An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 1, Westminster Abbey. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1924.
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AN INVENTORY OF THE ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS IN LONDON.
ACCREDITED TO A DATE ANTERIOR TO 1714, Volume I. Westminster Abbey.
(Unless otherwise stated, the dimensions given in the Inventory are internal. The key plans showing positions of monuments are to a uniform scale of sixteen feet to one inch; the other plans have scales attached.)
(1). The Collegiate Church of St. Peter, church, monastic and collegiate buildings, occupies a site bounded by New Palace Yard, St. Margaret's Churchyard, Broad Sanctuary, Dean's Yard and College Street.
In the following description the church and monastic buildings are treated separately. Owing to the mass of detail involved in the description of the fittings and the intimate connection of many of them with the structure, it has been found better to divide them into groups and treat each group immediately after the structural division to which it appertains.
The Church is built largely of Caen stone with much Purbeck marble in the columns and shafting; Henry VII's chapel is of Huddleston (Yorks.) stone and the western towers are of Portland stone. Many other types of stone have been used in the modern restorations and alterations. The roofs throughout are covered with lead.
(2). Historical Development—The earliest work remaining in the church is the respond bases in the presbytery and the foundations of part of the main apse, all parts of the church begun by Edward the Confessor soon after his accession in 1042, and consecrated in 1065. The existing remains are sufficient to indicate a Romanesque church of the 'apses in echelon' type, but beyond this nothing is certain, and it is impossible to say how much of the structure was complete in 1065. This church had two western towers and probably a central tower. The next alteration to the church of which there is definite evidence is the building of a Lady chapel, some distance E. of the main apse, c. 1220. Of this building the start of the side walls at the W. end survives and its general plan seems to be preserved by the walls supporting the arcades and piers of Henry VII's chapel; if so, it was a building of six bays with a three-sided apse.
The rebuilding of the church was begun by Henry III in 1245, and the first stage of the work included the whole of the eastern arm with its aisles, ambulatory and chevet of chapels, which were planned to incorporate the pre-existing Lady chapel. The same detail which marks the W. side of the S. transept, makes it probable that this side was built shortly before the rest of the transept (N. and S. arms) and the crossing. The second period of building under Henry III extended from c. 1258–60 to c. 1269 and the work included the second to the fifth bays of the nave (the ritual quire with one bay W. of it); the fifth bay, like the first bay of the earlier work, was carried up to the base of the clearstorey and then only the E. jambs of the clearstorey windows was completed, the line of junction above this being the division between the fourth and fifth bays. The remainder of the old nave was pulled down in the last quarter of the 14th century and the completion of the new nave was begun in 1376, the outer S. wall, next the cloister, being the first part of the work to be undertaken. A Galilee porch was added to the N. transept and finished c. 1362. A chapel of St. Erasmus was added to the Lady chapel by Queen Elizabeth Woodville in the third quarter of the 15th century. The work of the nave continued at intervals throughout the 15th century, the W. end being practically finished under Abbot Estney (1474–98). The lower part of the two W. towers was built under Abbot Islip (1500–33). Under Islip also the Lady chapel and chapel of St. Erasmus were pulled down and the Lady chapel re-built with aisles and chapels by Henry VII, the foundation stone being laid in 1503 and the chapel itself finished c. 1519. The abbey was dissolved in 1540 and no important alterations were made to the fabric of the church until c. 1662, when the N. Galilee was pulled down. In 1697 Sir Christopher Wren was appointed surveyor to the church and soon afterwards the refacing of the exterior was taken in hand, beginning with the S. side of the nave and proceeding eastwards; the progress of the work is indicated by the dates on the rainwaterheads on various parts of the building, the latest date being 1720. Wren also vaulted the lantern or crossing and repaired the high vaults of the eastern parts of the church. The two W. towers were completed c. 1740 and with them the main W. gable. In 1803 the ceiling or vault of the crossing was burnt and replaced on the old lines. Between 1807 and 1822 Henry VII's chapel was almost entirely refaced. The various other restorations of the 19th century have hardly left a single ancient stone on the exterior of the fabric. The exterior of the N. transept was remodelled between 1875 and 1892.
The two most important questions relating to the architectural history of the abbey are (a) the form and extent of the Confessor's church, and (b) the sequence of events leading up to the general rebuilding of the church under Henry III.
The first of these points, after giving rise to two very divergent theories, may be said to have been settled by the discovery some years ago of part of the foundation of the main apse under the floor of the Confessor's chapel. It may now be taken as proven that the presbytery of the church terminated in an apse and had side walls either solid or pierced by arches and divided by responds into two bays; as a corollary to this a study of contemporary church-planning in Normandy enables it to be assumed that the presbytery was flanked by aisles terminating level with the chord of the main apse, and probably with apses contrived in the thickness of a wall finished square on the outside. This type of church is exemplified in the 11th-century churches of Jumièges Abbey (begun c. 1040), the abbey churches of Bernay (1040), and Lessay (founded 1060), the Conqueror's churches, la Trinité (1062–66) and S. Etienne (1064–73) at Caen, S. Georges de Boscherville (1050–66), S. Nicholas at Caen (c. 1083–93), and Cerisy (finished c. 1100), all in Normandy. The alternative Romanesque plan of the east end, consisting of the apsidal presbytery with an encircling ambulatory and three radiating chapels, appears to have been of slightly later introduction and to have been due less to Norman than to Angevin and Cluniac influence. It first appears in St. Austin's, Canterbury, Gloucester and Bury St. Edmunds.
A peculiarity of the church at Westminster is found in the shortness of the presbytery, only two bays separating the apse from the central tower, as compared to three at Lincoln, four at Peterborough, and five at St. Albans and Ely. In this it accords well with the Normandy churches cited above, which have but two bays separating the central tower from the apse. This peculiarity is no doubt indicative of an early date; six of the Normandy churches named appear to have been built or begun before the Conquest, while in England this feature is only shared by Lanfranc's cathedral at Canterbury (1070–77), Hermann and Osmund's cathedral at Old Sarum (1075–92), and St. Mary's Abbey, York (c. 1086).
At its consecration in 1065 it would appear that the Confessor's church was practically complete. This, however, does not necessarily imply that more was built than the presbytery, the crossing, and such part of the nave as may have been occupied by the monks' quire. A description written before 1074 expressly states that the older church was left standing to the W., with a sufficiently wide space between it and the new church to accommodate a spacious vestibule. The statement of Sulcardus that the church, at the death of the Confessor, was completed even to the porch, may be taken to be a reference to this vestibule, which no doubt connected the old and the new buildings.
The description referred to above is couched in the inflated and obscure terms of the period, but indicates that the church terminated in an apse and had a central tower, placed over the quire, and transepts on either side. The description of the aisles of the presbytery makes mention that they had a double arch (duplex arcus), but whether this applies to the arcade or roof is doubtful. At Jumièges both the aisle and the triforium above are vaulted. A second description, written in French, c. 1245, gives an account of the completed church, with two western towers, and mentions the cloister, chapter-house vaulted and round towards the E., frater, dorter and other offices. That this was the first church built in the Norman style and on the Norman plan in this country is vouched for by William of Malmesbury, but that it was the only one so built before the Conquest is less certain. The fact that Harold's quire at Waltham seems to have remained standing until its rebuilding by Henry II in 1177 implies, very strongly, that this building, too, was of the same type, and other churches may well have followed the new fashion at a period when new ideas were much in evidence, and the Abbot of St. Austin's at Canterbury went even further afield than Normandy for his architectural models.
How far the building of the domestic part of the abbey had advanced by the death of the Confessor it is impossible to say. The details of the dorter sub-vault—the earliest surviving portion—might equally well belong to either just before or after the Conquest, and indeed accord well in character with the detail of the Confessor's responds in the presbytery.
The frater, on the other hand, is more definitely of post-Conquest character; the general lay-out of the cloister and its surrounding buildings, which originally included a western range, seems to negative the possibility of the early nave being much, if at all, shorter than its existing representative.
Turning now to the second problem in the architectural history of the building, a considerable amount of controversy has arisen round the question of the relationship of the new Lady chapel of 1220, firstly to the pre-existing church and secondly to the church of Henry III. The Lady chapel was built some 50 ft. to the east of the main apse of the Confessor's church, an interval which may be explained in three ways, (a) that the chapel adjoined a hypothetical 12th-century rebuilding of the E. end, of which there is no other evidence; (b) that it was an isolated structure similar to that erected at the Abbey of St. Germer (Oise) some 20 years later; and (c) that it was the first step in the general rebuilding of the church and formed an integral part of the ambitious design subsequently pushed forward with so much energy by Henry III. The last alternative presents the fewest difficulties, and the vast extent of the work contemplated cannot be considered as beyond the resources of the richest abbey of the kingdom, though, as it happened, the backing of the royal exchequer enabled work to be done in a few years which would otherwise have occupied a century or more.
The question of the extent of the respective contributions of the French and English schools of Gothic to the design of the new church is one which requires the closest study of the contemporary buildings of the Isle de France and this country. The nationality of the first master mason —Henry, probably identical with Henry de Reyns —cannot be taken as settled, for while his surname, Reyns, bears a specious resemblance to a phonetic spelling of Reims the simpler explanation is that his birthplace was Rayne or some other English village of a like name. The admixture of French and English influence in the design is not sufficient, either way, to decide whether its author was a Frenchman working for English patrons or an Englishman who had studied in France. The design itself may be studied under four heads: (a) plan; (b) elevation; (c) vault-system; and (d) details, each of which throws valuable light on the problem.
The Plan of the E. end or chevet bears a general resemblance in the number and arrangement of bays and in the number and disposition of the radiating polygonal chapels to the chevet of the cathedral of Reims, designed by Jean d'Orbais and begun in 1211 and finished in 1242. In both there is the same wide bay E. of the crossing, corresponding to the E. aisle of the transept, which is in each case wider than the ambulatory. The chief difference between the two plans is that the vault-centre of the apse at Reims is on the chord of the apse, while that at Westminster is set half a bay E. of the chord. This arrangement at Westminster was followed to its constructional conclusion by carrying the westerly supports of this vault radially outwards, thus throwing the western pair of polygonal chapels W. of the chord of the apse and producing a buttress at a somewhat awkward angle with the rest of the building. This arrangement seems not to have been followed in any of the greater French churches, such as Chartres, S. Ouen, Beauvais, Amiens, etc., where the vault-centre corresponds to that at Westminster and consequently the latter, while constructionally more perfect, may be looked upon as the work of an architect who, if he did not distrust the stability of the French work, at any rate preferred to take no risks. The chevet at Westminster was copied, in this country, in a more English fashion at Hayles Abbey (1271–77), at Battle Abbey (13th century), and at Tewkesbury Abbey (14th century).
Westminster was, however, not the first Gothic chevet of the French type in the country. It was preceded by that at Beaulieu Abbey (built c. 1210) of which only the plan remains. This plan is a copy of that of the enlarged church of Clairvaulx, but it may well have stood in the same relationship to Westminster as Notre Dame at Paris does to Reims.
Turning now to the other features of the Westminster plan, the most noticeable divergence from the French type is in the great projection (four bays from the crossing) of the transepts. This is an entirely English feature, as is the polygonal chapter-house, a form which was never adopted in France.
The Elevations, save in the main windows of the polygonal chapels and the clearstorey, display but little affinity to the design at Reims; the windows are, however, practically identical and the wall-passage which runs along the window-sills of the chapels is very similar to the corresponding feature in the French church. The design of the triforium arcade is more definitely English and can be paralleled very closely in the presbytery at Rievaulx and the 'Angel Choir' (1256–80) at Lincoln, the latter probably a copy of the work at Westminster. The double plane of arcading at Westminster is, however, rather a mark of French than of English design. The N. front of the transept and the two rose windows were, before their restoration, entirely French features.
With regard to the Vaulting System, Professor Lethaby has pointed out that in the technical detail of the construction of the vault-webs the Westminster vaults follow the English and not the French method. The difference lies in the coursing of the stones of the web, which in French work is parallel to the ridge of the vault, while in English work it cuts obliquely into the ridge-line, which is formed of a series of stones notched to receive the courses after the manner of a saw-edge. This point has of course little bearing on the provenance of the design, as the masons employed on the vault-web would in any case be English and would naturally follow the English method.
The Details of the work at Westminster have, in some instances, marked French characteristics; the profiles of the base-moulds have the flattened roll of the French work, the plans of the columns and responds are a close copy of those at Reims, the detached shafts in the English work being necessitated by the use of Purbeck marble for this purpose. The spur-ornaments of the bases, furthermore, are much more elaborate than is usual in English work. On the other hand, there is no trace anywhere of the square French abacus, which forms perhaps the most distinctive difference from English work of this period.
To sum up, it may be concluded that while it is not impossible that a Frenchman, Henry de Reyns or another, was responsible for the design of the church, there is nothing in that design that cannot be accounted for by the theory of an English mason sent to France to study the chief churches then building and to design a church on the new French lines which are known to have so much attracted King Henry III, the patron. The practice of sending the architect to study and copy a building which had caught the fancy of the patron was common throughout the middle ages and a direct instruction to that effect is often inserted in mediaeval contracts.
The acquisition of the painted retable (now in the S. ambulatory) by the abbey was in itself an important event in the artistic history of the church. Not only is the retable amongst the most remarkable works of its period which have survived in this country, but it appears to have set a local fashion in decoration which subsisted for a century, and perhaps longer. The question of the French or English origin of the work cannot be definitely settled except by the happy discovery in the abbey muniments of some reference to the donor or his gift. The object itself provides evidence as inconclusive as the design of the church itself. The architectural details are perhaps more French than English, but the badges employed in the decoration belong equally to the royal houses of France and England in the second half of the 13th century. The imitation cameos with classical heads are a peculiar feature of the decoration, for while the employment of antique cameos in seals and elsewhere is comparatively common in the middle ages, no other instance of a mediaeval copy appears to have survived in this country. It is, however, the decoration of coloured glass and painted gesso behind glass which set a fashion and may almost be said to have started a local school of decoration. It was followed in the monument of Edmund Crouchback, in the oak sedilia, on the Coronation chair, and remains of coloured glass backing still survive on the monument of Queen Philippa.
Side by side with the retable as a new type of decoration in this country, stands the shrine of Edward the Confessor. This, however, was the work of Italian craftsmen and apparently found no native imitators. Even the Italians, save for their work at Westminster and similar work in the Trinity chapel at Canterbury Cathedral, have left little trace of their visit. There is a record of the use of this decoration at Old St. Paul's, and a fragment of green porphyry was found at Barking Abbey and another at Old Sarum Cathedral, but the latter must belong to an earlier period. It has been suggested that the great bronze doors formerly at Bury Abbey were also of Italian work; in any case Cisalpine art was but an incident in 13th-century England and did not reappear before the Renaissance. In one direction, however, the Italian shrine has left its impress. In some sort it seems to have served as a model for succeeding works of the same type and the twisted Italian shafts were reproduced in a native manner in the shrines of St. Alban and St. Swithin.
The pavement of the presbytery is a work of Odericus (Oderisi), who is otherwise known as the author of the tomb of Pope Clement IV (d. 1271) in the church of S. Francesco at Viterbo. The Peter the Roman who made the Confessor's shrine was probably the son of Odericus, but this is not certain.
The later architectural history of the abbey presents no features of outstanding interest until the construction of the new Lady chapel by Henry VII. The work of the nave of the church, which extended its leisurely progress throughout the 15th century and overlapped the centuries before and after, is remarkable only for the uniformity of design with the earlier work of Henry III which distinguishes it and is perhaps the most conscious piece of architectural imitation which the Middle Age provides in this country.
The chapel of Henry VII is incomparably the finest example of the peculiarly English style which may be termed Tudor Gothic. The distinguishing features of this style had, however, their origins long before the Tudors and its earliest existing example is the cloisters of Gloucester, which date from the 14th century. In its final form of constructional exuberance, however, which expresses itself in the most advanced form of fan-vaulting with pendant cones, it is practically confined to the Tudor period. It is obvious that the introduction of pendant cones complicates enormously the constructional difficulties of roofing a wide span with the flat fan - vaulting of the 15th century and the bridging of a span of 34 ft. at Westminster is a far finer constructional achievement than that of the vault without pendants at King's College, Cambridge, or the unambitious and unventuresome attempt at Christchurch, Oxford.
(3). The Eastern Arm (Plate 29) of the church (78 ft. by 33½ ft.) is formed by a fivesided apse and three straight bays, and contains Edward the Confessor's chapel and the presbytery, the latter occupying the two western bays and being separated from the former by a stone screen. It has N. and S. aisles continuing round the apse as an ambulatory and from this radiates the chevet of chapels, the whole dating from 1245–60. The floor of the presbytery is raised about 2½ ft. above that of the nave, and the floor of Edward the Confessor's chapel is about 1 ft. above the presbytery. The walls, including the main arcade, triforium and clearstorey, are of Caen stone. The arcades have moulded two-centred arches on circular piers, each surrounded by four detached circular shafts at the cardinal points tied by two intermediate moulded bands which are carried round the piers; the plain bell-shaped capitals, with moulded abaci, follow the contour of the pier and shafts, and similarly the moulded bases, which with the exception of the middle pier on each side of the presbytery, have the usual 13th-century 'hold-water' moulding; the bases of the piers stand on octagonal moulded plinths (polygonal in the apse), the angles being carved with a spur of foliage. Octagonal projections support the bases of the shafts. Above each of the inner shafts at the springing of the main arcade rises a triple shaft to carry the high vault, and the wall surfaces of the spandrels to the arcade are diapered with squares of floral carving. The triforium floor-level is marked by a moulded string which is stopped at the vaulting shafts but continued as a band round the centre shaft. Each bay of the triforium (Plate 30) has a double arcade, one on each face of its inner wall, the rear-arches raised two steps above the aisle vault. There are two pointed arches to each of the three bays N. and S., and one to each bay of the apse, all with twin subsidiary arches beneath a cusped circle. The outer orders of the heads of the large arches (towards the church) are of three varieties — (a) moulded, (b) carved with stiff-leaf foliage, (c) diapered, all under moulded labels. The outer jambs have each two attached shafts with circular moulded capitals and bases, and in the case of the double arches the central pier has three similar shafts. A single detached circular shaft divides the subsidiary openings. The small arches have moulded trefoiled heads, and the moulded circle above contains a cinquefoil with trefoiled cusp-points and pierced spandrels. The outer arcade facing the triforium chamber is of similar design to that already described, but the jambs and the main arches, as well as the sub-arches and the foiled circle, are chamfered only. The arches have plain hood-mouldings with carved stops representing human heads, but a large number have perished. The piers between the arches have shallow buttresses (with one detached circular shaft to each) which pass through the triforium roof to receive the flying buttresses of the clearstorey, and on each side of the buttresses are carved stone corbels, chiefly grotesques, to take the main roof timbers. (See also Triforium Chamber, p. 45.) The base of the clearstorey is marked by a moulded string, interrupted by the vaulting shafts. Each bay contains a large window of two plain pointed lights beneath a cinque-foiled circle with pierced spandrels, all within a two-centred head. The jambs inside are of two square orders with hollow chamfers and have detached circular shafts with moulded bases and capitals carved with foliage. The inner shaft, and a similar one in front of the mullion, carry the tracery, while the outer shaft carries the moulded rear-arch. The exterior of the windows (which are completely restored) shows two orders with two shafts to each jamb and one shaft to the mullion, having capitals carved with foliage. Each window has a label with head-stops. Above the windows is a moulded string-course and parapet pierced with quatrefoils, all modern. The vault over the three western bays of the eastern arm is quadripartite with diagonal and transverse moulded ribs—three ribs springing from the plain moulded capitals of the vaulting shafts. A longitudinal moulded ridge, with large bosses carved with foliage at each intersection, is carried as far as the centre of the fourth bay E. of the crossing, where on a carved boss converge single ribs from each angle of the apse. The web of the vaults is of bands of rectangular stones, one band of darker and longer stones alternating with courses of white ones; the web is painted with acanthus foliage and guilloche bands of the time of Wren's restoration. The thrust of the vault is taken externally by two tiers of restored flying buttresses, each a segment of an arch of two chamfered orders beneath but with straight sloping copings, springing from the upper part of the aisle buttresses. They are received by the clearstorey walls on shallow buttresses, each having a detached circular shaft with moulded capital and base.
The remains of the presbytery of Edward the Confessor, so far discovered, consist of the bases of two responds on the N. side of the later presbytery and one on the S., also part of the curved footing of the S. side of the main apse. The two responds on the N. side are now covered by trap-doors; each consists of a half-round shaft attached to a rectangular pilaster and having a square chamfered plinth; the eastern respond projects further than the western and has an additional plain order on the W. face; this fact negatives the possibility of an ambulatory with an open arcade, and is plainly indicative of the normal aisleless E. arm with solid side walls.
In E. window large figures of Edward the Confessor and St. John the Evangelist, the former holding sceptre and ring and the latter dressed as a pilgrim; the heads appear to be restorations, but the rest is probably of the 15th century. In S.E. window are two large figures of saints, one bearded and holding staff and book and the other a bishop with book. The rest of the glass in the three windows consists of two made-up figures (in N.E. window), canopies over the figures, a jumble of fragments and four shields-of-arms—(a) Edward the Confessor; (b) England; (c) Richard, Earl of Cornwall; (d) Provence; (c) and (d) have been altered. The shields in the cinquefoils are probably modern except the France and England quarterly in the N.E. window and the rose in the S.E. window, both of which seem to be of early 16th-century date.
Monuments: Under N. arcade, first bay, (1) of [Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, 1296], consists of an altar-tomb with extensions E. and W. and a triple-arched canopy (Plates 33, 35); the altar-tomb has on each face six niches each with a trefoiled head, pinnacles and a gabled and crocketed label; there are two similar niches to each extension on each side of the tomb and all contain carved 'weepers,' ten being men and the rest women; the moulded cornice has foliated enrichment from which hang small shields. The 'weepers,' (Plate 36) both men and women, are crowned and bear sceptres, they vary in detail but appear to be conventional figures and not portraits; the shields-of-arms above them cannot be fitted into any genealogical scheme and must be deemed to have little or no reference to the figures below; the shields are as follows—N. side, (a) . . . . three pales and a bend over all; (b) Provence; (c) . . . . a lion . . . .; (d) Ponthieu; (e) Castile and Leon; (f) England with a bend azure, for Henry (younger son of Edmund), created Earl of Lancaster, 1324; (g) England with a label; (h) Valence; (i) or an eagle sable; (j) as (a); (k) England with a label of five points; (l) .... a cross; (m) Provence; (n) Richard of Cornwall; (o) England; (p) France with a label of five points; (q) as (c); (r) Castile and Leon; (s) as (g); (t) as (o). S. side, (a) England; (b) England with a label; (c) as ( (c) on N.); (d) Ponthieu; (e) England; (f) Provence; (g) Castile and Leon; (h) England with a label; (i) as (c); (j) as (b); (k) as ( (l) on N.); (l) Valence; (m) Richard of Cornwall; (n) as ( (i) on N.); (o) as ( (a) on N.); (p) as (f); (q) as (a); (r) France with a label; (s) as (c); (t) as ( (a) on N.). On the sub-base on the N. side of the tomb are traces of a painting of ten armed figures each with a surcoat and banner; the arms on the surcoats are hardly distinguishable, but formerly included Brittany, Flanders, Clifford, Albemarle, Neville and the Hospital. The effigy (Plate 185) on a moulded slab is in mail armour, represented by gesso, with long surcoat and sword and waist-belts, the surcoat has traces of the arms of the earldom of Lancaster, the field being diapered with lions, eagles and flowers; the head is supported by two angels and the feet rest on a lion; the legs are crossed. On the edge of the slab are remains of the original inscription beginning "Ci gist Eymon." The canopy is in three bays, the widest being over the effigy, the arches spring from four pairs of buttressed piers with grouped attached shafts and enriched gabled pinnacles; the middle arch is cinque-foiled and sub-cusped and surmounted by a lofty crocketed gable with a trefoiled panel in the tympanum; the mouldings of the arch have flower ornament and the cuspspandrels are carved with foliage, the spandrels of the tympanum are diapered and the trefoils have each a figure on horseback; from the gabled roof rise four pairs of brackets terminating in foliated pedestals; the side arches are much narrower and have cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads, each surmounted by a crocketed gable and super-gable; the tympanum of the lower gable has a round panel with carved foliage and the tympanum of the upper gable has blind tracery; each pair of piers supporting the canopy is connected internally by a cross-arch and each bay of the canopy has a quadripartite vault with a foliated boss at the intersection. On the canopy of the tomb are many small painted coats-of-arms, numbering about 150 and including most of the noble houses of the period and many of the coats appearing on the tomb below. The whole tomb and effigy retains much of its original decoration in colour and gilt; the buttresses have painted tabernacle-work on a background of masonrypattern in red on a white ground; the niches for the 'weepers' have painted gesso-decoration on the buttresses and labels and the charges of the shields are in gesso; only small fragments remain of the glass applied on the face of the painted decoration in the panels of the buttresses between the niches.
In next bay W., (2) of [Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, 1324], altar-tomb with effigy and canopy. (Plates 33, 34). The altar-tomb has a moulded plinth and on each side eight niches with trefoiled heads and crocketed gables; each niche contains a 'weeper'; the figures are alternately men and women; between the gables are quatre-foiled circles each enclosing a shield with painted arms. The ' weepers,' (Plate 36) all but one of which have lost their heads, are variously attired, some of the costumes being of unusual form; there seems little doubt that the figures represent individuals belonging to the family of the deceased and many of them can be identified by the shields-of-arms above them; the arms impaled referring to the women and the whole arms to the men. The shields with the provisional identifications of the figures to which they refer are as follows—N. side, (a) half shield of Brittany for (?) John, Duke of Brittany (grandfather); (b) Valence impaling St. Pol for Marie de St. Pol (wife); (c) and (d) Flanders and Flanders impaling St. Pol; these are possibly for Hugh de St. Pol and Beatrice of Flanders (uncle and aunt), but the coats should be reversed; (e) France with a label; (f) the same impaling Brittany; (g) or a maunch gules for John de Hastings (brother-inlaw); (h) Provence dimidiating azure three cinquefoils or for (?); at the end is a half shield of Munchensy. S. side, (a) half shield of St. Pol for Guy de St. Pol (father-in-law); (b) Valence impaling St. Pol for Marie de St. Pol (wife); (c) and (d) France with a border gules for Charles of Valois and the same impaling St. Pol for his wife, Maud de St. Pol (sister-in-law); (e) and (f) barry vair and gules for William de Couci and the same impaling St. Pol for his wife, Isabel de St. Pol (sister-in-law); (g) England with a label; (h) St. Pol impaling Brittany for Marie of Brittany, wife of Guy de St. Pol (mother-in-law); at the end is a half shield of Valence. The tomb has a moulded cornice enriched with carved flowers and returned down at each end. The effigy (Plate 186) lies on a moulded slab and is in mail with kneecops, surcoat with the Valence arms, waist and sword belts; from under the coif is a narrow strap to support a shield, now missing; at the head are two angels supporting the soul, all headless and mutilated; the feet rest on a lion; the cushions under the head have small shields of Valence and the canopy rests on four buttressed piers with rich gabled and crocketed pinnacles and attached grouped shafts, from which spring the main arches; the main arches are two-centred, cinque-foiled and sub-cusped; the cinquefoils are of ogee form and all the spandrels are richly carved with naturalistic foliage; above the arch is a crocketed gable similar to that over the main arch of Crouchback's tomb, but with foliated spandrels; the trefoil, in the gable on each side, has a diapered background and a figure in armour on a galloping horse; the mantling streams out on either side of the head; the gable has four pairs of brackets and pedestals similar to those on Crouchback's tomb; the two ends of the canopy have each a high trefoiled arch with a broken gable above the W. arch. The canopy has a quadripartite vault with a large foliated boss at the intersection. The monument retains most of its colour and gilt decoration; the slab, plinth, and the bases of the niches are painted in imitation of marble and the shafts have spiral bands of colour. The effigy appears to be of c. 1310, but the rest of the tomb is probably of c. 1324; the top of the canopy has been restored.
