BHO

Lambeth

Pages 78-86

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 2, West London. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1925.

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10. LAMBETH.

(O.S. 6 in. London Sheet O.)

The borough of Lambeth is conterminous with the parish of Lambeth. The Palace is the principal monument.

Ecclesiastical

(1). The Parish Church of St. Mary stands on the N. side of the approach to Lambeth Bridge. The walls of the tower are of Kentish rag with limestone-dressings; the roof is covered with lead. The West Tower was built late in the 15th century, but the rest of the church was rebuilt in 1851; some of the old stones have been incorporated in the lower walls, where, in places, the old core may also exist; the top stage of the tower is also modern.

Architectural Description—The West Tower (15 ft. by 13½ ft.) is in four stages (Plate 126) with a S.E. octagonal stair-turret. The tower-arch has been partly rebuilt with old material; it is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and mutilated bases. In the S. wall of the ground-stage is a doorway with a four-centred head. The second stage has in the S., E. and W. walls a single-light window with a trefoiled head; that in the E. wall is blocked. The third stage has in the E. wall a blocked window, originally of two cinquefoiled lights with a quatrefoil above, but the mullion and a large part of the head are missing; in the W. wall is a similar window and in the S. wall is a two-light window, all modern except the rear-arch, splays and some reused dressings. The bell-chamber is modern.

Fittings—Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In organ chamber—on E. wall, not in situ, (1) of [Katherine (Broughton), first wife of Lord William Howard, 7th son of Thomas, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, 1535], figure wearing pedimental head-dress and long mantle with the arms of Howard, with the Flodden augmentation, quartering Brotherton, Mowbray and Warenne, impaling a cheveron between three molets, for Broughton, quartering (a) on a cheveron three fleurs-de-lis, for Pever (b) on a cross five escallops, and (c) two leopards; at feet of figure a squirrel holding a nut; on N. wall, (2) to Margaret Chute, 1638, inscription only; (3) of [Thomas Clere, 1545] figure in plate-armour, and shield-of-arms, on a fess three eagles for Clere, quartering a mill-rind cross, for Uvedale, with a crescent for difference. Indents: see Monuments (1) and (2). Communion Rails; (Plate 1) with square panelled posts carved with flowers, double gates in middle, moulded and enriched top rail, moulded bottom rail, turned and carved balusters, late 17th-century, said to have come from All Saints, Maidstone. Similar rails across E. end of W. Tower. Door: to S.E. vestry—with hollowchamfered ribs planted on, forming four-centred head, and three panels, two strap-hinges, early 16th-century, backing modern. Glass: In S. chapel—in small window, figure of a pedlar with his dog; portions of glass possibly of c. 1700 but mostly modern. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—against N. wall (1) to Hugh Peyntwyn, LL.D., 1504 (Plate 126), altar-tomb and recess with three sub-cusped quatrefoiled panels on front of tomb, each containing shield with the arms of Peyntwyn, gules three thistles or leaved vert, colouring modern, plinth cut away and range of quatrefoiled panels with blank shields inserted; Purbeck-marble slab with moulded edge; recess at back with moulded jambs, flanked by semi-octagonal shafts, cusped and traceried reveals with four-centred arch and traceried spandrels, foliated cornice with three shields of the arms of Peyntwyn and cresting of Tudor flowers; at back of recess three traceried panels and indents of two figures and a Trinity (?) with painted inscription-plate below, mostly illegible and probably modern; against S. wall (2) to John Mompesson, 1524, altar-tomb and recess, of limestone with Purbeck-marble slab, generally similar to (1) but with original moulded plinth to tomb, and shields in quatrefoils of tomb; spandrels of main arch to recess and frieze, carved with the arms of Mompesson, argent a lion sable charged on the shoulder with a pinson (chaffinch) argent impaling ermine a lion passant gules for Drew; in centre panel over tomb, indent of kneeling man and two scrolls, with below a modern copy of pre-existing brass with inscription. In S. porch—on E. wall (3) to Judith, wife of Cap. George Ralegh, 1701, white marble tablet with shield - of - arms and inscription; (4) to Sir Peter Rich, 1692, Alderman of London, shaped marble tablet (Plate 10) with cherubheads and scrolls; on N. wall (5) of Robert Scott, Quartermaster-general to the King of Sweden, etc., 1631, bust with inscription - plate below; on S. wall (6) to Elizabeth, wife of John Baylie, 1629, plain tablet. Floor-slabs: In chancel—below altar (1) to Richard Bancroft, 1610, Archbishop of Canterbury; partly hidden by altar-steps (2) to John Alsop, 1611; (3) to Anne, wife of Robert Roberts, 1665, with lozenge-of-arms; (4) to Robert Thompson, LL.D., 1683–4, with shield-of-arms. In S. chapel—(5) to Elias Ashmole, 1692, donor of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to John Butcher, 1696. In N. aisle (7) to a girl, 1672, white marble slab, broken. Organ: (Plate 68) originally in two bays with semi-circular towers carried on continuous and elaborately carved and moulded cornice, and panelled casing to the manuals. Cornice and woodwork below with some of the upper carved casing original, built by Renatus Harris, c. 1701, enlarged and considerably rebuilt in the 19th century. Plate (Plate 4): includes two cups of 1638, one with cover of same date, the other with cover of 1668, a paten of 1638, and three flagons of 1664.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Secular

