An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 2, East. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1932.
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16 BROMYARD (D.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)XXI, N.W., (b)XXI, S.W.)
Bromyard is a small market-town 13 m. N.E. of Hereford. The church, with 12th-century detail, and Tower House are the principal monuments.
a(1). Parish Church of St. Peter (Plate 104) stands on the N. side of the town. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. A minster (monasterium) existed here c. 840 (Arch. Journ. xxx. 174), and it is just possible that the figure of St. Peter and the cross over the S. doorway are of the pre-Conquest period. A cruciform church was built c. 1180, and of this there remain portions of the North and South Transepts and Central Tower, the S. arcade and the W. wall of the Nave. The N. arcade was begun about the same time, but not completed till early in the 13th century.
The N. transept was completed or partly re-built in the 13th century. Early in the 14th century the Chancel was re-built, together with the crossing-arches, the North and South Aisles re-built and widened, the S. transept partly re-built and the arches inserted between the transepts and aisles; the tower-staircase is a late 14th-century addition. The church was restored in 1805, when the nave-arcades are said to have been heightened about 2 ft. The transepts were repaired in 1887 and 1897, and the North Vestry is a modern addition.
The church has interesting 12th-century work, and among the fittings the 16th-century communion table is noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (46¾ ft. by 19¼ ft.) is of early 14th-century date. The E. window is modern except for the splays, rear-arch and part of the jambs. In the N. wall is a two-light window with a modern head; farther E. is a doorway with a later segmental-pointed head; at the W. end of the wall is a doorway, to the tower-staircase, with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head. In the S. wall are two windows, both modern except for the splays and rear-arches; between them is a modern doorway.
The Central Tower (18¾ ft. square) is of three stages with a modern embattled parapet. The ground-stage or crossing has, in each wall, an early 14th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders with moulded imposts. The second stage is a modern arrangement, and has shaped corbels in the N. and S. walls with a change in masonry at about the same level. The early 14th-century bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head. On the W. wall of the tower are traces of two earlier roofs of the nave.
The North Transept (19¼ ft. by 18¾ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is a late 13th-century window of one trefoiled light with a quatrefoil above in a two-centred head; farther W. is a late 12th-century doorway (Plate 13) with a round arch enriched with cheveron-ornament and enclosing a modern tympanum; the jambs have each an attached shaft with moulded base, scalloped and enriched capital and enriched abacus. The N. wall up to a chamfered offset is of 12th-century date; above this point it is of the 13th century, and has a lancet-window. In the W. wall is a two-centred 14th-century archway of two chamfered orders with re-used 12th-century imposts.
The South Transept (18½ ft. by 19½ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of three pointed lights with plain tracery in a two-centred head. In the S. wall is a three-light window, all modern externally, but with splays and rear-arch probably of the 14th century. The wall up to the head of this window is of 12th-century date; above it is later, and contains a late 14th-century window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head. In the W. wall is a 14th-century archway, two-centred and of two continuous chamfered orders.
The Nave (66 ft. by 20¼ ft.) has an early 13th-century N. arcade of five bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the E. bay is narrower than the rest; the cylindrical columns and half-cylindrical responds have moulded bases and spurs, apparently of earlier date, capitals (Plate 17) carved with stiff-leaf foliage and moulded abaci of quatre-foiled plan; the arcade is said to have been heightened in 1805, to which date probably belong the very slender arches themselves, and perhaps the cutting back of the abaci to a quatre-foiled plan; the respond-walls are much thicker than the arcade. The late 12th-century S. arcade (Plate 9) is of five bays with two-centred arches of two plain orders; the cylindrical columns and half-cylindrical responds have moulded bases and spurs, scalloped octagonal capitals and moulded abaci; this arcade appears also to have been heightened. In the W. wall is a window of three pointed lights with plain tracery in a two-centred head, perhaps of the 18th century or later; below it is a blocked modern doorway.