Immediately W. of (2) is (3) of [Aveline (de Forz), wife of Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, 1273], consisting of an altar-tomb, effigy and canopy (Plates 34, 37). The altar-tomb has, on the S. side, six niches with trefoiled heads and crocketed gables and pinnacles; each niche contains a male ' weeper,' four of which are headless; the moulded cornice is enriched with foliage bosses, but the shields above the ' weepers' have disappeared. The effigy (Plate 185) is in a long loose gown with draped head-dress and wimple; two angels support the head and there are two small dogs at the feet. The canopy is closed in at the back by masonry, but has on the S. an open trefoiled arch with spandrels carved with natural foliage (vine on the W.); it is surmounted by a crocketed gable with a moulded trefoil in the tympanum and the main spandrels painted with a gold vine-scroll on a black ground; the arch springs from piers with grouped shafts and buttresses, but the original pinnacles have been destroyed, the shafts are enriched with painted gesso with small lions and eagles; the ends of the canopy have each a pointed arch. The hollow moulding of the main arch is carved with flowers and the label of the main gable is painted with flowers alternating with rectangular shields-of-arms. The canopy has a quad ripartite vault with a foliage boss in the middle and the webs painted with a foliage diaper. Much of the painted decoration of the tomb remains.
In second bay on S. side, (4) to [Anne of Cleves, fourth wife of Henry VIII, 1557], consists only of the freestone base of the monument (Plate 25), which was probably never completed; as it stands it is of three bays divided by panelled pedestals; the side bays are open but the larger middle bay has a front with three panels enclosing skulls and cross-bones and divided by diminishing pilasters supporting a small cornice, above which there is a range of smaller panels; the pedestals (Plate 8) are elaborately carved with Renaissance ornament and each has an oval cartouche in front, two filled with lions' heads, one with the crowned cypher A.C., and one with the crowned arms of Cleves; the panels on the return sides of the pedestals have strap-work and guilloche ornament and round panels with the initials A.C.; the pedestals have moulded cornices supporting a continuous slab, added in 1606. The S. side of the tomb has been destroyed or concealed by later monuments except for two panels with skulls and cross-bones and the adjoining diminishing pilaster.
Paintings: In second bay on S.—large painting on boards of Richard II (Plate 12) throned and crowned and holding orb and sceptre; he wears a robe of red and ermine with an ermine tippet, rich collar and an under-robe of blue, powdered with flowers and crowned Rs, late 14th-century. (See also Monuments and Sedilia.)
Pavement (Fig. p. 26): In middle of presbytery —large square design including an inner square with a square set diagonally in the middle, large circles in the angles and an inner circle in the middle of the pavement with four subsidiary circles around it; the wide border has rectangular panels in the middle of each side and a series of continuous circles. (Plate 39). The border of the middle circle has remains of Lombardic inscription in separate brass letters—"Sphaericus archetypum globus hic monstrat macrocosmum," six of the letters remain. There are remains of a second similar inscription on the inner band of the outer border—" + Xpi milleno bis centeno duodeno cum sexageno subductis quatuor anno tertius Henricus rex urbs Odoricus et abbas hos compegere porphyreos lapides," five letters remain. There was a third inscription, probably on a brass fillet, in the border of the diagonal square, but this has entirely disappeared; it is given by Camden (see Introduction, p. 8). The rectangular panels (Plate 38) in the N. and S. borders are thought to mark the graves of Abbots Ware, 1284, and Wenlock, 1307. The materials of the pavement are Purbeck marble with panels of porphyry, serpentine, Palombino and other marbles and mosaics of marble and glass. It was executed in 1268 for Abbot Ware by Odoric, a Roman of the Cosmati school of mosaic workers. The work has been patched and repaired at various times.
Screen: (Plate 41). Between the presbytery and the Confessor's chapel is a stone screen of mid 15th-century date but entirely modern on the W. face. It is pierced by two doorways each with a two-centred arch and a three-centred rear-arch; the rear-arch is set in a square head of two orders divided by a wide hollow, the top of which has remains of elaborate foliage, and the sides each with two canopied niches one above the other and all much mutilated. Between the doorways on the E. face is a wide recessed seat with a panelled back and a canopy consisting of five semi-octagonal tabernacles with foliated pendants and elaborate ribbed and traceried vaulting, all much broken and defaced and the upper parts almost entirely destroyed; flanking the seat-recess and doorways are four large niches with panelled foliated and crested pedestals and canopies similar to the tabernacles over the seat; the screen is finished with a deep cornice with foliated top members, much defaced, and in the main hollow-moulding a series of fourteen carved scenes (Plates 42, 43) from the legend of St. Edward the Confessor, separated by large trefoiled ornaments, some of which enclose blank shields; the scenes represented are from left to right—(a) bishop and nobles swearing fealty to Queen Emma's unborn child; (b) birth of King Edward at Islip; (c) coronation of King Edward; (d) the King alarmed by a figure of the devil dancing on the casks of Dane-Gelt (figure of devil destroyed); (e) the King warns a thief to escape; (f) the apparition of Christ to the King at mass; (g) the King sees a vision of the shipwreck of the King of Denmark; (h) the quarrel between Harold and Tostig in the presence of the King; (i) the King's vision of the turning over of the seven sleepers of Ephesus; (j) the King giving alms of a ring to St. John as a pilgrim; (k) cure of the blind men by washing in water used by the King; (l) St. John restoring the King's ring to two pilgrims; (m) the pilgrims restore the ring to the King; (n) mutilated, but almost certainly the legendary dedication of Westminster Abbey by St. Peter. There are slight traces of gold and red colour on the vaults of the canopies and the cornice.
Sedilia: (Plate 40). In first bay of arcade S. of altar—of four bays and of oak, painted, with gesso ornament on the canopies; close boarded back divided into bays by pairs of slender shafts supporting the vaulting; canopy of four cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arches surmounted by crocketed gables having each a trefoiled and sub-cusped circle in the tympanum; the panels of the tympana were formerly filled with red and blue glass; between the arches are truncated pinnacles rising from pendants carved in front with two crowned heads and one mitred head, all painted in natural colours; side pinnacles continued down to the ground as buttresses; each bay of the soffit has a vault with moulded diagonal and ridge ribs; two of the close panels at the back, the first and third, are painted with full-length figures of kings, the first (? Sebert) in a red robe and long cloak lined with white fur, gloved hands, right holding a sceptre; second figure (? Edward I) similar but cloak lined with vair, background powdered with leopards; the second panel has been largely obliterated, but there are traces of the lower part of a figure of a bishop or abbot in mass-vestments and holding a staff; the fourth panel has been almost entirely obliterated; all c. 1300. At back, facing S. ambulatory, (Plate 40) four boarded panels with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads, gables enclosing quatrefoils and buttressed standards, three E. panels with large painted figures—(a) Edward the Confessor, with crown, sceptre, ring, nimbus and fur-lined robe; (b) and (c) the Annunciation, figure of St. Gabriel (upper part defaced) holding scroll inscribed "Ave Maria," etc., figure of the Virgin defaced except lower part and one hand, c. 1300.
Fittings in the Confessor's Chapel—Brasses and Indent. Brasses: partly under step of Henry V's chapel, (1) to [John, son of William de Valence, 1277], fragment of the stem of a cross, set in glass mosaic, and seven letters of the marginal inscription (Plate 57); adjoining (1), (2) to Margaret, daughter of William de Valence, c. 1270, eight letters of marginal inscription and indent of cross. At N.W. corner of chapel, (3) of [John of Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, 1395], upper part of figure of bishop in mass-vestments (Plate 182) with figure of the Virgin on the orphrey of the chasuble; mutilated remains of fine triple canopy, with super-canopy and niches in the supports. Indent: On S. side of shrine, of [Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, 1397], large slab with defaced indent of tabernacle-work and small figures.
Coronation Chair (Plates 22, 23): made by Walter, 'king's painter' to Edward I, in 1300–1 to contain the stone of Scone brought by the king from Scotland. It is of oak with a high plain back finished with a moulding and rising in the middle in an acute gable with carved crockets and remains of the fixing of glass mosaic; the sides have curved arm-rests with panelled spandrels externally and the posts are carried up above the level of the back; below the spandrels is a horizontal moulding and four panels with trefoiled heads; below the seat is a box-like space containing the stone of Scone (Plate 5), a roughly rectangular mass of coarsegrained sandstone (26½ in. by 16½ in. by 11 in. thick) fitted at each end with iron staples and rings; the top surface of the stone is worn smooth as if by long exposure and has a rectangular sinking at each end to contain the iron rings which are so attached as to allow of a pole being passed through them for carrying. At an earlier period than these cuttings, which are probably of the time of Edward I, the top surface appears to have been marked out for a rectangular sinking in the middle (17 in. by 9 in.), but it does not appear if the sinking was actually made and the surrounds subsequently cut away. Towards the back edge of the stone and about the middle of it is a small and rough cutting, in the form of a latin cross. The sides of the stone are much battered, but the under-surface has a fair flat face, as though it stood on a level floor or base. The box-like space is now open in front and has open quatrefoils at the back and sides; at the back of the chair, above the quatrefoils, is a range of six panels with trefoiled heads, and above them again the rest of the space is filled with pointed and round panels; the base of the chair with its supporting lions is comparatively modern. The chair has been much mutilated. There are remains of rich gilt gesso-decoration on the sides and back; the back had a design of a throned king with his feet on a lion, but of this only portions of the throne, lion, drapery and diapered background can now be distinguished; the inside face of the right arm has a large patch of panelled diapering of foliage and grotesques still remaining; the corresponding face of the left arm has a design of oak sprays and birds; the outward panels of the same arm are largely complete and have oak and other foliage decoration; the panels of the posts and the spandrels of the arms may have had glass facing to the painted gesso.
Monuments: In middle of chapel—(1) of Edward the Confessor (Plates 44, 45), tomb-shrine of marble with mosaic decoration and wooden superstructure or feretory. The shrine consists of a rectangular structure with one recess in the E. end and three in each side (Plate 47), four columns, placed at the angles, and a projecting entablature with remains of a low attic. The recesses have each a moulded trefoiled head and twisted shafts to the jambs, of which only seven remain; each recess is surrounded, on the S. side, by a rectangular border of two bands with circular interlacements at intervals and on the N. side by guilloche bands; these two forms of decoration meet in the middle of the E. end; above the borders is a band of diamond-shaped panels, each with an interlaced border; the backs of the recesses have blind window-tracery, similar to that in the windows of the polygonal chapels; the main lights are filled with geometrical designs, the middle recess on the N. side having a pattern of crosses formy in interlaced circles; at the E. end were two twisted shafts with foliated capitals supporting the projecting entablature; the N. shaft is missing; at the W. end are two similar but heavier shafts of half the height supporting the reredos-slab of a former altar; this slab has on the W. face six diamond-shaped panels (Plate 46) with interlaced borders similar to those already described. It is evident that the whole shrine was re-set under Abbot Feckenham, and not all its parts are in their original position. The entablature has been much restored, the cornice being entirely of the 16th century; the architrave has remains of an original inscription on the E. end and remains of a 16th-century painted inscription on the sides. The original inscription reads—["Anno mileno domini cum septuageno et bis centeno cum completo quasi deno hoc opus est factum quod Petrus D]uxit in actum Romanus civis ho[mo causam noscere si vis rex fuit Henricus sancti presentis amicus"]; the later inscription reads—"Omnibus insignis virtutum laudibus heros sanctus Edwar(dus)" "Moriens 1065 super aethera scandit sursum corda I F A." The whole of the panelling, shafts, reredos and cornice was formerly enriched with marble and glass mosaics, but most of this work has been lost; the sockets of the lost mosaics were filled in with plaster and painted to imitate mosaic, under Abbot Feckenham. The shrine was finished in 1268, the work being done by Peter, a Roman of the Cosmati family; the upper part with the cornice was renewed under Abbot Feckenham (1556–60) when the later painted inscription was added to the frieze. The wooden feretory, also the work of Feckenham, is of two stages, the lower of six bays with round arches separated by Ionic pilasters with panels once set in glass - mosaic; there are three similar arches at the E. end, but at the W. end is a wider arch flanked by coupled pilasters; the upper stage is of similar type with four arches on each side and two at each end; the pilasters are of the Corinthian order.
In the western bay N. of the shrine, (2) to Edward I, 1307, a plain rectangular altar-tomb (Plate 48) of Purbeck marble with a chamfered slab; the tomb rests on two marble steps with grooves at the W. end, probably for a former railing. On the N. side is a 16th-century painted inscription "Edwardus primus Scottorum malleus hic est 1308 pactum serva." The sub-base has a moulded slab level with the chapel floor and below it a sunk panel the whole width of the bay; at the N.W. angle of the capping is part of the indent of a former brass inscription, not in situ.
In next bay E., (3) of Henry III (Frontispiece and Plates 48, 49), 1272, an altar-tomb with effigy on a larger pedestal, the whole having a sub-base towards the ambulatory similar to that under Edward I's monument, and having remains of a painted 16th-century inscription to Henry III, foliage and some later scratchings. The pedestal has on the N. side three panels with mosaic circles similar to those on the Confessor's shrine; the two ends have rectangular panels and the S. side has three bays each with a recess having a cross at the back; the side recesses have trefoiled heads but the middle recess is rectangular and is flanked by pilasters supporting a pediment; the former mosaics have almost entirely gone; the angles of the pedestal have each a pair of pilasters with simply foliated capitals; the recess between them had formerly a twisted shaft with a foliated capital, but only the shaft and capital at the S.E. angle remains; the pedestal has a continuous cornice or capping. The altar-tomb has a continuous moulded base; the sides have each a large slab of red porphyry kept in position by foliated iron clips and surrounded by a mosaic border with interlaced circles; at each angle were formerly three twisted shafts with simply foliated capitals; they remain complete at the N.W. angle, but two shafts only remain at the other angles; the slab of the tomb has a moulded edge with mosaic band and is surmounted by the plate of gilt bronze on which rests the effigy; the plate is diapered with leopards and diagonal bands and on the splayed edge is the inscription, in embossed Lombardic letters, "Ici gist henri jadis rey de engletere seygnur de hirlaunde educ de aquitayne lefiz lirey johan jadis rey de engletere akideu face merci amen." On the back of the plate are scratched three small figures—a queen, with a nun behind her, and a larger figure not completed. The gilt-bronze effigy (Plate 185) is in Coronation robes with a simple crown from which the jewels have been removed; the cushions under the head and the foot-coverings are diapered with leopards like the plate below; the mortices remain for fixing a gabled canopy at the head, standards at the sides and probably two beasts at the feet, which have all been removed; the hands no doubt formerly held the sceptre and 'dove.' The tomb and pedestal is of Purbeck marble with Italian marble inlay and marble and glass mosaic, by Peter the Roman, but on the S. side nearly all has been removed; the castmetal effigy and plate are by William Torel, 1291. Above the effigy is a flat 15th-century 'tester' of oak with a moulded edge returned down the uprights; the angles have curved braces with quatre-foiled spandrels; at the W. end of the tomb on the N. side is a wrought-iron upright with transverse spikes. On the base of the tomb are remains of an inscription, added by Feckenham, and several graffiti, including the names Jhon Bylson of Hull and Stephen Gy . . de of Hull, probably 15th-century.
In N.E. bay of apse, (4) of Eleanor of Castile, first wife of Edward I, 1290, an altar-tomb (Plates 50,53) of Purbeck marble with a gilt-bronze plate and effigy on the top, iron grate and wooden 'tester.' The tomb, executed by Richard Crundale, has a sub-base towards the ambulatory similar to that of Henry III, but the sunk panel has remains of a painted figure-subject, by Walter of Durham, including several figures and a long tomb. The altar-tomb is partly obscured at the S.E. end by the masonry of Henry V's chapel; on each side is an arcade of six trefoiled arches with crocketed gables, quatrefoils in the tympana, and pinnacles; in each bay is a shield; there are two similar arches and shields at each end; the arms are those of England, (Plate 26) Castile and Leon and three bends and a border for Ponthieu. Above the moulded base of the tomb are remains of the inscription added by Feckenham. The marble top of the tomb has a moulded edge; the bronze plate is diapered with the lions and castles of Castile; round the splayed edge is the embossed inscription "Ici gist Alianor jadis reyne de Engletere femme al rey Edeward fiz lerey Henry efylle al rey de Espaygne econtasse de Puntiu del alme deli deu pur sa pite eyt merci amen." The effigy, (Plates 186, 199) by William Torel, in gilt bronze, has a long gown and mantle; round the neck is a cord; the crown is similar to that of Henry III; there has been a sceptre in the right hand; the two cushions at the head are diapered like the plate and at the feet are two lions; above the head is a trefoil gablet of bronze, with crockets, finial and head-stops at the base of the gable; the roof has a representation of tile-covering; at the sides of the effigy are the mortices for fixing the former side shafts of this gablet. On the N. side of the tomb is a wrought-iron grate, (Plates 51, 52) made by Thomas of Leighton; it consists of eleven panels of conventional scrolled foliage, each of different design and with small beast-heads and rosettes at the base; the whole grate bends outwards in a curve; it is finished with a chevaux-de-frise. The 15th-century oak 'tester' is generally similar to that over the tomb of Henry III, but the brackets are more elongated and are carved with foliage, the soffit is divided into panels by moulded ribs, and at the N.W. corner is an angel holding a scroll, the 'tester' has remains of painted decoration.
S.W. of (4), (5) to Elizabeth, infant daughter of Henry VII, 1495, a small plain altar-tomb of Purbeck and black marble with a moulded plinth and top slab with sockets for brass fillet; on the slab is the indent of an inscription-plate and certain raised projections for a former fixture of uncertain nature; the slab is broken off at one corner.
In S.E. bay of chapel, (6) of [Philippa of Hainault, wife of Edward III, 1369], altar-tomb (Plate 58) of black marble ( ? touch), with tabernacle work and effigy of white marble by Hawkin (Hennequin) of Liège. The altar-tomb is quite plain, with a moulded slab; applied to the sides and ends were white marble niches of tabernacle work, four large and three small on the sides and two large and one small at each end; these niches had vaulted canopies and pedestals for eleven 'weepers' at each side and five at each end; below the niches was a range of quatre-foiled panels, each having a carved shield-of-arms; of this work nothing but the moulded base remains on the W. side, but at the E. end and on part of the N. side the superimposed work of Henry V's chantry has preserved much of the work, including two 'weepers' with three accompanying shields—(a) headless figure of woman with the arms Hainault impaling France and England quarterly; (b) figure missing, shield of France and England quarterly; (c) figure of woman, holding a monkey (Plate 75), with the arms France impaling England with a label of six points; on the S. side much of the quatre-foiled band and one large and one small niche remain; there are also two shields (Plate 26)— (a) Hastings and Valence quarterly impaling France and England quarterly for Margaret of England, wife of John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke; (b) Flanders impaling Holland for Hainault. The white marble effigy (Plates 187, 199) has a reticulated head-dress, tight bodice laced in front, buttoned sleeves and a loose cloak; one hand is broken off and the other mutilated, the head rests on a draped cushion formerly supported by angels and the feet on two lions. Above the head is a recumbent canopy of rich tabernacle work, with remains of glass backing to the tracery and now much mutilated; it is supported by two standards with buttresses and canopied niches, four on each side; the S. standard has mostly disappeared. The contemporary oak 'tester' above the tomb is fitted round the columns of the main arcade and had been partly cut away for the chantry of Henry V; it has a moulded and embattled cornice and curved braces with traceried spandrels.
W. of (6), (7) of Edward III, 1377, altar-tomb (Plates 54, 56) of Purbeck marble with table and effigy of gilt bronze and oak 'tester.' The altar-tomb has a moulded slab and base and six canopied niches on each long side for figures of the twelve children of Edward III as 'weepers,' and separated by panelling with crocketed heads; below each niche is a quatre-foiled panel, each formerly having a bronze enamelled shield fixed on the face; the ends of the tomb have panelling similar to that between the niches; the 'weepers' and shields are all missing on the N. side, but on the S. side all the 'weepers' (Plate 55) remain with four of their accompanying shields; the figures are of gilt bronze and are each in different costume and intended as portraits—(a) Edward, Prince of Wales, in long cloak, arms France and England quarterly with a label; (b) Joan de la Tour, betrothed wife of Pedro of Castile, with reticulated head-dress, cote-hardi and long sleeves, arms Castile and Leon impaling France and England quarterly; (c) Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, in buttoned doublet, hip-belt and cloak thrown back, arms France and England quarterly with a label, each point charged with two roundels and a quarter gules; (d) Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, (?) in long cloak, shield missing; (e) Mary, duchess of Brittany, with head-dress and sideless cote-hardi, arms ermine for Brittany impaling France and England quarterly; (f) William of Hatfield (?) in doublet and hip-belt. The sub-base of the tomb on the S. side has four large quatre-foiled and sub-cusped panels, each having an enamelled bronze shield fixed in the middle; the arms (Plate 26) are (a) and (c) the cross of St. George, (b) and (d) France and England quarterly. The gilt table or plate on which rests the effigy has an inscription round the edge—" Hic decus anglorum flos regum preteritorum—Forma futurorum—rex clemens pax populorum—Tertius Edwardus— regni complens jubileum—Invictus pardus—bellis pollens Machabeum—prospere dum vixit—regnum probitate revixit—armipotens rexit—jam celo celice rex sit." Effigy (Plates 187, 199) has long hair and beard, and is vested in coronation robes and holds the handles of two sceptres, the upper parts of which have gone; the head rests on two cushions but the feet are now unsupported. Above the head is a gablet or recumbent canopy of three sides with traceried and crocketed heads and a flat superstructure finished with a moulded cornice; the soffit has ribbed vaulting; supporting this canopy are buttressed standards one on each side of the effigy; each standard has four niches with cinque-foiled and crocketed heads and each containing a small figure of an angel; most of the heads are missing. The oak 'tester' has on each side a range of cinque-foiled arches with ogee crocketed heads and pinnacles; there has been a range of bowed arches in front of them; at the back is a range of pierced panels with foliated cresting; the arches terminated in half-angels as pendants, but only five of these remain and there is now no cresting on the N. side; the soffit of the 'tester' has a rich ribbed vault of six bays with cusping and bosses carved with human and beast-heads, mostly missing.
N.W. of (7), (8) to [Margaret of York, daughter of Edward IV, 1472], small altar-tomb of freestone with moulded plinth and capping; moulded slab of Purbeck marble, in two layers, which do not appear to belong to each other, with sinking for brass fillet and indent of plate; the tomb appears not to be in situ, as the plinth is mitred up as though steps adjoined the ends.
In the W. bay of the main arcade, (9) of Richard II, 1399, and Anne of Bohemia, 1394, his first wife, altar-tomb (Plate 59) of Sussex or Purbeck marble, with gilt-bronze table and effigies and oak 'tester.' The altar-tomb is similar in design to that of Edward III, with which it is no doubt contemporary; there are however eight niches on each long side all empty and there are no shields on the quatrefoils below; the tabernacle-work is also much more damaged and defaced than on Edward III's tomb. The sub-base on the N. is similar to that of Edward III's tomb but has lost its shields, and on the capping are remains of a 16th-century inscription. The metal table is in two pieces diapered with lions and fleurs-de-lis and lions and eagles respectively; it has an inscription in 'blackletter' round the edge—"Prudens et Mundus— Ricardus jure Secundus, per fatum victus—jacet hic sub marmore pictus. Verax sermone—fuit, et plenus ratione: Corpore procerus—animo prudens ut Omerus. Ecclesie favit—elatos suppeditavit, Quemvis prostravit—regalia qui violavit. Obruit hereticos—et eorum stravit amicos. O Clemens Christe—cui devotus fuit iste; Votis Baptiste— salves quem pretulit iste. Sub petra lata—nunc Anna jacet tumulata, Dum vixit mundo—Ricardo nupta secundo. Christo devota—fuit hec factis bene nota: Pauperibus prona—semper sua reddere dona: Jurgia sedavit—et pregnantes relevavit Corpore formosa—vultu mitis speciosa. Prebens solamenviduis, egris medicamen: Anno milleno—ter C, quarto nonageno Junii septeno—mensis, migravit ameno." The effigy (Plates 187, 201) of the king is in Parliament robes all powdered with the letters A and R and the badges a broom-pod, tree-stock, sun-burst and chained and couched hart; the queen wears a cote-hardi, of which the buttons are missing, an enriched girdle and a long cloak, the cote-hardi and cloak are covered with scroll-work and powdered with the crowned initials A and R, knots and chained ostriches, each collared with a crown and holding a nail in its beak; the arms of both effigies are missing; the heads rest on cushions diapered with leopards and fleurs-de-lis for the king and with lions and eagles for the queen; the figures of beasts supporting the feet are missing. Above each figure is a gablet or recumbent canopy of semi-octagonal form with plain gables robbed of their enrichments and a crocketed spire at the top; on the vaulting of the canopies are four shields— those over the king, Edward the Confessor impaling France and England quarterly with chained harts as supporters; those over the queen, France and England quarterly impaling Bohemia with eagles as supporters; the plates at the back of these canopies have engraved panelling; the standards formerly supporting the canopies have been removed. The plain oak 'tester' is generally similar to that over the tomb of Henry III, but the soffit has four painted panels divided by moulded ribs; each painting has a background of gilt gesso-work, the subjects being as follows— (a) two angels standing on a flowered mount and supporting a shield, now defaced, but probably once bearing the king's arms; (b) the coronation of the Virgin; (c) Christ enthroned; (d) similar to (a) but with a shield of France and England impaling the eagle of the Empire quartering the crowned lion of Bohemia; the ribs and cornice of the 'tester' are painted with rosettes, and there have been wooden leaf paterae on the cornice, only one of which remains. (For monument of Henry V, see p. 73a.)
Pavement: (Figs. pp. 32, 33; Plate 57) is of the same date and character as that in the presbytery but of simpler design; it forms a continuous pattern consisting of circles of marble surrounded by smaller interlacing circles of mosaic; the pavement has been much damaged and large pieces cut away for tomb-slabs.
Miscellanea: State sword (Plate 28) of iron with blade (5 ft. 4 in. long), plain quillions, woodcased hilt and octagonal iron pommel, said to be early 14th-century. Shield (Plate 28) of wood with segmental lower edge formerly covered with canvas and leather nailed on round edge, but now mostly gone.
(4). The Ambulatory (14½ ft. wide) has free or engaged piers similar to those supporting the main arcade. The vault consists of two rectangular bays on each side and seven irregular bays encircling the apse; all are of quadripartite form with moulded ribs and bosses at the intersections, all carved with foliage except one at the N. side, which is carved with four angels. On the outer sides of the ambulatory (Plates 60, 61, 62) are moulded two-centred arches opening into the adjoining chapels. The arches of the main arcade, those dividing the bays of the ambulatory and those opening into the chapels, are secured at the springing level by ties probably contemporary and of different types, the varieties of which may possibly indicate the order in which the arches were built; the three northern and the eastern bay of the apse with the adjoining cross-arches and the arches opening into all the polygonal chapels have wooden ties, the remaining southern bays of the apse have plain iron ties and all the rest of the work of Henry III has iron ties with hooks and staples. The outer wall of the third bay E. of the crossing was originally blank on both sides and has a tall shallow panel with moulded two-centred arch and shafted jambs with foliated capitals; the wall has been pierced in the N. bay to form the chapel of Our Lady of the Pew; the panel of the S. bay has lost its shafts, and below it is a trefoiled wall-arch with shafted jambs, foliated capitals, painted mouldings and 16th-century painted foliage in the spandrels.
