An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Huntingdonshire. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1926.
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36. GODMANCHESTER (C.e.).
(1). Roman Site. There can be no doubt there was a small Roman posting-station or markettown at the junction with the Ermine Street of the road coming from the S.W. from Sandy and that from the S.E. from Cambridge. The remains of all these roads have been found here: Ermine Street in Church Lane, the road from Sandy in Silver Street and the Cambridge road just outside the northern end of the town. The name Godmanchester and the discovery of Roman coins, pottery and other objects indicate a settlement at this point which lies about half a mile S. of the crossing of the Ouse. The name, however, in the Antonine Itinerary "Durolipons" generally attributed to it, does not fit in with the distances given by Antoninus. Leland writing in the 16th century refers in a general way to coins and foundations having been dug up, and this statement has been copied by later writers, but, other than this, there is no record of the discovery of any structural remains, nor of any rampart or ditch.
The course of existing streets may show the outline of a polygonal-shaped town, and groups of burials around it help to mark the limits of the inhabited area. At Green End, close to the Ouse, a number of urn-burials has been discovered with fibulae, pins and other objects. Just outside the supposed Roman town, along the line of the Roman road from Cambridge, burials by inhumation have been found over rubbish-pits containing Romano-British potsherds of early date and coins from Augustus to the end of the Roman period, and, eastward of this road, fifteen or twenty rubbish-pits have been traced, some of them containing skeletons of babies. Other pits, which were thought to have been the remains of an 'ustrina,' were found where the Ermine Street enters the town. [See Collectanea de Rebus Britannicis (Hearne, Ed. 1715) IV, 13f; Camden, Britannia (1586) p. 281; Rev. F. G. Walker in Camb. Antiq. Soc. XIII, 280; Victoria County History, Hunts I.
(2). At Emmanuel Knoll about a mile out of the town and 40 yards S.E. of the road to Cambridge a mound, probably of Roman date, was destroyed in 1914; its contents showed that it was a tumulus. It contained fragments of the decayed wood and nails of a chest about 18 inches square, filled with black earth and ashes. In the midst of this earth was a black urn in which were calcined bones and clay. A Roman coin was found on the surface of the mound. (Cambs. and Hunts. Arch. Soc. Trans. IV. p. 14.) The urn and coin are now preserved at Tudor House (6), Godmanchester.
(3). Parish Church of St. Mary stands in the N. part of the town about 140 yards N.E. of the junction of the Cambridge and Huntingdon roads. The walls of the W. tower and spire are of limestone ashlar; the rest of the church is built of brown stones and pebble-rubble, with fragments of freestone; the dressings are of Barnack and other limestones. The tooling on some re-used stones in the N. doorway suggests 12th-century masonry but the earliest work in situ is in the Chancel which appears to have been built in the middle or second half of the 13th century. A N. Vestry was added to the chancel in the early or middle part of the 14th century. The nave at this period probably had aisles as there is a blocked window, probably of 13th-century date, in the W. wall of the N. aisle. The date of the original building of the tower is uncertain, as the 13th-century work in it may have been brought from elsewhere. A general rebuilding of the nave began late in the 14th century with the widening of the Aisles, the west windows being the earliest detail. The rest of the aisles and the arcades are of early 15th-century date, as are the North and South Porches. The chancel was heightened at much the same time and its windows were altered. The West Tower seems to have fallen and been re-built c. 1623, the date over the doorway; the materials are said to have come from Ramsey Abbey. The upper storey of the S. porch and its stair-turret were added probably in 1669—the date on a roof-beam. Repairs to the parapets and roofs took place early in the 19th century and in 1853 the church was restored, when presumably the E. window was reconstructed, the Vestry re-built and the second North Vestry and the Organ Chamber added.