(2). Lambeth Palace, house, chapel, gatehouse, etc., stands N. of the church. Archbishop Baldwin acquired the site in 1189–90 for a college of secular canons. Most of the buildings erected by him and his successor, Hubert Walter, were however demolished before the end of the 12th century, and it was not until the time of Archbishop Langton (1207–29) that the new palace was begun; it was perhaps continued under Archbishop Boniface (1240–70). All that remains of this work is the Chapel, which appears to be of mid 13th-century date, but the Crypt and the W. doorway are of an earlier character and it is probable that the former is part of Stephen Langton's work and the latter a re-use of older material. The Water, or Lollards', Tower was built on the site of an earlier building by Archbishop Chicheley, the work being completed in 1435. Cardinal Morton built the Entrance Gateway (known as Morton's Tower) in 1490; the tower at the N.E. of the chapel is ascribed to Archbishop Cranmer (1533–56), or Cardinal Pole (1556–1558), and the smaller tower which adjoins the Water Tower on the S. was added by Archbishop Laud about the year 1635. The Great Hall was destroyed under the Commonwealth but rebuilt by Archbishop Juxon, 1660–63, who also restored the chapel. A two-storeyed cloister with an eastern range of buildings, which included the ' Guard Room,' connected the hall with the chapel, and E. of the latter and off the E. walk of the cloisters ran two ranges containing domestic apartments. The whole of this cloister, guard-room, and adjoining ranges was demolished by Archbishop Howley in 1829–33 who erected modern buildings in its stead. The plan of the ' Guard Room' was retained and portions of the old timbers re-used in the roof. The archway and cottage connecting the S. end of the hall with the main entrance gateway, the stables and various outbuildings lying to the S.E. were erected at the same time. The buildings have been restored at various times during the 19th century.

The Chapel. The walls are of pudding-stone and freestone partly faced with ashlar; the dressings are of Reigate-stone and Purbeck-marble; the roof is covered with lead. The Undercroft (Plate 127) (70½ ft. by 23¾ ft.) is in four double bays divided down the middle by a row of columns. In the E. wall of the N. bay is a window of two trefoiled lights (the foiled heads being blind) in a two-centred outer order, the splays have each a window-seat and the window is rebated internally for shutters, of which hinge-hooks remain. The corresponding window in the S. bay has been cut into to make a doorway. In each bay of the N. wall are two windows, each of a single light and similar to those in the E. wall; the westernmost has been altered and a square-headed window inserted. All these windows have wrought-iron grates. The S. wall has, in the third bay from the E., a 14th-century doorway with chamfered and moulded jambs and two-centred segmental head with the initials I.O. carved on the apex. In the westernmost bay is a rough square-headed doorway with a wooden lintel; W. of the doorway, externally, is a small niche, much patched with cement and of doubtful purpose. The W. wall has in the N. bay a window similar to that in the corresponding bay in the E. wall. In the S. bay are the sill and the lower parts of the chamfered jambs of a blocked doorway. Each bay of the crypt has a quadripartite vault with chamfered ribs springing from moulded corbels with Purbeck-marble abaci; the Purbeck-marble columns have moulded capitals and bases. Much of the original plaster remains on the walls and vaulting.