The North Aisle (19¾ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, four early 14th-century windows, each of two trefoiled lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the re-set late 12th-century N. doorway (Plate 13) is set in a projection; it has a round arch of three orders, the inner with cheveron-ornament, the two outer plain except for some cheveron-ornament at the base of the middle order; the arch encloses a modern tympanum; the jambs are of four orders with moulded imposts or abaci; the inner order is plain, and the outer enriched with cheveron-ornament and diapering; the two middle orders have attached shafts with carved capitals. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century window of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head.
The South Aisle (20 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, four windows, the easternmost is modern except for the splays; the early 14th-century second window is of two pointed lights with a plain spandrel in a two-centred head; the late 14th-century third window is of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label and head-stops; the westernmost window is modern except for the splays and rear-arch; the re-set late 12th-century S. doorway (Plate 103) is set in a projection; the round arch is of three orders, the outer with embattled ornament, the middle diapered with lozenges and foliage, and the inner with cheveron-ornament; the arch encloses a diapered tympanum with a later segmental-pointed head cut in it; the jambs are of four orders with moulded and enriched imposts or abaci; the inner order is plain, the outer has two attached shafts, and the middle orders each have one attached shaft, all with carved or scalloped capitals (Plate 14) and moulded bases. In the W. wall is a window similar to the corresponding window in the N. aisle, but largely modern.
Fittings—Coffin-lid; At foot of tower-stairs, part with cross-head in relief, late 13th-century. Communion Table (Plate 50): with enriched bulbous legs having Ionic capitals, moulded lower rails on feet, gadrooned upper rails with acanthus-ornament in middle, late 16th-century. Consecration Cross: Re-set over S. doorway—formy cross (Plate 18) in circle, pre-Conquest or later. Font: In S. aisle—barrelshaped bowl (Plate 52) with double roll-moulding round middle, band of crude scrolls and foliage above, and of cheverons below, late 12th-century, stem and base modern. Monuments: In chancel —on S. wall, (1) to John Baynham, 1636, Elizabeth, his wife, 1655–6, Edward, eldest son, 1652–3, and Mary, his wife, 1650, John, sixth son, 1671, and Frances, his wife, 1683, also to Anthony Baynham, 1698–9, alabaster tablet with cherub-heads and shield-of-arms. On outside face of E. wall—(2) to Mary, wife of Christopher Capper, 1686, stone slab. On outside face of S. aisle—E. of S. doorway, (3) to Thomas Barnes, vicar, 17th-century, slab. Piscinæ: In N. transept—in N.E. angle, recess with pointed head, projecting rounded drain carved with low dog-tooth ornament and human head, 13th-century. In S. transept—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, projecting rounded drain with defaced enrichment, early 14th-century. Plate: includes stand-paten of 1677, inscribed with that date. Recesses: In N. transept—in N. wall, (1) with moulded segmental-pointed head, c. 1330. In S. transept—in S. wall, (2) with moulded segmental-pointed head and foliated stops, early 14th-century; on outside of same wall, (3) with chamfered jambs, segmental-pointed head and moulded label, early 14th-century. In N. aisle—in N. wall, (4) with moulded segmental-pointed head, 14th-century, modern label; (5) with chamfered jambs and segmental-pointed head, 14th-century, label modern. In S. aisle—in S. wall, (6) with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head, enriched with pateræ, late 14th-century; (7) with round chamfered head, probably 14th-century, modern label; on outside of same wall, (8) with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head, with defaced paterae and moulded label, 14th-century. Miscellanea: Re-set above S. doorway—figure (Plate 18) of St. Peter in relief, with book and keys, date uncertain, 11th or 12th-century. In E. wall of tower, stone with cheveron-ornament, 12th-century. In splay of E. window, stone with moulding forming round arch on face.
a(2). Almshouse, at the S. corner of Cruxwell Street and Rowberry Street, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are tiled. It was founded in or about 1656 by Phineas Jackson, vicar, and consists of seven tenements forming three sides of a courtyard. The entrance is on the N. front, and has chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the windows are each of two pointed lights. Inside the building the ceiling-beams and some timber-framing are exposed. The roof is of king-post type.