Surrounding the ambulatory are the following chapels—Henry VII's chapel or Lady chapel on the E., two polygonal chapels of St. Paul and St. John the Baptist, and the rectangular Islip's chapel on the N. and the corresponding chapels of St. Nicholas, SS. Edmund and Thomas the Martyr and St. Benedict on the S. Across the E. bay of the ambulatory springs the arched vaults supporting the chantry chapel of Henry V. The chapels of Henry VII, Henry V, Islip and Our Lady of the Pew will be described in that order after the main structure has been dealt with.
Fittings in Ambulatory—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. ambulatory—(1) to [Sir Thomas Parry, 1560], four shields-of-arms, palimpsest on back of shields, parts of figures of priest and woman (?) and parts of two inscriptions, one to Robert Elsmer, 1512, Vicar of Watton, Herts, and the other recording benefactions dated 1514, both came apparently from the church of St. Thomas Acon, Cheapside; now fixed on plinth of westernmost pier on N., indents of figure, inscription-plate, etc.; (2) to John Wyndsore, 1414, inscription only. In S. ambulatory—(3) to Thomas Bilson, Bishop of Winchester, 1616, inscription only; (4) to [Sir John Golofre, 13]96, fragment of pinnacle of canopy and part of marginal inscription, indents of two shields, other indents defaced. (See also Monuments (1) and (2).) Indents: In N. ambulatory—(1) said to be of [Thomas Brown and Humphry Roberts, monks], indents of two figures, scrolls, foot and marginal inscription with roundels; (2) of bracket-brass with three figures (?), canopy and marginal inscription; (3) of figure and foot-inscription; (4) of half-figure and foot-inscription; (5) of small figure and foot-inscription; (6) said to be of [William Amundisham, monk, 1420], indent of figure, canopy and marginal inscription. In S. ambulatory—(7) defaced slab, probably of Richard Harowden, 1440, abbot; (8) of figure, four shields and inscription; (9) of figure, etc. In S. aisle—(10) and (11) defaced slabs with rivets; (12) of bracket-brass with figure and inscription, defaced.
Gates: At the W. end of both N. and S. ambulatories are wrought-iron gates, probably of early 18th-century date, and of plain uprights with spear-head cappings; the standards have scroll ornament and plate foliage, and are surmounted by cresting of similar character.
Images: In niche above doorway to chapel of Our Lady of the Pew—mutilated and headless figure of the Virgin with Child and two fragments of draped figures, all with painted surfaces, probably 14th-century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. ambulatory—(1) of [John Estney, 1498, abbot], not in situ, moulded slab of Purbeck marble with socket for brass fillet, brass (Plate 183) of abbot in mass-vestments with mitre, crozier, gloves and ring, embroidered chasuble, etc., scroll and elaborate triple canopy with perspective vaulting and rich tracery in the spandrels, buttressed standards, indents of two shields, plain low base with indents of four shields.
(2) of [Sir John Harpeden, 1457], not in situ, hollow-chamfered slab of Purbeck marble with brass (Plates 33, 182) of man in full plate-armour of period, head on helm with hind's head rising from a crown, as crest, feet on lion, four shields-of-arms— (a) a pierced molet of six points charged with a martlet for Harpeden impaling Mortimer quartered with de Burgh; (b) Harpeden impaling Cobham of Sterborough; (c) Harpeden impaling Cobham of Cobham; (d) Harpeden; indent of marginal inscription; plain low base.
On E. column flanking Islip's chapel, (3) to Juliana, daughter of Sir Ralph Crewe, 1621, alabaster and black marble tablet with raised inscription-slab, double pediment and enriched base with cartouche-of-arms.
On next pier E., (4) of Jane (Pultney), wife of Sir Clippesby Crewe, 1639, and Frances, their daughter, white marble wall-monument with side-pilasters, pediment with two cherubs and shield-of-arms; in middle a figure-subject of the death of the lady, with her husband and children.
In S. ambulatory—on S.E. pier of apse, (5) of Sir Robert Aiton, 1637–8, black and white marble wall-monument (Plate 66), by F. Fanelli, with oval recess containing bronze draped bust and flanked by standing figures of Apollo and Athena, curved pediment above with two cherubs and cartouche-of-arms, bronze inscription-plate.
Against screen of St. Nicholas' chapel, (6) to Sir Thomas Ingram, P.C., 1671, chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and Mary, his daughter, 1651, black and white marble and freestone monument consisting of plinth, large inscribed pedestal and urn flanked by cherubs with drapery and an elaborate inscribed panel at the top.
On pier W. of St. Nicholas' chapel, (7) of Richard Tufton, 1631, wall-monument of black and white marble with oval recess containing bust in armour, flanking recess are Ionic columns supporting the ears of the architrave and a broken segmental pediment with reclining figures of Mercury and Mars (?) and a cartouche-of-arms.
In N. wall, (8) to [King Sebert of Essex, 616], monument (Plate 40) erected in 1308, coffin of marble with moulded tapering slab, set in a recess with continuous moulded jambs, segmental arch and square outer head; at back of recess, 15th-century cusped panelling including three large quatre-foiled panels enclosing flowers and a rose en soleil; the soffit and ends of recess have traces of paintings, including the crowned head of a woman, a Catherine wheel, vine foliage, etc.
In S. wall, (9) to [Katherine, daughter of Henry III, and various other children, both of Henry III and of Edward I, who died young], altar-tomb of Purbeck marble, formerly in the Confessor's chapel and moved here to make room for Richard II's tomb; the front is divided into two bays and flanked by panelled pilasters formerly enriched with mosaic; the bays had panels of marble and the ends of the tomb were similarly treated; the top slab (Plate 5) has a series of circles of marble or mosaic surrounded by interlacing bands of mosaic; the tomb is set in the wall under a late 14th-century moulded and painted arch, and the back and most of the sides cannot be seen; the wall at the back of the recess is painted red and there are slight traces of the four kneeling figures shown in Dart's engraving. The tomb is Cosmatesque work of c. 1270, moved to its present position c. 1394.
Floor-slabs: In N. ambulatory—(1) to Rebecca, daughter of Lord Folliott, 1697; (2) to Brian [Duppa, S.T.D., 1662], Bishop of Winchester, with shield-of-arms; (3) to John Doughty, S.T.P., 1672, prebendary; (4) to John, son of Sir Clippesby Crewe, 1683–4, with achievement-of-arms; (5) to John, Viscount Fitzharding, 1712, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to Barbarah Villiers, Lady Fitzharding, 1708, with defaced shield-of-arms; (7) to Sir Thomas Peyton, Bart., 1683–4, and Katherine (Longueville), his daughter, 1715, with shield-of-arms; (8) to George Wylde, M.P., 1649–50; (9) to Esther de la Tour de Gouverney, wife of Lord Eland, 1694; (10) to Chrystian, wife of William Ker, 1694. In S. ambulatory—(11) to Frances Apsley, 1698: (12) to Sir Allen Apsley, 1683; (13) to Sir Henry Spelman, 1641, antiquary; (14) to Anne, wife of Sir Peter Apseley, 1681; (15) to Allen Apseley, 1691; (16) to Sir Robert Anstruther, P.C., 1644–5, gentleman of the bedchamber to James I; (17) to Philip Ludlow, 1650; (18) to Lyonel Cranfeild, 1674, with defaced shield-of-arms; (19) to Anne Cranfeild, 1669–70.
Niche: (Plate 20) Above the doorway to the chapel of Our Lady of the Pew—of painted alabaster, probably re-set by Abbot Islip, broad niche with buttressed jambs, base with quatre-foiled enrichment, roses en soleil and the defaced inscription "Herasmus (?) Eps."; elaborate triple canopy with pendants, vaulting, very rich and intricate tabernacle-work and carved cresting; flanking the niche are scrolls pierced with daggers, and lower down four carved and painted badges of Abbot Islip, the name Islip twice repeated and below the niche the name Sanctus Erasmus, 15th-century, re-set early in the 16th century.
Painting: On wall-arch in S. wall of S. ambulatory—remains of painted background, nimbus and fragment of title in 16th-century Roman capitals; arch and capitals painted in red and spandrels painted with early 16th-century conventional foliage. (See also Monuments, Niches, etc.)
Retable: (Plates 9, 10, 11) now fixed on plinth of Queen Philippa's tomb—the retable is rectangular (11 ft. by 3 ft.) and is of oak with applied decoration in gesso, glass, etc. It is of five main divisions surrounded by borders, in which have been set rectangular panels of diaper-painting under glass, alternating with gesso panels set with 'jewels' and imitation cameos, two of which remain, set on a glass backing. The middle division has an elaborate triple-arched tabernacle with grouped shafts, traceried pinnacles and crocketed gables, with blue or green glass inlay, showing remains of tracery painted in gold; the background has glass inlay, ornamented with small lions and mostly destroyed; the shafts have gesso diapering with lions, eagles and fleurs-de-lis, the arch of the middle panel has been set with diaper under glass and 'jewels,' a few of which remain and are intended to represent rubies, topaz, sapphires and emeralds; under the arches are painted figures—Christ, in the middle, standing and holding a globe, and the Virgin and St. John, each holding a palm, in the side panels. The division to the left of the middle one is divided into four star-shaped panels with gilt borders ornamented like the main border, but without cameos, and having quatre-foiled bosses at the intersections; the background is filled with blue glass with gilt diapered foliage; the star-shaped panels have paintings of miracles, including the raising of Jairus' daughter, the healing of the blind man and the feeding of the five thousand. The corresponding division to the right of the middle retains only its framework and glass background. The outer division on the left has a tabernacle similar to the middle arch of the middle division; it contains a painted figure of St. Peter with the keys; the background of painted diaper, under glass, is perfect and there are red and green glass inlays to the canopy. The corresponding division on the extreme right is similar, with diaper and backgrounds equally perfect, but the painting has been destroyed. The date of the work is the third quarter of the 13th century, but the two right-hand divisions have been disfigured with white and green paint of comparatively recent date.
(5). The Chapel of St. Paul (Plates 62, 63, 65), has in the four outer faces as many windows, each of two lancet lights with a sex-foiled circle, having extended cusp-points, in a two-centred and stilted head; the mullions, jambs and splays have each a Purbeck-marble shaft with moulded base and foliated capital; the blank bays of the chapel have blind tracery to match the windows, but the cusp-points are foliated; the eastern blank bay has lost its shafts. At the angles of the chapel are Purbeck-marble vaulting-shafts with moulded bases and bands and foliated capitals; the stone vault is similar to that of the ambulatory and has a foliated boss at the intersection. At the level of the window-sills runs a wall-passage with shouldered lintels where it passes through the piers; below the sill-level the walls were originally decorated with two bays of wall-arcading in each bay, but this has all been destroyed or concealed by monuments except in the N.W. and S.W. bays; in the N.W. bay the outer halves of the two moulded trefoiled arches and the jambs with Purbeck marble-shafts and foliated capitals remain; the surviving spandrels are both boldly carved with seated figures, all headless, one of them having his feet on a dragon, and another, an angel, holding a harp (Plate 6); in the S.W. bay is a complete figure of a lady (Plate 6), resting on a foliated corbel.
Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In middle of chapel—(1) of Sir Gyles Daubeney, K.G., 1507, Lieutenant of Calais, etc., and Elizabeth, his wife, 1500, modern altar-tomb (Plate 64) with original alabaster effigies and modern railing. Effigy (Plate 188) of man in plate-armour with mantle, etc., of the garter, head on helm with crest of a holly-bush, feet on lion and on soles of feet two carved figures of bedesmen, on pommel of sword small shield-of-arms—gules a fesse indented argent; effigy of woman in sideless overgown and loose cloak, enriched coif to head, cushion supported by two angels, by feet a dog and a boar; both effigies probably restored and completely painted, the colours probably also restored; part of embattled rail of iron screen old, rest of screen modern.
In first bay on W., (2) of Sir John Puckering, P.C., 1596, keeper of the great seal, etc., combined altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 63) of various marbles; the panelled altar-tomb has recumbent effigies (Plate 192) of man in long fur-lined robes and his wife in widow's dress; at the feet are crests; in front of the tomb are kneeling figures in high relief of three sons and five daughters; the altar-tomb is set in a recess with a round arch coffered on the soffit and with enriched reveals and back; flanking recess are Corinthian columns supporting a deep entablature and balustraded attic with obelisks over the columns; above the attic is a rich centre-piece with an achievement, two other coats-of-arms and an hour-glass, scales, and skull cresting; flanking the centre-piece are standing figures of a seal and mace (?) bearer.
In next bay N., (3) of Sir James Fullerton [1630–1], first gentleman of the bedchamber to Charles I, altar-tomb (Plate 63) of black and white marble with effigies. Altar-tomb with plain pilasters flanking two panels, enclosing shields-of-arms in wreaths of bay-leaves, on tomb, effigy (Plate 196) of woman in loose robes and widow's veil, at back on raised slab, effigy of man in plate-armour on rush mattress, with cherub-heads on cushion, feet on hound; on wall at back under round-headed recess, enriched tablet with large shield-of-arms and crest.
In next bay E., (4) of Sir Thomas Bromley, P.C., 1587, Lord Chancellor, large wall-monument, of various marbles, consisting of sarcophagus, effigy, back-piece, etc. On the richly carved and shaped sarcophagus is recumbent effigy (Plate 192) of man in long richly embroidered gown; in front of sarcophagus kneeling figures of four sons and four daughters, some of them headless; at back of effigy is a round wall-arch with figures of Fame and Immortality in the spandrels; at back of recess is an enriched tablet surmounted by two cherubs supporting the bag of office; flanking the whole composition are Corinthian columns supporting an entablature and a medallion with an achievement-of-arms.
In next bay E., (5) of Dudley Carleton, Viscount Dorchester, 1631–2, ambassador for James I and Charles I, etc., combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of black and white marble, by Nicholas Stone; plain altar-tomb on plinth and with pilasters at ends, each with a shield-of-arms; reclining effigy, with sword, in peer's robes and coronet, the whole flanked by fluted Ionic columns supporting an entablature and broken pediment with achievement-of-arms in middle; above effigy on back wall moulded tablet with inscription.
In next bay S., (6) of Frances (Sidney), wife of Thomas Radclif, Earl of Sussex, 1589, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of various marbles. Altar-tomb with panelled front and reeded capping and recumbent effigy (Plate 193) of lady in long cloak, coronet, etc., porcupine at feet; flanking effigy and resting on the altar-tomb are Corinthian columns supporting a deep entablature; between the columns is a round-arched recess with a coffered soffit and an enriched tablet at the back, flanked by niches; above the entablature is a centre-piece with a large shield-of-arms in a wreath flanked by pilasters supporting an entablature with an obelisk and two heraldic porcupines; flanking the centrepiece are two roundels with coats-of-arms, and over each column is an obelisk.
In next bay S., (7) of Francis, Lord Cottington, 1652, Chancellor of the Exchequer, etc., and Anne (Meredith), his wife, 1633–4; combined sarcophagus and wall-monument (Plates 65, 27), ascribed to F. Fanelli, of black and white marble with bronze enrichments. The shaped sarcophagus stands on a high panelled pedestal and has in front a tablet and achievement-of-arms; on the sarcophagus is the reclining effigy (Plate 66) of a man on a rush mattress and having lace collar, knee-breeches and gown of office; the back-piece has an eared inscription-tablet, and is flanked by pilasters supporting an entablature; above the latter is an oval recess surrounded by a wreath and containing the bust of Lady Cottington; it is flanked by trusses supporting a pediment.
Forming part of a screen on S. side of chapel, (8) to [Lewis Robessart, Lord Bourchier, K.G., 1431, and Elizabeth, his wife]. The freestone monument (Plates 62, 65,) forms an integral part of the stone screen of the chapel. This screen was formerly of five bays, two on each side of the doorway; all to the W. of the doorway have been destroyed except for part of the panelled lower part adjoining the doorway; the latter is flanked by panelled buttresses and has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with foliated spandrels; above the head are four open cinque-foiled lights and the whole screen is finished with a moulded and embattled cornice. The two E. bays of the screen are occupied at the base by the Robessart altar-tomb and canopy, above which are two ranges of cinque-foiled lights similar to those over the doorway. The altar-tomb has on each side five elaborately cusped and painted panels, each with a shield-of-arms encircled by the garter; the arms are as follows—N. side, (a) defaced, (b) . . . . impaling Bourchier, (c) Robessart quartering Bourchier, (d) Bourchier (?), (e) Robessart (?); S. side, (a), (b), (d) and (e) defaced, (c) Robessart quartering Bourchier; the slab of the tomb is modern. The canopy springs from grouped shafts and has a moulded four-centred arch, cinque-foiled and sub-cusped (restored); the soffit has a richly ribbed vault with blank shields; on the apex of the arch on each side is an achievement-of-arms, the arms defaced but the restored crest a Soldan's head surmounted by a Catherine wheel; flanking the canopy on each side are banners (Plate 26) supported by heraldic falcons and lions; the two banners at the E. end bear a lion for Robessart, quartering a cross engrailed between four water-bougets for Bourchier, three buckles and a chaplet; the two at the W. end bear Robessart quartering Bourchier. In the spandrels of the open lights above the canopy are on each side six painted shields of Robessart and the same with a rose, molet, label, label each point charged with an engrailed cross and with a wound in the shoulder of the lion, respectively. On the face of the screen above are two bands of plain stonework, formerly painted to represent 'painted cloths,' with remains of figures, and on the upper band small half-figures. Each face was apparently painted with the same series of shields, of which practically all on the lower band have been defaced; those on the upper band are as follows—(a) sable a chaplet or, (b) gules three buckles or, (c) argent on a cheveron sable three boars' heads or, (d) or two lions passant (?) sable quartering argent a cross paty (?) azure all within a border gules, (e) vert (?) bezanty, (f) defaced quartered coat, (g) or two daunces sable quartering barry or and gules, (h) argent a cross sable between four scallops sable, (i) or three cheverons sable for Mauny (?), (j) Bourchier with a ring for difference quartering gules billety or a fesse or for Lovayne, (k) barry gules and argent with a border ermine, (l) party gules and argent a bend counterchanged, (m) as (c), (n) [gules?] three Catherine wheels or (? for Roelt), (o) gules six eagles or, (p) gules crusilly or two trumpets (?) or, (q) defaced, (r) sable a cross argent (?), (s) party indented argent and gules, (t) sable a falcon (?) rising or (?); on the same band is the inscription repeated six times—" Lonnour a dieu a nous mercy." The cornice is carved with small shields, bougets and falcons; the shields are painted with the following arms on both sides of the monument —(a) Robessart quartering barry of eight argent and azure (?) over all a bend gules, (b) the impaled coat of (a) impaling Robessart, (c) Robessart quartering gules two fesses or the upper dancetty, (d) the same coats impaled, (e) Robessart quartering or three poppy-heads (?) sable, (f) as (a), (g) Robessart, (h) and (i) defaced; also on the cornice is the painted inscription "Non nobis domine non nobis sed nomini tuo da gloriam"; the cornice and mullions of the lights are also painted with Catherine wheels.
(6). The Chapel of St. John the Baptist is generally similar in treatment to that of St. Paul, but has only three windows; the three blank bays have blind tracery, but the two on the W. are deeply recessed and the middle shaft in the southern bay springs from a corbel carved with the crouching figure of a man. The wall-arcading below the window-sills partly remains in two bays on the N. side; the spandrels (Plate 67) of the eastern bay are carved with oak and vine foliage and two figures, one winged and holding a scroll; the middle shaft of the arcade is missing; the arcading of the western bay has been cut away by a 15th-century tomb-recess, except for the heads of the arches, and the spandrels carved with foliage (Plate 6) and the remains of two figures.
The bay containing the Islip chapel (see below) has a main vault and N. window similar to the vault of the ambulatory and the windows of the other chapels. Many of the original details were cut away and altered when the Islip chapel was inserted.
Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In middle—(1) of Thomas Cecill, K.G., Earl of Exeter and Lord Burleigh [1622–3], and Dorothy (Nevill) and Frances (Bridges), his wives, large altar-tomb of touch and white marble with two white marble effigies; the altar-tomb has a moulded slab with raised inscription round edge, the sides are divided by Corinthian pilasters into bays (four on the E. and three on the N., S. and W. sides); each bay has a shield-of-arms (Plate 27) surrounded by a bay-wreath or (in one case) the garter. The effigy (Plate 198) of the man is in civil costume with the mantle, etc., of the garter; his feet rest against a crest of a wheatsheaf supported by two lions; on his right side is the effigy of his first wife in long ermine-lined cloak, etc., with feet against crest of a griffon; there is a space on the N. for the effigy of the second wife.
In first bay N. of entrance—(2) of [Sir Thomas Vaughan, 1483], treasurer to Edward IV, arched recess in wall with small altar-tomb at N. end; the recess has a moulded four-centred arch in a square head with a blank shield above and foliage and shields in the spandrels; one shield is blank and one bears sable a park-paling or; the arch rests on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the altar-tomb has a moulded plinth and a moulded slab; in it is the brass (Plate 183) of a man in plate-armour, bare head resting on a helm with a crowned unicorn's head as crest, lower part of figure missing and indents of two shields and six scrolls; on front and end of tomb indents of shields, scrolls, etc.; on edge of slab, fragments of inscription with suns and roses as stops.
In next bay E., (3) of [Col. Edward Popham, 1651, and Anne, his wife], wall-monument of black and white marble consisting of standing figures of man in armour and wife, leaning on central pedestal supporting a plumed helm; above is a draped canopy drawn back at the sides on to the capitals of two Ionic pilasters; three shields-of-arms; the inscription on the pedestal has been entirely obliterated.
In next bay E., (4) ascribed to Hugh and Mary, children of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 1304–5 (but c. 1260–70 in character), and said to have been removed from St. Nicholas' chapel, complete altar-tomb (Plate 67) of Purbeck marble, half buried in wall, with moulded slab and base, with continuous arcade of moulded trefoiled arches and small shafts with foliated capitals.
In two E. bays, (6) to Henry Carey, K.G., Lord Hunsdon, 1596, and Anne (Morgan), his wife, very large and lofty monument raised on three steps and of various marbles; it consists of a sarcophagus and a canopy of three stages; the shaped sarcophagus has a coped top of marble chequer-work and a pedestal and obelisk at each angle, the obelisks carved with shields-of-arms; the ground stage of the canopy consists of a round arched recess with coffered soffit and enriched back and is flanked by coupled Corinthian columns supporting a deep entablature; in front of the columns are two detached obelisks carved with military trophies; the second stage consists of a centre and two flanking compositions, the centrepiece has a large achievement-of-arms flanked by coupled Corinthian columns; the side-pieces form open pavilions, each with three Corinthian columns in front and rich pierced cresting, above which is an obelisk and two heraldic crests; the top stage has a balustrade surrounding a central octagonal pavilion with a domed roof; this stage has three heraldic crests.
Forming screen on S. side—(7) of William of Colchester , abbot, altar-tomb of freestone with moulded top and plinth, sides and ends with series of quatre-foiled and sub-cusped panels enclosing blank shields, effigy (Plate 203) of freestone in mass-vestments with mitre and gloves, crozier missing, head, supported by two angels, rests on cushion, feet on a dog; on the mitre and cushion the letters W. and C. are several times repeated; remains of painting on figure and modern painted inscription with incorrect date; the tomb has been moved inwards and westwards when the monument to Admiral Holmes was set up.
W. of (7), (8) of Thomas Ruthall, 1523, Bishop of Durham, altar-tomb (Plate 68) of freestone generally similar to (7) but with shields-of-arms in the panels on both sides—(a) See of Durham, (b) a cross engrailed between four birds a chief quarterly with two slipped roses therein for Ruthall, (c) Durham impaling Ruthall, (d) a mitre surmounting a helm with a bush of feathers, (e) Durham; the effigy (Plate 203) in mass-vestments is much perished; the head is supported by two angels and the feet by a lion; the E. end of the tomb has been altered and a moulding added to finish the original moulding of the slab; the former canopy has been destroyed, except for the W. end, which is panelled and has moulded and shafted jambs; refixed above it is part of the cornice with an achievement of Durham impaling Ruthall and the inscription "dat Ano dni. 1524"; a similar fragment without inscription and with the arms of the See with a mitre in chief is loose in the chapel.
W. of (8), (9) to George Fascet, 1500, abbot, altar-tomb (Plate 68) with canopy; the altar-tomb is generally similar to (8), the arms being on both sides—(a) gules the crossed keys of St. Peter, (b) the Abbey, (c) Edward the Confessor, (d) gules three swords hilts to the centre between three ermine tails for Fascet; Purbeck marble slab with socket for brass fillet, later painted inscription on N.; the slab is moulded at both ends and seems to be older than the monument; the canopy has on each side moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with painted foliated spandrels enclosing shields-of-arms (Plate 26) of Fascet and the Abbey; above is a deep moulded cornice enriched with carved and painted foliage bosses and the monogram G.F.; on the S. side the cornice is embattled; the soffit of the canopy has cusped panelling and the S. arch is closed with a plain iron grate; at the E. end is a recess, which has been cut back for a panel of carving, and at the W. end there have been two figures on pedestals.
N. of (9), (10) to Mary, daughter of Thomas Kendall, 1709–10, wall-monument of various marbles with kneeling figure of woman, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting entablatures, pediment and cartouche-of-arms.
(7). The Chapel of St. Nicholas is similar in arrangement and detail to that of St. Paul, but the blind tracery has no shafts. The wall-passage is continued to the E. of the chapel in the thickness of the wall until it is blocked by the work of Henry VII; near this point is part of a shaft representing the W. end of the wall-arcade of the former Lady chapel. The wall-arcading of St. Nicholas chapel has been entirely destroyed or covered by monuments except the two side-shafts in the S.W. bay and a portion of two diapered spandrels; the base of another shaft remains in the E. bay.
Fittings in St. Nicholas' Chapel—Brass: of Sir Humphrey Stanley, 1505, in Purbeck slab, man in plate-armour, head bare, feet on mound, three shields-of-arms—(a) a bend with three harts' heads cabossed thereon for Stanley quartering a chief indented with three bezants therein for Lathom; (b) (a) quartering a cheveron between three martlets for Stafford, crusilly two pipes for Pype and three lions passant for Camville; (c) as second quarter of (b); indents of two more shields.
Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In N.E. bay—(1) of Anne (Stanhope), wife of Edward, Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector, 1587, large monument of various marbles, consisting of sarcophagus with effigy in recess with lofty superstructure. The shaped sarcophagus stands on a panelled plinth and is enriched with lions' heads and feet; the effigy (Plate 191) is in ermine-lined robes with French cap and coronet; at the feet is the Stanhope crest; the round-arched recess has a coffered soffit and an enriched inscription-tablet at the back with small shields-of-arms; flanking the recess are coupled Corinthian columns on pedestals, an entablature, two obelisks and a centre-piece; the centre-piece has a large achievement-of-arms flanked by columns and having entablature and obelisks all similar to those in the stage below; between the obelisks is a large three-towered castle with a lion on the top holding a fireball (the Stanhope crest); the bases of the lower obelisks have three shields and three lozenges-of-arms.
In next bay S., (2) said to be of Nicholas, Lord Carew, 1470, and Margaret, his wife, 1470, plain altar-tomb of Purbeck marble with moulded slab and plinth, sinking for brass fillet and indents of three shields in front.