Lambeth Palace

The chapel itself (72½ ft. by 25½ ft.) is in four bays (Plate 130) with a screen between the third and fourth separating the westernmost, which forms an ante-chapel with a gallery at the W. end. The E. window is of five graduated lancets with moulded rear-arches carried on attached shafts of Purbeck-marble with moulded capitals and bases; at the sill-level is a moulded string. In each bay in the N. and S. walls is a window of three graduated lancets under a two-centred outer order springing from the buttresses; the windows are of similar character and detail to the E. window; the lower part of the easternmost window in the N. wall is blocked and has a doorway with a two-centred head opening into a vestry in Cranmer's Tower; it is apparently much restored; the upper part of the window opens into the first floor of Cranmer's Tower and has a modern stone gallery-front. The upper parts of the windows in the bay opposite are blocked. The W. doorway (Plate 128) is of three moulded orders, the inner forming two trefoiled arches and the outer two enclosing a tympanum with a sunk moulded quatrefoil now containing a 17th-century cartouche of the arms of the See impaling Laud; the jambs have each two free and two attached shafts, and the middle pier has three attached shafts all with moulded capitals and bases; the moulded rear-arch is segmental and carried on detached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the early detail and the slight irregularity in the setting of the main arch with the awkward termination of the label suggest that the work has been reset. The W. window is similar to the E. window but the sill is at a higher level and the lights were blocked when the Lollards' Tower was built. The vault is modern. The roof was carried by king-post trusses between each bay, and some of those remaining may be of 15th-century date, but at a later period, probably in the 17th century, additional trusses have been inserted and the roof reconstructed to form a flat, the parapets being raised at the same time.

Lambeth Palace, Ground & Principal Floor Plan.

Fittings—Communion Rails: brought back from Addington, have moulded rails with carved consoles, symmetrically turned balusters, early 17th-century, and gates (Plate 1) carved with pierced acanthus leaf scrolls, c. 1660. Doors: to W. doorway, with trefoiled-heads and each of four battens with trellisframing and plain strap-hinges, possibly 13th-century, framing later; in gallery, occupying outer lights of original W. window, two, of two panels with upper panel in three cinquefoiled lights, quarry-glazed, probably 15th-century, reset. Gallery: over W. end of ante-chapel with shallow extensions at either end along W. wall, of wood, supported on two Ionic columns standing on high octagonal pedestals, and having short panelled posts above with quadrant brackets carved with imitation voussoirs, stopping against dentilled cornice of gallery-front; gallery-front panelled, with semi-hexagonal bay in centre of middle part and small fluted pilasters of the Ionic order between panels, supporting continuous entablature with carved grotesques on frieze; below the front, under pilasters, pierced carving below panels on part of projecting bay; middle panel carved with architectural composition flanked by female half-figures and scrolls, panelled soffit, early 17th-century. Monument: in ante-chapel, to Archbishop Matthew Parker, 1575, altar-tomb, cut down and altered, with moulded plinth round N. and E. sides panelled with quatrefoils and Purbeck-marble slab moulded on three sides; moved in 1648 and replaced by Archbishop Sancroft, with brass inscription recording same. Oriel window: in middle of blocked light of W. window, semi-octagonal, with three cinquefoiled lights having rosette points to lower cusps, with moulded cornice above supporting an ogee-shaped capping, and moulded sill below carried on carved half-figure of an angel holding shield of the arms of the See impaling Juxon, mid 17th-century. Panelling: in ante-chapel round lower parts of walls, in two heights, 17th-century. Paving: of black and white marble squares set diagonally; that in centre part of ante-chapel set square; possibly late 17th or early 18th-century; pavement within altar-rails, modern. Plate: includes a cup, cover-paten and flagon of c. 1634–6, an alms-basin of 1635, a paten of 1677, a flagon of 1660, a pair of pricket candlesticks of 1660–70 and a Portuguese cup given to the abbey of Alcobaça in 1690, probably brought to this country about the time of the Peninsular war. Screen (Plates 8, 131): between chapel and ante-chapel, of seven bays including doorway; close lower panels divided by Doric pilasters, moulded and carved middle rail with cartouches-of-arms, upper panels each with oval opening with carved surround and cherub-heads in the spandrels; bays divided by enriched terminal pilasters with Ionic capitals, supporting entablature with carved straps; doorway with round head and spandrels carved with half-angels holding cartouches of-arms and central cartouches on both sides of screen above head of doorway carved with the arms of the See impaling Laud; doors in two leaves with two solid panels in lower part and pierced carving above. On E. side the first bay S. of the doorway forms back of archbishop's stall, with pierced scrolled arms, shaped pieces below seat and canopy formed by projection of the main cornice carried on long console-brackets terminating in carved pendants; semi-elliptical arched head with carved key-block and spandrels, mid 17th-century, archbishop's seat, late 17th-century. Seating: Against N. and S. walls of two westernmost bays of chapel and E. side of screen, with desks having panelled fronts with moulded plinth and capping and fourteen (two against screen partly cut away) bench-ends (Plate 8) having heads of irregular cartoucheform carved with winged cherub-heads, swags, etc., mid 17th-century, stalls modern. In front of side stalls, six benches with turned baluster-legs and moulded rails. In ante-chapel, five forms of similar character, mid 17th-century.