The building is a good example of a large parish church; the carved circular panel on one of the southern buttresses of the chancel is an interesting feature and among the fittings the carved oak stalls with their misericords are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (44 ft. by 20 ft.) has a moulded plinth and against the E. wall are four buttresses of which the two outer are each in two stages and the two inner each in one stage and stop below the restored string under the E. window. The N. wall is externally of different materials, the lower part being mostly of ragstone and the upper mostly of pebble-rubble. The S. wall is divided into three bays by buttresses (Plate 35) similar to those at either end of the E. wall; the walling to the lower part of the westernmost bay is probably earlier than the rest. At the junction of the S. wall with the E. wall of the S. aisle is a projecting turret containing the circular stair to the former rood-loft; it has a moulded plinth continued round from the chancel and is built of ashlar and has a semi-conical head surmounted by a re-set corbel of a man's head with long hair, apparently of 15th-century date; it is now used as a chimney and rising above it is a modern brick chimney-stack. In the E. wall are three modern lancet-windows with modern walling between them. In the N. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with a cusped spandrel in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; below it, showing only on the vestry side, is a 13th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a moulded label and moulded stops; further E. is a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. At the W. end of the wall is a modern archway. In the S. wall are three 15th-century windows generally similar in design to that in the N. wall; the easternmost, however, has a hollow-chamfered rear-arch, the middle window has an altered three-centred head, an old label probably re-used from an earlier window, and mask-stops; the westernmost window has narrower lights and is set within an earlier window-opening with wide splays and distorted rear-arch; above all three windows are brick relieving-arches and below the middle window is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The chancel-arch is a 15th- or early 16th-century rebuilding and heightening of an earlier archway; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders with small re-used voussoirs and a label of late 13th- or early 14th-century date with mask-stops; the responds are of two chamfered orders with re-set capitals; that on the N. is of early 14th-century date and has the bell of the inner order carved with foliage; the capital to the inner order of the S. respond is moulded and probably of early 14th-century date and the abacus is continued as an impost-moulding round the outer order; the inner orders have moulded bases of slightly different section and probably of the date of the rebuilding.
The additions on the N. side of the chancel are modern but re-used in the E. wall of the easternmost vestry are the re-set stones of a square-headed window with chamfered lintel and sill, roughly splayed jambs and a 14th-century label with head-stops below it. The E. window of the organ-chamber is of similar design to that in the N. wall of the chancel and is partly of old material.
The Nave (72 ft. by 27 ft.) has in the E. wall, above and cut into by the chancel-arch, two 13th-century lancet-windows with plain splays and two-centred rear-arches with remains of 13th-century paintings. The 15th-century N. and S. arcades are each of five bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner carried on half-round attached shafts, with moulded capitals and bases. The clearstorey is of the same date as the arcade and has in each wall a range of five windows, apparently restored externally and each of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals; below the windows is an internal moulded string-course.
The North Aisle (15 ft. wide) is of 15th-century date and has a moulded plinth similar to that of the chancel, and external and internal string-courses below the windows. The E. window is now unglazed and opens into the modern organ-chamber; it is transomed and of five cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label and sub-cusped quatre-foiled heads to the lights below the transom. In the N. wall are four windows; the easternmost is transomed and of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a three-centred head with a moulded label and beast-stops and with the lower lights cusped in a similar but simpler manner to the lower lights in the E. window; the remaining three windows are each transomed and of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label and with lower lights similar to those of the E. window; over the windows and between the two westernmost are rough stone relieving-arches; the N. doorway is probably of 13th- or early 14th-century date re-set, and some of the jamb-stones appear to be of the 12th century; it has jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders; over the W. side of the doorway is the former doorway from the upper storey of the N. porch, with hooks and catch for the former door; it has a three-centred head and is now blocked. In the W. wall is a window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; it is probably of late 14th-century date; above, and to the S. of this window, is the S. splay and two-centred rear-arch of an earlier and higher window with a rough external relieving-arch.