On wall above (2), (3) of Elizabeth (Spenser), wife of Sir George Fane, 1618, wall-monument, restored in 1764, of various marbles and consisting of canopied recess with effigies, wings and superstructure. The recess has a panelled base on brackets and is flanked by Corinthian columns supporting the entablature, which projects in a curve over the recess and has hanging curtains drawn back; in the recess are full-face kneeling figures of a man in armour and wife with a prayer-desk between them; the wings of the monument line with the main structure and have each an oval recess with husk-festoons and a winged-female figure; the superstructure is segmental on plan and has a draped achievement-of-arms, a broken scrolled pediment with a cartouche in the middle and two figures of cherubs holding crested helms.
In front of (2), (4) to Nicholas, infant son of Nicholas Bagenall, 1687–8, rectangular monument of marble consisting of a panelled pedestal with a cartouche-of-arms and surmounted by a black marble pyramid capped with an urn.
In next bay S., (5) of Mildred (Coke), wife of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, 1589, and of Anne, their daughter, wife of Edward Veere, Earl of Oxford, 1588, very large monument of various marbles consisting of sarcophagus, two effigies (Plate 194), recess flanked by pavilions and lofty superstructure. The whole monument has a panelled plinth; the shaped sarcophagus supports the recumbent effigy of Lady Burghley in long cloak, ruff and French cap; at back on a raised shelf is the similar effigy of Lady Oxford, with unicorn at feet, set in a round-headed recess with coffered soffit, enriched inscription-tablet at back and shields-of-arms in the spandrels; at the head and feet of the first effigy are large pavilions with Corinthian columns, entablature and pierced cresting, and containing kneeling figures (Plate 128) of Sir Robert Cecil (son), and of Elizabeth, Briget and Susan, daughters of Lady Oxford. The superstructure is of three bays, the middle having a kneeling figure of Lord Burghley, flanked by coupled Corinthian columns, and side-bays with inscribed tablets; the entablature is continuous and supports a centre-piece with achievement-of-arms, two obelisks and two cartouches-of-arms.
In next bay W., (6) said to be to William Dudley or Sutton, Dean of Windsor and Bishop of Durham, 1483, altar-tomb (Plate 69) of Purbeck marble with panelled front consisting of four quatre-foiled panels with blank shields and four panels with cinque-foiled heads; slab with moulded edge and sinking for brass fillet, indent in top of figure of bishop; freestone canopy of five bays, three over the tomb and two blank bays flanking it; the middle bays have cinque-foiled arches with crocketed ogee heads, foliated pendants and pinnacles; above the heads are open panels with trefoiled heads and a moulded cornice carved with a vine scroll and having remains of cresting; the side-bays have trefoiled and sub-cusped heads of similar character and pedestals for images; the canopy has an elaborate ribbed vault of three bays springing from shafts in the angles and corbels carved with angels holding shields.
In front of (6), (7) to Anne Sophia, daughter of Christophe Harlay, Comte de Beaumont, French ambassador, 1605, monument (Plate 69) consisting of plain plinth, marble pedestal with two shields-of-arms and white marble obelisk surmounted by a metal urn.
In next bay W., (8) of [Winifred (Brydges), second wife of William Pawlet, Marquis of Winchester, 1586], combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of various marbles, consisting of altar-tomb, effigy and back-piece; panelled altar-tomb with recumbent effigy (Plate 190), in fur-lined cloak, French cap and coronet; at back, two round-headed recesses with enriched tablets and lozenge-of-arms and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature and large cartouche-of-arms; in front of tomb three small separate pedestals, one with a sarcophagus and recumbent figure of girl, the other two with kneeling figures of son and daughter.
Above (8), on window-sill, (9) of [Elizabeth (Manners), wife of William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter, 1591], formerly in next bay N., combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of freestone; the altar-tomb has been mostly removed, but on it is a reclining effigy of a woman in a large hood; flanking it are pilasters supporting a round arch; at the back of the recess are three large shields-of-arms, the middle one surrounded by a wreath.
Against screen of chapel, (10) of [Philippa (Mohun), wife of Edward, Duke of York, 1431], altar-tomb (Plate 70) of freestone with moulded plinth and slab, S. side with five and ends with two quatre-foiled and cusped panels each enclosing a shield with painted arms—(a) Fitzwalter impaling or (?) a cross engrailed sable for Mohun; (b) barry wavy argent and gules a bend sable with three bezants thereon for Galofre impaling Mohun; (c) France and England quarterly with a label, each point charged with three roundels gules, impaling Mohun; (d) Mohun impaling gules a lion or with a forked tail for Burghersh; (e) Mohun; (f) as first coat of (c); (g) as (e). Effigy (Plate 189) in long cloak with widow's hood, barbe, etc.; remains of colour on effigy and of 16th-century inscription on slab; former wooden canopy now destroyed.
E. of (10), (11) to Elizabeth (Brooke), wife of Sir Robert Cecil, 1591, altar-tomb (Plate 71) of alabaster and black marble, with Ionic pilasters at the angles, sides enriched with emblems of mortality and ends with shield and lozenge-of-arms; moulded slab formerly further supported by detached Ionic columns at the angles; all but one replaced by plain shafts.
E. of (11), (12) to Jane (Seymour), wife of Charles, Lord Clifford, 1679, black and white marble monument in the form of an urn with cherub-heads on the base and a draped plinth; on the front of the monument are two inscribed scrolls of white marble and on sides two cartouches-of-arms.
In middle of chapel—(13) of Sir George Villiers  and Mary (Beaumont), Countess of Buckingham, his second wife, altar-tomb (Plate 72) by Nicholas Stone, of white marble and touch with enriched and shaped pilasters at the angles having cartouches-of-arms, inscribed panels at sides and panels at ends with achievements-of-arms (Plate 27); effigies (Plate 195) in white marble of man in armour and wife with ermine-lined cloak, veil and coronet, feet of both figures on lions.
Screen: Across opening to chapel (Plates 70, 71) —of stone and of six bays, including doorway with four-centred head and a blank bay; side-bays with close lower and two ranges of open upper panels, all with cinque-foiled heads; upper range continued over doorway, moulded and embattled cornice with series of shields, those towards the ambulatory bearing (a and b) the letters W. and A., probably for Abbot William of Colchester (c) three crescents, (d) a cheveron between two crosslets fitchy in chief and a fleur-de-lis in base. (e) a saltire engrailed, (f) a cheveron between three roses, (g) three crowns, (h) blank, (i) three roses; towards the chapel all are blank, except one with three fleurs-de-lis, 15th-century.
(8). The Chapel of SS. Edmund and Thomas the Martyr (Plates 61, 73, 80, 81) is similar in arrangement and detail to that of St. John the Baptist, all the windows and blind-tracery have lost their internal shafts. The wall-arcade is largely complete in the N.E. bay and there are remains of that of the adjoining bay on the S.; all the spandrels are carved with foliage, the two northernmost each having a figure in addition; one of these figures holds two crowns; the label of the wall-arcade in the N.E. bay has a head-stop in the middle. The S.E. bay retains only the side-shafts of the wall-arcade.
Fittings in Chapel of SS. Edmund and Thomas the Martyr—Brasses: to Henry Ferne, S.T.D., Bishop of Chester, 1661–2, marginal inscription, mitred cartouche and four shields-of-arms. (See also Monuments (1), (2), (12), (13).)
Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: On floor of chapel—(1) of Eleanor (de Bohun), widow of Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester , low altar-tomb with moulded slab of Purbeck marble and base; brass fillet with inscription with sprigs of foliage and swans. On the slab is the large brass (Plate 184) of a woman in widow's veil and mantle, corded in front, tight-buttoned under-sleeves, etc., head on two enriched cushions, feet on mound, triple canopy with cusped and sub-cusped arches, crocketed ogee labels and pinnacles, the middle spandrel encloses the Bohun swan; the side standards are buttressed and each has two shields hanging from the pinnacles— (a) France and England quarterly with a border, (b) Bohun, (c) (a) impaling Bohun quartering Miles of Gloucester, (d) Bohun impaling Fitzalan and Warenne quarterly. At the base of the figure is a range of cusped panels with an embattled top and at the base of each shaft was a shield hanging from an angel's neck; only one of these (Miles of Gloucester) now remains.
S. of (1), (2) of Robert Waldeby, Archbishop of York, 1397, modern altar-tomb incorporating moulded Purbeck-marble slab with brass (Plate 184) of archbishop in mass-vestments with cross-staff, pall, etc., single cinque-foiled canopy with ogee crocketed label terminating in a shield bearing the arms of Edward the Confessor impaling France and England quarterly for Richard II, side-shafts with pinnacles, remains of marginal inscription and indents of two shields.
Against screen—E. side, (4) of [John of Eltham, 1337], son of Edward II, altar-tomb (Plate 74) and effigy of alabaster; the altar-tomb is of two stages, the lower enriched with a series of square cusped panels with blank shields and the upper with a series of cinquefoil-headed niches each formerly containing a 'weeper'; the sides are divided into three main bays by the stumps of the shafts which supported the former elaborate canopy; of the 'weepers,' (Plates 75, 76) originally twenty-four in number, three are missing and others are mutilated, the figures were alternately kings and queens, with the exception of two male figures; five of the shields are missing; the cornice is enriched with sprigs of foliage and the edge of the slab is moulded. The effigy (Plate 188) is in mixed mail and plate-armour with an enriched band round the bascinet and baldrick and scabbard with ornamental bosses; the hauberk has a scalloped edge and above it is a cyclas; the shield on the left arm bears England with a border of France; the head is supported by two angels and the feet by a lion; the legs are crossed.
S. of (4), (5) of [William of Windsor and Blanche of the Tower, 1340], children of Edward III, diminutive Purbeck marble altar-tomb (Plate 74) with moulded base and two tiers of panels at the sides, the lower square and quatre-foiled and the upper tall and with trefoiled heads, and pedestals as for 'weepers'; moulded slab and on it second slab with diminutive alabaster figures (Plate 75) of a boy in civil dress with hip-belt, hose and cloak thrown back, also of girl with reticulated head-dress, sideless cote-hardi, etc., feet on lion, lower part of boy's effigy sawn away.
S. of (5), (6) of Francis (Brandon), wife successively of Henry, Duke of Suffolk, and Adrian Stock, 1559, altar-tomb, (Plate 77) dated 1563, and effigy of alabaster; the altar-tomb has fluted Tuscan columns at the angles supporting an entablature, of which the cornice forms the slab of the tomb; the sides are divided into three bays by enriched pilasters, the middle bay with inscription, and the side-bays and W. end of the tomb with cartouches and lozenges - of - arms (Plate 27). The effigy (Plate 191) rests on a rush mattress with cushion at head and lion at feet; it has a coronet and French cap, ermine mantle with fur collar, close sleeves, etc.
N.E. of (6), (7) of Francis Holles, son of John, Earl of Clare, 1622, monument by Nicholas Stone, consisting of a circular freestone pedestal with enriched base, cornice swag and inscription, supporting a seated alabaster figure in Roman armour with shield-of-arms.
In S.E. bay—on wall, (8) to Katherin (Caree), wife of Sir Thomas Knollys, 1568, marble wall-monument flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with a broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; inscribed tablet in middle in enriched frame carved with crests.
(9) to Jane, daughter of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, 1560, marble wall-monument flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with two crests and cartouche-of-arms on the cornice; shaped apron at bottom.
(10) of Elizabeth Russell , monument of black and white marble consisting of circular pedestal with enriched cornice and base and drum with applied decoration of ribands, swag, bulls' skulls and falcon, and on the pedestal seated figure of woman with ruff, stomacher, etc., right foot on skull.
In S. bay, (11) of John Lord Russell , combined sarcophagus and wall-monument of various marbles; the enriched sarcophagus has a fluted and reeded cornice and straps terminating in claw-feet; the reclining effigy is in a long fur-lined robe and at the feet is a small effigy of a son; flanking the sarcophagus are Corinthian columns on pedestals resting on bases with shields-of-arms; the columns support a continuous entablature with three cartouches-of-arms; against wall is a round arch with allegorical figures in the spandrels and under it is a tablet with an achievement-of-arms supported by two bedes-women.
In next bay W., (12) of Sir Bernard Brocas, "Miles TT" 1400, recessed altar-tomb of freestone with effigy and canopy, all restored in the 18th century. The altar-tomb has a front with six quatre-foiled panels enclosing blank shields and a modern embattled top. The effigy (Plate 188), of doubtful antiquity, is in plate-armour with camail; the head rests on a helm and the feet on a lion; at the back of the recess is an 18th-century inscription. The canopy is of three bays continued as a niche on either side of the altar-tomb; the supports have each a buttress set diagonally and terminating in a pinnacle; the cinque-foiled arches have ogee crocketed labels and carved finials, backed by pierced vertical tracery terminating in a horizontal cornice with bosses of foliage, etc.; the niches have each a moulded and foliated pedestal. The canopy has a richly ribbed vault springing from shafts and angel-corbels; on the edge of the tomb is a brass inscribed fillet with animal and bird stops between the words.
Standing free N. of (12), (13) to Humphrey Bourgchier, 1471, low Purbeck marble altar-tomb with moulded base and chamfered slab, N. side and W. end with quatre-foiled and trefoil-headed panels; on slab, brass (Plate 182) consisting of inscription-plate and six elbow-cops with Bourchier knots; indent of armed figure with tilting helm and saracen's head crest still remaining; four shields-of-arms— (a) Bourchier quartering Louvain impaling quarterly for Berners a label on a label for difference; (b) a cheveron between three griffons' heads razed for Tilney quartering Newell (?), Thorpe, a fesse between two cheverons, Aspall and Hillary; (c) (a) impaling (b); (d) (a) quartering (b).
In next bay W., (14) of Sir Richard Pecksall, 1571, large wall-monument (Plate 80) of marble consisting of a plain high base, panelled plinth and three graduated arched recesses divided by Corinthian columns supporting the arch above the middle recess and two piers, on which rests the continuous cornice; on the cornice is ornamental cresting and a medallion with an achievement-of-arms; the recesses are occupied by kneeling figures of man in armour and of Eleanor (Pawlet-t) and Eleanor (Cottgrave), his two wives; below the man's figure are those of four daughters; several other shields-of-arms.
In next bay N., (15) of Edward Talbot, eighth Earl of Shrewsbury, 1617–8, sarcophagus, altar-tomb and canopy (Plate 80) of various marbles. The enriched sarcophagus is surmounted by a slab of touch, supported by three pairs of Ionic columns; on it is the effigy (Plate 195) of his wife Jane (daughter of Cuthbert, Lord Ogle), with a hood and coronet and a dragon's head crest at her feet; at the back on a higher level is the effigy of man in armour and cloak with a talbot crest at his feet. The canopy in the form of a high round arch with a coffered soffit rests on two side walls, each with an entablature, a round-headed arch and Corinthian column at the front end; the main spandrels have shields-of-arms; the main cornice rests on two small Composite columns and supports an achievement and two cartouches-of-arms. Under the arch in the S. side wall is a kneeling figure of a daughter (Plate 128); at the back of the canopy are thirteen shields-of-arms.
Against the screen—W. side, (16) of [William de Valence, 1296], altar-tomb (Plate 78) of Reigate stone with sides and E. end carved with diapered flowers and square octofoiled panels enclosing shields-of-arms—N. and S. sides, (a) Valence impaling [crusilly] a pike; (b) England; (c) Valence; (d) England; at W. end—England; on the stone tomb is an oak chest with remains of applied arcading on the sides and end; the chest was formerly covered with enamelled copper plates, of which only a few fragments remain on the base and capping, including five small shields on round plates—(a) France; (b) England; (c) Valence; (d) England; (e) barry argent and azure six scutcheons or each charged with a lion gules. The effigy, etc. is of oak, covered with thin copper plates partly engraved and gilt and partly covered with diaper in Limoges champlevé enamel; the figure (Plates 79, 186) is in complete mail with short surcoat to knee, enriched sword-belt and band round forehead, enriched borders at wrist, left elbow and shoulder; the surcoat was formerly powdered with small shields of the Valence arms, of which only three remain; the shield on the left side has the Valence arms in enamel with diapered field; the head rests on a cushion covered with enamelled diapering of rosettes and small shields of the arms of Valence and England; the feet rest on a mutilated lion, and on the chest between the legs is a plate with small lozenges of the same arms as on the cushion. The base of the tomb has been slightly restored.
Screen (Plates 61, 81): Across arch opening into chapel—of oak, of eight main bays, each divided into two tiers of four trefoiled lights, moulded uprights, mullions, cornice and rail, middle bay hung as door of two folds, 15th-century, screen cut down and top rail modern.
(9). The Chapel of St. Benedict (15½ ft. square) corresponds in arrangement to a bay of the aisle and has in the S. wall a window similar to those in the polygonal chapels; below the sill is a wall-arcade (Plate 82) similar to those already described but largely intact and having diapered spandrels and head-stops at the intersections of the labels; in the W. bay of this arcade is a doorway with restored jambs and chamfered two-centred head.
Monuments: Against E. wall—(1) of Francis (Howard), wife of Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, 1598, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 84) of various marbles. The panelled altar-tomb supports the effigy (Plate 193) in fur-lined cloak, French cap, etc.; flanking the altar-tomb on projecting pedestals are two groups of three Corinthian columns supporting an entablature; above each group is a small pavilion surmounted by an obelisk. The back of the tomb has two enriched tablets under as many round arches springing from a central Ionic corbel; above the main cornice in the middle is a large centrepiece with an achievement-of-arms flanked by coupled Composite columns and surmounted by three obelisks.
In N. arch—(2) of [Cardinal Simon Langham], Archbishop of Canterbury , altar-tomb (Plate 83) with effigy of alabaster and iron grate. The altar-tomb has a moulded plinth and slab; the sides and ends are divided into square quatre-foiled and traceried panels each with a shield-of-arms in the middle—N. and S. sides, (a) Abbey of Westminster; (b) See of Ely; (c) See of Canterbury; (d) a cross formy between three crowns; (e) Edward the Confessor; E. end, (a) Old France and England quarterly; (b) as (a) on E. impaling Hainault; W. end, (a) as (a) on E. impaling Bohemia; (b) as (a) on E.; there are remains of inscription on brass fillet on edge of slab; the effigy (Plate 203) is in mass-vestments, with crozier and pall; two mutilated angels support the head, and at the feet are two dogs with belled collars. The wrought-iron grate or railing is on the N. side and at the ends only; it has plain strikes, moulded top-rail and buttressed standards with moulded and embattled tops.
W. of (3), (4) to Dr. Gabriel Goodman, 1601, Dean of Westminster, wall-monument (Plate 82) consisting of low base or plinth with figure of man in skull-cap and full robes, kneeling at prayer-desk; in wall at back is a round arched recess with re-set 13th-century jamb-shafts with moulded capitals and bases, probably from piscina-recess; above the recess is a painted shield-of-arms.
In middle of chapel—(5) of Lionel Cranfield, first Earl of Middlesex, 1645, and Anne [Bret], his second wife; large altar-tomb of touch and white marble, possibly by Nicholas Stone, with effigies. The altar-tomb has panelled sides and baluster-shaped pilasters at the angles; the ends of the tomb have carved achievements-of-arms. The effigy (Plate 197) of the man is in long fur-lined robe with coronet on head, feet on an antelope; the figure of the woman has also a coronet and holds a book; at the feet is a griffon powdered with fleurs-de-lis.
N. of (5), (6) of William Bill, 1561, Dean of Westminster, low altar-tomb of Purbeck marble with moulded base and slab sunk for a brass fillet, now partly lost; on slab, brass (Plate 183) of man in doctor's robes, inscription-plate and indents of four shields.
(10). The Triforium extends over the aisles, ambulatory and the chapels just described. At the E. end is a window of two pointed lights with a circle in a two-centred head. The chambers over the chapels are lighted by windows of two types, triangular with segmental sides, enclosing an octofoiled circle, and windows of two pointed lights with a quartrefoiled circle in a two-centred head; all the stonework has been restored except perhaps the rear-arches. Between the chambers are two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the chamber above the chapel of Our Lady of the Pew has enlarged archways opening into the chambers E. and W.
In the Triforium of this and other parts of the church are the following fittings—Chests: (1) plain, of hutch type, lid hinged in middle, three strap-hinges, 13th-century; (2) with moulded panels in front and at ends, early 16th-century, said to have come from the Islip chapel; (3) quadrant-shaped cope chest with chamfered framing, and strap-hinges, 15th-century. Ironwork: most of the component parts of an iron grate from round a tomb, probably that of Henry V, embattled and buttressed standards and some strikes with fleur-de-lis tops, 15th-century. Monuments: (1) to Sir Lumley Robinson, Bart., 1684, white marble tablet, part only of monument, formerly in the S. aisle of the nave; (2) to Chrystian (Scott), wife of William Ker, 1694, white marble tablet with achievement-of-arms. Organ-case: many fragments of the organ-case of c. 1700, with pierced carving. Tester: of oak boards, painted on the soffit with a large Trinity now much defaced, late 14th or early 15th-century. Miscellanea: numerous fragments of carved stone-work of various dates; many fragments of draped figures in terra-cotta with remains of painting, probably early 16th-century; these probably formed part of the terra-cotta angels and figure of the dead Christ on Torrigiani's altar in Henry VII's chapel. Two obelisks of wood with carved decoration, cherub-heads, etc., formerly flanking entrance to quire, c. 1700.
(11). The Crossing (35 ft. by 34½ ft.) has four main piers of clustered shafts terminating at the springing level of the vault in moulded capitals, from which spring the main two-centred cross-arches of three moulded orders; the shafts are banded at the level of the abaci of the main arcades; the moulded bases on square sub-bases have spurs carved with animals and foliage; on the N.E. pier is a lion attacking a horse. The walls above the arches are carried up to form the lantern, which is probably entirely modern. The crossing was designed to have a stone vault at the same height is those of the presbytery and nave.
(12). The North Transept (76½ ft. by 34½ft.) has E. and W. arcades, triforium and clearstorey of four bays, generally similar to those of the presbytery and of slightly later date (Plates 85, 86); the ribbed vault is also similar to that of the presbytery, but the webs and perhaps also the ribs were partly renewed by Sir Christopher Wren, and the webs have painted decoration of guilloche and acanthus leaves of his date. The N. wall is divided internally into five stages, the two lowest (Plate 88) being equal in height to the piers of the arcade, the third to the arches of the arcade, the fourth continues the triforium, and the fifth is on a level with the clearstorey and rises to the full height of the vault. The lowest stage has four segmental-pointed wall-arches of one or two moulded orders, the outer enriched with carved flowers; the arches rest on shafts with moulded or carved capitals and moulded bases; the five spandrels are carved with much damaged foliage, three seated figures of angels and Samson and the lion; the two middle bays are pierced with doorways. The second stage has a wall-passage fronted with an open arcade of six bays with trefoiled heads each with a two-centred label with foliated stops; the piers have each four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the main spandrels are diapered and the spandrels of the heads have foliage enrichment. The third stage has six lancet windows with moulded rear-arches and labels and shafted splays with moulded capitals and bases; the spandrels above the arches are diapered; the outer E. and W. splays have both a shallow trefoil-headed niche with a figure, and the internal heads of the windows have each a small vault with panels containing half-figures of angels, mostly playing musical instruments. The fourth stage is of three bays and is similar to the triforium arcade, but has no foliage to the outer orders of the arches; the main spandrels have richly carved foliage stopped on each side of a central space for a figure, now lost; these figures stood upon richly foliated corbels, one with a man's head; the outer main spandrels are each carved with an angel, partly in the round, and swinging a censer; the wall at the back of the triforium passage has blind arcading similar to the open arcading opposite and with an additional narrow bay with a trefoiled head at the back of each pier. The fifth stage is occupied by the modern rose-window and has a passage at the sill-level. The exterior of the N. transept is almost entirely modern.
Fittings in N. Transept—Brass Indents: (1) probably of half figure; (2) defaced; (3) of figure and inscription-plate; (4) of two plates; (5) of figure, scroll and inscription-plate; (6) of figure and inscription-plate; (7) probably of two figures; (8) defaced, but said to be of Diego Sanchez, 1557; (9) of half-figure of priest and inscription-plate; (10) of man in armour and woman in butterfly head-dress, three sons and six daughters, four shields, round plate and marginal inscription, late 15th-century; (11) defaced.
Monument and Floor-slabs. Monument: Under second arch of E. arcade—of William Cavendish, K.G., first Duke of Newcastle, 1676, and Margaret (Lucas) his wife , altar-tomb, effigies and back-piece of black and white marble (Plate 97). The altar-tomb has an inscribed panel in front flanked by trophies-of-arms; at ends are cartouches-of-arms. The sarcophagus on the altar-tomb has swags at the angles, an inscription-slab on the W. face and panels on the N. and S., the latter representing a set of books—the works of the duchess. The effigy (Plate 197) of the duke lies on a rush mattress, he wears a coronet, fur-lined cloak and garter and long hair and holds a baton; the duchess wears ermine-trimmed robes and a coronet. The back-piece has a draped canopy and a cartouche-of-arms, and is flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an entablature and segmental pediment with an achievement-of-arms.
Floor-slabs: (1) to Sir William Sanderson, P.C., 1676, and Bridget, his wife, with defaced inscription and shield-of-arms; (2) to Mary James, daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, 1677, with defaced inscription and shield-of-arms; (3) to Clement Saunders, 1695; (4) to John Holles, Duke of Newcastle, 1711, with shield-of-arms; (5) to Louis de Duras, Earl of Feversham, 1709, Amand de Bourbon and Charlotte de Bourbon, transferred from the French church in the Savoy; (6) to John Richbell, 1714, with shield-of-arms; (7) to Sarah, wife of Sir Thomas Nevill, Bart., 1710, with shield-of-arms; (8) to Sir Thomas Nevill, Bart., 1711–12, with shield-of-arms; (9) to Elizabeth (Lort), wife of [Sir Alexander] Campbell, 1714, with shield-of-arms; (10) to Sir Gilbert Lort, Bart., 1698; (11) to [Thomas Willis, 1675], defaced.
(13). The East Aisle of the N. Transept (17½ ft. wide) is of three bays forming the former chapels of St. Andrew, SS. Michael, Martin and All Saints and St. John (Plate 90). The two northern bays have each in the E. wall a window similar to those in the polygonal chapels; the southern bay had an open arch, but the lower part of this is now blocked by the W. wall of Islip's chapel. Below the window in the northernmost bay is a doorway and wall-arcade of two bays similar to those in the polygonal chapels; the doorway has a moulded segmental-pointed rear-arch of two orders, the inner continuous and the outer resting on Purbeck marble shafts (one missing) with foliated capitals; the spandrels above the doorway and wall-arcade are carved with foliage; the southernmost has also a mutilated figure. The N. wall of the aisle is of three stages, the lowest having a wall-arcade of three moulded trefoiled arches resting on shafts with foliated capitals; the spandrels (Plates 6, 89) are carved with (a) foliage, (b) a group of Christ in judgment, (c) St. Margaret with a dragon and surrounded by foliage, and (d) a group of foliage, figures and monsters; the moulded label has head-stops between the bays. The second stage has a wall-passage fronted with three moulded and trefoiled arches resting on grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the main spandrels are diapered and the small spandrels carved with foliage. The third stage has a lancet-window set in an arcade of three graduated and moulded arches with side shafts and labels; between the arcade and the outer wall are three small quadripartite vaults with foliated bosses; the wall-face surrounding the arcade is diapered and the labels have headstops. The vault of the aisle is similar to that of the aisles of the presbytery and springs from shafted responds against the E. wall and a single vaulting shaft in the N.E. angle, all with moulded capitals, bands and bases.
Brass Indents: (1) of [Edmund Kirton, 1466, Abbot of Westminster], figure in mass-vestments with mitre and crozier, under a triple crocketed canopy, two shields, eight scrolls and a round plate; (2) probably of two figures and inscription-plate; (3) fragment with marginal inscription, early 14th-century.
