An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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18. FARRINGDON WARD WITHIN.
The ward of Farringdon Within includes the parishes of Christ Church Newgate Street, St. Anne Blackfriars, and parts of the parishes of St. Faith under St. Paul's, St. Martin Ludgate, St. Michael le Querne, St. Vedast Foster Lane, St. Matthew Friday Street, St. Peter West Cheap, St. Augustine Old Change and St. Olave Silver Street. The principal monuments are Christ Church Newgate Street, St. Martin Ludgate, St. Vedast Foster Lane, and the Barbers' and Stationers' Halls. The remains of the N.W. angle of the Roman wall of London, together with the angle-bastion, are preserved in a specially constructed chamber in the yard of the General Post Office (see London, Vol. III, pp. 91 and 104). A further fragment of the wall, on the W. side of Warwick Square, is also preserved in situ (see Ibid., p. 92).
(1) Parish Church of Christ Church stands on the N. side of Newgate Street. The walls are of coursed rag-stone except part of the E. end, the W. end and the W. tower which, with the dressings, are of Portland stone; the roofs are lead-covered. The church with its W. churchyard represents exactly, in area, the site of the conventual church of the Grey Friars built in 1306–25, but of this building itself no remains are now visible though the bases of the eastern buttresses of the S. wall have been uncovered and some of the original paving survives. This church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1677–91 at a cost of £11,778 9s. 6d.; the new church, however, only occupies the site of the six eastern bays of the older building with a tower projecting to the W. which was not finished till 1704.
The E. Elevation. The E. front consists of three bays divided by buttresses in the form of pilasters. In the centre is a large round-headed window flanked by smaller ones, all having moulded architraves. In the side bays are similar windows. The middle bay is finished with a cornice and pediment, having a round window, with a moulded architrave, in the tympanum. The side bays have rusticated outer angles, with a cornice and parapet, the latter curved upwards and scrolled against the centre bay. At the outer angles are pedestals supporting pine-apple ornaments. The S. bay has a square-headed doorway, with moulded architrave and cornice. The N. Elevation has six round-headed windows uniform with those last described, and the wall is finished with a cornice, plain parapet, and deep moulded plinth. The S. Elevation has a building against its easternmost bay; the remaining five bays have each a round-headed window. The middle of the W. Elevation is occupied by the tower. The side bay to the N. has a round-headed window uniform with those on the N. side, and below it is a round-headed doorway with a cornice above supported on carved consoles. The wall is finished in a similar manner to the E. end with a pine-apple ornament at the angle. The side bay on the S. is similar, but the lower part is partly covered by modern buildings. The pediment at the end of the middle bay has a very wide break, within which is set the tower; the pediment springs from a cornice, with plain brackets resting on deep pilasters or buttresses.
The Tower (Plate 1) is of four stages and is surmounted by a stone steeple. The ground-stage has a round-headed archway on the N. and W. with moulded archivolt, scrolled keystone and moulded imposts continued round the tower. Above it is a cornice marking the base of the second stage. The second stage has a square-headed window on the N., S. and W. with architrave and segmental pediment above resting on consoles. The third stage is lower and is marked by a moulded band below, and by a bracketed cornice above. In the three outer faces are round windows set in square panels with pediments above them. The bell-chamber has each face divided into five compartments by Doric pilasters standing on a plinth. The three middle divisions form louvered openings, and the pilasters support an entablature carried round the tower. Above this on each face is a segmental pediment supported at the sides by scrolls, and having a fluted vase on the top. A balustraded parapet with solid piers at the angles, rises at the back of these pediments. The square stone steeple is two stages high, the lower standing on a plain high base within the parapet. It has four Ionic columns on each face, those at the angles being square, and the others circular. They support an entablature, from which the vases have been removed. The upper stage rests on a plain stone base carried down through the centre of the lower stage. It has Corinthian pilasters at the angles supporting an entablature, and a round-headed, keyed opening in each face, with moulded imposts. The steeple has a finial in the form of a vase, and supporting a ball and vane.