The South Aisle (19 ft. wide) is of 15th-century date and has a moulded plinth and internal and external string-courses below the windows. In the E. wall is a similar window to that in the E. wall of the N. aisle and to the N. of it is the blocked doorway to the former rood-loft staircase over which the string-course from below the windows is carried in a segmental-pointed form. In the S. wall are four windows; the three easternmost are similar to the three westernmost windows in the N. aisle and the fourth window is of similar character and date but of two lights; the S. doorway has a two-centred head of two moulded orders with a restored moulded label, the moulded jambs having attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the doorway is flanked by niches (see Fittings); to the W. of it is the plain square-headed doorway to the upper storey of the porch. In the W. wall is a window similar to the W. window of the N. aisle but with restored mullions and tracery and an older and higher four-centred rear-arch; to the N. is the N. jamb of a former window of greater height and corresponding to the destroyed window in the N. aisle; the present window appears to have been moved, probably when the W. tower was re-built.
The West Tower (19 ft. by 17½ ft.) was re-built c. 1623. It is of three storeys, the lowest sub-divided by a string-course, and has a moulded plinth and an embattled parapet; the parapet has a carved fleur-de-lis over the middle merlon on each side, carved beasts at the angles of the string-course and roughly carved obelisk-pinnacles of 17th-century date surmounting the angles. The tower-arch is two-centred and of three chamfered orders with a chamfered label and mask-stops; the wide semi-octagonal responds have modern bases and 13th-century capitals carved with 'stiff-leaf' foliage. The W. doorway (Plate 67) has sunk-chamfered jambs, moulded imposts and a moulded two-centred arch with a moulded label; the door-way may be of 1623 but looks like a later restoration; above the doorway is a moulded panel carved with a shield with a fleur-de-lis and a scroll inscribed "bvrgvs gvmece[s]tre"; above this, in raised figures, is the date 1623. The two W. windows are each of two cinque-foiled lights with a trefoil in a semi-circular head with a moulded label. The second stage has in the N. and S. walls a single window similar to those just described. The bell-chamber has in each wall two transomed windows each of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a four-centred head with a moulded label. The spire is octagonal and has broaches behind the parapet; it has three tiers of spire-lights on the cardinal faces, the windows in the two lower tiers each having two cinque-foiled lights in a gabled head and the windows to the top tier being each of one single cinque-foiled light in a gabled head.
The North Porch is of the 15th century and of two storeys with a moulded plinth; the buttresses may be later additions. The entrance has moulded and shafted jambs with moulded capitals to the shafts and a two-centred arch of two moulded orders with a moulded label. The E. and W. walls have each a window of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label and a modern mullion. The upper storey or parvis, has in each of the E. and W. walls a window of one trefoiled light in a square head. In the N. wall is a modern window.
The South Porch is of two storeys and has a moulded plinth with two-stage diagonal buttresses at the S. angle, the lower stages of which have V-shaped outer faces and are topped with large grotesque gargoyles to which the water from the roof was carried by pipes; the half-round grooves for these pipes appear on the upper stage of each buttress. The entrance has moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch with a moulded label and defaced stops; at the apex of the label is a small shaft with a corbel-capital, above which is carved a lilypot; the entrance is flanked by niches (see Fittings). The side walls have each two windows, each of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label. The side walls on the inside have each a recess with shafted jambs with plain bases and moulded capitals above which is a moulded abacus; the arches are moulded and segmental-pointed. The E., S. and W. walls of the upper storey have each a square-headed window.
The Roof to the chancel is low-pitched and in four bays with moulded and braced principals, some of which may be old. They are supported on short lengths of stone wall-shafts rising off moulded capitals and carved head-corbels; some two or three feet below the modern wall-plates is a moulded string-course or cornice which encircles the shafts; the cornice and capitals to the corbels suggest late mediæval work, but the carved heads are mostly of earlier date and appear to be re-used; most of these have no distinctive features, a few approach the grotesque, and one on the N. side has a peculiar nose-bandage and is probably of 13th-century date. The roof of the nave is low-pitched and divided into five bays by braced and cambered tie-beams with wall-posts carried on stone corbels carved with busts of angels holding shields; the tie-beams have two hollow-chamfers and the braces one hollow-chamfer, the purlins, ridge and rafters are plain; some of the latter being modern. The N. and S. aisles have flat pent-roofs, each of five bays with plain chamfered tie-beams with curved braces carried on corbel-capitals with grotesque terminals, most of which are old. The room over the S. porch has a low-pitched gabled roof with one large beam inscribed with the date 1669.