Coffin-lids: (1) of limestone (Plate 181) with chamfered edge and foliated cross on stepped calvary, late 13th or early 14th-century; (2) of Purbeck marble with incised ornamental cross and stepped calvary, 13th-century.
Monuments: In chapel of St. Andrew— (1) of [Henry, Lord Norris, 1601, and Margaret, his wife], large monument (Plate 90) of various marbles, consisting of base, sarcophagus, effigies and canopy. The panelled base has blank shields and on it rests the sarcophagus, the canopy and six figures in armour of sons kneeling on cushions. The shaped and moulded sarcophagus has a reeded capping and supports the effigies (Plate 194) of a man in armour with fur-lined cloak and feet against crest, and of a woman in French cap, etc. The canopy rests on eight Corinthian columns supporting cross-pieces forming the architrave and frieze and a flat marble 'tester' forming the cornice of the order; the soffit is panelled and enriched with rosettes, etc.; the ends of the structure are closed in between the columns by walls having enriched arches. On the top of the canopy is a centre-piece with enriched supports and an entablature; the panels on the N. and S. sides are carved with military scenes, infantry and cavalry on the march, etc.; surmounting the centrepiece is a figure of Mercury; at W. end of canopy, two obelisks and an achievement-of-arms.
On E. wall of same chapel, (2) to Anne (Bodenham), wife of James Kirton, 1603, alabaster and black marble tablet flanked by enriched pilasters supporting an entablature and a cartouche; above the inscription is a weeping eye, the tears from which are represented sprinkled over the inscription.
In chapel of St. Michael—against E. wall, (3) of Sarah (Alston), [wife of John Seymour, fourth] Duke of Somerset, 1692, white marble monument (Plate 91) consisting of a panelled base supporting a gadrooned slab resting on inverted trusses; on the base are kneeling figures of two charity-school boys, and on the slab is a reclining figure of a woman; the monument had formerly an elaborate back-piece and two side-wings each with a kneeling figure. (4) of Catherine (Dormer), widow of John, Lord St. John, 1614–5, alabaster effigy of woman in reclining position, with ruff, stomacher, full skirt, etc., on modern base, not in situ.
In chapel of St. John the Evangelist—(5) of Sir Francis Vere, 1609, monument (Plate 92) of alabaster and touch; it consists of a moulded plinth on which are four figures in armour, kneeling on one knee and supporting on their shoulders a moulded slab; on the slab are a helm, the various pieces of a suit of body-armour and a cartouche-of-arms; below the slab is a recumbent effigy (Plate 92) of a man in civil costume resting on a rush mattress and with feet against a boar crest.
Against E. wall, (6) of Sir George Holles, 1626, alabaster and free-stone wall-monument by Nicholas Stone, consisting of base, pedestal and statue. The base has a panel in front carved with a battle subject said to be the battle of Nieuport; the cornice has a broken voluted pediment with two seated figures of Amazons. The pedestal rises from the middle and has an inscribed panel in front. The statue on the top is in Roman armour and holds a large shield-of-arms; (7) to Sir Gilbert Lort, Bart., 1698, plain marble tablet with added apron inscribed to Elizabeth Campbell, 1714; (8) to Grace (Mauleverer), wife of Col. Thomas Scot, 1645–6, small draped marble tablet with cartouche-of-arms and crest; (9) to Clement Saunders, 1695, oval marble tablet with swags and cartouche-of-arms. Further S., (10) to Dr. Brian Duppa, Bishop of Winchester, 1662, white marble tablet with round head and side-pilasters with enriched panels, at base three shields-of-arms.
Reredos: In chapel of St. Michael—on E. wall (Plate 91) range of three canopied niches with buttresses and pinnacled piers and semi-hexagonal canopies with crocketed labels and pinnacles and ribbed vaults; above remains of traceried panelling; below niches remains of blank panelling and masonry block at back of former altar, 15th-century, much damaged and S. canopy mostly destroyed.
(14). The West Aisle of the N. transept (17½ ft. wide) is generally similar in arrangement, date and detail to the E. aisle. It has three windows in the W. wall and beneath them is the usual wall-arcade with three arches in each bay. In the N. bay the middle arch has been mostly destroyed for a monument and its label raised above the window-sill; the labels have altered angel-stops and the spandrels are carved with foliage and much damaged figures. The arcade of the middle bay is largely intact; the labels have head-stops and the spandrels are carved with foliage and a figure of St. Michael and the dragon. The arcade of the S. bay is also intact and has head-stops to the labels; the spandrels are carved with a censing angel, seated figures (Plate 6), two monsters and foliage. The N. wall is in three stages, the lowest has a doorway and two narrow wall-arches, all with Purbeck marble shafts with moulded or foliated capitals; the doorway has a stilted segmental-pointed arch of two moulded orders, the outer enriched with flowers and repeated over the wall-arches. The second stage has a wall-passage and three trefoiled arches, faced with modern marble palm-trees, forming part of a monument. The third stage is uniform with the corresponding stage in the E. aisle. The stone vault is similar to that over the E, aisle, but the bosses are carved with (a) probably David holding a harp, (b) and (c) figure-subjects probably from lives of David or Solomon, (d) foliage.
Fittings in W. aisle of N. transept—Glass: In S.W. window—two panels consisting of grisaille foliage in circular medallions and hexagonal panels with borders, part of main border with foliated quarries, 13th-century, in modern wooden frames.
Monument: On N. wall—of Sir William Sanderson, 1676, alabaster and black marble tablet with side-pilasters and shaped head with broken pediment stopped on either side of bust of man; below shelf second tablet.
(15). The South Transept (76 ft. by 34½ ft.) has E. and W. arcades, triforium, clearstorey and vault similar to the N. transept (Plate 87), except that the piers of the three southern bays on the W. side are engaged in and form part of the E. wall of the cloister; this wall extends up to within two feet of the capitals of the main arcade, above which point the arches are open and the piers complete. Each bay of this wall has on the E. face two tiers of wall-arcading each of three bays; the lower tier has trefoiled arches, resting on shafts with foliated capitals; the labels have head-stops and the middle spandrels are diapered; the middle arch in the S. bay has been raised and altered. The upper tier has three moulded and pointed arches and diapered middle spandrels; above this tier is a moulded string-course and single diapered stones at the ends of the bays. The S. wall of the transept is divided into five stages, corresponding in height to those at the end of the N. transept; the lowest stage is of five bays, the four eastern occupied by a wall-arcade with two-centred moulded arches, enriched with flowers and resting on grouped or single shafts with moulded capitals; the spandrels over the arcade are diapered; the middle bay is wider than the others and encloses a doorway with a modern rear-arch; the westernmost bay has remains of two blocked doorways, the higher and original one with moulded jambs and segmental-pointed arch and the later, possibly of the 14th-century, with a plain two-centred head, cutting into the older doorway; both were connected with the night-stairs from the Dorter. The second stage has a wall-passage and arcade similar to that in the corresponding stage of the N. transept; in the two western bays are steps over the doorway to the night stairs. The third stage has six windows similar to those in the corresponding stage in the N. transept but with trefoiled heads and rear-arches. The fourth stage (Plate 93) continues the arcade of the triforium, and the outer order of the arches has foliage decoration, except in the E. bay; the spandrels are diapered and have large figures, partly in the round, of two censing angels, a standing figure, now headless, and a seated figure with staff and right arm outstretched. The fifth stage has a modern rose-window with a wall-passage at its base.
Fittings in S. transept—Brass Indents: (1) defaced, but said to be of Anne (Neville), queen of Richard III, 1485; (2) of figure, and marginal inscription, said to be of Robert Haule, 1378; (3), (4) and (5) defaced.
On W. wall—(2) of William Camden, 1623, Clarencieux King of Arms, antiquary, white marble monument consisting of pedestal with moulded base and cornice supporting bust of man in civil costume, on wall at back his crown and two shields-of-arms. S. of (2), (3) to Dr. Isaac Casaubon, 1614, wall-monument of black and white marble and serpentine by Nicholas Stone, erected 1634, with panelled base, enriched side-pilasters, cornice and broken voluted pediment having an enriched centre-piece finished with swags, pediment and urn; on arch over a cartouche-of-arms. Above (3), (4) of John Ernest Grabe, S.T.P., 1711 (buried in St. Pancras' church), wall-monument of various marbles consisting of inscribed tablet and a sarcophagus on a shelf supported on five brackets; on the sarcophagus is a seated figure of a man in loose robes with Geneva bands and holding a pen and book. S. of (3), (5) to Sir Richard Coxe, 1623, black and white marble tablet, by Nicholas Stone, with consoles, swags, cornice, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms. In the next bay S., (6) to Dr. Thomas Triplett, 1670, prebendary of Westminster, white marble wall-monument with panelled base, cornice, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms. S. of (6), (7) of Isaac Barrow, S.T.P., 1677, white marble wall-monument consisting of tall pedestal with scrolled supports, cornice and reeded capping supporting bust of man in broad collar and loose gown; S. of (7), (8) to William Outram, S.T.P., 1679, canon of Westminster, white marble wall-monument with cornice, curved pediment and urn.
Floor-slabs: (1) to Henry Carr, , with achievement-of-arms; (2) to Dr. Antony Horneck, 1696–7, with achievement-of-arms; (3) to Dr. Samuel Bolton, 1668–9, prebendary of Westminster and chaplain to Charles II; (4) to John Osbaldston, 1666–7, page to Charles II; (5) to Sir William Davenant ; (6) to Thomas Chiffinch, 1666, page to Charles II; (7) to Edward Wetenhall, 1713, Bishop of Ardagh, with achievement-of-arms; (8) to William Burnaby 1706, with achievement-of-arms; (9) to Thomas Parr, 1635, aged 152 years; (10) to William Outram, S.T.P., 1679.
(16). The East Aisle (Plate 94) of the S. transept (17½ ft. wide) is similar in arrangement and detail to the E. aisle of the N. transept, with two windows in the E. wall. The wall-arcade below the windows has been much destroyed by monuments in the northern of the two bays; portions only of the trefoiled arches and diapered spandrels remain; in the southern bay the arcade is more complete, but the trefoil of the N. arch has been cut away and the segmental-pointed S. arch covers a doorway; the spandrels are diapered. The S. wall is divided into three stages; the lowest has a wall-arcade of three bays with moulded trefoiled heads, two-centred labels, head and angel-stops and shafts with foliated capitals; in the E. bay is a doorway with a segmental-pointed head. The second stage has a wall-passage with an open arcade of three irregular bays with two-centred arches and labels in front and on the back wall a wall-arcade of trefoiled arches; both arcades have shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The third stage has a window of two pointed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head.
Fittings in E. aisle of S. transept—Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: Against screen on N. side of N. bay—(1) of Richard Busby, 1695, head-master of Westminster School, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of white marble (Plate 97). Altar-tomb with reeded top and panelled front carved with books, etc., and supporting reclining effigy of man in academical robes and skull-cap; back-piece consisting of draped inscribed panel with segmental pediment, flanked by pilasters supporting lamps and having a cartouche-of-arms at the top.
On E. wall—(2) to Martha (Vyner), wife successively of Francis Millington and Peter Birch, 1703, white marble oval tablet with drapery, cherub-heads and shield-of-arms. S. of (2), (3) to Abraham Couley, 1667, poet, white marble monument, erected by George, Duke of Buckingham, consisting of pedestal with scrolled supports, cornice capping and large urn. S. of (3), (4) to Geoffrey Chaucer, 1400, Purbeck marble altar-tomb and canopy (Plate 95) erected by N. Brigham, 1556. The altar-tomb has three quatre-foiled and traceried panels in front, each enclosing a shield of the arms of Chaucer; moulded top slab. The canopy is of four bays extending one bay S. of the tomb; it rests on round diapered shafts and has depressed cusped arches with ogee crocketed and finialled labels and pinnacles; above the labels the spandrels are filled with blind tracery and there is a horizontal cornice at the top with carved flowers; the sides of the canopy have cusped panelling and the soffit has fan-traceried vaulting; at the back of the recess is an inscribed panel with two shields of Chaucer. S. of (4), (5) of John Philips, 1708, poet, white marble tablet with oval medallion above carved in low relief with bust of man and surrounded by carved trees, foliage, etc. In next bay S., (6) of Michaell Draiton, 1631, poet laureate, alabaster and black marble tablet with side-pilasters, cornice and super-cornice with pediment, on which is laurelled bust of poet; at sides of tablet a shield of the poet's arms and a Mercury's cap on a sun.
On screen wall W. side of S. bay—(7) to Charles de St. Denis, Sieur de St. Evremond, 1703, white marble tablet with shield-of-arms, side-pilasters, round head with cornice and bust and carved apron below. S. of (7), (8) of Thomas Shadwell, 1692, poet laureate, black and white marble draped tablet with cornice, cresting and bust with laurel wreath.
Floor-slabs: (1) to Abraham Couley, 1667, with shield-of-arms; (2) to Dr. Peter Birch, 1710, prebendary of Westminster, with achievement-of-arms; (3) slab, said to be that of Abbot Richard Sudbury, 1315, but without inscription.
(17). Muniment Room. (Plate 96). The lower part of the W. Aisle of the S. transept is occupied by part of the E. walk of the cloister. Above the roof of this cloister is the Muniment Room occupying the rest of the height of the structural aisle. In the W. wall are three windows with heads, etc., similar to those in the E. aisle but only half their height. In the S. wall is a window of three graduated lancets each with shafted splays, moulded rear-arches and labels with head-stops; the reveals of the middle lancet have arched openings, with foliated capitals to the side lancets, and each window-recess has a ribbed vault with a boss, (Plate 143) each carved with an angel or saint fighting a monster; the spandrels and reveals are diapered. The main vault of the aisle has bosses, much decayed but carved with figures, the middle one apparently the Almighty or Abraham's bosom with two souls in a sheet. The iron tie-bars in this part of the building were replaced by Sir C. Wren.
Fittings in Muniment Room—Chests: (Plate 21). (1) about 12½ ft. long, stiles and middle muntin carried down to form legs and each with a carved shaft with cap and base set in the front of a semi-circular cutting, lid in two parts with pivots, three chain-hinges and two locks remaining, late 12th-century; (2) about 13½ ft. long, stiles and middle muntin carried down to form legs, with quadrant cutting and disk ornaments in front, lid in four parts with iron hinges and six locks, late 12th-century; (3) similar to (1) but without ornament, pin and chain-hinges, stop-chamfered top rails and three locks, 13th-century; (4) with end stiles projecting only one inch to form legs, panelled front and back, two iron strap-hinges, with foliated ends, probably 14th-century; (5) iron-bound, leather-covered coffer, with cambered lid, handle at each end, three locks and five hinges; (6) similar to last but lid with three faces and two locks; (5) and (6) belonged to Margaret Beaufort (died 1509).
Cupboard: (Plate 96) in three compartments, divided by hollow-chamfered muntins with moulded cornice, doors hung with ornamental strap-hinges, upper middle door with foiled scutcheon-plate and ring-handle, plain locks, probably late 14th-century.
Painting: On N. face of plastered partition— remains of large painting of the couched hart of Richard II; on the boarding below the plastered tympanum of the partition, pattern of white stars, also on W. side of cupboard against partition, late 14th-century. On N. side of same partition, painted architrave mouldings, forming panel, 17th-century. On S. splay of S.W. window, remains of painting. On piece of fascia-board, foliage diapering and three shields-of-arms, (a) gules a Toulouse cross, or; (b) argent a saltire gules and a label of five points azure; (c) barry or and gable a border gules, late 13th century.
Tiles: Pavement of slip-tiles, mainly in situ and divided by bands from N. to S., patterns conventional and heraldic including (a) England; (b) Clare, nebuly, fleur-de-lis, etc., probably late 14th-century.
(18). The Nave (235½ ft. by 33½ ft.) is of twelve bays (Plates 31, 32), of which the four eastern are occupied by the ritual quire and pulpitum. The first bay W. of the crossing is of the first period of Henry III's work; the next four bays are of the second period of the same king or of his successor, Edward I; the remainder of the nave was begun late in the 14th and was completed late in the 15th century. The first five bays are generally similar to the presbytery, but the main piers have each eight shafts, instead of four, those towards the cardinal points being attached at the back to the main pier; the first pier differs from the succeeding four by having marble band-courses like those of the presbytery, while the later piers are banded with bronze; the first bay of the triforium also has foliated outer orders to the arches, while the later bays are moulded only. The wall-spandrels of all the 13th-century bays of main arcade and triforium are diapered, while the corresponding spaces of the late 14th and 15th-century work are plain. From the sixth to the eleventh bays inclusive the late 14th and 15th-century work is similar in general design to the earlier building, from which it differs mainly in the following particulars: the piers have each eight shafts all attached to the main piers and the stone bands are continued round the pier as well as the shafts; the mouldings of the capitals and bases and archivolts throughout the structure are of late 14th or 15th-century section; the labels of the main arches have head or beast-stops; the labels of the triforium arcade mitre with the string-course above them, the arches being rather higher than in the earlier work; the clearstorey windows are each of two trefoiled lights with a quatre-foiled circle in a two-centred head; the clearstorey window in the fifth bay of the 13th-century work has an E. jamb of that date, but the rest of the window is probably an early 16th-century insertion joining up the earlier and later work. Between the eleventh and last bays is a moulded cross-arch the full height of the building, resting on grouped shafts, uninterrupted except for a band to the main shaft at the level of the capitals of the main arcade. The design of the W. bay is similar to those further E., but the wall forming part of the tower on each side is thicker, necessitating an increased number of shafts to the responds and wider reveals to the triforium; the clearstorey window opening into the tower is of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; it is probably of late 15th or early 16th-century date, though the character of the tracery is of the 14th century. In the W. wall is a large late 15th-century window with three tiers of seven cinque-foiled lights and vertical tracery in a two-centred head; below the window-sill, internally, the lines of the mullions are carried down to form panelling in two tiers with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads; above the upper tier is a moulded cornice carved with square flowers and surmounted by a course of horizontal panelling. The rear-arch and splays of the window are panelled, the panelling being continued down below the sill. Below the panelling is an 18th-century or modern stone screen. The early 16th-century W. doorway (Plate 3) is set externally in a deep projection or porch between the buttresses of the towers; the doorway itself has moulded and shafted jambs and a moulded two-centred arch; the recess or porch has splayed sides with blind tracery in three lights and the moulded two-centred outer archway springs from shafted responds; the porch has a semi-vault with moulded ribs and defaced bosses and springs from vaulting shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the whole composition except the vault and the heads of the blind tracery has been restored. Flanking the archway are four canopied niches and above it a range of ten niches with projecting canopies, all completely restored. Above the porch is a narrow chamber entered from the turret-staircase of the N.W. tower by a 15th-century doorway with a four-centred head. The chamber, which was formerly divided into two floors, has in the E. wall two loops; in the S. wall is a 15th-century fireplace with a four-centred arch, at the level of the upper floor and W. of it is a blocked opening. The chamber was altered in the 18th century by the insertion of two piers and an arch. The upper part of the W. wall, externally, is entirely of 18th-century date. The vault of the nave is of twelve bays, each bay having ridge, diagonal and intermediate ribs and springing from triple shafts banded at the base of the triforium and clearstorey in the 13th-century bays, but uninterrupted in the later work; the bosses at the intersections of the ribs in the first four bays are carved with foliage and the webs have painted decoration of the time of Wren; in the remaining bays the bosses are as follows— fifth bay, two angels with a crown and shield, apparently blank, Tudor roses, blank shields with lance-rests, foliage and a shield with helm and mantling and charged with a cross; sixth bay, a Catherine wheel and foliage, the arms of Edward the Confessor, the arms of the Abbey, the cross-keys of St. Peter and blank shields with lance-rests; the bosses of the remaining bays are carved with roses and foliage, except the middle boss of the ninth bay, which has the sacred name with foliage, and the middle boss of the twelfth bay, which has a portcullis; all the bays W. of the fourth bay are of 15th or early 16th-century date.
Pulpit (Plate 22): In nave—N. side, hexagonal oak pulpit with pairs of enriched pilasters at the angles and enriched cornice of quadrant section with heads; each face with an oval panel with carved wreath and shaped key-blocks; narrow lower panels with conventional foliage. Sounding-board with richly panelled soffit and restored enriched cornice, early 17th-century, base modern.
(19). The North Aisle (Plate 98) of the nave (14½ ft. wide) has in each of the four eastern bays a 13th-century window similar to those in the aisles of the transept but with a cinque-foiled circle in the head; at the sill-level is a wall-passage and below it is a wall-arcade of three arches to each bay similar to those on the outer walls of the transepts and considerably cut away and damaged in places by later monuments; the intermediate stops to the labels are carved with angels, a figure (David ?) playing a harp, grotesque beasts, foliage and a bird with foliage; the spandrels have much weathered diapering, and the two main spandrels in each bay have shields (Plate 102) hung by straps from projecting heads, some missing; the shields had each a name painted on the string-course above it, and each bears carved and painted arms as follows—first bay, (a) an eagle [for the Emperor Frederick II], (b) Old France for Louis IX; second bay (Plate 100) (a) or, three cheverons gules [for Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester], (b) or a cross gules [for Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk]; third bay, (a) gules a lion with a forked tail argent for Simon de Montford [Earl of Leicester], (b) checky or and [azure] for John, Earl of Warenne; fourth bay, (a) destroyed, but formerly the arms of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, azure a bend argent cotised or between six lions or, (b) gules a cross paty vair for William de Forz [Earl of Albemarle]. The fifth to the tenth bays are of late 14th and 15th-century work and have each a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; there is no wall-passage at the base of the windows and the wall-arcade though generally similar to the earlier work has main spandrels mostly plain and with painted shields-of-arms (see Fittings) and carved spandrels to the trefoiled heads. The fifth bay has a doorway with a two-centred head in the middle arch of the arcade, which is not trefoiled; the labels have intermediate beast-stops, but the side arches have been mostly cut away. In the sixth bay the label-stops are a small painted figure of a saint and a man's head, also painted; the spandrels of the trefoiled heads are carved with foliage and two human figures. The seventh bay has defaced head-stops to the labels, and the spandrels are carved with foliage and winged monsters, and the E. main spandrel has a censing angel; the W. arch has been largely defaced or cut away. The eighth bay retains only its middle arch, the spandrels of which are carved with a beast and a harpy. In the ninth bay the arcade is intact and has one beast and one defaced label-stop; the spandrels of the trefoiled heads are covered with foliage and the outer main spandrels are carved with angels. In the tenth bay the arcade has been entirely destroyed. The aisle has a quadripartite vault springing in the 13th-century bays from responds similar to those in the transepts, and in the later bays from grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases. At the intersections of the ribs are bosses carved with foliage and a face in the 13th-century bays, and with a rose, grotesque faces, and foliage in the later bays.
Fittings in N. aisle of Nave—Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: On N. wall—in E. bay, (1) to John Blow, Doctor of Music, 1708, shaped and draped white marble tablet (Plate 101) with cherub-heads, music-book and cartouche-of-arms.
In fourth bay, (4) to Sir Thomas Livingston, Viscount Teviot, 1710–11, white marble and serpentine tablet with fluted Doric side-pilasters, scrolled supports, entablature and achievement-of-arms surrounded by trophies; (5) to Edward Carteret, 1677, gadrooned pedestal and wall-monument of black and white marble with double pediment, urn and achievement-of-arms; (6) of Philip Carteret, 1710–1, black and white marble monument, by Sir Claude David, consisting of base, pedestal with figure of Time holding a scroll, half sarcophagus, bust of man and cartouche-of-arms.
In fifth bay, (7) of Henry Priestman, 1712, black and white marble wall-monument, consisting of base with half sarcophagus in front, round-headed back-piece with pyramidal slab superimposed, medallion with head of man in relief and naval trophies.
In sixth bay, (8) to Gilbert Thornburgh, 1677, shaped white marble tablet, with scrolls, cherub-head and cartouche-of-arms; (9) to Robert, 1678–9, and Richard, 1680, sons of Robert, Viscount Cholmondeley, white marble wall-monument with enriched base and capping two shields-of-arms and draped inscription; (10) to Edward Mansell, 1681, plain white marble wall-monument consisting of pedestal with scrolled supports, cornice, fluted capping and cartouche-of-arms.
In seventh bay, (11) to Thomas Mansell, 1684, and William Morgan, 1683–4, white marble wall-monument divided into two bays by twisted Composite columns supporting entablature, broken voluted pediment, urn and two shields-of-arms; (12) of Jane (Stotevill), wife successively of Edward Ellis and Othowell Hill, LL.D., 1631, black marble and freestone monument consisting of pedestal with kneeling figure of woman in loose robes, on wall at back, lozenge and two shields-of-arms, figure of death and a vine with fruit; (13) of Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Beaufoy, 1705, white marble wall-monument, by Grinling Gibbons, consisting of high plinth, sarcophagus with blank shield, kneeling figure of woman with attendant cherubs and back-piece flanked by enriched pilasters.
In eighth bay, (14) to Robert Killigrew, 1707, white marble tablet consisting of large trophyof-arms with apron carved with palms and shield-of-arms; (15) to Col. James Bringfeild, 1706, oval draped tablet of white marble with cartouche-of-arms, trophies and lamp; (16) to Heneage, 1709, John, 1707, and Josiah, 1708, sons of Sir William Twysden, inscribed tablet, two inscribed cartouches and a cartouche-of-arms, all remains of monument re-set. Under bench, (17) stone inscribed "O rare Ben Johnson."
On S. side—against enclosure of quire, (20) of Sir Thomas Heskett, 1605, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument of various marbles. The altar-tomb has a panelled front with a round-headed recess in the middle flanked by enriched pilasters; in the recess was a kneeling figure, now removed. The reclining effigy on the tomb is painted and wears a coif, ruff and long gown. The back-piece has a shallow round arch enclosing an enriched tablet with strap-work and two niches containing putti; the spandrels have shields-of-arms, and the whole is flanked by Corinthian columns supporting the entablature; (21) to Mary (Killigreu), wife of Sir John James, 1677, black and white marble monument consisting of pedestal flanked by four shields-of-arms and surmounted by large urn, not in situ; (22) to Henry Purcell, 1695, white marble shaped tablet with palms and lamp; (23) to Sir Thomas Duppa, 1694, grey and white marble wall-monument flanked by recessed Ionic columns and surmounted by cornice and broken pediment and urn, richly carved apron with cartouche-of-arms.
Paintings: In spandrels of wall-arcade—painted shields with inscriptions as follows—fifth bay, (a) defaced and (b) quarterly gules and or a molet argent in the quarter for [Hugh] de Vere, Earl of Oxford; sixth bay, (a) checky or and azure a border of England and a quarter ermine dimidiating a defaced coat for John de Dre[ux, Earl of Richmond], (b) or a maunch gules for Henry de Hastings: seventh bay, (a) gules a lion argent for Roger de Mowbrai; (b) defaced [or a cheveron gules] for [Robert] de Stafford; eighth bay, (a) defaced [gules three water-bougets argent] for Robert [de Roos], (b) defaced [or a fesse between two cheverons gules for Robert Fitzwalter]; ninth bay, (a) gules [an orle argent for John Balliol]. (b) bendy gules and argent [for Gilbert Talbot]. Two other shields of the arms of Warin de Vernon and William de Malpas have disappeared.