Interior (Plate 163). The E. wall (Plate 80) of the body of the church is divided into three bays by Composite pilasters supporting a plaster architrave over the side bays. Upon it stand two short pilasters with richly modelled panels supporting a second cornice and forming a frame to the central window-head. These pilasters are crowned by vases and supported by large scrolls enriched with foliage and ribbands, and enclosing cherub-heads. The spandrels of all three window-heads are enriched by modelled plaster decorations. The middle one has three cherub-heads on the key. In the W. wall of the S. aisle is a blocked round-headed window, and a blocked round-headed doorway below it. The W. wall of the body of the church has an architrave-moulding carried across at the same level as that on the E. wall, and above it the wall has panels with enriched mouldings, following the line of the ceiling. On each side of the middle aisle is a colonnade of six bays, with Composite columns and pilasters as responds, standing on high square bases. They support an architrave-moulding continued round from the E. and W. walls, and having a panelled soffit with plaster rosettes. Above it is a plastered timber clearstorey panelled at the base, and having a segmental-headed window in each bay supported on each side by a rich plaster scroll, enclosing a cherub-head, and with festoons of fruit and flowers. The main ceiling is of elliptical form with a quadripartite plaster vault over each bay with a plaster rose at the intersection. The bays are divided by panelled bands springing from above the columns and enriched with conventional foliage in high relief. The ceilings of the aisles are flat with trabeations dividing the bays, panelled on the soffit and with plaster rosettes, and resting on Composite pilasters against the outer walls, supported on high pedestals similar to those of the columns. The westernmost bay of each aisle has a modern top-light.
The tower has a round-headed doorway into the church, and a blocked arch, with a modern inserted door, in the S. wall, both similar to those in the N. and W. walls. The ground-stage is circular on plan and roofed with a plain dome having a circular bell-way in the middle. In the E. wall of the second stage is a blocked square-headed recess, and in the same wall of the third stage is a round-headed doorway opening into the roof.
Fittings—All of late 17th-century date, unless otherwise described. Brass and Indents. Brass: On N. wall—of Mary Ramsey, 1596, kneeling figure of woman renewed or re-engraved and re-erected in 1833, with modern inscription. Indents: Against E. wall of S. aisle—(1) to [Bernard] de Jambe, early 14th-century, tapering slab with shield-of-arms, a leg cut off at the thigh and a border, and marginal inscription in Lombardic capitals, found in churchyard. At W. end of nave—(2) defaced slab with rivets. Candelabra: two, of brass, with two tiers of scrolled branches, moulded centre-piece and elaborate wrought-iron enrichment to suspending rods, early 18th-century. Communion Table and Rails. Table: with moulded top, four moulded and twisted balusters grouped at each corner on square moulded feet and moulded side and middle stretchers. Rails: with moulded top and lower rails, turned and twisted balusters and panelled posts, rails re-arranged at sides of chancel. Doors: In W. doorway—of two-panelled leaves; in doorway at W. end of N. and S. aisles with sunk panels. Lobby to W. doorway, finished with a cornice and having middle and side doors all panelled. To tower-staircase—three, one panelled and two plain, all with strap-hinges, early 18th-century. Font and Cover (Plate 12). Font: white marble moulded bowl carved with fruit, flowers and four cherub-heads, baluster-shaped stem with acanthus-capital and drapery, scrolled base and black marble step. Cover: of oak with moulded base supporting four flaming urns and a bell-shaped centrepiece with drapery and surmounted by an angel with a palm. Galleries: In N. and S. aisles and at W. end— fronts with raised panels and moulded base and capping; front brought forward in middle of W. gallery for organist's seat and having quadrant-shaped angles; soffits of side-galleries divided into four bays by panelled beams, supported by the pedestals of the arcade and by square piers in the middle of the aisles; each bay with a halfsaucer dome of plaster; two staircases at W. end, each with moulded strings and rails, turned balusters and square newels; W. gallery supported on two square and panelled piers with moulded capitals and bases. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on E. wall, (1) to Edmund Sherring, 1690, vicar of the parish, marble cartouche with scrolls, fruit, cherub-heads and shield-of-arms; on N. wall, (2) of Mary (Huetson) wife of Nehemiah Grew, M.D., 1685, marble cartouche with scrolls, bust of woman and shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (3) to Col. Nicholas Richardson, 1702, and Nicholas his son, 1703, marble tablet, with draped cartouche, cherub-head and shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (4) to Thomas Ferne, 1706, marble tablet with Doric pilasters, cornice, broken scrolled pediment and cherub-head below shelf. In ground stage of tower—three monuments removed from the cloister of Christ's Hospital in 1905, as follows— (5) to Thomas Firmin, 1697, governor of the hospital, plain marble tablet; (6) to Nathaniel Hawes, 1700, treasurer, marble cartouche with scrolls, palms and acanthus-leaves; (7) to William Gibbon, 1679, treasurer, stone cartouche with scrolls, erected 1709, lower part missing. Floor-slabs: In Chancel—(1) to Edmund Sherring, 1690, vicar. In nave—(2) broken slab with achievement-of-arms and four sunk panels with emblems of mortality; (3) to Richard Morton, 1698, Honor his daughter, 1704, and Sarah his wife 171(1 ?), with shield-of-arms; (4) to John Grice, 1689, with shield-of-arms; (5) to Hannah, daughter of George Segner, 16–5; (6) to William Clinch and Elizabeth his wife, 1711. In N. aisle— (7) to Francis Proctor, 1691, William, his brother, 1713, and Margaret Proctor, 1723–4. In S. aisle— (8) to Richard Roystone, 1686, Elizabeth (Meredith) his granddaughter, 1689, and Mary (Chiswell) his daughter, 1698, with achievement-of-arms; (9) to Thomas Hollier, 1690, Lucy his wife, 1677, and Thomas, 1672, and James, 1686, their sons, with achievement-of-arms; (10) to Edward Green, 1703, and another later; (11) to Sarah Brown, 1669, Thomas her husband, 1703–4, and Elizabeth his second wife, 1728. In vestibule—(12) to Mary Browne, 1699–1700. Organ and Case: stands on the W. gallery and is of three bays; above the keyboard is a richly carved panel (Plate 28) with David, musical instruments, etc., added in 1833 and probably brought from elsewhere. The front rests on four fluted Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with enriched and pierced frieze and over each column a semi-circular carved bracket, those at the sides having cherub-heads. The brackets support towers of pipes finished with entablatures, rising above the rest of the case and having ogee cappings surmounted by two carved mitres and as many crowns. Above the middle bay is an achievement of the City arms and over the segmental cornice of the side bays are reclining figures of angels with gilt trumpets; the sides are panelled and have a pierced frieze. The organ was built by Renatus Harris in 1690 and enlarged in the 19th and 20th centuries. Panelling: panelled wainscot round walls and pedestals of columns, with moulded capping. Unfixed panelling under W. gallery. Panelling in galleries re-used as backs of seats and as partitions. Pavement: The pavement of the Sanctuary is in black and white marble chequer-work of the date of the church, with black marble steps. Outside the sanctuary is a portion of the original pavement laid down by Queen Margaret, c. 1310. It is composed of squares of brown, ruddy and grey Purbeck marbles and has recently been repolished. Plate: includes two flagons of 1617, given in 1618; cup and cover-paten of 1560, cup and cover-paten of 1562, cup and cover-paten of 1592, dated 1593, cup and cover-paten of 1616 given to St. Leonard Foster Lane in 1617, two patens of 1616, dated 1617, belonging to St. Leonard, stand-paten of 1617, given 1618, two alms-dishes of 1686, both inscribed, and a silver dish (Plate 33) of fine pierced Indian work, with a scalloped edge and inscribed "Guilielmi Mainstone ex Indijs Orientalibus reversi Deo O.M. humillimum votum 1675," with achievement-of-arms. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal with enriched cornice and base-moulding, each face with raised enriched panel in an eared frame with a cherub-head above and drapery below, festoons of fruit and flowers at angles of pulpit; ogee-shaped stem with enriched angles and hexagonal post with moulded capital and enriched base; staircase with cut and enriched string, turned and twisted balusters and moulded rail; pulpit probably from the Temple church. Sounding-board with carved cornice and inlaid soffit, probably belonging to original pulpit in the church; for remains of this pulpit, see Stalls. Rain-Water Heads: On N. wall—three, dated 1685. Reredos: In three bays divided by engaged Corinthian columns standing on pedestals and supporting a continuous