Fittings. Brass and Indent. Brass: In nave —at E. end, small figure of civilian in long robe with furred sleeves and wearing purse, indents of figures of two wives, also two groups of children and inscription-plate, early 16th-century. Indent: In chancel—of inscription-plate. Chairs: (Plate 40); In chancel—two, each with high back with modern central panel flanked by carved scrolls with carved scrolled top and bottom rails, turned shafts at sides, shaped scrolled arms and front legs with shaped scrolls between and four turned stretchers, modern seats; seats and backs formerly carved, late 17th-century. Communion Table: In vestry, of oak with turned legs, early 17th-century. Doors: Between chancel and vestry, of feathered battens with modern repair and backing, refixed and probably of mediæval date. In N. doorway—of two leaves and of battens with fillets planted on, top cut at spring of arch, probably 16th-century. In S. doorway—in two leaves, of battens nailed to square frame; lower part repaired and top cut square with springing of head; massive rim-lock with large key, probably 16th-century. In W. doorway, of two leaves, each divided into twelve panels by applied hollow-chamfered ribs and hung on two long strap-hinges, probably early 18th-century. Font: with roughly worked octagonal bowl with crudely carved mask-stop projections on alternate faces, probably 13th-century, stem and base modern. Monuments: In S. aisle—on S. wall, (1) to Thomas Betts, 1696, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1700, black marble inscription-panel with carved white marble surround flanked by scrolled brackets with gadrooned shelf below supported on acanthus-leaf consoles, skull and drapery, and, above tablet, winged cherub-head, moulded cornice, carved scrolled brackets and cartouche-of-arms. In churchyard—on N. side, (2) to Henry Brown, 1701, head-stone carved with skull and cross-bones at top. By S.E. angle of chancel, (3) small head-stone inscribed on E. face, 1708, I.W. and on the W. face, 1684, N.W., J.N. Niches: In N. aisle, in splays of E. window, remains of canopied niches, 15th-century. In S. porch, on either side of doorway to S. aisle, each with sub-cusped, trefoiled ogee arch with sunk spandrels in a square head and ribbed soffit; semi-octagonal moulded bracket in lower part of niche, supported on attached shaft with moulded base rising off sloping sill of niche, 15th-century. On either side of entrance-archway of S. porch, each with bowed head, trefoiled, sub-cusped and crocketed, under a crocketed and finialed gable, and flanked by small projecting buttresses with pinnacles, the pedestals have perished foliage and short shafts below. Painting: In nave—on soffit and remaining jambs of blocked windows over chancel-arch, conventional scroll-design with simple indented pattern on chamfered angle, 13th-century. Plate: (Plate 136) includes a late 16th-century cup with engraved bands round lip and moulded knop on stem; a large cup of 1559 with a band of engraved ornament round top of stem, and a plain paten of 1559. Poor-box: In nave—of oak, cylindrical and bound with thin iron straps, with sunk bowl in lid with metal plate pierced for slot; metal plate round outside with painted inscription and box secured by chain, early 18th-century. Seating: In nave—re-set on face of modern bench-ends fronting central gangway, several traceried heads of panels of two types—(a) septfoiled with carved foliated spandrels in square heads; (b) of two trefoiled divisions with tracery in a four-centred arch with carved foliated spandrels in a square head. Re-set, on fronts and backs of seats facing cross-gangway, traceried heads (Plate 63) of various design, some with spandrels carved with grotesques, birds, fishes, conventional leaves, etc., others on ends of benches fronting central gang-way, all of 15th-century date. Stalls: In chancel —on either side, ten in two groups of three and seven (Plate 63), with plain backs with curved and moulded capping and shaped divisions with carved haunches (Plate 66) as follows: N. side—(1) king's head, below, attached shaft with moulded capital and base; (2) grotesque animal with cat's face and dragon's wings; (3) lion's