An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Herefordshire, Volume 3, North West. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1934.
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36 KINGSLAND (C.c.).
Kingsland is a parish and village 3½ m. N.W. of Leominster. The church, Kingsland Castle and Black Hall are the principal monuments. At the N.E. end of the village is a modern memorial of the battle of Mortimer's Cross, 1461.
d(1). Parish Church of St. Michael (Plate 121) stands on the S. side of the village. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are covered with slate. The two blocked lancet-windows flanking the chancel-arch are the only remains in situ of the 13th-century church. The Chancel, Nave, North and South Aisles, North Vestry, North Porch, Volka Chapel and West Tower were built early in the 14th century, beginning with the chancel, c. 1300. The South Porch was added in the 15th century, to which date belongs the upper part of the tower. The vestry had an upper storey added probably in the 16th century. The chancel was restored in 1864 and the rest of the church perhaps rather later; the Organ Chamber added in 1882–3, and the tower restored in 1924; the upper part of the vestry has been re-built, as has the S. porch.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (36½ ft. by 19 ft.) has a late 14th-century E. window of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is an early 14th-century window of two trefoiled lights with trefoiled tracery in a two-centred head; further W. is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and three-sided septfoiled head; the opening to the organ-chamber is modern. In the S. wall are three windows, the easternmost uniform with that opposite; the middle window is of the 14th century and of one trefoiled light; the mid 14th-century westernmost window is of two cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head; the doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The early 14th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the inner springing from semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals; the outer order springs from shaped corbelling at a lower level, probably serving to support the former rood-loft; above the arch are two quatre-foiled windows of the same date; between them is a projecting strip or buttress finished with a half pinnacle, and above it is a small window of one trefoiled light; on the gable is a sanctus bell-cote with a gable-cross.
The North Vestry was formerly of two storeys. In the E. wall is an early 14th-century window of one trefoiled light, rebated for a shutter. In the N. wall is a single-light window of the same date, with a rounded head; above it is a window almost entirely modern. In the W. wall is a doorway with a square head, perhaps of the 17th century; higher up is a window of one square-headed light.
The Nave (Plate 12) (81 ft. by 18¾ ft.) is of early 14th-century date and has N. and S. arcades of five bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the piers are octagonal with hollows sunk on the diagonal faces, moulded capitals and chamfered bases; the responds have attached semi-octagonal shafts. The clearstorey has on each side four round windows with varying types of sex-foiled cusping and set above the piers of the arcade.
The North Aisle (10 ft. wide) is of early 14th-century date. It has a modern opening in the E. wall with a blocked 13th-century lancet-window to the S. of it; higher up in the wall is a round window similar to the easternmost in the clearstorey. In the N. wall are four windows, the easternmost of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head, carried up into a gable; the other three windows are each of two lights with a quatrefoil or trefoil in a two-centred head, the lights of the windows are cinque-foiled, trefoiled and plain respectively; the first has a moulded label with head-stops; the opening into the Volka chapel will be described under that heading; the N. doorway has double chamfered jambs and a three-sided head elaborately cusped on the soffit. High up in the W. wall is a round cinque-foiled window.
The South Aisle (10¼ ft. wide) is of early 14th-century date. In the E. wall is a round window and a blocked lancet-window, uniform with those in the E. wall of the N. aisle. In the S. wall are four windows all similar to the corresponding windows in the N. aisle; the re-set 13th-century S. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred head. In the W. wall is a window uniform with the W. window of the N. aisle.