(20). The South Aisle of the Nave (14½ ft. wide) (Plate 99) has five eastern bays of 13th-century work. The S. wall of the first bay rises only to the height of the parapet of the muniment room above the E. cloister; it is divided internally into two stages, the lower containing the eastern processional doorway from the cloister. This doorway (Plate 149) has a two-centred arch of three moulded orders, the inner diapered and continuous and the two outer resting on Purbeck marble shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases, all much defaced; the middle order of the arch has defaced foliage and the moulded label has head-stops; the rear-arch is segmental-pointed and carved with foliage; it forms part of an internal wall-arcade of three arches, of which the side ones are moulded and two-centred and struck from high above the springing level; the shafts supporting the arcade have moulded and foliated capitals and the main spandrels are diapered; the labels have intermediate head-stops. The upper stage of the wall internally has three large round panels, each enclosing a quatrefoil with diapered spandrels. The next four bays have each a window similar to those in the corresponding bays of the N. aisle, but flanked externally by acutely pointed wall-arches; below the sills internally there was formerly a wall-arcade similar to that in the N. aisle, but entirely destroyed in the second bay except for the two shields (Plates 101, 103) hanging from heads, which have been re-set higher up; the shields bear (a) [azure] a cross paty between five martlets or [for St. Edward the Confessor] hanging from an eagle's head, and (b) England, for Henry III, hanging from male and female heads. The arcading of the third bay has been destroyed except for the top of the E. arch, with part of its diapered spandrels; the E. shield has disappeared, it was that of Alexander III of Scotland; the W. shield has been re-set high up and bears or four pales gules [for Raymond, Count of Provence, father of Queen Eleanor], it hangs from heads of a blackamoor and a lady. The fourth bay retains most of the E. arch of the arcade, with its E. shaft and diapered spandrels; the two shields, refixed higher up, bear (a) gules seven voided lozenges or [for Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester], and (b) quarterly or and gules a baston sable and a label of five points argent [for Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln]. In the fifth bay the arcading is largely complete except for the cusps of the E. arch and the more serious mutilation of the W. arch; the label has figure and angel-stops and the two shields in the spandrels bear (a) argent a lion gules crowned or within a border sable bezanty for Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and (b) gules three lions argent for Richard, Earl of Ross, the two remaining heads from which they hang are a young man and an older bearded man. The next six bays (6th to 11th) are of later work (late 14th and 15th-century) and have each a window similar to those in the corresponding bays of the N. aisle; below them is a wall-arcade also similar to that in the N. aisle. In the sixth bay the middle arch has been destroyed; the outer spandrels are carved with dragons and the inner with foliage. The arcade of the seventh bay has been very much altered and restored; the detail is similar to that in the bay last described, but the middle arch was raised in the 18th century; the labels have a lion and a dragon as stops. The arcade in the eighth bay is divided irregularly owing to the position of the western processional doorway, making a narrow stilted arch on the E. and a four-centred arch over the doorway; the spandrels are all carved with foliage, the middle main spandrels having spaces left for painted shields; the labels have a lion and a male human head, painted. The doorway (Plate 150) is of late 14th-century date and has a moulded two-centred arch and shafted jambs; it is set in an external recess with moulded and shafted splays and moulded segmental-pointed arch; the wall space between the head of the doorway and the arch is filled with blind tracery. In the ninth bay the arcade has been entirely destroyed except for the side shafts. The arcade of the tenth bay is complete except for the middle arch; the labels have head-stops and the spandrels are uncarved. The eleventh bay also retains its arcade, but the middle arch has lost its foils; the labels have beast-stops. Above the arcade is a wooden gallery (see Fittings) in the window-recess; at the base of the window is an early 16th-century arch partly blocked and communicating with the Abbot's Lodging. The vaulting of the aisle is similar to that over the N. aisle; the bosses are all carved with foliage except for that in the first bay carved with two seated figures, that in the tenth with a beast and foliage, and that in the eleventh carved with the arms of the Abbey.
Fittings in S. aisle of Nave—Gallery: or Abbot's Pew, of oak, projecting from S. wall in eleventh bay. The front has twelve close panels with cinque-foiled ogee and traceried heads and moulded mullions; the cornice and base rail are moulded and below the rail is a coved soffit with moulded ribs and traceried spandrels at the E. and W. ends; above the cornice was a range of open lights, but only the mortices for the uprights remain, except for the bay at the W. end, which has a traceried head similar to those of the close panelling; the panelled ceiling has two square openings, probably to admit light from the window above; early 16th-century, partly restored.
Monuments: On N. side—against enclosure of quire, (1) of William Thynne, 1584, altar-tomb of alabaster and marble divided into bays by plain pilasters; two bays and the panel at the W. end have cartouches and an achievement-of-arms respectively. The effigy (Plate 192) is in armour and rests on a rush mattress; (2) of Sir Thomas Richardson, 1634–5, black marble wall-monument, by Hubert le Sueur, consisting of panelled base supporting a reeded sarcophagus with an inscribed cartouche on the front; above it is a back-piece with an oval enriched recess containing the bronze bust of a man in cap, gown and collar of SS, with a rose-clasp; above is a voluted pediment and an attic; (3) of Grace (Norton), wife of Sir Richard Gethin, 1697, marble wall-monument consisting of kneeling figure of woman on segmental projecting base and flanked by two figures of angels; the canopy is formed by a deeply projecting cornice supported by Ionic columns and finished with a broken voluted pediment, on which are reclining female figures; in the middle is an urn and a cartouche-of-arms; at the base of the monument are three more cartouches-of-arms; (4) to James Kendall, M.P., 1708, white marble shaped tablet with cherub-heads, scrolls and cartouche-of-arms; (5) of Thomas Owen, 1598, justice of the common pleas, combined altar-tomb and wall-monument, almost uniform with monument (19) in N. aisle, but without the recess in the front; the effigy is in judicial robes; (6) of Thomas Thynn, 1681–2, white veined marble altar-tomb and wall-monument; the altar-tomb has in front a scene of the murder of Thynn in relief; the reclining effigy is loosely draped and at the feet is a cherub; the back-piece has a segmental pediment, a cartouche-of-arms and heavy drapery.
In second bay, (8) of Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1707, admiral, large wall-monument (Plate 101) of various marbles consisting of base with panels carved with trophies and a shipwreck, a sarcophagus on which is reclining figure of man in Roman armour and drapery; flanking it are coupled Corinthian columns supporting entablatures and cherubs with shields-of-arms; above the effigy is a draped canopy surmounted by a crest.
In third bay, (9) to Thomas Knipe S.T.P., 1711, prebendary of Westminster, veined marble tablet with Doric side-pilasters, entablature, shield-of-arms and urn; (10) of George Stepney, 1707, wall-monument of various marbles consisting of base, sarcophagus supporting pedestal with shield-of-arms and bust in wig and flanked by cherubs; above bust is a draped canopy surmounted by a crest.
In fourth bay, (11) to Major Richard Creed, 1704, oval white marble tablet with cartouche-of-arms and military trophies; (12) to Sir Richard Bingham, 1598, black marble tablet sunk in the wall with painted achievement-of-arms above; (13) to George Churchill, 1710, son of the Duke of Marlborough, white marble wall-monument consisting of base with two cherubs, and a sarcophagus supporting a round-headed niche containing a large urn and flanked by pilasters supporting a cornice and centre-piece with shield-of-arms; (14) to Cap. William Julius, 1698, small oval tablet with scrolls, cherub-heads and cartouche-of arms.
In fifth bay, (15) to Sir Palmes Fairborne, 1680, governor of "Tanger," plain white marble tablet in the form of a pedestal with ogee capping and achievement-of-arms; (16) to Bridget, wife of Charles Radley, 1679, white marble cartouche with scrolls, flowers and shield-of-arms.
In sixth bay, (17) of Sidney, Lord Godolphin, 1712, Lord High Treasurer, etc., draped white marble tablet, by F. Bird, with cornice and bust in wig, and with the mantle and collar of the garter; (18) to Sir Charles Harbord and Clement Cottrell, 1672, killed in the battle off Suffolk, black and white marble wall-monument consisting of high base with trophies and a bas-relief of a seafight, and above two large inscribed panels each with a cartouche-of-arms and having a common cornice and broken voluted pediment.
In seventh bay, (19) to Ann (Filding), wife of Sir Samuel Morland, Bart., 1679–80, black and white marble wall-monument with Ionic columns at sides, entablature and broken voluted pediment with cartouche-of-arms; (20) to Carola (Harsnett), wife of Sir Samuel Morland, Bart., 1674, monument generally similar to (19), but tablet with scrolls, foliage, cartouche-of-arms, etc.
Paintings: In spandrels of wall-arcade—painted shields, some with inscriptions—sixth bay, (a) vairy or and gules for William, Earl of Ferrers and Derby, (b) azure six lions or for William Longespee, Earl of Salisbury, both repainted; the shields in the seventh, eight and ninth bays have disappeared; as late as 1722, however, they retained painted shields of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Roger de Mortimer, William de Percy, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Somery and John de Verdon; tenth bay, (a) argent a fesse gules between three popinjays vert for [Robert de Thwenge], (b) quarterly fessewise indented argent and gules for [Fulc Fitz Warren], both repainted; eleventh bay, (a) [azure] a lion argent for Roger de Montalt, (b) azure two bars argent for Roger de Venables.
(21). The North West Tower (19½ ft. by 21½ ft.) has an arch in the E. wall, similar to that already described, opening into the twelfth bay of the nave. In the N. wall is a window and wall-arcade similar to those in the adjoining bay of the aisle; the middle arch of the arcade has been destroyed by a monument; the window is flanked by stilted wall-arches in the return walls. In the W. wall is blind tracery simulating a window similar to that in the N. wall but with a trefoil in the head; one of the main lights is pierced for a window. Below it is a wall-arcade (Plate 104) similar to that in the N. wall but having a doorway with a four-centred head in the S. arch. The ground-stage has a stone vault with diagonal and ridge ribs and a round bell-way in the middle; the recessed bay on the N. has separate quadripartite vault with a middle boss carved with foliage and a shield of the abbey arms. The second stage has in the N. and W. walls a blind window similar to those in the adjoining triforium but with quatre-foiled circles. The third stage has in the E., N. and W. walls a window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The outer angles of the tower have clasping buttresses enriched with panels having traceried and crocketed heads. There is a similar buttress at the S.W. angle, but in front of it is a deeply projecting buttress flanking the porch and enriched with panelling, niches, and pinnacles. The two top stages of the tower are of the 18th century.
(22). The South West Tower (19½ ft. by 21½ ft.) is generally similar to the N.W. tower, but in the ground - stage (Plate 105) the wall-arcades are complete; the window in the S. wall is partly blocked, and in the blocking are two early 16th-century windows of one and two four-centred lights respectively and each under a square head. The middle boss of the S. recess has the letters ihu in a wreath. The stair-turret is in the S.E. angle. In the second stage the W. bay of the triforium arcade has remains of a stone and brick fireplace with a four-centred head.
Fittings in S.W. Tower—Glass: In W. window— made up of fragments of various dates, including large partly modern figure of man in 15th-century armour with tabard of France and England quarterly, made up shield above and shield below with arms of Edward the Confessor, probably modern.
Panelling: On S. wall—middle bay with shaped panels and fleur-de-lis ornament and strap-work; side-bays (Plate 177) with round arches and pilasters with strap ornament, frieze and dentilled cornice, early 17th-century.
Screen: Under E. arch—of stone and of two bays each of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head, moulded and buttressed mullions and moulded and embattled cornice; late 15th or early 16th-century, screen formerly close, but upper parts cut through to form lights.
(23). The Lady Chapel or Henry VII's Chapel consists of a 'nave' and 'chancel' with a three-sided apse (together 63½ ft. by 33½ ft.), five eastern chapels forming a chevet and each 14 ft. wide by 11 ft. projection, and N. and S. aisles each 62½ ft. by 11 ft. There is also a vestibule (17 ft. by 28 ft.). The foundation stone was laid on January 23rd, 1502–3, and the building was completed about 1519. At the Reformation the chapel contained, inter alia, altars of St. Denis, St. Ursula and St. Giles. The chapel was completely renewed (with the possible exception of the W. window) externally in 1822. The chapel is said to have been originally divided by a stone screen carried across, three bays from the W. end, but of this there is now no trace. Foundations of the earlier (early 13th-century) Lady chapel are said to have been found, following the lines of the existing arcades and apse, but possibly these were only sleeper walls. Beneath the nave is the royal vault constructed in 1737 and of four bays with side aisles.
The Chancel and Apse (Plate 106) consists of one straight bay and three bays forming the apse. The five four-centred arches round this part of the building are moulded, and the mouldings continue down the piers to a moulded plinth; each respond has a moulded capital and base, and between them the main piers have moulded bases and capitals at the spring of the vault. The main hollow mouldings of the responds of the straight bay have carved beasts at intervals, and the lower parts of the main piers have carved royal badges, portcullis, fleur-de-lis and rose, all crowned. The triforium has at the base a row of half-angels of various orders supporting crowned badges—rose, fleur-de-lis and portcullis; the angels here and in the nave include the following types—(a) in plate-armour with sword; (b) feathered and with a girdle; (c) in alb and cope with clasp; (d) in armour with cloak over; (e) in alb. Above them is a range of five canopied niches in each bay flanked by traceried panels with ogee crocketed heads. Each niche has a semi-octagonal canopy with trefoiled ogee heads and traceried sides; the piers between the niches are buttressed and the moulded pedestals have a band of carved foliage and blank scrolls for names. Above the niches is a carved and panelled cornice with a foliated cresting all continued round the canopies. The clearstorey has one window to each bay and each of five cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head and two transoms both embattled and having cinque-foiled heads below them. Flanking each window are narrow panels, crossed by the transoms and having traceried heads. The arch between the chancel and nave has broad panelled responds of five stages—the lowest has two niches with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads and ribbed vaults, and both are included under a main ogee head with crockets and finial; the tympanum has a crowned rose held up by an angel and supported by a dragon and a greyhound on the N.; on the S. the design has a portcullis and there is no angel; the panelled pedestals have bands of foliage and animals on the N. and a shield with a rose and supporters on the S. Above the canopy is a moulded and embattled cornice and below it is rich panelling. The second stage consists of a rectangular panel with a four-centred head and a carved and crested cornice; in it is a large shield of France and England quarterly with dragon and greyhound supporters and a broken crown supported by two angels. The third stage consists of two square and richly cusped panels, divided by an upright panel, above which are two angels supporting a crowned portcullis and ranging with those at the base of the triforium. The fourth stage includes two niches similar to those in the triforium. The fifth stage has two trefoiled ogee-headed panels with moulded and carved pedestals with figures. Each respond is flanked by three clustered shafts with moulded capitals, and the four-centred arch is richly panelled (two sub-divided panels in the width) and is edged on the soffit with sub-cusped cusping having foliated main points. The vault (Plates 110, 111) of the apse springs from shafts between the bays and is of the fan variety. From each shaft springs a cusped and feathered rib terminating in a richly panelled pendant cone. In the centre of the vault is another cone pendant and surrounding it are cusped panels with four portcullises, two fleurs-de-lis and two roses. The exterior of the clearstorey is entirely modern and has richly panelled wall-faces and parapets with pinnacles. The vault is supported by flying buttresses (Plate 112) richly traceried and having beasts as crockets. The turrets of the apse and also of the nave have canopied niches, now empty but with the names of the former figures that filled them inscribed on scrolls; they are as follows—Hosea, Joel, Amos, Nahum, Sem-ah (Shemaiah ?), Philyp, Aggeus, Jehu, Micheah, Anamias, Malachy, Simon, Zakarias, Mathew, Abacuc, Daniel, Matthias, Paul, Azarias, Mark, Zephaniah, Elisha, Bartylmew, John, Nehemiah, Eliah, Samuel, Jude, Abdias, James, Ezechial, Michias, Esdreas, David, Petre, Jeremy, Jonas, Andrew, Nathan, Luke, Barnabes, Elizeas, Misall, James L., Esay, Solomon, John B. and Thomas.
The Nave (Plate 107) is of four bays and has N. and S. arcades with moulded piers, each having three attached shafts with moulded capitals on the inside face. The four-centred arches are moulded and similar to those in the apse in every respect except that they are flanked by an upright row of cusped panels (not present in the E. bay). The triforium and clearstorey are uniform with those in the apse. The angels (Plate 7) at the triforium level are similar to those in the apse. The E. bay is richer than the others and there is an upright band of carved foliage flanking the arch. On the second pier at base of the triforium are a number of mortices, possibly for the Lenten veil. In the W. wall is a large window of fifteen lights with tracery in a two-centred head and divided into three main divisions by main mullions carried vertically up to the head. The main division has three embattled transoms, but the side divisions have one only, except the middle light, which has two. All the lights are cinque-foiled and sub-cusped and have flowered points. The pairs of lights in the side divisions have ogee crocketed and finialled heads. The window is continued down below the sill to form blank panels with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped heads traceried, the main monials have moulded bases and above the blank lights is a moulded cornice enriched with carved foliage bosses. At the base of the panels is a series of rough stones resembling the plugging of former holes in the wall, possibly for supports of a wooden gallery. Below the window are three doorways, a large one in the middle flanked by two of smaller size. Each has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch. The main doorway has on the inside (E.) richly traceried spandrels in a square head and the side doorways have moulded and segmental-pointed rear-arches with spandrels in a square head carved with portcullis and rose; above and included in a larger moulded square head is a richly traceried panel in five divisions. The piers between the doorways have small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases and a tall octagonal shaft or pedestal with moulded base and bands and moulded and foliated capital on which stand carvings of the king's beasts holding shields. Above the doorways on the E. face is a range of fourteen half-figures of diademed angels, in albs and copes and some in cloaks; they support crowns above portcullis, fleur-de-lis and rose badges. The vault is similar in character and decoration to that over the apse.
The Five Chapels (Plate 109) in the 'chevet' are all of uniform rectangular plan with a projecting bay-window on the outward side; these windows are of semi-octagonal form with a further triangular projection in the centre of each. They are each of twelve trefoiled and sub-cusped lights, with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped lights at the top and three embattled transoms. Each chapel has a square bay of fan-vaulting with a diamond-shaped panel in the middle enriched with a fleur-de-lis, portcullis and rose respectively. Over the window recess is a flat panelled roof with a portcullis in the centre. The E., N.E. and S.E. chapels are uniform and have in each side wall three large canopied niches with semi-octagonal traceried canopies and richly ribbed vaults; the central canopy has an embattled top and the side ones have cresting; each set of canopies is surmounted by carved figures of a leopard, greyhound and dragon; the pedestals of the niches are carved and panelled but have been much restored; flanking the niches are traceried panels similar to those in the triforium and below is a range of half-angels as in the triforium; below again the wall is panelled (much restored) and has a moulded plinth. Below the window-sill the wall has traceried panels, a moulded plinth and quatre-foiled panels enclosing fleurs-de-lis and roses. In the angles of the chapels are vaulting-shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the N.E. chapel the S.E. wall except the heads of the canopies is occupied by an 18th-century monument. In the S.E. chapel part of the lower panelling is stopped for a former altar. The N. and S. chapels were uniform with the others except that the W. walls have no niches, the wall above the angel cornice being occupied by panelling. In the N. chapel this has been cut away and covered by the Villiers monument; on the E. wall also the panelling has been cut away for a tablet. In the S. chapel much of the angel cornice on both walls is modern. The exterior of the 'chevet' is entirely modern and is covered with panelling; between the chapels rise octagonal turrets or buttresses with ogee cupolas of stone and from them spring the flying buttresses supporting the clearstorey.
The N. and S. Aisles (Plates 113, 114, 115) are each of four bays, divided by broad bands of panelled work (five panels in width) and carried over in four-centred arches; flanking each arch are vaulting-shafts with moulded capitals and bases; a similar panelled band forms the rear-arch of the first or easternmost arch of the arcades; the remaining arches being moulded. On the E. wall are three canopied niches similar to those in the chapels, and flanking them are panelled spaces with ogee crocketed heads enriched with a portcullis and rose. Below the niches is an angel cornice as in the chapels and below a panelled wall, the panelling being stopped round a rectangular space at the back of the former altar; the level of the altar is shown (in S. aisle) by two cuttings at the sides of this space. In each of the outer walls (N. of N. aisle and S. of S. aisle) are four windows all uniform and formed of three intersecting segments on plan and of ten lights in all, with three embattled transoms and all the lights trefoiled and sub-cusped and tracery above the top lights. Below the sills is a range of cinquefoil-headed panels and a moulded plinth with quatrefoils as in the chapels. The sills are embattled and have small carved foliage bosses, beasts or grotesques. At the W. end of the S. aisle are two continuously moulded four-centred arches panelled on the soffit, with moulded plinth and under a square head with spandrels having quatrefoils in circles. Above the arches is a foliated cornice with a carved figure of a man playing bag-pipes in the middle. The W. window above is of seven cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head and an embattled transom with trefoiled sub-cusped lights below it. In the N. aisle there is only one arch in W. wall, the place of the northern being occupied by the partition-wall of a small vestry. The vaulting (Plate 111) of both aisles is of the fan type and consists of four quarter cones and a pendant, each bay has two portcullises, a rose and a fleur-de-lis. The windowrecesses have flat panelled roofs with the same badges, four to each bay. The vestry at the end of the N. aisle is enclosed with panelled walls, the panels being in two tiers divided by a moulded and embattled rail and having a carved and crested cornice on the E. side and an embattled and crested cornice on the W. part of the S. side. One panel on the E. side is pierced for a window, and in the S. wall is a doorway with a four-centred arch in a square head having foliated spandrels enriched with a rose and portcullis. This vestry occupies the N. half of a small vestibule to the aisle, which is repeated in the S. aisle. Both are vaulted in two bays and are entered by skewed passages from the main vestibule of the chapel. On the outer side of each vestibule is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with the spandrels carved with a dragon and rose and opening on to a turret-staircase. Further W. is a window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a four-centred arch in a square head. Below the window on the S. side is a modern doorway. The exterior of the aisles is quite modern and is finished like the exterior of the chapels.
The Vestibule (Plate 116) of the chapel has on the E. side the three moulded and four-centred doorways to the chapel; the main arch has a square head with panelled spandrels; the side-arches have spandrels carved with a rose and portcullis, and above a row of traceried panels similar to those on the E. face. Between the doorways are tall octagonal pedestals with concave faces, moulded bases, two band-courses and carved capitals, supporting four beasts with shields (one shield lost). Above the arch-heads is a moulded and carved cornice and a range of quatre-foiled, sub-cusped panels (eighteen in all) with carved fleurs-de-lis, roses and portcullises; above again is an embattled cornice with foliage, roses and portcullis enrichments. The N. and S. walls have each at the top four window-traceried panels under the four-centred vault and each of three cinque-foiled ogee lights, the two middle ones under four-centred heads and the side ones under two-centred heads; the spandrels also are traceried. The easternmost 'window' and spandrel are pierced for a window above the transom, which is embattled. Below these panels is an embattled cornice with foliated bosses, and beneath again are seven richly traceried panels with two-centred heads and each of two trefoiled and sub-cusped lights; in the middle of the tracery is a carved fleur-de-lis. At the base of the wall is a moulded plinth with quatrefoils and carved leaves. At the E. end of the wall is a four-centred doorway to the aisle with moulded jambs and spandrels carved with a rose and portcullis. On the S. side the inner order of this doorway was cut away in the 18th century. In the W. wall are three arches with moulded and panelled piers and responds, and also soffits. On the E. face of piers and responds are attached pedestals, as on the E. wall, and supporting two lions, a greyhound and a dragon with staff. The middle arch is four-centred and each respond has two shafts with moulded capitals; the arch is in a square head with panelled spandrels enclosing shields—France and England quarterly with a label on N., and the same without a label on S. The side-arches are similar but are two-centred under a square head with panelled spandrels enclosing a fleur-de-lis and rose on N. and a portcullis and rose on S. Above the arches is a moulded cornice and a range of sixteen panels each sub-divided and having a crocketed ogee head; above is an embattled cornice with carved bosses, including roses and portcullises. The vault is of four-centred barrel-form and sprung from E. to W. It has twenty-one main panels in the width, each sub-divided and having ogee heads and traceried circles at the intervals, carved with portcullis, rose and fleur-de-lis. There are six rows of panels from E. to W.
Fittings in Henry VII's Chapel— Altar: incorporated in modern altar, two square piers and a length of frieze (Plate 8) from original altar by Torrigiani, in white marble. The two square piers support the modern altar and have panelled faces filled with Italian Renaissance ornament of conventional foliage and vases in low relief with a portcullis at the base. On the modern altar-slab is a length of frieze returned at each end with similar ornament in low relief; at the back are mortices for the former fixing. From Sandford's engraving of the complete altar it appears that the two piers originally formed the front supports of the altar. The frieze may have been one end of that of the baldachino itself.
Consecration Crosses: In blind lights below the W. window—three crosses in circles painted dark red on ashlar; middle cross much damaged, early 16th-century. In N. and S. aisles—on outer walls, between the windows, six small crosses, as above, with a wooden plug in the middle of each and a second plug about two feet below, early 16th-century.
Doors: In screen of N. chapel—of oak, segmental on plan, with four-centred head and of two moulded panels, upper filled with two ranges each of four trefoiled lights with foliated spandrels (a rose and two pomegranates in the head) and embattled sill; lower panel plain, with traceried key-scutcheon and handle with foliated fixings. In screen to S. chapel—similar to that of N. chapel, but upper panel filled with flowing tracery having a quatrefoil in the head with a foliated boss in the centre; scutcheon and handle as before. In three W. doorways—three (Plates 108, 117), each of two folds and of oak, plated entirely with bronze. The doors have four-centred heads and are framed in squares, the main stiles and rails enclosing each square of the side doors and enclosing four squares of the main doors; these styles and rails are enriched with double roses of bronze at the intersections, with winged dragons and small foiled studs between them; the middle styles of the folds (where they join) have panelled and pinnacled crocketed buttresses. The squares are each filled with a bronze panel of the following designs—initials crowned, portcullis crowned, rose-spray crowned, falcon and fetterlock, daisy plant crowned, three fleurs-de-lis, three leopards. The locks to the side doors are richly traceried. In doorway to vestry—of oak battens with ornamental iron handle; opening above doorway filled with plain iron grate.
Glass: In E. window of clearstorey—in centre light of middle tier, figure of bearded man with yellow hat and red robe, tabernacled canopy, scroll in hand inscribed ".....patre~ laudate nomen domini"; beneath under a three-centred arch is an angel with a scroll inscribed "Jeromias Pp~," this figure not in situ. The traceried heads of all the twelve clearstorey lights have red, blue and yellow filling, and in the middle the arms of France and England quarterly, all in situ. In E. window of E. chapel—of twelve lights and three tiers, series of badges, etc. (Plate 118). Top tier—each light with crowned initials H.R. in quarries, also (1) crowned red rose; (2) crowned panel with H.R. and flowers, not in situ; (3) fleur-de-lis; (4) shield of France and England quarterly impaling quarterly (a) France and England quarterly, (b) and (c) de Burgh, (d) Mortimer. England in first half is replaced by yellow and blue; (5) crowned portcullis; (6) fleur-de-lis; (7) crowned red rose; (8) hawthorn bush growing in blue ground at sides initials H.R.; (9) crowned red rose; (10) shield of France and England quarterly (third quarter now blue); (11) shield as (4) but second, third and fourth quarters of first half missing; (12) as (1). Second tier with crowned initials in each light except first and last, which are blank; (2) as (7) in top tier; (3) as (7) in same tier but rose dimidiated red and white; (4) crowned portcullis; (5) as (8) in top tier but some fragments added; (6) as (7) in top tier; (7) as (4) in same tier; (8) as (3) in same tier; (9) hawthorn bush and initials H.R. under crown; (10) crowned Tudor rose; (11) arms of Edward the Confessor. Third tier with crowned initials as before but first two and last two lights blank; (3) hawthorn bush and initials H.R.; (4) fleur-de-lis; (5) Tudor rose, crowned; (6) shield of France and England quarterly but France repeated in second quarter also; (7) as (5) in same tier; (8) crowned portcullis; (9) as (4) in same tier; (10) as (3) in same tier but crowned. The traceried spandrels at heads of all the chapel windows are filled with plain red and blue glass. In great W. window, in tracery and heads of lights, the following badges, etc. (Plate 119)—red rose with yellow stalk; white angel on blue ground; crowned portcullis yellow on white; crowned red rose; angel holding fleur-de-lis, and fragments; angels holding shields inscribed H.E.; red spiked flower; green spiked flower; a cross paty on a blue ground; foliage with leopard's head in centre; ostrich feather; crowned fleur-de-lis; diamond quarries with crowned H.; red rose; portcullis. The heads of the lights have tabernacle work with red or blue background. In the N. and S. aisles each light of each window has quarries with crowned initials H. and R. In the second window in the N. wall of the N. aisle is an early 16th-century panel with a female head in pedimental head-dress, said to be Katherine of Aragon and brought from St. Margaret's Church, Westminster.