Cranmer's Tower (20 ft. by 17 ft.) stands on the N. side of the easternmost bay of the chapel and has at the N.E. corner a staircase-tower (13 ft. square). It is of five stages, including a half basement, and is of brick with stone dressings. It is of mid 16th-century date, but the windows have been restored throughout and the parapet and chimneys rebuilt. On the W. Front is a completely restored or modern doorway to the ground-floor and corbelled out at the first-floor level is a chimney-stack. The E. Front has on the first floor a blocked doorway with an external wood-lintel. The staircase-tower is lighted by small single-light windows.

Interior.—The tower and staircase have several original doorways, some with old oak doors. The bottom storey has in the E. wall two large screens on either side of the doorway, and across the ceiling is a large beam. The ground-floor is used as a vestry and has an original oak ceiling with moulded cornice, cross-beam and joists. The walls are lined with late 17th or early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling. The doors into the chapelstaircase and that in the W. wall are similarly panelled, and the two former have bolection-moulded architraves. In the W. wall is an original fireplace with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch, but it is now blocked and surrounded by an early 18th-century bolection-moulded architrave with a moulded cornice above. The casements in the N. window with their fastenings may possibly be of 17th-century date. The first floor, sometimes called 'Cranmer's Parlour,' now contains a modern organ. The ceiling is similar to that in the room below and the S. side opens through the original window into the chapel. The walls of the room on the second floor are lined with plain panelling of 18th-century date, and across the ceiling is a narrow moulded beam. In the E. wall is an original fireplace with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred head with sunk spandrels, to the S. of which, in the thickness of the wall, is a cupboard with a recess on the S. side lighted by a small squareheaded window having 16th or 17th-century glazing. The third floor has one large moulded beam across the ceiling. The stairs are built round three sides of a central square pier, scratched in places with initials, words, etc.; the landings are of square red tiles and the stairs are of stone up to the first floor and of wood above. In the E. wall of each landing is an original window, blocked by the modern additions; that on the first floor retains its crossbars and old lead casement with fasteners. The central pier stops at the third floor and is surmounted on the N. and E. sides by a low panelled enclosure (Plate 129). The panelling is original and has moulded angle-posts and top rail with the panels moulded towards the staircase and chamfered on the inside. From the third floor to the roof the stairs are of solid balks of triangular section.

