roofs. Probably late in the 14th or early in the 15th century the E. bay of both aisles was raised and altered to form a transept, W. walls and arches being inserted and the E. bay of the main arcades heightened. The same heightening was applied to the rest of the main arcades at some uncertain period, but probably immediately after, the old arches being re-set; this alteration necessitated the substitution of pent roofs for the former gabled roofs of the aisles, with the addition of a very low clearstorey above them. About 1750 the chancel was re-built and shortened by a bay. The church was restored in 1835 and again in 1890–91 when the Chancel was re-built and the 14th-century Porch removed from the S. side and re-built on the N. The late 17th-century drawing of the church by T. Dingley shows the length of the original chancel and the porch in its old position.
The church is of some architectural interest, and among the fittings the 14th-century effigy is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (26 ft. by 16½ ft.) is modern, but has a re-set early 14th-century E. window of three trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the S. wall is a re-set doorway probably of the same date and now blocked; it has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The chancel-arch is modern.
The Nave (57½ ft. by 25¼ ft.) has, in the E. wall above the chancel-arch, two early 14th-century windows each of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; S. of the chancel-arch are two single-light 14th-century windows, the lower some 3½ ft. above the floor and having a trefoiled ogee head, and the upper above the springing-level of the chancel-arch and now opening by a recess into the chancel; it also has a trefoiled ogee head; on the gable of the wall is an old sanctus bell-cote. The N. and S. arcades (Plate 85) are both of four bays with tall octagonal columns with moulded capitals and bases and two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the responds have attached half-columns, but the base of the S.E. is modern and that of the N.W. respond is a moulded capital inverted; the materials and arches are of the 14th century, but both arcades have been considerably heightened at a subsequent date. E. of the N. arcade is an opening connected with the former rood-loft; it has an ogee head on the S. face. The clearstorey has, in the three W. bays of each wall, a window of two square-headed lights.
The North Transept (15¼ ft. by 14¼ ft.), formerly the E. bay of the N. aisle, was altered late in the 14th or early in the 15th century to form a transept, the former gabled E. wall being raised and a new gable added to the N. wall. In the E. wall is an early to mid 14th-century window of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery above the side-lights in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the N. wall is a late 14th or early 15th-century transomed window of three trefoiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the W. wall is an arch of the same date, two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner dying on to the responds; S. of the arch is a squint with splayed jambs and trefoiled ogee head.
The South Transept (15¼ ft. by 14¼ ft.) is of similar construction and date to the N. transept. In the E. wall is an early 14th-century window of three-trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head. The window in the S. wall and the arch in the W. wall are similar to the corresponding features in the N. transept; the squint, N. of the arch, has an ogee head.
The North Aisle (15¼ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two early 14th-century windows, each of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the early 14th-century N. doorway has moulded jambs, segmental-pointed arch and label; the outer member of the arch has ball-flower ornament. In the W. wall is a window of the same date and of three lights, the side ones pointed and with mullions carried up to the two-centred head to form the middle light.
The South Aisle (15¼ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, two windows, the eastern similar to the N. windows of the N. aisle, and the western similar but with cinque-foiled lights and cusped spandrel; the S. doorway is uniform with the N. doorway. In the W. wall is a window uniform with the N. windows in the N. aisle.
The West Tower (13 ft. square) is of early 14th-century date, ashlar-faced and of three stages with a plain parapet and square pinnacles at the angles. The two-centred tower-arch is of three continuous chamfered orders; above it are the marks of the lower and earlier roof of the nave; above the rake of this roof-line are straight joints showing that the nave was heightened subsequent to the building of the tower. The W. doorway is modern or completely restored; the W. window is of two trefoiled lights with a quatre-foiled spandrel in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The turret-staircase has a blocked doorway leading to a former gallery. The second stage has a window of one trefoiled light in the N., S. and W. walls. In the E. wall is a doorway leading into the earlier roof of the nave. The upper storey of this stage has a plain loop in the E., N. and S. walls. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head. The octagonal stone spire is said never to have been completed; the existing part extends some distance above the spire-lights and has a pyramidal roof; the spire-lights, in the cardinal faces, are each of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head under a gable with the stumps of side-pinnacles.