head with flowing mane; (4) a rose; (5) a five-petalled flower; (6) grotesque animal; (7) vine-leaf; (8) crouching animal; (9) jester with cap and bells and hands spread at sides; (10) foliage; (11) eagle; (12) part of a crowned head; S. side— (1) partly modern, portion of king's head; (2) winged angel on clouds; (3) crowned angel, wings folded back, lower part destroyed; (4) moulded piece inset in place of former carving; (5) rose partly destroyed; (6) man's head cowled and surrounded with twisted vines with grapes; (7) bird, head missing; (8) crouching beast, tail missing; (9) crowned angel on clouds; (10) crowned angel, draped, with scroll passing under arms; (11) human head with flowing hair and buttoned vest, sides destroyed; (12) five-petalled flower on each side. Carved misericords to seats, N. side (Plate 64)—(1) mask of man with flowing hair, beard and moustache, two leaves; (2) dog wearing collar of bells and lying on tasselled cushion; (3) bird on branch; (4) shield charged with fleur-de-lis; (5) crouching hare or rabbit surrounded by double rays; (6) devil's head, horned and with tongue protruding; (7) vine-leaf; (8) crouching cat; (9) seated ape, partly broken; (10) wyvern with beast's head with knotted tail and head at end of tail. S. side (Plate 65)—(1) fox carrying off goose, tail destroyed; (2) crowned angel holding scroll; (3) angel with spread wings, hair bound with circlet and holding shield charged with letters W.S. intertwined, slightly restored; (4) crouching lion; (5) lion-mask with protruding tongue; (6) reclining horse; (7) cat holding mouse with teeth and claws; (8) eagle holding scroll; (9) dappled fawn, crouching and scratching nose with hind foot; (10) shield charged with fleur-de-lis; all flanked by foliage-bosses. The front of the stalls panelled with cusped and traceried heads and having a moulded capping forming a book-rest; all the traceried heads are modern except those to the W. group on the S. side, which are old but partly restored. The ends of the stalls are original with ogee-shaped tops surmounted by carved popey-heads (Plate 63), N. side—(1) two doves back to back, with two similar birds above billing; (2) a draped angel, broken; (3) apparently modern; (4) two owls back to back with foliated finial. S. side—(1) three grotesque masks with thick curled hair and beards; (2) apparently modern; (3) foliage popey-head; (4) two winged monsters with serpent-headed tails entwined to form finial. The muntins to desks in front of boys' seats apparently old, but arched heads, spandrels, etc., modern; front formerly close-panelled. The fleurs-de-lis on the misericords probably indicate that the stalls were made for Godmanchester and the initials W.S. may refer to William Stevens, vicar of the parish, 1470–81. Sundial: On gable of S. porch— inscribed "G. 1623 W.S.," iron gnomon. Miscellanea: Carved late 13th-century wheel-panel, (Plate 35) on westernmost buttress on S. wall of chancel, carved in relief, about 2 ft. 4 in. in diameter, with eight trefoiled compartments on spokes radiating from small ring-hub and having semi-foliated capitals; each compartment sub-divided by smaller radial ribs; in centre remains of iron fixing, the number and arrangement of divisions renders the panel useless as a sundial. Masons' marks, various, on arches of nave-arcade, 15th-century. Over lobby of W. door, part of moulded wood pediment with three cherub-heads carved in relief, probably late 17th-century. In S. porch, fragment of circular stone shaft with leaf or scale-ornament on surface, 12th-century.
(4). The Causeway, between the town and Huntingdon Bridge, was reconstructed in 1637 by Robert Cooke, but very extensive works took place in 1767 and 1784, and it is probable that the two bridges which form part of the causeway date from the later period. Both bridges are of brick and of eight spans and have segmental arches; the piers have rounded cutwaters on the upper or western side, surmounted by flat pilasters. Set in the parapet of the southern bridge is a stone with a modern copy of the old inscription "Robertus Cooke ex aquis emersus hoc viatoribus sacrum D.D. 1637." Both bridges have considerable modern repair.