The Water, or Lollards', Tower (29 ft. by 28 ft.) is built on the W. end of the chapel and has, projecting from the E. end of the N. wall, a smaller rectangular tower containing the staircase and garde-robes, which appears to have been added at a slightly later date. The main tower is of four storeys with a half basement; the staircase is of five storeys, and both are surmounted by rebuilt embattled parapets. The walls are faced with roughly coursed Kentish rag with ashlar quoins, except on the upper part of the S. and E. walls, which are of brick; the roofs are covered with lead. On the W. front the windows are symmetrically arranged; all have moulded labels and those to the three lower floors have cinquefoiled heads to the lights; the upper windows have four centred heads to the lights. Between the second-floor windows is a vaulted niche with moulded jambs and two-centred cinquefoiled arch under a crocketed and finialled ogee head; it is flanked by small buttresses with moulded bases and crocketed pinnacles; the projecting shelf is supported on the half-figure of an angel holding a much defaced shield probably of the arms of the See impaling Chicheley; the niche formerly contained an image of St. Thomas of Canterbury. On the return, or N., wall are similar windows and a slightly projecting chimney - stack on plain corbels. The E. front has, above the chapel roof, two long niches with segmental heads. The staircase-tower is lit by narrow rectangular lights, but on the E. wall are two with four-centred heads, and on the ground-floor is a low, wide window with two old casements with moulded frames and lead-glazing. On the N. wall, corbelled out on three shaped corbels, is a small chimney-stack. The turret-staircase rises a little above the parapet of the tower and is finished with a roof of ogee shape with widely projecting eaves; on the S.E. front is a gabled bell-cote, with shaped sides and moulded cornice; it originally had cusped and traceried barge-boards but the right-hand board is missing; the bell is dated 1687; the northern faces of the turret are of rag-stone, the others of brick with ashlar quoins. Interior.—The half-basement has exposed joists and moulded wallplates on shaped stone corbels. The window jambs and mullions are rebated for shutters and the recesses have stone seats. In the N. wall is a large fireplace-recess with a modern arch, and in the W. jamb is an old stone shelf carried on two stone corbels; further E. is a circular stone oven with a tiled arch and domed top of brick; the doorway at the E. end of the wall has stone jambs and four-centred brick arch. The 'Post Room' (Plate 128) on the ground-floor has a boarded ceiling divided by heavy moulded crossbeams, supported by a 17th-century or later central octagonal post with moulded capping and braces; the main divisions of the ceiling are divided into panels by original moulded ribs with carved bosses at the intersections and extremities; some of the bosses are carved with half figures of angels holding shields, scrolls, crown, etc.; one boss is carved with the head of a bearded man wearing a head-dress of turban-form, another is carved with a woman's head and the others with conventional leaves. In the S. wall is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. Further W. is a restored square-headed window of two cinquefoiled lights and probably inserted in the 17th century when Laud's addition was made. The N. wall has a blocked doorway at the W. end only indicated by marks on the internal plaster; further E. is the doorway into the stair-turret. The doorway to the small vice in the S.E. angle has moulded jambs and a two-centred head. The walls of the 'post room' have a high 17th-century dado, with a moulded and dentilled capping. Against the E. and S. walls are contemporary benches with small Tuscan columns as posts between the rails. The first floor has exposed ceiling-beams and a plain post with a simple capping in the middle. There is some early 17th-century panelling, two late 17th-century doors and a fireplace of the same date with a bolection-moulded architrave and moulded cornice. The S. room has an original stone fireplace with hollow-chamfered jambs and low four-centred arch. In the S. wall of the lobby formed in the S.E. vice is an early 17th-century ledged door with moulded battens, above which is a small square-headed light. The upper floors have exposed ceiling-beams and original fireplaces with four-centred heads. On the top floor there is an original doorway with a four-centred head and an early 17th-century panelled door. The Staircase tower had garde-robes on the W. side. The staircase is entered on each floor through original stone doorways with hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; the door from the 'post room' is framed and ledged and divided on the outside by vertical ribs into three panels, one cut to form a wicket with a four-centred head; on the first floor the door is of feathered battens, with long straphinges and an old shaped handle-plate. The doorways to the garde-robe on the first and second floors have hollow-chamfered jambs and two-centred arches and batten-doors; that on the top floor is similar but with a four-centred arch; the door is hung on old strap-hinges. From the third floor, off the S.E. corner, a similar circular stair rises to the Prison on the floor above. The prison has a stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head rebated for a massive door, three inches thick and made up of three thicknesses of planks enclosing hinges and strongly riveted. There is an inner wooden doorway with a square head and door of similar construction. This has two long hooks and staples for padlocks and, in the upper part, a wicket for observation, now covered on both sides by broken iron plates. The ceiling has one large beam and is lined with wide planks as are also the walls. The latter are laid horizontally and have iron hooks and rings. In the N. wall is a stone fireplace with plain jambs and lintel and in the N.W. corner of the room is a stone flag with a circular opening over the garde-robe pit. The planks have a large number of incised inscriptions including the names, John Fysche, Farley, Jhon Worth, etc., 15th to 17th-century.