The North Porch, formerly on the S. and reconstructed, is of 14th-century date. The outer archway has jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders.
The Roof of the nave is of trussed-rafter type with moulded wall-plates partly renewed; it is perhaps of the 15th century. The transept-roofs are of the same type with largely renewed wall-plates. The aisles have pent-roofs of three bays with curved braces to the trusses and moulded wall-plates largely renewed, probably 15th-century except the modern rafters. The porch has a roof with curved braces to the two trusses, curved wind-braces and some modern timbers.
Fittings—Bells: six; 3rd, 4th and 5th by John Martin, 1665. Chairs: two, modern, incorporate small pieces of 17th-century carving. Chest: In N. annexe—framed chest with plain panels, three locks and inscription in nail-heads on front, "1684 Ex do. H.B." Churchyard Cross: S. of chancel— platform of three steps, base and shaft destroyed; on platform, perished gable-stone and cross. Font: octagonal bowl with moulded rim and under side, trefoil-headed panel in each face, plain stem and moulded base, 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In chancel—in N. wall, (1) stone effigy of woman (Plate 83) with coif, wimple, long cloak, right hand on small figure of child in folds of cloak, head on cushions, feet on defaced beast, early 14th-century, partly defaced; on S. wall, (2) to John Pember, B.D., Prebendary of Hereford and vicar of the parish, 1677, enriched stone tablet enclosing brass inscription with shield-of-arms. Floor-slab: In N. porch—to . . . Lily (?), 1701–2, and others later. Piscinæ: In N. transept—in E. wall, recess with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head, projecting drain partly destroyed, 14th-century. In E. respond of S. arcade— recess with trefoiled ogee head and gable, round projecting drain partly cut away, 14th-century. Plate: includes cup of 1662 and small paten of the same date. Scratchings: On lower parts of nave piers, various masons' marks, indicating the extent of the earlier work.
Condition—Good; some decayed stonework on tower.
b(2). Market Cross, on the village-green about 270 yards N. of the church, retains only its octagonal to square base. It is probably of the 14th century and is now set on a mill-stone and has a rough modern shaft.
a(3). Broadfield Court, house and barn over 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The House is partly of two and partly of three storeys; the walls are of local sandstone and brick and the roofs are tiled. The cross-wing and porch in the middle of the house were built early in the 14th century and Mary de Bradfield had a licence to celebrate in her chapel here in 1346. A timber-framed wing running E. from the cross-wing was added or re-built in the second half of the 16th century; it was re-faced in brick late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The remainder of the building dates from the 18th and 19th centuries. Foundations have been met with in the garden which were thought to imply the former existence of side wings enclosing a courtyard on the S., with a well in the middle. The N. front of the original building is of stone, the E. part forming a two-storeyed porch; the early 14th-century entrance-archway (Plate 87) has moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head with a moulded label and 'ball-flower' enrichment; above it are two windows of the same date and each of one trefoiled ogee light. The S. front (Plate 86) of the same block has an early 14th-century window, partly restored and with the head raised to lengthen the window; it is of three trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head; further W. is another 14th-century window, not in situ, of two trefoiled ogee lights. The other elevations have no ancient features. Inside the building various chamfered ceiling-beams are exposed, and in the 16th-century wing are moulded ceiling-beams. A fireplace in the dining-room has moulded stone jambs and an oak lintel with traces of carving; this lintel formerly bore a date, perhaps 1553. In the attics are the remains of the diagonal framing of the E. gable. The hall, in the original wing, has a stone fireplace brought from Somerset.
The Barn, N. of the house, is of 16th or early 17th-century date, timber-framed and of five bays. The Granary, E. of the house, is a 17th-century building of rubble and timber-framing, in four bays. Another Barn, further E., is also of the 17th century, timber-framed and of five bays.