entablature; over side bays are curved pediments supporting two pedestals, each with two vases on either side and a pineapple ornament on the pedestal itself. Centre bay has a rectangular panel with enriched frame bearing the ten commandments. The side bays have similar panels with the Lord's Prayer and creed, and over them are carved cherub-heads and carved panels below. Royal Arms: On E. wall, over window, Stuart arms in plaster, painted and gilt. Screen: Under W. gallery—panelled lower part and glazed above with panelled doors at ends; middle doors flanked by pilasters and with a range of panels and pilasters above, probably early 18th century. Seating: church fitted with panelled pews, cut down and re-arranged; churchwardens' pews at W. end with carved and pierced scrolls at ends and coved and modern canopies above. Stalls: modern but incorporating old panelling including six richly carved panels (Plate 42) from the former pulpit with the following subjects—(a) St. Matthew, (b) the Last Supper, (c) St. Mark, (d) St. Luke, (e) an irradiated shield of oval form with a cross upon it, (f) St. John; the door of the existing pulpit has been made up into a desk (Plate 45). Miscellanea: Under W. arch of tower and to W. churchyard, pairs of wrought-iron gates with scroll-work, probably early 18th century.
(2) Parish Church of St. Augustine stands on the N. side of Watling Street at the E. corner of Old Change. The walls are mainly of brick faced on the S. and W. sides with Portland stone; the tower is of stone except the upper part which is of brick faced with stone. The roofs are covered with slates. The ground-stage of the tower is probably mediæval work, refaced, but the rest of the church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1680–87 at a cost of £3,145 3s. 10d.; the spire was added in 1695 and the vestry is probably of early 18th-century date. The church was restored and the fittings much altered in the 19th century.
Architectural Description—The church, in the Renaissance style on the Gothic plan forms an irregular oblong (54 ft. by 46¾ ft.) divided into a middle aisle (17 ft. wide) and side aisles with a tower at the S.W. angle and a vestry on the N.
The E. Elevation. There are three blocked windows in the E. wall all segmental-headed and the middle one having a segmental cornice above, resting on consoles. The wall stands on a plinth and is finished with a moulded band and stone parapet. Below the N. window is a blocked square-headed doorway with stone architrave. The Vestry has a plain square-headed doorway in the E. wall and is finished with a plain parapet. The N. Elevation. Against the easternmost bay is the vestry and against the remaining three bays are buildings. In the easternmost bay is a segmental-headed window similar to those in the E. wall, and the wall is finished in the same manner as the E. end. The S. Elevation. The three eastern bays have each a segmental-headed window. The wall stands on a plain plinth and is finished with a moulded band and a parapet continued round from the E. end. The main plinth and the band are continued round the tower which forms the W. bay on this side. The Tower (Plate 2) is of three stages surmounted by a lantern and spire. In the S. wall of the ground-stage is a square-headed doorway with moulded architrave and cornice, surmounted by a pediment resting on consoles; in the W. wall is a segmental-headed window. The second stage is divided by a moulded band from the first stage and by a plain band from the bell-chamber. In the S. and W. walls are round windows with moulded architraves. The bell-chamber has a two-light, square-headed, louvered opening in each face with a moulded architrave. The tower is finished with a modillioned cornice supporting a pierced stone parapet with pedestals at the angles, surmounted by panelled and enriched obelisks. The lantern is of two stages and square on plan. The angles of the tower are supported by large scrolls placed diagonally, and in each face is a square-headed louvered opening. The upper stage, divided from it by a moulded cornice, has a round-headed keyed opening in each face, and pilasters set diagonally at the angles. Above it is a square panelled base to the spire with scrolls at the angles supporting four vases. The spire is octagonal with ribbed angles and finished with a ball and vane. The W. Elevation. At the end of the N. and middle aisles are segmental-headed windows, and above that in the middle bay is a segmental cornice resting on consoles, below it is the W. doorway uniform with that in the S. wall of the tower but without a pediment. The wall is finished with a moulded band and parapet.