Laud's Tower stands on the S. side of the Water Tower. It is of four stages, including the lower ground-floor or half-basement, and is surmounted by an embattled parapet. The W. wall is faced with roughly coursed Kentish rag with some flint in the lower part; the quoins are of larger stones and the parapet is of brick with a stone coping, but the upper part of this has been rebuilt. At the S. end is a projecting chimney-stack. The lower part of the E. front is faced with similar masonry but above the sills of the ground-floor windows it is of much restored brick-work with stone dressings; the E. wall has been refaced, above the roofs, with modern brick but retains an original lead rainwater-pipe and head bearing the arms of the See impaling Laud, with the date 1635 above and the initials W.L. below. Interior: The kitchen, in the basement, is entered through a stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the ceiling has exposed and chamfered beams, and in the W. wall a stone fireplace with early 18th-century panelled sides and head with key-block. The windows have wood lintels, and in the W. wall is a small recess with a four-centred head. In the N. wall is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head opening into the Water Tower. A small cellar in the N.E. corner of the tower has in the S. wall a small square-headed window with moulded stone jambs and an iron grate. The Dining Room, on the ground-floor, has a moulded wood cornice and cross-beam and the timber-construction is exposed in the E. wall. The late 17th-century doorway has panelled wood pilasters with carved consoles supporting a moulded cornice and a panelled door. The door to the cupboard is similar and has a single moulded architrave. The chimney-piece is of painted stone with panelled pilasters and lintel with the date 1680. The Entrance Hall has a moulded wood cornice, ceilingbeams and joists. On the W. side is a late 17th-century staircase (Plate 129) with moulded handrail and string, square newel-posts and turned balusters. The two upper floors have moulded or chamfered ceiling-beams and several original doors. One fireplace is of similar character to that in the dining room. In the S. and W. windows on the first floor are two 17th-century oval sun-dials of glass in yellow stain (Plate 3). The walls of both rooms on the second floor are lined with early 18th-century panelling. The fireplace in the W. room has a simple moulded surround and old blue and grey tiles of various designs and that in the E. room has a moulded architrave, frieze with a panelled tablet, and moulded cornice as shelf. The early 17th-century staircase (Plate 129) has moulded strings and handrail, square newél-posts with ballfinials and square pendants, and symmetrically-turned balusters of various proportions.

The Great Hall (93ft. by 38 ft.), now the Library, was built in 1660–63 and is of seven bays with two projecting 'oriels' on the W. side. The walls are of red brick with Portland-stone dressings; the roof is covered with slates and is surmounted by a central timber lantern covered with lead.