In E. chapel (Plates 204, 205)— (1) St. Thomas of Canterbury, archbishop with cross-staff and open book; (2) empty, probably for figure of Henry VI, as initials H.R. occur on pedestal; (3) St. Nicholas, bishop with crozier and boy in basket in left hand; (4) St. Edward Confessor, king with sceptre in right and ring in left hand; (5) St. Peter, with key in right and open book in left hand; (6) St. Edmund, king and martyr, king with arrow in right and orb in left hand.
In N.E. chapel (Plate 206)—(7), (8) and (9) group of St. Sebastian and two archers— (7) archer in hose and cap with chin-flap, cross-bow in hands (bow broken); (8) St. Sebastian, figure nude except loin-cloth, bound to tree; (9) archer in long cloak with biretta-shaped cap, taking aim (cross-bow lost).
In N. chapel (Plate 207)—(10) St. Stephen, deacon in dalmatic stole and maniple, book on rounded stones in right hand; (11) St. Jerome, cardinal in hat and robe, book in left hand, lion fawning at feet; (12) St. Vincent, deacon in dalmatic, etc., handkerchief and two cruets in left hand.
In N. aisle (Plate 211)—(13) St. Armagilus (of Plöermel), priest in chasuble and cowl, gauntlets on hands, stole in right hand round neck of a dragon at feet, in left hand a book; (14) king with sceptre in right and book in left hand. (15) St. Laurence, deacon in dalmatic, grid-iron on left supporting book.
In S.E. chapel (Plates 208, 209)—(16) St. Mary the Mother of James (?), as one of the women at the Sepulchre, nun or widow with round box in left hand; (17) St. Roche, figure apparently modern; (18) St. Mary Salome (?), nun or widow with cruse in left hand; (19) St. Apollonia, virgin with book in right and pincers in left hand; (20) St. Christopher, with ragged staff, head of Christ, on shoulder, lost; (21) St. Dorothy, virgin with open book in left hand and basket on right arm.
In S. aisle (Plate 211)—(25) St. Katherine, crowned virgin with book, left hand on sword piercing head of emperor at feet who holds a broken wheel in left hand; (26) empty; (27) St. Margaret, crowned virgin with cross-staff in mouth of dragon.
In triforium from E. bay—(28) St. Peter, with book in right and key in left hand; (29) St. Gabriel, in alb and cope with scroll in hand; (30) Our Lord, with open book exposed in left hand, right in benediction, right foot on orb; (31) St. Mary the Virgin, in loose robe, right hand on breast; (32) St. Paul, with book in left and sword swathed in belt in right hand; (33) St. James the Less, with club and book; (34) St. Thomas, with spear in right and bag in left hand; (35) St. John the Evangelist, with chalice and dragon issuing from it; (36) St. James the Great, with wallet, book and scallop-shell on hat; (37) St. Andrew with saltire cross and book; (38) St. Matthew, with cross (arm broken), book and spectacles; (39) St. Katherine, with feet on emperor, hands broken, remains of wheel on right; (40) St. Anne, in veil and wimple, teaching the Virgin to read; (41) St. Margaret, virgin with spear in head of dragon; (42) St. Winifrid, with pen and book, at feet a block with a female head upon it; (43) St. Philip, with stones in right hand, left hand broken; (44) St. Bartholomew, with knife in right and book in left hand; (45) St. Jude, with ship in both hands; (46) St. Mathias, with open book in right and sword blade (?) in left hand; (47) St. Simon, with book in right hand (left hand gone); (48) St. Martha (?), nun with open book; (49) St. Mary Magdalene, with flowing hair, box of ointment in left hand; (50) St. Dorothy, with broad-brimmed hat, book in left and basket in right hand; (51) St. Barbara, virgin with book in right and castle in left hand; (52) St. Wilgefort, virgin with beard and turban head-dress, open book resting on T cross.
Chancel-arch—(53) empty, doubtless St. Gregory; (54) St. Augustine the Doctor, bishop with crozier and book, giving benediction; (55) St. Jerome, cardinal in robe and hat, lion on right, lectern on left; (56) St. Ambrose, bishop with book in left and crozier in right hand. Above statues (53–56) —(57) St. John the Evangelist, with eagle on book; (58) St. Luke, with winged ox on book; (59) St. Mark, with winged lion on book; (60) St. Matthew, book supported by kneeling angel presenting inkstand (?).
N. side (Plates 212, 213)—(61) St. Agatha, in turban head-dress, book on box in left, knife in right hand, right breast exposed; (62) St. Stephen, deacon in dalmatic, etc., book resting on stones; (63) St. John the Baptist, bearded figure with book and on it a couchant lamb; (64) St. Laurence, deacon in dalmatic, etc., with book resting on grid-iron; (65) St. Vincent, deacon as before with two cruets and book resting on them; (66) St. Dunstan, bishop in cope with crozier in left and pincers in right hand holding demon; (67) St. Edward Confessor (?), king, bearded, in Parliament robes, sceptre in right, left hand broken; (68) St. Hugh of Lincoln, bishop with crozier and open book, at feet a swan; (69) St. Edmund the King, bearded, orb in left, right hand broken; (70) St. Erasmus, bishop with book, windlass with large reel on left; (71) St. Claudius of Besancon (?), bishop with broken crozier; at feet kneeling lady holding up small male child, whom bishop blesses; (72) St. Anthony, bearded, in hat, T staff on left, book and bell in right hand, at feet a pig; (73) St. Giles, abbot with crozier, hind on right leaping up; (74) St. Martin, in armour with long cloak and turned-up hat, holding a mitre; (75) St. Roche, man in broad hat with crossed keys in front, staff on left, right hand exposing boil on thigh; (76–80) probably philosophers (Plate 214) with large hats; (76), (79), (80) have books; (77) is arguing; (78) has a scroll. S. side (Plates 212, 213)—(81) St. Helen, queen holding book resting on T cross; (82) St. Zita, virgin in turban head-dress, open book, rosary on right arm; (83) archer in hat and hose aiming with cross-bow (broken); (84) St. Sebastian, as in (8); (85) archer, reloading, cross-bow lost, looped head-dress and hose; (86) St. Cuthbert, bishop with crozier, crowned head in left hand; (87) St. Kenelm (?), king, both hands broken off; (88) St. Nicholas, bishop with crozier, boy in basket on left hand; (89) St. Oswald, king with sceptre in right and crowned head in left hand; (90) St. Eloy, bishop with crozier in left and horseshoe in right hand; (91) empty; (92) St. Thomas of Canterbury (?), archbishop with book and crucifix on staff, and in cope; (93) St. George, in armour with shield and sword, dragon below; (94) St. Germain of Auxerre (?), bishop with cope and crozier, at feet a crippled beggar receiving a basket from bishop; (95) St. Armagilus, as figure (13); (96–100) probably philosophers, (Plate 215) with large hats; (96), (97), (98) holding scrolls; (97), (99) with books; (98) has spectacles.
Monuments: In middle of apse—(1) tomb and chantry-chapel (Plate 121) of Henry VII, 1509, and his queen, Elizabeth of York, 1502–3, altar-tomb (Plate 122) of touch and white marble with gilt-bronze enrichments, and all the work of Pietro Torrigiani after the death of King Henry (contract dated 1512). Altar-tomb on white marble step with rounded tread; moulded plinth with gilt-bronze inset having conventional foliage, fleurs-de-lis and roses and male masks at the four angles. At angles of tomb and between the three bays on the N. and S. sides are gilt-bronze pilasters with Corinthian capitals and bases and panels with conventional Italian Renaissance enrichments and a portcullis at the base. The E. end has a crowned shield of France and England quarterly, for Henry VII, impaling France and England quarterly quartering 2 and 3 de Burgh and 4 Mortimer, for his queen Elizabeth of York; two winged putti as supporters, all of bronze gilt. At W. end is a large crowned rose with a dragon and greyhound as supporters, all in bronze. Each bay of the N. and S. sides has a circular wreath in touch carved with flowers, fruit, bay-leaves and ribands and enclosing a gilt-bronze plaque (Plate 124) each with two figures of saints in high relief as follows—on N. side, (a) St. Mary Magdalene with flowing hair, book in right hand, ointment box in left; St. Barbara, in long robe with tower in right hand. (b) St. Anne in widow's dress reading from open book; St. Christopher with gown held up and head of tree in left hand, figure of Christ with orb on right shoulder. (c) St. Edward the Confessor, aged king in long robe, ring in left hand; St. Vincent, deacon in dalmatic and alb, with maniple, open book in left hand. On S. side, (d) St. Anthony in cloak and cowl, with long beard and hair, rosary at side and at feet a pig; St. George in Roman cuirass and plate-armour to legs, lance with pennon of St. George in left hand, right hand on broken sword, at feet a dragon and the handle of lance. (e) St. John the Evangelist with open book, eagle at feet; St. John the Baptist, cloak to knee only, book and couchant lamb in left hand. (f) St. Michael with feathered arms and legs, Roman cuirass, wings, in right hand broken spear (?) and in left scales with figures of souls, at feet a devil; St. Mary the Virgin in long gown, with naked Infant in arms. Modified entablature to top of tomb with moulded cornice and architrave of touch and gilt-bronze frieze with guilloche ornament and inscription "Septimus hic situs est Henricus gloria regum cuntorum ipsius qui tempestate fuerunt Ingenio atque Opibus gestarum et nomine rerum Accessere quibus naturae dona benignae Frontis honos, facies augusta heroica forma Junctaque ei suavis conjunx perpulera pudica Et foecunda fuit foelices prole parentes Henricum quib; octavum terra Anglia debes." On slab at each angle is a gilt-bronze seated cherub, clothed and with wings and formerly holding standards (now lost). That on S.W. has lost the wings and right hand. The two at E. end support a shield of the royal arms encircled by the garter, all of bronze-gilt. The slab supports a moulded base for the effigies consisting of a large cavetto of white marble and a small cornice of touch. The cavetto is enriched with Italian Renaissance ornament of cherubs, foliage and birds in low relief with gilt-bronze acanthus leaves at the angles. In the middle of the N. and S. sides is a rectangular panel with a bronze plate inscribed, on the S., "Hic jacet Henricus ejus nominis Septimus Anglie quondam Rex, Edmundi Richemundie Comitis Filius qui die XXII Augusti Rex creatus statim post apud Westmonasterium Die XXX Octobris Corontur Anno Domini MCCCCLXXXV Moritur deinde XXI die Aprilis anno etatis LIII Regnavit annos XXIII Mensis octo Minus uno die." On the N.—"Hic jacet Regina Hellisabect Edwardi IIII quondam Regis Eilia Edwardi V Regis quondam nominati Soror Henrici VII olim Regis conjunx ai que Henrici VIII Regis mater inclyta Obiit autem suum Diem in Turri Londoniarum Die XI Februarii Anno Domini MDII XXXVII annorum etate functa." Effigy (Plates 189, 200) of Henry VII in long robe with flat-topped cap having lappets, feet on lion, head on cushions. Effigy of Elizabeth with head-dress of pedimental form, fur-lined robe, feet on lion, head on two cushions. The chantry is enclosed by a bronze screen standing on a plinth of Purbeck marble, moulded and enriched with a row of quatrefoils. The screen has hexagonal turrets at the angles and is of six bays from N. to S. and nine from E. to W., one bay forming the entrance with three bays to the E. and five to the W. The general design includes two ranges of pierced panels (Plate 51) divided by an inscribed rail and surmounted by a vaulted cove supporting a cornice, pierced parapet and cresting. The cresting has mostly been destroyed, but three bays at the W. end and three on the N. side remain and are divided by diagonal pinnacles with pierced sides; five pinnacles remain in addition. The parapet consists of square pierced panels each with a sub-cusped quatrefoil and alternately a portcullis and rose. Below it is a moulded cornice. The cove has moulded ribs intersecting and springing from pierced attached shafts with moulded bases, bands and capitals; some of these shafts are lost. There is no web to the vaulted cove. In the upper tier of panels each bay has a two-centred head and is of two main lights and eight sub-lights. The traceried heads of the main lights had each a crowned portcullis, but many have been lost; on the central mullion at the springing level are moulded corbels supporting half-dragons, some of which are lost. At the base of the panels is a range of quatrefoils with embattled rail and pierced cresting.
The inscribed band is interrupted by the turrets and between each bay, but is continued across the doors. Inside the inscription starts at the S. end of the W. side and is as follows—"Septimus Henricus tumulo requiescit in isto qui regum splendor lumen et orbis erat rex vigil et sapiens comis virtutis amator egregius forma strenuus atque potens Qui peperit pacem regno qui bella peregit Plurima qui victor semper ab hoste redit Qui natas binis conjunxit regibus ambas Regibus et cunctis federe junctus erat Qui sacrum hoc struxit templum statuitque sepulchrum Pro se proque sua conjuge prole domo Lustra decem atque annos tres plus compleverat annis Nam tribus cctenis regia sceptra tulit Quindecies domini centenus fluxerat annus Currebat nonus cum venit atra dies Septima ter mensis lux tum fulgebat aprilis Cum clausit summum tanta corona diem Nulla dedere prius tantum tibi secula regem Anglia vix similem Posteriora dabunt." A similar inscription is repeated outside with the probable omission of the last sentence from 'Nulla' and with some parts missing. The contractions are somewhat different and the inscription started from the W. end of the S. side. Both inscriptions are engraved in black-letter. In the lower tier of panels each bay is square-headed with two main and six sub-lights. The heads of each pair of main lights have a dragon and a greyhound confronting one another. The tracery in the heads of four sub-lights is bound with knots. The panels have an embattled transom and at the base a range of quatrefoils with a pierced cresting and formerly an embattled rail, now lost. The turrets at the angles of the screen are hexagonal and have moulded bases and plinths ornamented with quatrefoils. They are of two stages divided by a pierced, traceried and bulging band; the stages are formed by moulded bars into pointed-oblong and diamond-shaped panels formerly filled with badges but now open. The heads of the turrets have a slight cove with pierced quatrefoils and above a range of two-light ogee-headed 'window-openings,' above which is a cornice and parapet, etc., as above described. Flanking the turrets are four niches in two tiers, all with ogee, trefoiled and crocketed heads with ribbed vaulting and an embattled cornice; flanking each niche is a crocketed and pinnacled buttress. Most of the niches are empty, but six figures remain. There are similar niches flanking the two doorways. Figures (Plate 123)—N. side in lower niche E. of doorway, (a) bearded figure, in long robe with fillet round head, hands broken off. On E. side, in upper niche on N.E., (b) St. James the Greater, with hat and scallop-shell, book in fovel in left hand. On S. side in upper niche at E. end, (c) a king, probably St. Edward Confessor in Parliament robes, one hand broken off. In lower niche, (d) St. Bartholomew, with skin on left arm, pointed beard. In lower niche at W. end, (e) of St. John the Evangelist, beardless, with chalice in left hand. W. side in upper niche on S.W., (f) St. George in plate-armour, with shield, lance lost, dragon biting left leg.
The doorways are covered by slightly projecting porches flanked by pierced and traceried turrets rising to the middle rail of the screen and supporting grouped buttresses, from which springs the moulded and four-centred outer archway with pierced spandrels. The porch has a ribbed vault springing from shafts in the angles. The parapet above has the pierced motto "Dieu et mon droict" and a panel of the royal arms and supporters flanked by taller pinnacles than those of the main cresting. The inner doorway has moulded jambs and ogee crocketed arch with traceried spandrels. The doors are of two folds with two ranges of pierced panels and a range of pierced quatrefoils at the base; the upper panels have the dragon and greyhound in the head. The middle style has an attached shaft, the upper half twisted and the lower with scale pattern; it supports a small angel holding a shield; this shaft is missing on the S. The square locks have engraved rose-sprig ornament. Projecting from the middle of the E. and W. sides of the screen and from above the two doorways are heavy ogee stems supporting large crowned roses. The interior is finished with a vaulted cove rising from twisted shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Across the E. end about 2 ft. W. of the cove is a moulded bar, and this and the edge of the E. cove have mortices for cross-bars forming a ceiling over the altar. At the back of the former altar the rail inscription is stopped on either side for a former reredos or hangings.
In N. chapel—(2) of George Villiers, 1628, Duke of Buckingham and Catherine (Manners), 1634, his wife. Monument (Plate 109) consisting of altar-tomb or sarcophagus with wall-piece at back, figures at angles and tablet on E. wall at feet. Black marble base. Sarcophagus of moulded black marble with black marble pedestals at angles on which rest four black marble obelisks supported on bronze skulls and formerly enriched with metal ornaments, now all lost. On sarcophagus two bronze-gilt effigies (Plate 196): of man in repoussé plate-armour enriched with crossed anchors and monograms (G.K.B.), ermine tippet, robe or mantle, coronet, chain and garter; of lady in embroidered gown, large ruff, cloak and coronet. At angles of tomb, four life-size seated figures (Plate 120) of bronze represented weeping, two female figures at head and at feet Neptune and Mars. On W. wall at back, black and white marble wall-piece flanked by two pairs of Ionic pilasters with gilt-bronze capitals ornamented with rams' heads. On frieze above are the initials GV, DB, K, DB. On cornice two cherubs and on upper cornice two female figures supporting a cartouche-of-arms. Between pilasters kneeling figures (Plate 128) of two daughters and one son and reclining figure of a son, all in white marble, also three panels with inscriptions. On E. wall, enriched gilt-bronze tablet.
In S. chapel—(3) of Lewis Stuart, Duke of Lenox and Richmond, 1623–4, and Frances (Howard), 1639, his wife, large monument of black marble and bronze consisting of double sarcophagus, effigies and canopy; the sarcophagus rests on a plinth and has reeded, shaped and moulded sides with an inscribed tablet on the N. and S. surmounted by putti; the gilt-bronze effigies are recumbent, that of the man in armour with long mantle of the garter and wand of office, that of woman in ruff, stomacher, coronet, etc.; the canopy rests on four bronze caryatides (Plate 120) representing Hope, Truth, Charity and Faith, with Ionic capitals supporting the entablature; above this rises a square dome of bronzegilt openwork and having vases at the corners and a large figure of Fame on the top.
In N. aisle—on E. wall, (5) to Edward V and Richard, Duke of York, his brother, 1483, monument erected 1678. Square recess with black marble architrave, lining and sill. In it a white marble pedestal with base and cornice, supporting a moulded and enriched urn or sarcophagus.
At E. end, on N. side, (6) of Sophia, daughter of James I, 1606. On a low panelled base of marble on a black marble step, cradle, with a richly ornamented cover of alabaster, containing small figure of baby in alabaster; at W. end of cradle, lozenge of the royal Stuart arms and below it an inscription.
On S. side, (7) of Mary, daughter of James I, 1607, altar-tomb of various coloured marbles, on panelled base with pedestals at angles supporting marble putti; altar with enriched pilasters at angles with Ionic capitals and a bulging cornice; on it effigy of a girl-child reclining on left arm, in stomacher, Medici collar and French cap, arm on large cushion, feet on lion. On N. and S. sides of altar, lozenge with royal Stuart arms.
In N. aisle—in middle, (8) of Queen Elizabeth, 1603, and to Queen Mary I, 1557, elaborate monument (Plate 114) of black, white and coloured marbles consisting of a panelled base with panelled pedestals, at the angles, in the centre of the E. and W. sides and two on the N. and S. sides, making three bays; each pedestal supports a black marble column with moulded base and gilt Corinthian capital supporting a flat canopy over the E. and W. bays and an arch over the middle bay; at E. and W. ends of the canopy large enriched panels with inscriptions. Under the canopy on a moulded grey marble slab resting on four couchant lions is the white marble effigy (Plates 193, 201) of Elizabeth in ruff and stomacher, ermine-lined robe, rich ear-rings and necklace, head on two cushions, feet on lion, handle of sceptre in right hand, orb in left hand; two achievements and forty-one shields-of-arms.
In third bay on S. side—(9) of Sir George Savile, 1695, Marquis of Halifax, white and grey veined marble monument consisting of pedestal and plinth with urns and a sarcophagus in centre, above which is a medallion with bust in wig and supported by cherubs with bay crowns. On either side are panelled pilasters supporting an entablature on which are two owls and in the centre on a cushion a marquis' coronet; on frieze is a shield-of-arms surmounted by coronet.
In S. aisle—(10) of Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 1509, [daughter and heir of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and widow successively of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Sir Henry Stafford and Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby], altar-tomb by Pietro Torrigiani, bronze effigy and iron railing; altar-tomb and effigy begun 1511, railing begun 1526; altar-tomb of touch with moulded base and slab, the latter with raised brass inscription round edge; sides divided into three bays by fluted Composite pilasters, each bay and ends filled with shield-of-arms (Plate 27), bay-wreath and ribbons; the arms are as follows—(a) France and England quarterly with a border charged with fleurs-de-lis and martlets alternately, for Edmund, Earl of Richmond impaling Beaufort; (b) France and England quarterly, for her son Henry VII, impaling the same quartering de Burgh and Mortimer, for her daughter-in-law Elizabeth of York; (c) France and England quarterly impaling France, for Katherine of Valois, mother (by Owen Tudor) of her first husband; (d) France and England quarterly with a label; (e) the quartered coat of Stanley and Lathom quartering the legs of Man with a scutcheon of Montalt, for Thomas, Earl of Derby, her third husband, impaling Beaufort; (f) Beaufort for John, Earl of Somerset, her grandfather, impaling England with a border, for Margaret, daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, her grandmother; (g) Beaufort, for John, Duke of Somerset, her father, impaling a fesse between six martlets a molet for difference, for her mother Margaret, daughter of Sir John Beauchamp of Bletso; (g) missing. Recumbent effigy (Plates 190, 200) of lady in gilt-bronze in widow's veil and long cloak, head on two cushions with the Tudor badges, feet on a yale; recumbent canopy of gilt-bronze with openwork tracery and crockets, standards of same material at sides with traceried panels, moulded bands, embattled cresting and moulded corbels at base; on N. of effigy are remains of flat bronze plate engraved with portcullises and knots. Railing round tomb of wrought-iron with buttressed standards having twisted finials and remains of square pennons, enriched rail and strikes with remains of fleur-de-lis ornament.
Further W., (11) of Mary, Queen of Scots, executed in 1587, monument erected c. 1612, large monument (Plate 115) of various marbles consisting of sarcophagus, effigy and elaborate canopy. The moulded and enriched sarcophagus rests on a panelled base; the white marble effigy (Plates 190, 201) has French cap, ruff, stomacher, fur-lined cloak, etc., head on two enriched cushions and at feet a crowned lion seated upright; the canopy rests on two pavilions, one at each end of the sarcophagus, and consisting of a rectangular pedestal, on which stand four Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with a flat panelled soffit; between the pavilions is the main round arch of the canopy with a richly coffered soffit cherub-head on the key-stone and spandrels carved with angels; above is an entablature carried round the central feature and supporting two achievements of the arms of Scotland, four heraldic unicorns holding shields and two elaborate cartouches with figures of St. Andrew; above the pavilions are obelisks, cartouches-of-arms and strap-work tablets; the lower main entablature had a series of shields, several of which are missing.
Further W., (12) of Margaret (Douglas), wife of Mathew Stuart, Earl of Lennox, 1577–8, also to Charles, Earl of Lennox, her son, altar-tomb of various marbles on a panelled base with obelisks at the angles (two missing), tomb divided into bays by enriched pilasters and having a hanging shield-of-arms on each long side and an achievement-of-arms at each end; at the sides of the tomb kneel figures of four sons (one, Henry, (Plate 128) has remains of the fixing of a crown above his head) and four daughters; the effigy (Plate 191) has a French cap and coronet, small ruff and long fur-lined cloak, enriched cushion at head and couchant lion at feet; remains of colour on monument.
Pavement: the body of the chapel is paved with squares of slate and white marble, mostly laid diagonally and cut into three large square areas in the middle of the nave by bands; the middle area squares are laid square. A step runs across near the W. end of Henry VII's chantry and in it is a brass recording the laying of the pavement by Henry Killigrew (d. 1699). (See Brasses.) The same inscription is twice repeated (incised) on the step on the S. side, but the later inscription (on S.) has the incorrect date 1669. The N. and S. chapels have similar paving, and in the N.E. chapel is an altar foot-pace of same date. The other E. chapels, the space behind Henry VII's chantry, the N. and S. aisles and the vestibule are paved with original squares of stone laid diagonally, but much of it has been interrupted by later monuments and grave-stones. In the aisles the slabs are divided by straight lines of stones running E. and W., early 16th-century.
Pulpit: (Plate 22) of oak, hexagonal with moulded posts, rails and cornice and two ranges of linen-fold panelling; stem double trumpet form with moulded ribs and necking. Sounding-board, now in N. chapel, with linen-fold panelled standard and hexagonal board with pendants at angles and depressed arches between them, all of the first half of the 16th century.
Screens: to N. and S. chapels, (Plate 109) uniform and of stone. Each consists of three segments of circles on plan, of which the middle one is the larger. It was originally of three stages, the two upper forming ranges of open lights and finished with a moulded carved and embattled cornice; the start of the cornice and the start of the transom between the two ranges remains on the responds of the chapel arch; the middle segment had three main and six sub-lights and the side segments had two main and four sub-lights with moulded mullions, of which the bases remain. The base of the screen is intact and has a range of panels with trefoiled, sub-cusped and traceried heads, eight panels to the middle and five to the E. segment; the embattled and moulded rail has carved foliage, animals and beast-heads as bosses; the moulded base has a row of quatrefoils carved with fleurs-de-lis and roses. In the W. segment is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. The spandrels are carved with a dragon on E. and a dog and a hare (on the N. only) on W. Thorpe's plan (reproduced in Scott's Gleanings) shows similar screens filling in the E. bay of the nave arcades and screening off the Sacrarium of the altars in the N. and S. aisles.