(5). Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, school-house (Plate 149) 130 yards S.W. of the church, is of one storey; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built, probably, about the date of the foundation, 1560, and then consisted of a rectangular hall with a two-storeyed porch on the S. side. The building was much altered and restored in 1851 and has modern additions on the N. side. The main building has a plain plinth and a simple brick entablature a short distance below the eaves-level and continued round the porch; at the angles are brick pilasters. The porch has a restored outer doorway with moulded jambs and square head; the upper storey is gabled and has a modern window; above the window is an inscription, "Eliz. Reg. hujus scholae fundatrix" and a restored sundial with a moulded cornice and the inscription "Sibi Aliisque." The inner doorway of the porch has an original doorway with moulded frame and elliptical arch in a square head; the arch has carved spandrels and moulded key-block and brackets; the partly restored door has long scrolled hinges. The ceiling of the porch has a chamfered beam and the roof of the main building has plain tie-beams.
(6). Tudor House and barn, on the E. side of Ermine Street, ¼ m. E.S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are tiled. The house was built, probably, between the years 1600 and 1603 and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. There are 18th-century and modern additions in the angle between the wings. The timber-framing is exposed on all sides of the house. The upper storey projects on the whole of the W. front (Plate 69) on curved brackets, two with scrolled enrichment; there is a projecting gable at each end of the same front, with moulded bargeboards and base-beams; on the S. gable is the date 1600, but the two middle figures are modern and the original end-figures may have been intended for initials. The doorway (Plate 160) has a moulded frame and three-centred arch in a square head with carved spandrels and a panel above carved with the date 1603 and two roses; the door is panelled and has strap-hinges. On the ground-floor are five original windows, each of three lights and all blocked; there is one original window on the first floor, with moulded frame and mullions. The back elevation (Plate 69) has a small gabled projection with a blocked original window in the gable. The S. elevation has been partly refaced with modern brick. Towards the E. end is a small projecting wing with exposed timber-framing. The main E. wing has an original chimney-stack with two diagonal shafts. Inside the building the ground-floor rooms of the N. wing have original moulded or chamfered ceiling-beams. There are two early 18th-century panelled doors.
(7). House (Plate 69), 110 yards S.S.W. of (6) is of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1625, but the S. part of the house appears to be of slightly different date; the building is of rectangular plan with cross-wings at the N. and S. ends. The timber-framing is exposed on the W. front and the upper storey projects, throughout its length, on exposed joists and curved brackets; the gable of the N. cross-wing also projects and has moulded barge-boards and pendants. Above the 18th-century doorway is the date 1625. The ground-floor has a series of blocked windows under the projection of the floor above; there is a similar blocked window on the floor above. Inside the building there are original moulded ceiling-beams to the ground-floor rooms. The fireplace of the S. room has brick diapering at the back
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Some of the buildings have original chimney-stacks, open fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
(8). House, 30 yards N. of (7), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W. There is a later addition in the angle between the wings. The E. front has a gable at the N. end with exposed timber-framing with moulded and enriched barge-boards; projecting from the first floor is an oriel-window with enriched bargeboards to the gable and a plastered ogee base with wooden mouldings at the top and bottom. The two original chimney-stacks have grouped diagonal shafts or pilasters on a dentilled or moulded base. Inside the building is a late 17th-century panelled door.
(13). Porch Farm, house 80 yards S.S.E. of (12), was built in the 16th century and has a short wing projecting S.W. at the back of the house. The porch (Plate 160) was probably added c. 1600 and is of timber on a brick base; the base-beam of the gable is carved with guilloche and billet-ornament and the barge-boards have carved semi-circular enrichments; at the apex is a turned pendant. The sides of the porch have symmetrically-turned balusters. The door, within the porch, is panelled and probably of the same date. The upper storey of the front formerly projected, but has been under-built with brickwork. The 17th-century chimney-stack of the back wing has grouped diagonal shafts. Inside the building, the middle part of the house has an original moulded ceiling-beam with foliated stops. There are several early 18th-century panelled doors.