The W. Elevation (Plate 132) has at either end the square projecting 'oriels,' and between the other bays are buttresses with moulded offsets. The walls are finished with a moulded plinth and a stone entablature with modillions and a frieze enriched with carved swags and masks; over the 'oriels' are pointed pediments. Above the cornice the buttresses slope back to square pedestals surmounted by ball-finials, and between them the main wall is finished with an embattled parapet. The 'oriels' have rusticated quoins and the parapets have pedestals with carved masks and shaped finials. The 'oriels' have each a large three-light window divided into three ranges of cinquefoiled lights, with moulded jambs and a two-centred head. The lower part of the window in the S. bay is modern and replaces a large doorway. The windows in the five intermediate bays are of similar design to that in the S. bay, but of two ranges of lights only; the lower lights are square-headed and uncusped. The E. Elevation is similar in general design to the W. front but the entablature is replaced by a deep stone string, the intermediate buttresses have pyramidal tops, and the parapet is not embattled but finishes in a simple moulded stone coping. At either end is a wide buttress, rising from plinth to string without offsets; cut on the string round the southern one is the date 1685. Under the southernmost window is a blocked doorway with a round arch and with moulded and carved architrave returned round the key-stone; the spandrels are panelled and the doorway is surmounted by a moulded cornice and pediment. The N. and S. walls are each carried up in a pointed gable with stone copings which terminate at the apex in a stone finial with an arched recess in each face and a ball-terminal. In each gable is a three-light window, similar to those in the side walls, but wider and without transoms; below the labels are console-brackets of Renaissance design. The Lantern (Plate 129) is in two stages with an ogee-shaped cupola supporting a weather-vane, pierced with the arms of the See impaling those of Juxon. The lower stage is hexagonal on plan with squareheaded glazed openings, quadrant shoulders and key-blocks; at the angles are Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature. The upper stage is round on plan with six round-headed openings divided by buttress-scrolls each finished with a Corinthian capital supporting entablatures and cornice similar to the lower stage. Interior (Plate 133): the openings into the two 'oriels' have coffered reveals and soffit with large rosettes of varying design. The E. wall has in the northernmost bay a round-headed stone doorway (Plate 134) with voluted keystone, moulded imposts and bases; flanking it are Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature and broken curved pediment; in the entablature is a raised panel with the date 1663, and, in the pediment above, is a cartouche of the arms of the See impaling Juxon and supported by cherubs. The roof is of seven bays with elaborate hammer-beam trusses of Gothic form and construction though the mouldings and ornament are of Renaissance design. The main beams are moulded and the main spandrels are filled with pierced acanthus foliage with mitres and palls; the pendants, below the side posts, have acanthus terminals and Doric capitals and the longitudinal braces spring from masks and fruit-branches on the side-posts; the main wall-plate is covered by an entablature with a band above it, carved with swags and shields-of-arms of the See and Juxon and the two impaled; above the main purlins are similar bands carved with guilloche-ornament with masks or mitres in the larger circles; the smaller spandrels of the roof have pierced filling of semi-Gothic character and above the collar-beams is a range of open panels with semi-Gothic cusped heads; the stone corbels are carved with masks, lion-heads, cartouches and angels holding shields. The interior of the lantern is enriched with masks and pendants of foliage.

Fittings—Benches: two or three, of oak with moulded top and foot rails, turned legs, 17th-century. Glass: In hall, in northernmost window, in W. wall, (a) shaped shield with the arms of the See impaling Juxon with scroll-work and mitre, second half of the 17th century; (b) fully quartered crowned shield (Plate 3) of Philip II of Spain, within a Garter, 16th-century; (c) two roundels each with globe encircled by a serpent and surmounted by a dove and having a quotation from the Vulgate round edge, and a border of conventional foliage, 16th-century; (d) a vesica-shaped panel with head and shoulders of an Archbishop, possibly Chicheley, in chasuble, pall and mitre, set in border of fragments of Cranmer's motto, NOSCE TE IPSUM ET DEV, 16th-century; (e) a shield (Plate 3) of the arms of the See impaling a quartered shield of Cranmer, set within a scrolled border with grotesque heads and at bottom a roundel with an illegible date, 16th-century; (f) shield with the arms of the See of London (restored) impaling Bancroft with motto below, 17th-century; (g) seven oblong panels with the arms of the See of Canterbury impaling respectively those of the following Archbishops with dates, Cranmer, 1534, Parker, 1559, Bancroft, 1603, Laud, 16.., Juxon 16.., Tillotson, 1691, each shield with a scroll-border and mitre, all 17th-century; (h) oblong panel with painting of St. Jerome in his study and a rhyming inscription, late 16th or early 17th-century; (i) shield of the arms of the See of Canterbury impaling Bancroft, 17th-century; (j) six shields, corresponding to (g), with arms of the See of Canterbury impaling respectively, Grindall, 1576, Whitgift, 156., Abbot, 1611, Sancroft, 16.., Sheldon, 1663, Tenison, 1694, all 17th-century; (k) panel of St. Gregory, with rhyming inscription below, late 16th or early 17th-century; (l) bands with motto of Archbishop Cranmer, as (d), 16th-century; (m) two shields, one probably modern, the other the See of Canterbury impaling Laud. Tables: two, of massive oak, with moulded top rail, shaped and carved trusses at each end and above middle strainer, dated 1664.