Stalls: (Plates 125, 126, 127) On N. and S. sides of nave—two rows, back row with canopies, those in front with canopies under book-board of back row. The stalls are old in the three W. bays of back row, and the canopies of the modern back stalls in the E. bay are old. In the lower range only the W. block of stalls and the book-board, etc., at back of those in the second bay from the E. are old, but the stalls themselves in this bay with all the lower range in the E. bay are modern. As the chantry-chapel of Henry VII was designed to stand in the middle of the nave, to the W. of its present position, the absence of the lower range of stalls, except in the W. bay, is due to the necessity of giving passage-way to the N. and S. of the chantry. The old canopies of the modern stalls in the E. bay of the back row were obtained by removing the back half (facing the aisle) of the canopies to the back row on the S. side. Back row: the stalls have moulded divisions and elbow-rests, on which stand oak shafts supporting the canopies; these shafts are cut into facets and have moulded capitals, bases and bands; the backs of the stalls are panelled and have two bays with traceried heads. The canopies have cusped and vaulted soffits and tabernacles of three main stages; the lower stage has a semi-hexagonal projection with ogee cusped heads with foliated cresting and buttressed and pinnacled pendants, from the pinnacles of which spring crocketed buttresses to the second stage. The second stage is square on plan with a triangular projection in front; each face has pierced tracery. The third stage is again semi-hexagonal and projects beyond the stage below on a vaulted soffit; at angles are pinnacled buttresses and the whole is finished with an ogee cupola. The wide book-board of the upper range has a front edge ornamented with an embattled moulding and the soffit forms a rich cusped vault for the lower stalls; on the S. side the vault-cells have the royal badges. The vault springs from attached shafts with moulded caps and bases and between them are two open lights with four-centred traceried heads and a band of flowing quatrefoils surmounted by an embattled moulding at the base. The lower stalls are similar to the upper range and the elbow-rests have mortices for shafts formerly supporting the book-board above, but now all lost. The main canopies of all the upper stalls are old but partly repaired, and in the new bays the supporting shafts are modern. The two return stalls have richly panelled fronts and sides with rich foliated and traceried heads and a row of quatrefoils at the base; at the angle is a hexagonal projecting pedestal with (on the N.) a figure of a king with hands broken off and at back a seated antelope. The S. pedestal has lost its figure. Adjoining this stall on each side is an original flight of five solid oak steps with a moulded base and having on the W. an ogee rail with beasts as crockets and springing from a hexagonal post supporting, on the N., a winged dragon; the rail to the N. stair is broken off. There are two other flights of steps on each side, all modern except the pedestals on the W. side of the middle pair, which have a small figure holding a scroll. The four westernmost standards, to the book-boards on each side, are old but partly repaired. The misericords have a series of carvings all of early 16th-century date except one on the S. side, which is of late 13th-century date.
Misericords. (Plates 216 to 220.) N. side, upper range—first bay, all modern. Second bay, (1) foliated corbel springing from moulding; at sides, circular hollyleaf bosses; (2) foliated corbel springing from moulding; at sides, water-flowers; (3) mermaid with comb in right and mirror in left hand, background of rocks and coral; at sides, conventional flowers and foliage; (4) monster with bearded face, club in left hand attacking dragon apparently with several heads, all broken off; at sides, foliage and flowers; (5) the Judgment of Solomon, king seated under canopied throne, two mothers at sides, dead child in front, three councillors beside throne and on left a soldier about to cut infant in half; at sides, right, small house, woman exchanging dead baby for live one; left, small house, two women holding live baby, dead baby in front. Third bay, (1) forest scene, figures of man and ass (broken off), possibly Balaam; at sides, right, beast with winnowing-fan; left, windmill with beast on steps; (2) forest scene with three monkeys, middle one seated in cooking-pot, right one assisting, left one seated with rose in hand, heads all broken off; at sides, right, man riding an unicorn; left, man riding on goat (both heads gone); (3) two monsters, right like dog, left with scales and long tail, both chained to stump, on which sits a falcon; at sides, right, fox riding on goose; left, goose riding on fox (both damaged); (4) large winged dragon; at sides, right, reptile looking at serpent; left, wingless dragon; (5) seated male and female figures (nude), man playing fiddle, female with broken object in mouth; at sides, water-flowers. Fourth bay, (1) man and woman in early 16th-century costume, seated, man's arm round woman's waist, left hand in bag; at sides, right, sow playing pipe; left, wingless dragon; (2) devil carrying away monk; at sides, right, devil playing drum; left, woman holding up hands in horror. Return stall—group of men in vineyard, one seated on barrel, and one pushing him off with foot; at sides, bunches of grapes. Lower range—first and second bays, all modern. Third bay, (1), (2) and (3) foliage springing from moulding; at sides, conventional foliage bosses; (4) royal arms with crown and supporters (dragon on left, other one lost); at sides, rose and pomegranate; (5) grotesque face and foliage; at sides, conventional foliage bosses; (6) elaborate figure-group, (a) on left David standing beside headless body of Goliath; (b) group of uncertain significance, possibly the return of David with the spoils of Goliath; at sides, (a) Goliath reaching over walls of a castle; (b) David fighting Goliath, man and woman in castle at back; (7) two wild men fighting with clubs, one with a heavy hat or cap; at sides, bosses of acanthus leaves.
S. side, upper range—first bay, all modern. Second bay, (1) grotesque face and foliage; at sides, conventional fruit and foliage bosses; (2) two winged dragons fighting; at sides, conventional flowers; (3) three children, one in middle stripped and kneeling, one on left holding him down, one on right with birch; at sides, conventional foliage; (4) couchant lion; at sides, arums; (5) conventional foliage, late 13th-century. Third bay, (1) naked and bearded wild-man fighting with bear; at sides, conventional flowers; (2) man with club fighting two dragons (one with wings and with head lost); at sides, right, Samson astride a lion and forcing his jaws open; left, man with three cranes; (3) foliage springing from moulding; at sides, conventional flowers; (4) large winged dragon; at sides, right, beast looking at serpent; left, wingless dragon; (5) Samson fighting lion and forcing open jaws; at sides, right, lion licking itself; left, lion killing lamb. Fourth bay, (1) man and woman; at sides, conventional flowers; (2) devil seizing tonsured clerk, bag of money on right; at sides, right, two cocks fighting; left, monkey playing drum. Return stall—wild-man, woman and four children, all nude, vines in background; at sides, conventional flowers. Lower range—first and second bays all modern. Third bay, (1) monkey feeding female with young; at sides, right, monkey drinking from flask; left, chained bear playing bag-pipes; (2) two monsters, one with wings; at sides, nuts and foliage; (3) two boys 'cock-fighting'; at sides, right, boy on hobbyhorse; left, boy with 'whirligig' and shield; (4) two wild-men, one with shield and one shooting arrow; at sides, conventional flowers; (5) seated man and woman; at sides, right, boy with bird; left, naked child; (6) man with distaff and being beaten by woman with birch; at sides, conventional flowers; (7) woman beating man with distaff; at sides, right, man making a moue with fingers; left, jester with eared cap. The back of the stalls facing the aisles are wainscotted. Each bay on the N. side has three main and six sub-bays and two tiers of panels (the E. bay is modern). The second bay has traceried heads and a band of quatrefoils at the base and a carved vine cornice with the stumps of cresting. The third bay is partly covered by a monument but has a moulded cornice and part of the original carved cresting. The fourth bay is entirely covered by a monument. The wainscotting on the S. side is similar to the N. but is entirely exposed and has a vine cornice and the stumps of cresting. The lower panels have heads filled with foliage and tracery. The E. bay on the S. is modern, but the rest is mainly old but probably partly restored. In Scott's Gleanings is a reproduction of a plan of the chapel and stalls by J. Thorpe (c. 1600), which Scott assumes to represent the original arrangement. It is, however, quite at variance with the evidence of the existing old work and may very probably represent Thorpe's scheme for a rearrangement, or be merely an incorrect diagram sketch.
(24). The Chantry of Henry V consists of a raised platform at the E. end of the Confessor's chapel, on which stands the monument itself and a chantry-chapel above resting at the E. half on a vaulted bridge over the ambulatory and at the W. half on a vault above the tomb, and having at the W. end an arch flanked by two stair-turrets. The core of the tomb-platform appears to have been begun in 1422 and its casing and the tomb itself was probably finished c. 1431. The chantry-chapel was added subsequently and was not completed in 1441.
The tomb-platform is raised 5 ft. 9 in. above the ambulatory and has a moulded plinth and cornice with a row of square panels between them, seven on the E. face and one on the return (N. and S.). Each panel is quatre-foiled and sub-cusped, the material being Purbeck marble, much decayed. In the upper hollow of the cornice is painted in Roman capitals the 16th-century inscription "Henricus Quintus Gallorum Mastix jacet hic Henricus in urna 1422 domat omnia virtus pulchra virumque suum sociat tandem Catharina 1437 ocium fuge." The platform is floored with Purbeck marble slabs, but is patched.
The bridge (Plates 62, 131) over the ambulatory has on each side a moulded four-centred arch, with the outer members continuous and the inner springing from grouped and attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. On the W. side these shafts stand on the platform, but on the E. they are carried down to the floor. The inner hollow of the arch is enriched with foliage, much broken. Opening into the vestibule of Henry VII's chapel are three similar arches, of which the middle one is four-centred and of the same width as the bridge, and the two side ones narrower, two-centred and without the foliage enrichment. W. of the arches of the bridge on each side is an opening to give light to the tomb-platform; it is cinque-foiled and sub-cusped and has in the deep hollow of the E. reveal two canopied niches with crocketed heads; the lower pair of niches are empty, but the upper pair have small figures of St. Barbara (on the N.) and St. Dorothy (on the S.). Above the bridge arches, continued along above the windows and returned above the side-arches to Henry VII's vestibule, is a moulded cornice with a wide hollow enriched with carvings of chained swans, chained antelopes and beacons (on the S. side the place of beacons is taken by trees, to which the animals are chained. On this cornice, above the crowns of the four arches, are carved achievements of King Henry's arms. The spandrels of the bridge arches are panelled and have shields of the king's arms supported by three angels and having a fourth angel below the shield holding respectively an orb and crown (on N.) and a music book and sword (on S.). Above this cornice is the parapet of the chantry above; it is finished with a moulded coping to the western two-thirds, and the eastern third is raised higher. The outer faces on the N. and S. sides have each fifteen niches, including a large central one over the crown of the arch, five to the E. of it and nine to the W., all small and having crocketed canopies in two stages finished with carved cresting; the large middle niche has a triple crocketed canopy in one stage only; there is an upper range of six niches (with similar canopies to the small niches below) on the face of the higher wall towards the E. end. The two ranges of niches are continued along the E. wall above the arches to Henry VII's vestibule, the lower range having a large triple niche in the centre with one small niche on the inner and two on the outer side; the upper range has six niches, the canopies of which are finished with crocketed spires. On the N. face (Plates 134, 135, 136) all these niches are filled with figures; the large niche above the bridge has a group representing the homage at the coronation of a king, who is seated crowned in the middle with a mitred figure on each side and two standing and two kneeling figures besides. The other large niche above the vestibule arch has an armed and mounted figure of the king with a landscape background and trappers to the horse; the niche immediately above has a seated figure of a woman with a book. All the other figures, with the exception of a mitred one immediately E. of the coronation scene, are dressed in long robes and some have books, they are probably attendant figures to the coronation scene and represent peers, judges, etc. On the canopies of the lower range of niches on the parapet of the chapel are chained swans and antelopes alternately. On the S. face (Plates 137, 138, 139) three of the figures in the smaller niches are missing. The large niche over the bridge has the actual coronation scene, a seated king with orb and sceptre (broken off) and two coped and mitred figures supporting the crown on his head. The other large niche has an equestrian figure, as before, and in the niche above it is a seated figure of a woman with a book. The other figures are all in long robes and with six exceptions wear hats with liripipe hoods, four figures in the lower range wear a shorter tunic showing under the robe; one of the figures on the E. wall is now headless. The spandrels of the side-arches to Henry VII's vestibule have sub-cusped quatrefoils in circles with a foliage boss or flower in the centre of each.
The vault (Plates 129, 143) under the chapel is in two bays, the eastern forming the bridge and the western the roof over the tomb itself; between the bays is a moulded four-centred arch springing from grouped attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The vault under the bridge is of lierne type with moulded ribs and a pierced and traceried boss at the main intersection; within the lierne ribs are numerous cusped panels, including sixteen with quatrefoils and carved rosettes in the centres; the diamond-shaped panels towards the cardinal points have each a chained swan and the eight panels flanking the main diagonal ribs have each a crouching antelope with a napkin round the neck bearing the king's arms. The vault over the tomb-platform is also of lierne type with moulded ribs and cusped panels and no central boss.
The W. front (Plates 44, 53, 133) of the chantry has a moulded two-centred arch, the outer member of which has a diaper of quatrefoils in lozenges. Above it is a range of five canopied niches with graduated pedestals and divided by pinnacled buttresses terminating in foliated pendants; the pedestals (with a double one to the middle niche) project diagonally and have each a small figure on the salient angle (the first on the N. is St. George) and pierced tracery at the sides; the canopies are of similar form and are surmounted by a carved cornice and cresting, between the double canopy of the middle niche is a small figure; the double niche is empty, but the other four have each a seated female figure, most of them with the hands broken and one lacking a head. Flanking the archway are two octagonal stair-turrets (Plates 130, 140) each of three stages, of which the lowest is enclosed by solid walls and the second by walls of open work tracery. At the angles are grouped buttresses finished with moulded bases. In the W. face (B on plan) of each is a doorway with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch, above which is a crocketed tabernacle of semi-octagonal form, which forms a pedestal to support a large figure. These figures are much weathered, but represent St. John the Baptist (on N.) in a loose robe and St. Edward the Confessor (on S.) in Parliament robes with hands broken off. The faces of the turrets (A on plan) immediately flanking the archway have each a moulded and foliated pedestal supporting a figure in mass-vestments and a mitre, and above it a semi-octagonal traceried canopy which forms a pedestal for a figure above; at the angles of the canopy are small figures. The corresponding outer faces C and D have each a similar niche and at the back of each is a window of three trefoiled lights in a four-centred head, lighting the staircase. C niche on the N. is empty, but C on the S. has a figure of a deacon (St. Stephen?). D niche on N. has a figure of a deacon with a book (St. Laurence or St. Vincent). D. niche on the S. is empty. On face E. is a smaller niche with a two-light window at the back; it contains a bearded figure with a book, much covered by the 'tester' of Queen Eleanor's tomb; the corresponding niche on the S. is empty. The second stage has on the W. face a window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a four-centred head and two transoms. The faces A, C, D have each a window of three trefoiled lights in a two-centred head with tracery. The faces E have each a smaller two-light window. The faces A have (on N.) figure of king in Parliament robes with model of church in left hand; (on S.) similar figure with church in left hand; they probably represent kings Sebert and Henry III. Face C (on N.), St. Katherine trampling on the emperor; (on S.) king in Parliament robes with handle of sceptre in right hand, left hand broken off, possibly St. Edmund. On face D, on N. and S. sides, figures of cardinals with hat and book in hand. Face E (on N.) small figure of St. James the Great with hat and shell, book in hand; (on S.) small figure of St. John the Evangelist with palm branch. Face F contains the doorways to the upper chapel; they have moulded jambs and four-centred arch with an ogee crocketed label and a cusped panelled spandrel. The third stage has at the base a series of tabernacled canopies to the figures below, all of semi-octagonal form, and having above the vaulting of the canopies a series of pierced panels and above them a range of cusped niches with ogee crocketed labels and formerly containing small figures of angels, some of which are lost; the whole is finished with a moulded cornice with foliage and heads and a carved cresting. The staircases are finished internally with a parapet having a moulded coping and on the outward face a cusped panel containing a shield of the king's arms. The newel is continued up to support a small ribbed and cusped vault which springs from half-angels on the newel and against the side walls.
Grate: Under the W. archway is an iron grate (Plate 44), said to have been erected temp. Henry VII. It has a flat embattled rail at the springing-level with open tracery with cusped vertical lights above it; below the rail are three bays divided by buttresses; the outer bays are doorways, each door being of three panels with rounded heads at the top and below the middle rail; all the panels are filled with horizontal and diagonal cusped bars forming a square diaper, open above the rail and closed below it; the middle bay is similar to the doors but of six panels.
Lockers: In upper chapel—in E. wall on either side of altar one, flanked by pinnacles, shallow recesses, with remains of iron hinges for doors, hung at top. Flanking altar in N. and S. walls, two similar lockers with carved and crested cornice and ogee-headed and crocketed panels at W. end flanked and divided by pinnacled buttresses. Remains of three iron hinges at top. At back of altar, shallow-recess with rebated sides, iron catches and mortices for bolts.
Monument: of Henry V, 1422, altar-tomb (Plate 129) of Purbeck marble with quatre-foiled and traceried plinth, each side with three recesses with three-centred heads and divided by pinnacled piers, reveals and soffits of recesses with cusped panelling, ends of tomb with similar shallow recess or panels, moulded slab supporting oak table with oak effigy in Parliament robes, hands and head missing. The head was of silver and the effigy and slab were covered with silver plates, of which some of the fixing-nails remain.
Pavement: In upper chapel—marble step to altar foot-pace. Altar foot-pace paved with yellow and dark green tiles; further W. remains of similar pavement and another marble step; W. part of chapel paved with plain red tiles, set square at sides and diagonally in middle.
Reredos: In upper chapel—on E. wall (Plate 132), and extending beyond chapel over ambulatory, at base a moulded cornice enriched with groups of a swan and antelope chained to beacon (Plate 7) and above the altar three carved trefoils; middle one, part destroyed, with irradiated cross and remains of figure which carried it and a sword on the arm of the cross, below a seated irradiated figure, on border fragment of inscription "requiem"; trefoils at sides each with an irradiated Virgin and Child seated on a moon and below the maiden with the unicorn, much weathered. Above cornice, range of seven large canopied niches each with a moulded carved and pierced traceried pedestal, pinnacled buttresses at sides and a semi-octagonal vaulted canopy above with ogee crocketed heads, pierced traceried tabernacle and moulded and carved cornice and cresting. The middle niche is empty; the rest from the N. are as follows—(1) St. George in plate-armour with spear through the neck of the dragon; (2) a king in long robes, probably St. Edmund; (3) and (5) the Annunciation—(3) kneeling figure of St. Gabriel, (5) seated figure of the Virgin with hands crossed on breast; (6) bearded king in long robe with object in right hand, probably St. Edward the Confessor; (7) headless figure of bishop in mass-vestments, holding mitred head in hands, St. Denys. Between larger niches are small niches ranged one above the other; all the figures occupying the top tier have long robes and scrolls; of the others the three lower figures of the four middle rows are probably apostles, as two (the top and bottom) of the outer N. row are St. John the Evangelist (with chalice) and St. Paul (with sword); five figures, including three apostles, are missing.
(25). The Chapel of Our Lady of the Pew (Plate 142) (9 ft. by 6 ft.) is constructed in the thickness of the abutment between the chapels of St. John the Baptist and Abbot Islip. It is of two bays of irregular form and was built probably at the end of the 14th century, but the inner archway, opening into St. John the Baptist's chapel, was pierced early in the 16th century, cutting off the N.E. corner of the chapel. The outer doorway (Plates 141, 26) has shafted jambs and a cinque-foiled and sub-cusped arch in a square head with foliated spandrels and a moulded label with stops of angels holding shields—(a) St. Edward the Confessor, and (b) Old France and England quarterly. The mouldings of the head are richly painted with vermilion and diapering of black lines on white; the jambs have remains of colour and the outline of a large shield. The E. and W. walls of the S. bay are panelled in two tiers, the lower with trefolied heads and the upper with blind-tracery. The vault of the outer bay (Plate 143) has moulded ridge, diagonal and subsidiary ribs, with foliated bosses at the inter-sections, and springs from two vaulting-shafts in each angle; the central boss is carved with the Assumption of the Virgin and the lesser bosses with roses and heads of angels. The inner bay (Plate 143) is of greater height and width than the outer, but has a similar vault with moulded ribs and foliage bosses and springs from corbels, two with painted heads. Across the N.E. angle is a moulded three-centred arch of early 16th-century date. In the N. wall is a groove for the former altar and below it a corbel with defaced carving. In the W. wall is a plain square-headed squint to the Islip chapel, now blocked. In the E. wall S. of the doorway is a second squint.
Fittings in Chapel of Our Lady of the Pew— Doors: of two folds with moulded base and panels with cinque-foiled heads and foliated spandrels, moulded rail and iron chevaux-de-frise; iron grate to door-head; on E. of doorway, iron basket-holder for lamp.
Painting: the walls have remains of elaborate colour decoration of a brocade pattern with blue centres, on some of which are white fleurs-de-lis; on E. wall is the figure of a hart with a crown round its neck. The vault of the outer bay has painted stars.
(26). The Chantry Chapel of Abbot Islip (d. 1532) is a two-storeyed structure on the N. side of the ambulatory of the presbytery between the chapels of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. The two chief altars (in the upper and lower chapels) were both Jesus altars, and the chapel was apparently built in the lifetime of the abbot, as it is shown complete in the Islip roll.
The S. front (Plate 144) is of two storeys divided by a moulded cornice enriched with foliage and the following devices (Plate 7) —(a) a shield, ermine a fesse between three boars gules for Islip; (b) a tree with a man slipping from it, also an eye; (c) broken shield, blank; (d) the name ISLIP in large ornamental letters; (e) blank shield with a crown of thorns above it; (f) an eye and a tree with a hand breaking off a slip; (g) as (c); (h) as (d); (i) as (a). The lower storey is of three bays divided by attached and crocketed pinnacles set diagonally and having moulded bases and offsets. The two eastern bays have each a window of five cinque-foiled lights with a transom and tracery in a two-centred arch with panelled blind spandrels in a square head; the various parts are moulded and the spandrels have each a blank shield; the sill is moulded and below it are five cinquefoil-headed panels above a row of five sunk quatrefoils in squares each with a foliated boss in the middle; the plinth is moulded; in the eastern bay below the springing of the arch this work has all been cut away and replaced by modern wooden doors of the same design. The third or westernmost bay has a similar head and tracery in the top part, but all blind, and below it is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch with an ogee crocketed label terminating in a small moulded and foliated pedestal; the spandrel of the doorway is foliated and has a small shield with the letters Ihc. The upper storey is finished with a moulded and foliated cornice with the stumps of carved cresting above it; the storey is occupied by seven cinque-foiled niches divided by cusped and ogee-headed panels with crocketed labels, each panel of two 'lights' with cinque-foiled heads and two tiers and a third tier above the labels; the niches have pierced panelled and moulded pedestals; the middle niche has an additional band of carved foliage; the semi-octagonal canopies have ogee-traceried heads and were surmounted by pinnacled and pierced tabernacles, which have all gone except the easternmost and the middle one.
The W. front is also of two storeys, but the lower one is some three feet higher than on the S. front and is of plain rough ashlar; the upper storey has above and below it a moulded and foliated cornice, the top one having the stumps of cresting as on the S. front. Between them are three bays, the middle bay occupied by a plain ashlar panel rising above the level of the main wall and the upper cornice is mitred round it; the side-bays have each a canopied niche in the middle flanked by four panels, two on each side and similar to the upper part of the panels on the S. front; one panel on the S. bay has been partly cut away. The niches have each a moulded and foliated pedestal and a two-sided canopy set diagonally with a vaulted soffit and much damaged.
Interior: The Lower Chapel (Plate 145) consists of a square central bay with arched recesses on the E., N. and S. sides. At the angles of the central bay are clustered shafts with moulded capitals and bases, from which spring the vault and the moulded four-centred openings into the recesses; the main vault (Plate 146) is a combination of the fan and lierne type, with moulded ribs and lierne ribs forming an eight-pointed star in the middle; the fan-cones and most of the lierne-cells are also cusped. The large central boss has been defaced, but a nebuly border still remains in part; the lierne-cells are filled with various carved devices as follows—(1) shields of the Islip arms; (2) the name ISLIP in large ornamental letters; (3) the Islip rebus, an eye and a tree with a hand plucking off a branch or slip. The E. recess has a plain ashlar wall at the back and a narrow strip of cusped and panelled barrel-vaulting of four-centred form behind the arch. The N. recess has in the N. wall a window of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head; the various parts are moulded. The panelled barrel-vault is similar but much deeper than that in the E. recess and is continued down the face of the E. and W. walls. Set on the panelling of the E. wall, above the level of a former altar (shown on the Islip roll), is a carved half-figure (Plate 7) of Christ rising from clouds and irradiated, the head and hands are broken off and the robe has a clasp with the letters Ihc; at the sides of the head are angel-heads, set in clouds. The S. recess has on the S. side the two windows above described included under a four-centred arch with a quatre-foiled circle enclosing a blank shield in the spandrel; on the central division at the springing level is carved a half-angel holding a shield. The panelled barrel-vault is similar to that in the N. recess, but the panelling is only continued down the E. wall, where it has been partly cut away for a tablet. Both E. and W. walls are splayed, and in the W. wall is a doorway, now blocked, with jambs and four-centred arch moulded on the outside and chamfered on the inner, both in square heads with foliated spandrels; on the inside it is surmounted by a moulded and foliated cornice with a cresting of 'Tudor' flowers. The W. wall has a moulded wall-arch corresponding to those opening into the recesses, and the wall has 'window-tracery' panelling of ten ogee cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head; the ogee traceried transom is enriched with foliated bosses. At the W. end of the chapel is the staircase leading up to the upper chapel; near the bottom of the flight is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch with a square head and foliated spandrels. Above this door in the outer (W.) wall is a sunk moulded hand-rail of stone. In the E. wall is a small window formed by piercing two of the tracery lights of the panelling on the W. wall of the lower chapel.
The Upper Chapel has the 13th-century walls of the abbey on the E. and N. sides. On the S. and W. sides are parapet-walls with moulded cornices and round the staircase is a lower parapetwall with a moulded coping. At the top of the staircase the Purbeck-marble shaft is stopped with a carved oak corbel, carved with the Islip rebus and the W. splay of the 13th-century window is corbelled back with moulded set-backs. In the E. wall the original blind-tracery has been cut back flush with the wall-face.
Cupboards: In upper chapel—(1) with panelled door and cocks' head hinges, late 16th-century; (2) with shouldered head to glazed door having carved foliage in spandrels, moulded cornice and raised side panels, late 17th-century, containing effigy of Charles II; (3) and (4) with shaped heads to glazed doors and moulded cornices, probably early 18th-century, also containing effigies.
Monuments: Against E. wall—(1) of Sir Christopher Hatton, 1619, and Alise (Fanshaw), his wife, 1623, wall-monument of various marbles consisting of a base with two inscribed blocks and having a cornice and broken pediment, on which are reclining effigies of a man in armour and a woman with loose veil; on wall at back is an enriched bracket with cartouche-of-arms, amorini and drapery; on E. wall of S. recess inscribed tablet, part of same monument.
Against N. wall—(2) to [Abbot John Islip, 1532], slab of black marble with moulded edge sunk for brass fillet and supported in front on two pairs of fluted bronze columns (Plate 8) with acanthus capitals and moulded bands at half their height; the rest of the monument has been destroyed and the remains are not in situ.
Paintings: On side walls (N. and S.) of E. recess in upper chapel—remains of two large figures of kings, one on each side and one holding a long staff; they stand on foliated pedestals and have elaborate canopies over the heads, early 16th-century, painted in monochrome.
Pavements: Of lower chapel—of small squares of Purbeck marble much patched and altered. Of upper chapel—of Purbeck marble, diagonally set squares divided into four divisions by rows of squares running E. and W.
Wax Effigies: In upper chapel—of Charles II, William III, Mary II, Elizabeth, Francis Theresa, Duchess of Richmond, 1702, and others of later date. The figures are in contemporary costumes except that of Elizabeth, which is an 18th-century restoration.
(27). The Plate. The plate (Plate 24) is of silver-gilt and of post-Restoration date with the exception of a cup and cover-paten, recently acquired, both these have bands of incised ornament; the cup is of 1571 and the paten bears the same date but with no date-mark. The later plate includes two large flagons of 1684, covered with repoussé ornament of foliage, cherub-heads, etc., two large cups with cover-patens, all with repoussé ornament similar to the flagons but rather poorer work; they have no date-marks, but one cup has an inscription recording its gift by John Sudbury, prebendary and Dean of Durham, in 1671; a large alms-dish of 1684 and with ornament similar to the flagons, two large altar candle-sticks of 1691, with similar ornament and each standing on three feet, one with a panel pounced with the name Sarah Hughes; two large plain patens probably of the same date but without marks; two stand-patens without marks, but probably of late 17th-century date; two plain alms-dishes one of 1684 and the other perhaps of 1691; most of the above pieces of late 17th-century plate bear a shield of the arms of Edward the Confessor; there is also a strainer-spoon of rat-tail form, and perhaps of 1703.