Interior. The middle aisle is divided from the side aisles by an arcade of four bays on the N. and three on the S. The columns are Ionic with Ionic pilasters as responds against the E. wall; they stand on high octagonal bases. The western bay on the N. is considerably wider than the other three, and on the S. the arcade terminates with an engaged column on the N.E. angle of the tower. The arches are elliptical and moulded, with panelled spandrels and enriched soffits and are groined into the vaults. Interposed between them and the columns are separate architraves. The main ceiling forms a semi-circular barrel-vault with enriched bands marking the bays. Each bay is cut up into nine panels all rectangular and moulded except the centre one, which is oval and has an enriched border. In the first and third bays two of the rectangular panels are now pierced for skylights, and in the second bay six are similarly treated. The aisles have plaster, quadripartite, ribbed vaults to each bay with a plaster rose in the centre of each. Against the walls they spring from Ionic brackets resting on plaster cherub-heads. In the easternmost bay of the N. wall is a round-headed doorway to the Vestry. The ground-stage of the tower has a square-headed doorway in the E. and N. walls with an architrave on the church-side only. The internal stone-work stops 6 ft. above the first floor, probably marking the limits of the mediæval core. In the E. wall of the upper floor of the second stage is a round-headed doorway to the roof.
Fittings—All of late 17th-century date unless otherwise described. Communion Table: with moulded and carved edge, two posts supported by carved scrolls, moulded plinth-rail, ball-feet and modern top. Cupboard: In N. aisle—in E. wall, with elliptical head and panelled doors of two leaves. Doors: In W. doorway and S. doorway to tower, both of two leaves with raised panels. In doorway between N. aisle and vestry—round-headed, panelled doors, with square-headed frame and architrave, early 18th-century. In E. doorway of vestry—with three raised panels. Font (Plate 9): of white marble, octagonal bowl carved with foliage and four cherub-heads, baluster-shaped stem with acanthus-enrichment and moulded base. Panelling: round greater parts of E., N. and S. walls of church and plinths of columns—panelled wainscot with moulded capping. Churchwardens' pews at W. end have panelled backs, and there is re-used panelling with carved and pierced frieze incorporated in reconstructed quire-stalls. Plate: now at the Victoria and Albert Museum, S. Kensington, includes flagon of 1637 given by John Osborne and children; flagon of 1610; flagon of 1630 given by John Hollingworth in 1631; small paten, probably of 1630, given by Samuell Langham; small paten of 1570 and a stand-paten given by Ralph Tunstall in 1631; also the following plate of St. Faith under St. Paul's, two flagons of 1631 given by William Draper; flagon of 1640, given by William Apsley, flagon of 1661, given by M. M.; cup and cover-paten of 1568, the latter dated 1569, cup of 1622, paten of 1596, dated the same year, and cup and paten of 1664, given by M. M. Pulpit (Plate 35): of dark and light oak, hexagonal, each face with enriched, round-headed bolection-moulded panel, surmounted by cherub-head and swags with pendants at the angles, enriched cornice and basemould, coved stem, with angle-ribs and moulded base. Reredos (Plate 161): consists of middle and side bays, middle bay flanked by coupled Corinthian columns on high plinths and supporting entablatures with enriched modillioned cornice and segmental pediment over the whole bay; in the bay are two round-headed and one oval panels, all with enriched borders and surrounded by elaborate swags and festoons and having a cherub-head in the middle spandrel; side bays each with a long enriched panel, flanked by festoons and the bay finished at the top with a richly carved scroll. Miscellanea: a staircase and part of the former gallery are now on loan at the Geffrye Museum, Kingsland Road, E.
(3) Parish Church of St. Martin Ludgate stands on the N. side of Ludgate Hill. It is a Renaissance building with the internal plan in the form of a Greek cross. The S. front and tower are faced with Portland stone, but the rest of the church where visible is of red brick. The old church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1677–87, at a cost of £5,378 9s. 7d., when the plan was extended on the N.