(14). Looker's Farm, house on the N.E. side of the road, 30 yards N. of (13), has an original central chimney-stack with three detached shafts, two of which are set diagonally. Inside the building are some early 18th-century doors and a length of balustrading with turned balusters and a square newel.
(21). Queen Victoria Inn, 130 yards N.W. of (16), has an 18th-century addition at the back. The upper storey projects in front and the timber-framing is exposed on the N. side. Inside the building one room has a moulded ceiling-beam.
(23). Red Lion Inn and barn on the W. side of the road, 40 yards N.W. of (22). The Inn is built of brick and has a moulded band-course between the storeys. The front doorway has an original moulded frame and a simple brick label. Inside the building are two original moulded ceiling-beams.
(27). House, on the S. side of the lane, 60 yards N.N.W of (26), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. The N. front has a 17th-century porch of rusticated brickwork, with a round archway, flanking pilasters and a pediment; the panelled door has strap-hinges with foliated ends. On the E. side is a large chimney-stack with moulded offsets. The central chimney-stack has four grouped shafts, set diagonally. Inside the building are some early 18th-century wooden fittings and on the first floor is some early 17th-century panelling. The ceilings of two upper rooms have each a moulded panel enclosing an oval panel with a lozenge-shaped boss in the middle.
(29). House, on the N. side of the lane, 15 yards N.W. of (27), is of two storeys with attics. It was built, probably, early in the 16th century but has been much altered and has an 18th-century addition on the N. side. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.
(33). House, two tenements, 180 yards W.S.W. of (32), was built probably early in the 18th century. The walls are of brick and there is a band-course between the storeys. The plan is T-shaped with the cross-wing at the S.E. end.
(38). Belle Isle, house (Plate 71) S.W. of (37), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. The front door is original and panelled and retains a drop-handle with scrolled ironwork. The original central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts and pilasters on a rectangular base with a moulded capping. Inside the building one room has an original moulded ceiling-beam. The staircase has turned balusters, moulded rails and strings and square newels with shaped terminals. In the back-wall below the staircase is an old battened door and a window with a bar-shaped mullion.
(39). House (Plate 69), formerly the Shepherd and Dog Inn, 60 yards E. of (37) was built c. 1593. Most of the timber-framing is exposed. The upper storey formerly projected in front but has been under-built in brick; the bressummer is carved with guilloche-ornament. The gable at the S.W. end of the front bears the date 1593 and has moulded and enriched base and barge-boards and carved pendants at the apex and feet. The gable at the N.E. end of the house has moulded and enriched barge-boards and carved pendants. The central chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts. The front door is panelled and has an iron drop-handle and scutcheon-plates; the frame is moulded. Inside the building the two principal rooms have original moulded ceiling-beams.
(43). House, on island-site, at cross-roads, 200 yards E.N.E. of (42). The upper storey projects on the N. front. Inside the building the staircase is original and has heavy turned balusters, moulded rails and strings and square newels with ballterminals.
(44). House, (Plate 69) two tenements, 220 yards S.S.W. of the church, was built c. 1600 and has a cross-wing at the N. end. The timber-framing is exposed on the W. front. The upper storey of the cross-wing and the gable both project on curved brackets and the gable has moulded base and barge-boards and moulded pendants. The original central chimney-stack has three detached diagonal shafts. Inside the building the N.W. room has a late 17th-century moulded surround and cornice to the fireplace.
(45). The Vicarage, 90 yards N. of (44), is of two storeys with attics, and has extensive 18th-century and modern additions on the E. and N. The S. end has a projecting gable with moulded base and bargeboards. On the E. side of the house are two original windows with moulded frames and mullions. Inside the building are some early 18th-century panelled doors. (House now demolished.)
(48). House, (Plate 71) two tenements, 25 yards N.N.W. of (47), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The upper storey projects on the whole of the W. front on heavy shaped brackets; pairs of these brackets are placed above the two doorways and finished with pediments on the face of the storey above; they form a sham hood to the doorway. Inside the building are some early 18th-century panelled doors. An outbuilding, in continuation of the E. wing, is perhaps of early 18th-century date.