The West Tower (19 ft. square) is of five storeys and of early 14th-century date except at the top; it is finished with a moulded plinth and embattled parapet. The two-centred tower-arch is of two chamfered orders, the outer dying on to the responds and the inner springing from moulded head-corbels. The N., S. and W. walls have each a window of two pointed lights in a two-centred head; in the N. wall there is also a doorway with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head with cinque-foiled cusping. The diagonal external faces of the stair-turret are not carried down to the ground, but rest on moulded corbelling terminating in trefoiled arches enclosing carved heads. The second stage has, in the E. wall, a small opening with a trefoiled head. The three external walls have each a window of two pointed lights; the doorway to the staircase has an unusual form of cusped head. The buttresses, at the second and third stages, have cusped or traceried panelling on the outer faces. The third stage has, in the E. wall, a round-headed doorway to the nave roof. The other three walls have each a window of one trefoiled light. The staircase finishes at this stage and has a quadripartite vault springing from grouped shafts with moulded capitals; at the apex is a boss of carved oak leaves. The fourth stage has, in each wall, a round window with octofoiled cusping; the N. window is now covered by a clock. The fifth stage was heightened in the 15th century, the addition being marked by a line of corbelling; the lower part has, in each side, a window of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head; the upper part has in the E. and S. walls a window of one pointed light. The parapet has carved gargoyles.
The Volka Chapel (Plates 15, 87) (8¾ ft. by 5 ft.) is of early 14th-century date and has an E. window of four simple lights with tracery in a two-centred head with moulded labels and head-stops. In the N. wall is a partly restored rectangular window divided by a transom, the upper part has six plain lights and the lower part three square lights with octofoiled cusping. In the S. wall is a recess with moulded jambs, two-centred head and pierced septfoiled cusping; it no doubt formed a tomb-recess; at the back of the recess is a window opening into the aisle and of four pointed lights in a square head. In the W. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and round shouldered head.
The North Porch is of early 14th-century date and has an outer archway with chamfered jambs, segmental-pointed arch and moulded label with defaced headstops. In the E. wall is a square window with octofoiled cusping. In the W. wall is a window of four cinque-foiled lights in a square head.
The Roof of the nave is perhaps partly of the 14th and partly of the 15th century and is of six bays with king-post trusses and trussed rafters; the tie-beams have curved braces and the king-posts have four-way struts; the wall-plates are moulded. The 15th-century roof of the S. porch has been largely retained with two trusses, one being of king-post type.
Fittings—Bells: six; 2nd with an inscription William Bubb, son of Henry Bubb, aged 3 years, March 1692. Bracket: In chancel—on S. wall, semi-octagonal moulded shelf with head below, late 14th-century. In Volka chapel—on E. jamb of tomb-recess, round bracket, 14th-century. Chest: In W. tower—plain with strap-hinges and three lock-plates, 7¼ ft. long, 17th-century. Churchyard Cross: S. of church, square to octagonal shaft on octagonal base, 14th-century, later top formerly with sundial. Coffin: In Volka chapel—in recess in S. wall, with rounded internal head. Doors: In vestry doorway—of battens on ledges, 17th-century or earlier. In tower staircase—similar door, 17th-century. Font: octagonal bowl with moulded under-edge, plain stem and hollow-chamfered base, step and platform, 14th-century. Glass: In chancel —in E. window (Plate 122), in tracery lights, (a) seated figure of Christ on rainbow and holding cross; (b) coronation of the Virgin in two lights; in main lights of window, (a) shield-of-arms, perhaps Bruce or Breys of Brecon, but repaired with four bars instead of three; (b) panel with Tobias and Raphael, much restored, Tobias holds the fish; (c) panel of the Annunciation with Gabriel; (d) panel of Michael and the dragon, restored; (e) arms of the see of Hereford, modern except part of the field; (f) panel with Esdras, holding a scroll with his name, and Uriel; background incorporates grisaille and coloured borders, 14th-century; the panels represent the four great Archangels. In N. window, trefoil with leopard's face and foliage, 14th-century. In S.E. window, fragments of foliage, etc., 14th-century, incorporated in modern glass. In middle S. window, figure of archbishop (Plate 100) with cross-staff and pall, roundel with head, perhaps of St. Helena, and various fragments, 14th-century. Lockers: In N. aisle—in N. wall, recess with rebated reveals. In S. aisle —in S. wall recess with rebated jambs. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on S. wall, (1) to Thomas Cutler, erected 1713 by Frances (Pierrepont), his widow, freestone tablet with Ionic side-columns, cornice, broken pediment, putti and shield-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) to Joan, daughter of Charles Greenway, 1683, stone tablet with scrolled top. In S. aisle—loose against S. wall, (3) to Peter Smyth, 1646, slate slab. In churchyard—N.E. of chancel, (4) to Francis Parker, 1697, headstone; S.E. of chancel, (5) to Joseph Careles, 1696, headstone. Floor-slabs: In W. tower—(1) to Johan . . ., late 17th or early 18th-century; (2) name defaced, 1709; (3) to John Hughes, S.T.P., 1648 (?); (4) to Henry Bubb, 1709 and Henry his son; (5) to Thomas Cu[tler ?], 170–. Niche: In gable of N. porch—with projecting bracket and cinque-foiled head, 14th-century, much restored. Piscina: In chancel—recess with shelf, chamfered jambs and trefoiled head, partly sub-cusped, quatre-foiled projecting drain, early 14th-century. In S. aisle—in S. wall, recess with chamfered jambs and trilobed head, quatre-foiled drain cut back, early 14th-century. Recess: In external N. wall of vestry—set in projection, recess with chamfered jambs and segmental head, probably tomb-recess, 14th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—of three bays with stepped seats, two eastern under a wide elliptical septfoiled arch and western under a cinque-foiled two-centred arch, early 14th-century. Sundial: On W. jamb of S. doorway of chancel—scratch-dial.
d(2). Kingsland Castle, mount and bailey earthwork, immediately W. of the church, consists of an oval motte with a bailey on the E. of it. The motte is about 61 yards across at its greatest extent and rises some 17 ft. above the marshy ground on the W. There is a ditch between it and the bailey, which is itself sub-divided by a transverse ditch. There are traces of further ditches to the N.W. and N.E. of the bailey and also to the S.E. of the work; the last may have formed part of a village enclosure. To the S. of the motte is a rectangular sinking, possibly a fish-pond.
c(3). Black Hall, house (Plate 28), over 1¼ m. N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics to the W. wing; the walls are mainly timber-framed and the roofs are slate-covered. The central block and the E. cross-wing formed part of a 14th-century house; the Hall was divided into two storeys, probably c. 1600, when the existing W. wing was built on the site of the solarwing. The S.W. wing is a later 17th-century addition. Some of the timber-framing is exposed, but the N. side of the main or Hall block has been refaced in brick and stone; in the upper part, however, are two large curved braces of the original structure and a heavy beam between them having the trefoiled ogee heads of an original four-light window cut in the underside. Inside the building some of the ceiling-beams are exposed. The original hall-roof, now much altered, was of two bays; the E. truss retains its chamfered tie-beam with cusped braces and shaped wall-posts; the tie-beam only is left of the second truss; the tie-beams and principals were cut to form large trefoils within the gable, and some of the cusped timbers are now lying loose in the farmyard. The E. wing has an original central tie-beam with curved braces, and there are similar braces between the wall-posts and the plate. In the W. wall of the Hall are two large shaped wall-posts of the former solar-wing.
d(4). The Rectory, house and outbuilding, 830 yards W.S.W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the wall are of brick and stone and the roofs are tile and slate-covered. It was built early in the 18th century on a square plan and has a modern wing on the N. and an E. porch reconstructed of old materials. The walls have rusticated quoins and a brick band between the storeys; they are finished with a modillioned eaves-cornice; the windows have rubbed brick heads. The E. and W. sides have each three gabled dormers. The porch has a square-headed entrance, flanked by Doric pilasters supporting an entablature with balustrading. Against the N. chimney-stack is an added bell-cote containing a bell of 1723. Inside the building are two fireplaces with original moulded surrounds. The staircase (Plate 75) has turned balusters and square panelled newels.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys, timber-framed and with stone, slate or tile-covered roofs. Most of the buildings have exposed external timber-framing and internal ceiling-beams.
