An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Hertfordshire. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1910.
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60. ST. ANDREW, Urban.
(O.S. 6 in. xxix. S.E.)
(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew, N.W. of the castle, was re-built in 1869, on the site of the former church, of which the moulded N. Doorway of the nave remains; it is of c. 1480, and has a pointed arch in a square head, with quatrefoils in the spandrels; the stops of the label are carved angels holding plain shields.
Fittings—Altar: below the communion table in the N. chapel, a stone altar slab (3 ft. 5 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. by about 5 in. thick). On it are five incised crosses and in the centre is a rectangular cavity, probably for the reception of relics, about 3 in. by 2 in. by 1½ in. deep. The slab is said to have come from the site of the former church of St. Mary the Great, Hertford. Brass: on the floor of the nave, from the original church of St. Andrew, to Bridget Whitgifte, wife of Robert Collingwood, son of Sir Cuthbert Collingwood, knight, 1610, inscription only. Communion Table: in the N. chapel, with twisted legs, possibly late 17th-century. Floor Slab: to Arthur Sparke, 1665, with coat of arms. Plate: includes elaborately chased cup, without plate-mark, probably 16th century, repaired. Stoup: on W. side of N. doorway of nave, 15th-century. projection of bowl broken away.
(2). Hertford Castle stands on low ground, about 140 ft. above O.D., on the S. bank of the River Lea, below its junction with the River Maran, and S.W. of the town of Hertford. The Keep Mount is flat-topped, 22 ft. high, and stands at the N. angle of the castle, adjoining the river; the original ditch is now filled up, and there is no trace of masonry. The Bailey, covering 2⅓ acres, is defended on the E. and S. by a curtain wall, partly original, which stands on a slight bank and abuts on the E. side of the keep mount. The wall is built of flint rubble mixed with narrow bricks and blocks of worked stone, which show no detail, and has, at the S. angle, the remains of a small octagonal turret, with a pointed doorway, apparently of the 14th century, now blocked. On the W. side of the bailey is a late 15th-century Gatehouse of brick. It is a rectangular building, with half-octagonal turrets at the corners, an embattled parapet, over an arcaded corbel table in brick, and a flat lead roof. A mass of flint rubble, probably part of an earlier gatehouse, has been used as a foundation on the E. side. Over the front door is an undecipherable coat of arms. The building was much altered in the 18th century, when a large block was added to it on the S.E.; alterations were also made in the 19th century. Beyond the curtain wall, on the S., are the remains of a broad outer ditch, now partly filled up, and covered by buildings and gardens. This ditch formerly encircled the whole castle, and communicated with the river at each end; a bifurcation on the S.W. formed a small outer bailey, or barbican, which is now completely destroyed, together with the rest of the defences and the original entrance, on that side.
Dimensions—Greatest length of original castle, S.W. to N.E., about 800 ft.; greatest width, about 500 ft.; greatest length of original bailey, S.W. to N.E., 400 ft.; width, 350 ft.; width of original ditch on S.E., 150 ft.; diameter of keep mount: at base, 100 ft.; at summit, 30 ft.
Condition—Of mount and bailey, fairly good; of gatehouse, good, much altered.
(3). House, on the W. side of the Wash, of late 17th-century date, is built of plastered timber, and has an overhanging upper storey supported on plain modillions.
St. Andrews Street
(4). House (No. 6), is a building of brick and timber, originally of c. 1575, but almost completely re-built early in the 18th century. The roof is tiled. All that remains of the 16th-century house beyond the carcase is a chimney stack with two separate octagonal shafts and a re-built cap. One shaft is plain, the other is ornamented with lozenge-shaped panels and panels with pointed ends, formed by a plain roll-moulding of brick.
(5). Cottage, N.E. of the church, built of brick and timber, with rough-cast plaster filling; it has an overhanging upper storey, and is of early 17th-century date. The roof is tiled, and there are two large dormer windows.
Condition—Good; repaired at the back.
(6). Cottages, in Parliament Row, built in the 17th century, of plastered timber; the roofs are tiled.
(7). House, at the corner of Fore and Church Streets (see also All Saints and St. John), is modern, but contains a 17th-century door, with elaborately mitred styles and rails, and a panel of arabesque work.
(8). Drinking Fountain, near the library, composed of fragments from the old Church of St. Mary the Great, which include a 13th-century lancet window, flanked by the jambs of other windows of that date. The lancet has a moulded arch, detached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, and an inner order enriched with dog-tooth ornament.