b(4). Maund Farm, house and outbuildings, nearly 2 m. E. of the church. The House is of two storeys, partly of stone and partly of timber-framing; the roofs are slate-covered. It was built probably in the 14th or early 15th century with a central block and crosswings at the E. and W. ends. The W. cross-wing was re-built in the 17th century, mainly in timber-framing, as a continuation of the main block. To the S. front of the main block are remains of an original window of two lights with ogee heads; in the N. wall, opposite, is a blocked square-headed doorway. A square-headed doorway in the E. wall of the wing is fitted with a massive door having strap-hinges and a 'judas.' Inside the building, the original stone doorway between the main block and the wing has chamfered jambs and two-centred head; S. of the doorway is a stone bench. The ceiling of the main block is in two divisions, the eastern with late 15th-century moulded beams (Plate 44) forming eight square panels; the western division has plain chamfered beams. There are similar beams on the first floor. The late 17th-century staircase (Plate 74) has turned balusters, square newels and close moulded strings. The cross-wing has three stone-lined recesses in the S. wall and one in the E. wall.
The Outbuildings, S.E. of the house, are timber-framed and probably of the 17th century.
b(5). Moat House or Devereux Court, 150 yards N.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and with a roof of stone slates. It was built probably in the 15th century, but has been reduced in size. It now consists of the Hall-block with a cross-wing at the E. end, probably the solar. The timber-framing is exposed but has been much renewed in the 17th century. The N. end of the cross-wing has an original cambered beam at the base of the gable and one curved brace below it. Inside the building the Hall-block is still partly of one storey, but the E. part has an inserted 17th-century floor. The S. room in the cross-wing has original moulded ceiling-beams. The first floor of the wing has an original stone fireplace with a shouldered lintel, diagonal shafts at the sides and an embattled cornice.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed, and with tile or slate-covered roofs. Most of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams and some have original chimney-stacks.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
b(6). Cottage, 50 yards N. of the church, is roofed with stone slates.
b(7). Cottage, 30 yards E. of (6), has a corrugated iron roof.
b(8). Cottage, two tenements, on the E. side of the road 100 yards N. of the church, has a thatched roof.
b(9). Cottage, on the E. side of the road 100 yards N.N.E. of the church.
b(10). Cottage, on the W. side of the road 200 yards N. of the church, is roofed with stone slates.
b(11). Cottage, on the N. side of the cross-roads 280 yards N. of the church, is roofed with stone slates. It is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. The W. wing is of stone.
b(12). Cottage, on the N. side of the road 130 yards E. of (11), has a thatched roof.
b(13). Cottage, on the S. side of the road 360 yards N.E. of the church.
b(14). Outbuilding and dove-cote at The Pigeon-house 120 yards E. of (13). The Outbuilding was perhaps formerly a cottage. The octagonal brick dove-cote, to the S., was built early in the 18th century and is finished with a brick cornice, pyramidal roof, and a timber cupola with a weather-vane.
a(15). House, now N. Herefordshire Hunt Kennels, on the W. side of Saffron's Cross 1,450 yards N.E. of the church.
a(16). Cottage, on the N.E. side of the road at Isle of Rhea, 260 yards N.W. of Saffron's Cross, is roofed with stone slates.
a(17). Cottage, 40 yards W. of (16), has been heightened.
a(18). Cottage, 50 yards N.N.E. of (17), has a thatched roof.
a(19). Cottage, 50 yards N.E. of (18), is roofed with stone slates.
a(20). Cottage, on the W. side of the road 740 yards N. of Saffron's Cross.
a(21). Cottage, 150 yards N. of (20), has stone walls and a roof of stone slates. At the back is an original window with diamond-shaped mullions.
a(22). House, W. of (21), retains only part of the original building. The roof is thatched.
a(23). Cottage, on the W. side of the road 1,600 yards N. of Saffron's Cross.
a(24). Cottage, on the E. side of the road nearly 1¼ m. N. of Saffron's Cross.
a(25). Cottage, 60 yards N.N.E. of (24).
a(26). Barn, at Butford Farm 80 yards N.N.E. of (25), is of one storey and of three bays; the roof is of corrugated iron.
a(27). Cottage, on the W. side of the road 360 yards N. of (26).
a(28). Lower Broadfield, house nearly 1½ m. N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics and consists of a double gabled block with an outbuilding at right-angles to it. The framing, of rectangular panels, is entirely exposed.
a(29). Riffin's Mill (Plate 30), over 1 m. N.E. of the church, is of two dates, the higher mill-building being the later. The mill is now disused.