The Entrance Gateway, or Morton's Tower (Plate 63), has a middle block of two storeys and cross-wings of five storeys. The walls are of red brick, diapered with black headers and with stone dressings. On the S. Front the towers or wings have windows of one or two four-centred lights in square heads, all much restored. The outer archway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch with a restored label; to the E. of it is a similar but much smaller arch over the foot-way. The upper floor of the main block has a restored window of four four-centred lights in a segmental-pointed head, and with rounded heads below the transom. On the N. front the windows of the side wings or towers are also much restored. The single inner archway is generally similar to the main outer archway and the window above is generally similar to the corresponding window on the S., but of three lights only and entirely restored externally. In the angle between the E. turret and the middle block is a square rainwater-pipe and head bearing a tun above an archbishop's pall for Cardinal Morton. The side elevations are similar in character to the front and are lighted by single and two-light windows. Interior: The gateway has a plastered vault with moulded stone ridge, wall and diagonal ribs springing from angle shafts with moulded capitals and bases; at the junction of the ridge and wall ribs are carved bosses. In the W. wall are two doorways with four-centred heads, and in the E. wall is a similar doorway with an early 18th-century door and two single-light windows. Against E. wall of the gateway is a late 16th-century settle with framed back, shaped arms and turned legs. The large room over the gateway is on the same level as the second floors of the side blocks. It has original moulded ceilingbeams, cornice and joists; the walls are lined with thin vertical boarding and the doorways and fireplace have stone jambs and four-centred heads, the latter with carved spandrels. The lobby in the N.E. corner is formed of linen-fold panelling with a door (Plate 129) of similar panelling. The side wings, generally, have moulded or chamfered ceiling-beams and stone doorways and fireplaces with four-centred heads; there are many 16th and 17th-century doors and some linen-fold and later panelling. In the E. wing the S. room on the ground-floor (called the prison) has a small square-headed cupboard with a perforated wood panel. On the stone jambs to the windows are many scratchings including the name "Jhon Grafton" in black-letter. Fixed on the walls are two iron rings. The room on the first floor of the W. wing has the N.W. corner divided off by a late 17th-century partition. The walls are lined with flush boarding, painted to represent panelling, of late 17th-century date. Above the fireplace the boarding is painted in imitation of a marble overmantel with a cartouche bearing the date 1691 below the mantelshelf and above, supported by two winged putti, is a shield of the arms of the See of Canterbury impaling Tillotson; the painting is much faded. On the jambs of the doorway from the staircase are various scratchings and initials in court-hand and black-letter including the following inscription—" 1575 May 17 Alexandr Nevyl Secrtr" with a shield of Nevill below.

The 'Guard Room' (Plate 135) is modern but has a reset mid 14th-century roof of four bays with two-centred arched trusses springing from carved corbels. The timbers are all moulded and the spandrels of the main beams and also of the curved wind-braces and the wall-braces below the plates are filled with pierced tracery; the wallplates are embattled.

Condition—Good, but considerably restored.

Monuments (3–5).

The following houses are of late 17th or early 18th-century date, and are of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. All have brick bands between the storeys and all had eaves-cornices.

Condition—Fairly good.

(3). Block of three tenements (Nos. 20–22) on the E. side of High Street, 220 yards S. of St. Mary's church. The N. tenement retains its modillioned eaves-cornice.

(4). House (No. 23), S. of (3), is of L-shaped plan and has an altered eaves-cornice in front.

(5). House (No. 14), on the S. side of Old Paradise Street, 170 yards S.E. of St. Mary's church, has a modillioned eaves-cornice on the N. and W. sides. The entrance - passage has some 17th-century panelling and opening on to the staircase is a panelled early 18th-century archway.