(51). House, two tenements, 20 yards S. of (50), has an original central chimney-stack with grouped diagonal shafts and a sunk panel in the base. The upper storey projects on the E. front. The gable at the S. end has moulded barge-boards.
(52). House, 140 yards S. of (51), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The upper storey projects on the E. front and has exposed timber-framing. There is a plaster cove below the eaves and the front doorway has an eared architrave and door of early 18th-century date. The S. end has a projecting gable with an original moulded base-beam.
(59). House, on the N. side of the street, 150 yards S.E. of the church was built in the 16th century and has a cross-wing at the W. end. The front of the main building has exposed timber-framing. Inside the building are two original moulded ceiling-beams.
(60). Range of three houses (Plate 72) on the S. side of the street, 140 yards S. of the church, was built c. 1611–13. The upper storey projects on the whole of the N. front with a moulded bressummer. At the W. end is a cross-wing with a projecting gable. The gable has curved brackets and turned pendants and a partly blocked window with an original frame. The two central chimney-stacks are original, the western has grouped diagonal shafts and on the base a plaster fleur-de-lis and the date 1611; the eastern stack has two detached diagonal shafts and on the base is a simple geometrical design with the date 1613. Inside the range, two of the houses have moulded ceiling-beams, perhaps of earlier date than the house. The W. house has a room with early 18th-century panelling, cornice and dado-rail. On the first floor is an original panelled door and over the fireplace in the E. room is a painting of the Stuart royal arms on plaster, with the initials I.R.; the fireplace has an early 18th-century moulded surround.
(66). Wall, on the N. side of the lane, 340 yards S. of the church, was probably the boundary-wall of a large garden. The eastern part is mainly of re-used ashlar with some rubble and incorporates some moulded stones; the remainder of the wall is of 17th-century brickwork with some bricks of unusual size.
(67). House (Plate 71), two tenements, on the S.W. side of the lane, 210 yards E.S.E. of the church, was built in the 16th century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W. The upper storey projects on the N.E. front. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.
(68). House (Plate 71), three tenements, facing the end of the road and 370 yards S.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1613 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W. The W. wing is continued through to the front of the house and has a projecting upper storey and a projecting gable with moulded and enriched base-beam and moulded pendants. On the front is the date 1613.
(70). House (Plate 69), 40 yards E. of (69), was built about the middle of the 16th century and is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E. The timber-framing is exposed on the S.E. front and in the middle of the main block is a large gable with moulded and enriched barge-boards of early 17th-century date. The gable at the back has simply moulded bargeboards. Inside the building, the N.E. room has elaborately moulded ceiling-beams and moulded joists. There is another moulded ceiling-beam at the S.W. end of the house. The middle room has a large fireplace with stop-chamfered jambs of ashlar.
(71). House, 70 yards E. of (70) was built in 1714. The walls are of brick and the roof is hipped. There is a brick band between the storeys and on the front are two square stone blocks, one incised as a sundial and the other with the date 1714 on a cartouche. The front doorway has a moulded architrave, cornice and pediment and is flanked by shallow square-headed recesses, one on each side being pierced for a window. The three windows in the upper storey have moulded heads and two other windows have been blocked. Inside the building, the original staircase has turned balusters, moulded rails and strings and square newels; between the staircase and the hall is an arch with moulded archivolt, panelled soffit, imposts and plain key-block; flanking the opening are two cupboards with panelled doors and openings above with flat shaped balusters. There are also several original panelled doors.
(73). Mound, on the S. side of the Cambridge road, about 1¼ m. E.S.E. of the church, was of circular form but does not now extend beyond the hedge bounding the road. On it is a tree known as Emmanuel Knoll Tree.
(74). Mounds, on the W. and E. sides of the London road, about 1¼ m. and 1¾ m. S.S.E. of the church respectively. There are slight indications of what may have been mounds at these two points. They are now marked by trees called One Mile Tree and King's Bush respectively.