The E. and W. Elevations are entirely hidden by buildings. The N. Elevation stands on a chamfered stone plinth and is finished with a plain parapet with an ashlar band as string. The middle bay projects slightly, and the parapet is here broken by a restored gable. The wall is pierced by three segmental-headed windows, one to each bay, with moulded stone architraves and plain keys. Above the central window is a round window and below the easternmost is a segmental-headed doorway. The S. Elevation (Plate 2) fronting the street is broken by the Tower in the centre, three stages high and surmounted by a lantern and spire. In the south wall of the ground-stage is a segmental-headed window with eared architrave and cornice over, resting on carved consoles and the keystone. Below it is a segmental-headed doorway with moulded architrave, cherub-head keystone and cornice resting on console-brackets. In the second stage the south wall has a raised square panel surmounted by a pediment and having a carved festoon beneath. The bell-chamber has a two-light, round-headed opening in each face, with eared architraves and carved festoons above, looped and ribboned. This stage is finished with a cornice on shaped blocks, the stonework over being cut away at the angles to form a transition from the square tower to the octagonal lantern. The latter is lead-covered and of ogee form, with an oval lunette in each face. It is finished with a bold cornice supporting the octagonal base of the spire, each face of which has a round-headed opening. The spire itself is octagonal and lead-covered and has a scroll at each angle of the base. It is finished with a ball and vane. The S. wall on either side of the tower is pierced by a window uniform with that in the ground-stage, and below each is a blocked doorway with eared architrave, frieze and pediment. The wall above is finished with a cornice and parapet with pineapple ornaments at the outer angles and large stone scrolls resting against the tower and extending up to about half the height of the bell-chamber stage.
Interior (Plate 122):—Each of the four walls of the main church is divided into three bays by pilasters of the Composite order, with half pilasters in each angle. In the south wall are three lofty keyed arches of equal span opening into the tower and vestibules. The soffits are coffered with a plaster rose in each compartment. In the west wall are four windows all blocked but otherwise uniform with those in the N. wall. The Greek-cross arrangement of the church is formed by an inner square of four Composite columns on high, wainscoted octagonal bases and supporting an enriched entablature following the arms of the cross and returned along the outer walls to the angles of the building. Against the walls it rests on the pilasters before mentioned. The ceiling over the 'cross' is in the form of plaster barrel-vaults groined at the intersections with a modelled rose-enrichment. The ceilings of the angle-bays are flat and plain. The ground-stage of the tower has segmental-headed arches on the E. and W. opening to the two vestibules, and above them is a second pair of semi-circular arches communicating with the gallery. The southern angles of the ground-stage are rounded off internally, the eastern enclosing the turret-staircase.
Fittings—The fittings, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th-century date. Bells: two; 1st by William Wightman, 1683; 2nd by John Hodson, 1672. Brass: On N. wall—of [Thomas Beri], 1586, small rectangular plate with figure of man in civil dress and rhyming inscription; formerly in the church of St. Mary Magdalene, Old Fish Street. Bread-shelves (Plate 45): In N. vestry—with carved festoons, cornice and brackets. Candelabrum: of brass, with three tiers of holders, probably late 17th- or early 18th-century. Chair: on N. of altar— double chair (Plate 5) with twisted legs and stretchers, scrolled front rail and carved back with twisted balusters and surmounted by crowned female busts and scrolled cresting with initials and date "T.S., T.P., Ch.wd. 1690." Chests: two; (1) of oak with incised panels in front, rail and styles with incised ornament, short legs, panelled top and sides, early 17th-century; (2) of iron, with narrow bars and flat rivet-heads, large padlock. Communion Table and Rails. Table: with four heavy twisted legs, moulded rails and modern top, space below, now enclosed by panelling. Rails: with panelled posts, twisted balusters and moulded rails. Cupboard: In lobby under tower—with panelled door. In N. vestry—two, with panelled fronts. Doors and Door-cases: In main S. doorway, of two leaves, each of three bolection-moulded panels. Under N. arch of tower, screen (Plate 7) with central projecting door-case, with panelled doors, panelled responds, and moulded archivolt with cherub-head key-block, and surmounted by carved brackets, cornice and segmental pediment; between archivolt and pediment are cherubs holding crown, swags, festoons, etc.; the side bays of the screen with attached and fluted Ionic columns, flanking door-case and panelled posts against responds of tower-arch, supporting entablature; the whole screen surrounded by a panelled attic, with panelled gallery-front above, now set back to line with the screen, but formerly projecting in front of it. The Vestry, E. of the tower, has a panelled screen dividing it from the church, with a central doorway flanked by festoons and fluted Corinthian pilasters, supporting entablatures and a segmental pediment; within this is an arched head, of elliptical