b(3). Tower House, house (Plate 28), on the E. side of Pump Street, 180 yards S. of Broad Street, is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. It was built in 1630 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E., and a porch on the W. front. There is a modern addition between the wings. The fairly close-set timber-framing is exposed in the two main storeys, and above is a range of ornamental framed panels with a further series of ornamental panels in the N. gable. The porch has plain posts and head-beams, moulded on the W. side and supporting the upper storey; the gable has moulded barge-boards and a pendant, dated 1630. The barge-boards of the N. gable of the house are also moulded. Inside the building are exposed ceiling-beams and framing. The ground-floor rooms in the main wing have ceilings with moulded geometrical panels, some enriched with bay-leaves, and one retaining a moulded pendant; the plaster-work is not complete. The first-floor rooms also retain some of the original ceilings with plaster panels. One room has also some original panelling with fluted pilasters flanking the fireplace. The two S. rooms have early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling. The roof has queen and king-post trusses.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tile or slate-covered. Most of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
High Street, S.W. side:
b(4). Bay Horse Inn (Plate 22), 25 yards S.E. of New Road, is of three storeys. It was built c. 1620, and the N. side has most of the original timber-framing exposed. At the E. end of this front is a projecting bay with moulded framing; the close-set framing, to the W., may possibly be part of an earlier building. Inside the building, the middle room on the ground-floor has an early 17th-century plaster frieze with fleur-de-lis and roses. The staircase has an original moulded hand-rail and string, and a square newel with a moulded top.
a(5). Houses and shops, 25 yards N.W. of New Road, are of three storeys. The upper storeys project on the N.E. front with two curved brackets at the first-floor level. Both fronts have been re-faced.
a(6). King's Arms Inn (Plate 22) and shop, N.W. of (5), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The S.E. wing is of early 16th-century date, but the front block was re-built early in the 17th century. The upper storey projects on the N.E. front on curved brackets, but the front has been largely re-faced; the 17th-century door is of nail-studded battens with ornamental strap-hinges. The main chimney stack has grouped 17th-century shafts with diagonal nibs on the outer faces. Some timber-framing is exposed at the back. Inside the building is a considerable amount of 17th-century panelling. The S.E. wing has original moulded ceiling-beams, and the shop has chamfered and moulded ceiling-beams.
a(7). House and shop, at the corner of Cruxwell Street, has been re-faced in brick.
a(8). Queen's Arms Inn, opposite New Road, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. It was built probably late in the 16th century, but has been entirely re-faced. Inside the building the staircase has an original round newel-post and steps.
b(9). House and shops, 60 yards S.E. of (8), has a modern front, but the N. end has some exposed timber-framing. Inside the building, in the S.E. corner of the cellars, is the round-headed entrance to a passage or drain; it is now blocked.
Broad Street, N. side
b(10). House and shop, opposite Pump Street, is of three storeys, and is said to have been dated 1616. The front is modern, and the back wall is of stone. Inside the building, the staircase has original moulded newels, with shaped tops, moulded hand-rail, and some flat shaped balusters.
b(11). Lion Inn, 10 yards E. of (10), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The front is modern, but at the back, W. of the chimney-stack, is an original window of three lights, with moulded mullions and now blocked. Inside the building, the S.E. room has an original plaster ceiling with moulded panels enclosing fleur-de-lis, rose sand birds. At the stair-head is re-set an elaborately carved acanthus-bracket.
b(12). House and shop, adjoining (11) on the E., is of three storeys with cellars. The walls have been re-faced in brick, except for part of the W. wall.
b(13). House, adjoining (12) on the E., is of two storeys with attics. The long back-range is original, but the front block was re-built c. 1700 and is faced with brick. The timber-framing of the back-range is exposed. Inside the building the S.E. rooms on both floors have a moulded plaster border to the ceilings. A fireplace, at the back, has a moulded surround and a panel above of c. 1700, and there are two panelled doors of the same period.
b(14). House and shops, 25 yards S.W. of Market Square, is of three storeys. The front has been re-faced.