d(8). Park House, 20 yards N. of (7), was built early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick with stone quoins. The central doorway has an architrave, frieze and pediment and a key-stone carved with a grotesque mask.
d(10). The Willows, house, on the S. side of the road, 480 yards W.N.W. of the church, has an added S.E. wing of c. 1700 and later extensions on the N. and W. The S. gable of the original block has diagonal framing.
d(11). Croftmead, house, on the N. side of the road, 30 yards N. of (10), is of late 16th-century date and of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the W. end. Inside the building, one room is lined with 17th-century panelling and a second room has a panelled dado of the same date.
d(12). Croase House, 90 yards S.E. of (11), was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. The N.E. wing is a late 17th-century addition, and c. 1700 the house was recased in brick. Across the N. end of the house is a timber-framed barn. Inside the house, the original staircase has turned balusters and moulded rails.
d(16). Vartry House, 70 yards E.S.E. of (15), incorporates two mediæval trusses, one of which is of king-post type. The upper storey formerly projected at the S. end, but has been under-built. There are modern additions on the N. and E.
d(19). Angel House (Plate 19), immediately E. of (18), was built late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end. The N. wing was extended late in the 17th century. The S. front has been refaced in brick; the upper storey projects at both ends of the front or cross-wing. In the N. wing is an original doorway with a four-centred head and now blocked; there is a similar doorway inside the cross-wing. Re-used in a fireplace in the main chimney-stack is a large 14th-century moulded stone.
d(23). St. Mary's Farm, house, 220 yards E. of the church, has a central block perhaps of mediæval origin; the E. extension of this wing, the N. wing and the W. cross-wing were added or re-built in the 17th century.
d(26). House, now three tenements, immediately E. of (25), was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and N. There are 17th-century additions on the N. and S. sides. Inside the building, in the N.W. corner of the chimney-stack is a recess with timber side-posts and lintel and containing a stone slab with a round lobed piercing and a drain below.
d(29). Holgate Farm, house, 140 yards N.E. of (28), was built of stone c. 1700, but incorporates an earlier portion to the N. of the W. chimney-stack. There are some solid-framed windows of c. 1700. Inside the building, the early part has some 17th-century moulded ceiling-beams. The staircase of c. 1700 has flat moulded balusters, close strings and moulded rails.
d(32). The Elms, house and barn, 730 yards E.S.E. of the church. The House is mainly modern except for the 16th-century kitchen with a 17th-century addition on the E. of it. The E. gable has diagonal framing. The Barn, N.W. of the house, is partly weather-boarded.
b(52). Street Farm, house and barn, 670 yards W. of (51). The House is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. The walls were refaced in brick in the 18th century. The Barn, N.E. of the house, retains an original window of four lights, with diamond-shaped mullions.
d(59). Malthouse Farm, house, 50 yards N.W. of (58), is of H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends. The main block is of mediæval origin and has remains of a crutch-truss. The W. wing was re-built in the 16th century, and the E. wing is of two dates in the 17th century. Much of the S. side has been refaced in brick. Inside the building, the main block has an inserted 16th-century floor. The staircase has early 17th-century moulded newels and rails.
d(60). House (Plate 23), on the S. side of the road, 100 yards W. of (59), incorporates one bay of a mediæval house with a crutch-truss. The rest of the main block and the N.W. wing are of the 17th century.
d(61). Must Mill (Plate 31), 1,170 yards W. of the church, was built probably late in the 15th century and has a thatched roof. The close-set timber-framing is exposed on all four sides and the upper storey projects on the E., W. and S. sides on original moulded bressummers (modern on the S. side) and curved brackets. The E. and W. gables also project. A window on the S. side retains its original sill, and there is an original doorway on the N. with a four-centred head, now blocked.