form, with a tympanum carved with cherub-heads and carved cornucopiæ below the pediment; the doors are panelled and the screen is surmounted by a panelled attic and refixed gallery-front, as under the N. tower-arch; internally the doorway has a moulded architrave with cherub-head key-block and is flanked by Corinthian pilasters; above the door are two panels of scroll-work. The door to the lobby, W. of the tower, is of two panelled leaves, with modern glazing in the upper panels; the door-case or screen is similar to that last described but without the festoons at the sides and with a plain tympanum. The door, between the vestry and the tower, is panelled and has three carved and pierced frieze-panels, on the side towards the vestry. The door in the N. aisle is of two panelled leaves; the door-case is similar to that under the N. arch of the tower, with some variations in detail. Font (Plate 10): of white marble, moulded and gadrooned octagonal bowl, with acanthus-decoration, fluted and carved balusterstem and square plinth; the bowl is inscribed "1673. The gift of Tho. Morley Esqr. born in this parish" and the Greek palindrome ΝΙΨΟΝ ΑΝΟΜΗΜΑ ΜΗ ΜΟΝΑΝ ΟΨΙΝ. Oak cover of ogee form with enriched angles and mouldings and carved finial. Rail, surrounding font, with twisted balusters, panelled standards and moulded rails. Gallery: At W. end—panelled front with pedestaldivisions, moulded capping and cornice at base and flaming urns over end-pedestals; gallery supported on four panelled piers, probably not original; the staircase has twisted balusters, square newels, panelled soffit and moulded string. Front of former S. gallery, now set back in line with doors and panelling on S. side (see Doors and Door-cases). Lectern: made up of old woodwork, including carved and twisted balusters, carved panel, scrolls, etc. Litany-desk, made up of similar materials. Panelling: In church—on side walls and bases of columns, three panels high with moulded capping; at back of quire-stalls, bolection-moulded, with carved and pierced upper panels. In vestry, E. of tower—panelled dado, bolection-moulded, with carved and pierced upper panels, refixed. In vestry, N. of church—dado of refixed bolection-moulded panelling, and fireplace with carved surround and enriched modillioned cornice with two raised panels, with enriched mouldings, above (see also Pulpit). Wall-face flanking organ-case panelled, also a long carved panel on wall over font. Paving: Within the communion-rails—of black and white marble squares. Plate (Plate 30): includes (a) the following pieces now on loan at the London Museum, cup (Plate 29) of 1559 set on a stem of 1507, probably that of a monstrance bequeathed to the church by Stephen Pekoc in 1535; the base is inscribed " Praye for the solls of Stewyn Pekoc and Marget hys wyff wyche gave thys in worssheppe of the Sacrement"; stem is hexagonal with two knops and ogee-terminals to the lobes of the base; cover-paten of 1575, dated 1576, with shield-of-arms and initials C.L. and I.R.; cup and cover-paten of 1610, given by Henry Sivedall, on paten a shield-of-arms and the initials H.S.; two flagons of 1620; two stand-patens of 1679 and an alms-dish of 1664, given by Edward Corbet; (b) the following pieces, belonging to the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, Old Fish Street, also on loan at the London Museum, flagon of 1630, with the date 1635, flagon of 1632 and a large stand-paten or dish of 1660; (c) the following pieces still at the church—cup of 1550 and cover-paten of 1563, small cup and cover-paten of 1710, also four brass candlesticks of Italian Renaissance work, and the lower part of the altar-cross, of similar work. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal with carved angles and enriched cornice and lower rail, each face with an elliptical enriched panel with inlaid geometrical design, ogee stem, shortened post and moulded base, staircase, probably later, with twisted balusters; part of support of sounding-board, now in N. vestry, moulded panel with enriched scrolls at sides. Reredos: of three bays on panelled plinth, divided and flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting entablatures over the side-bays with enriched cornice and cherub-heads above pilasters; middle bay carried up higher, flanked above by carved pilasters and scrolls and finished with a segmental pediment; middle bay with two round-headed panels, containing the Decalogue, draped cartouche above under a round arch with cherub-heads in the spandrels; side bays with rectangular panels containing the Creed and Lord's Prayer and each with a carved panel at the top. Royal Arms: over middle arch on S. side, apparently original but with modern arms. Seating: panelled pews, cut down and altered; benches in various parts of the church, eight with moulded edges and turned or twisted legs. Stalls: similar to pews but with pierced carving in upper panels and refixed scrolls on reading-pews. Tables: In N. vestry—large table with inlaid top and twisted legs and small table with baluster-legs. In vestry, E. of tower— gate-legged table with turned legs. Miscellanea: In passage to N. vestry—three fragments of moulded stone, probably 15th-century; front of wooden chest, with conventional ornament and figure-subjects, 16th-century and foreign. On W. wall—under organ-gallery, long oak panel with carved scroll-work; in front of panel, white marble pelican 'in her piety'; on E. wall, two carved cartouches of wood. On walls above vestry and lobby, two tables of benefactions in carved frames.