a(30). Berkley Hill, cottage 300 yards E. of (29), is roofed with stone slates.
a(31). Wood House, 330 yards E. of (30), was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. There are 18th-century and modern additions on the E. and S. and the W. wing was extended late in the 17th century.
b(32). Cottage, on the N.W. side of the lane 520 yards S.W. of (31), has a thatched roof.
b(33). Barn, at Calderwell 1,500 yards N.E. of the church, has a corrugated iron roof.
b(34). Cottage, 50 yards S. of (33), is roofed with stone slates.
b(35). England's Gate Inn, house and outbuilding at the crossroads 1,500 yards E.N.E. of the church. The House is of irregular T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the W. end. The Outbuilding, S.W. of the house, is of three bays; the roof has curved braces between the tie-beams and collars.
b(36). Brockington Farm, house 230 yards S. of (35), was built probably early in the 18th century.
b(37). Cottages in a range adjoining the chapel on the N. side of Bodenham Moor, nearly 1 m. E. of the church, were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
b(38). Moor Farm, house on the W. side of the road 150 yards S. of (37), has an 18th-century addition on the S. side. The walls are of stone and on the W. side is a window with an early 18th-century frame, mullions and transom. Inside the building is an early 17th-century staircase with turned balusters, square newels and heavy square hand-rail. In the W. wing is an early 18th-century moulded ceiling-beam and a fireplace with a moulded surround of the same date. On the first floor are some original moulded ceiling-beams.
b(39). Cottage, 100 yards S. of (38), has been re-faced with brick.
b(40). Brook Cottage, 140 yards S.E. of (39), and 1 m. E.S.E. of the church.
b(41). Cottage, on the E. side of the road 220 yards S. of (40), was built probably early in the 18th century.
b(42). Cottage, 30 yards S.E. of (41), was built probably early in the 18th century.
b(43). Cottage, on the S. side of the road at Pool Head over 1¼ m. E. of the church, has a thatched roof and is of late 17th or early 18th-century date.
b(44). Cottage, on the N. side of the road at Pool Head 220 yards E. of (43), has a thatched roof.
b(45). Cottage, 50 yards E. of (44), has been re-faced in stone.
b(46). Dudale's Hope, house nearly 2 m. E.N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; it is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E. and a staircase wing on the same side of the main block. The N.E. wing is an 18th-century addition in stone. The exposed timber-framing is in regular squares with diagonal framing in the gable of the S.W. wing. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams.
b(47). Cottage, 100 yards S.E. of Maund Farm (4), has been partly re-faced in stone.
b(48). Maund Court, 150 yards S.S.E. of (47), is modern except for the E. block which is probably of late 17th or early 18th-century date.
b(49). Cottage, on the N.W. side of Maund Common over 1¾ m. E.S.E. of the church, has a corrugated iron roof.
b(50). Rowberry, house about 2 m. S.E. of the church, is partly of stone, and has a roof of stone slates. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams.
b(51). Halfway House, 550 yards E. of (50), has a later cross-wing at the N.W. end; the roofs are partly thatched.
b(52). Cottage, 50 yards S.S.E. of (51), has a thatched roof.
b(53). Upper Maund Farm, house 2½ m. S.E. of the church, was remodelled and much enlarged early in the 18th century and is faced with brick. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams and two doors of moulded battens.
b(54). Newhouse Farm, house 330 yards E. of (53), has been much altered and enlarged in the 18th century. The original S.E. wing retains one barge-board and a shaped pendant to the S.W. gable.
b(55). Cornett Cottage, on the S.W. side of the road about 2¾ m. E.S.E. of the church. The roof was heightened in the 18th century. Inside the building is an early 17th-century panel carved with grotesque monsters.
c(56). The Vern, house 1,150 yards W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The central block dates partly from early in the 16th century but was altered and re-faced early in the 18th century and the rest of the house was re-built later in the same century. Inside the central block are two original moulded ceiling-beams.
c(57) Cottage, 440 yards S.S.E. of (56).
a(58). Embankment or dam across the former course of the stream, 180 yards N.E. of Lower Broadfield and 1½ m. N.E. of the church. The bank is about 60 yards long.