b(15). Houses, three tenements and shops, at the corner of Market Square, are of three storeys with cellars, and have been re-fronted. Some timber-framing is exposed at the back. Inside the middle building is an original staircase (Plate 75) with flat shaped balusters, square newels with moulded tops, and moulded hand-rails; it has been reconstructed.
b(16). House and shop, 85 yards E. of Pump Street, is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The walls are of rubble and brick. Inside the building is an early 18th-century staircase with turned or twisted balusters and moulded hand-rail.
b(17). Falcon Hotel, at the E. corner of Pump Street, is of two storeys with attics. The front has been re-faced. Inside the building, the first-floor rooms on the N. and W. sides are lined with 17th-century panelling, partly with a frieze of jewel-ornament.
b(18). House and shop, on the S. side 10 yards W. of Sherford Street, is of two storeys with attics. The exterior has been re-faced.
b(19). House, on the E. side, is of three storeys with cellars, and has a front of modern brick, and a back of stone. Inside the building, the staircase has original turned balusters and square newels with moulded tops.
b(20). Bible House and shop, 12 yards N. of (19), is of two storeys with cellars and attics. The N. front has been partly re-faced in brick, but retains some exposed timber-framing. The upper storeys project at the E. end of the front, on moulded bressummers, and the gable has a shaped pendant with the inscription M. 1685. The W. and E. sides have been re-faced.
a(21). Dumbleton Hall, on the E. side of Church Street, 120 yards S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. The walls are of stone, and on the S. side of the E. wing are two original windows with chamfered jambs and square heads.
b(22). House, now offices, on the N. side of Rowberry Street, 160 yards S. of the church, is of H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The W. cross-wing is of 16th-century date, but the rest of the house was added or re-built early in the following century. Much of the timber-framing is exposed. The upper storey projects at the S. end of the W. wing on a moulded bressummer and curved brackets.
b(23). House and shop, on the S. side of Rowberry Street, S.W. of (22), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and S. The walls are partly of stone, and there is a late 17th-century extension to the S. wing. The passage at the W. end of the building has a round arched doorway, and above it a window with diamond-shaped bar-mullions. Some timber-framing is exposed in the gables.
a(24). House and shop, on the N.W. side of Cruxwell Street opposite (7), is of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The upper storey formerly projected in front, but has been under-built. Some timber-framing is exposed on the N.W. side.
Sheep Street, N.W. side
a(25). House, 10 yards W. of (24), is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the E. and N. The front formerly had a series of carved wooden figures, but these have been cut away and the front plastered. Some timber-framing is exposed at the back and sides. Inside the building is part of an original bressummer carved with a series of round enriched arches with a moulding above.
a(26). House, two tenements, 100 yards S.W. of (25), has some exposed timber-framing.
b(27). Cottage, 75 yards S.W. of (26), has exposed timber-framing.
b(28). Cottage, 150 yards W.S.W. of (27), has exposed timber-framing.
b(29). House, 140 yards S.W. of High Street, has some exposed timber-framing.
a(30). House, two tenements, 45 yards N.E. of (29), has some exposed framing. The upper storey formerly projected, in front, on a moulded bressummer, but has been under-built.
a(31). House, two tenements, 30 yards N.E. of (30), was built in the second half of the 16th century. The timber-framing is exposed and the roof has king-post trusses.
b(32). Store Shed, on the S.W. side of Hereford Street, 30 yards N.W. of New Road, has exposed timber-framing.
b(33). House, on the W. side of Sherford Street, 270 yards S.S.E. of the church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The E. front has been re-faced in brick.
b(34). Bridge House (Plate 22) and outbuilding, at the S. corner of Sherford Street and Back Lane. The House is of two storeys with attics, and was built late in the 16th century. The W. part is a later rebuilding. The upper storey formerly projected on part of the N. front, but has been under-built; the upper storey and gable has exposed timber-framing partly set herring-bone wise; the gable has a moulded bressummer with shaped and enriched brackets at the ends; the barge-boards of the gable are carved with scrolled arabesques.
The Outbuilding, W. of the house, has exposed timber-framing.