(4) Parish Church of St. Vedast stands on the E. side of Foster Lane and is a Renaissance building consisting of a simple apartment (75½ ft. average by 39 ft.) with a S. aisle (13 ft. wide average), S.W. tower and N. vestry. The walls are probably of rubble and are rendered in cement except the W. front and tower which are faced with Portland stone; the roofs are covered with lead. The old church was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1666 and was re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1670–73, at a cost of £1,853 15s. 6d.
Architectural Description—The E. Elevation has three round-headed windows, the middle one larger and taller than the others and having the remains of mullions, removed late in the 19th century. The parapet has a horizontal centrepiece with frieze and cornice on either side of which the parapet is ramped down to pedestals at the angles. The N. Elevation is finished with a wooden cornice and has two ranges of windows; the lower range has four round-headed windows with moulded imposts, archivolts and plain keystones; the upper range has as many segmental-headed windows with moulded sills and architraves and plain keystones. In the passage, adjoining the westernmost bay of the wall, is a square-headed doorway. The S. Elevation is finished like the N. wall and has four clearstorey windows uniform with those in the N. wall. The S. wall of the S. aisle is finished with a plain parapet and has a single round-headed window in the westernmost bay. The W. Front is finished with a frieze, cornice and plain parapet, and has three windows, the middle one square-headed and with a moulded architrave, two mullions and a transom; the side windows are round-headed and have moulded architraves and cherub-head keystones; below the middle window is a doorway with moulded jambs and segmental head and a keystone carved with a cartouche and surmounted by cherub-heads. In the door-head is a carved relief of Religion and Charity. The Tower (Plate 2) is of three stages surmounted by a stone spire of three stages, the lowest stage of the tower is sub-divided internally; the ground-stage of the tower has in the W. and S. walls a window uniform with the side windows of the W. front. The E. and N. walls have each, in the upper part, a round-headed recess, that on the E. containing a blocked opening to the church. Between this stage and the second is a cornice continued from the W. wall of the church. The second stage has in the E., W. and S. walls a round window with architrave and keystone; in the N. wall is a segmental-headed opening to the roof. The third stage or bell-chamber has, in each face, a segmental-headed window, with moulded and eared architrave, plain mullion and keystone. The tower is finished with a Doric entablature. The spire is generally square on plan with concave faces and angles forming diagonal pilasters to the lowest stage and similar pilasters and convex faces to the middle stage. The first stage stands on a plinth pierced by an oval lunette in each face; the pilasters of this stage have capitals of Composite type supporting a continuous entablature, and each face has a square-headed window with an eared architrave and plain keystone. The second stage has plain pilasters at the angles and a plain square-headed opening in each face. The top stage consists of an obelisk with scrolled supports at the angles and finished with a ball and vane.
Interior—The N. wall of the church has in the easternmost bay a segmental-headed doorway; in the westernmost bay is a blocked window. Between the church and the S. aisle is an arcade of four round arches with moulded archivolts and cherub-head keystones; they rest on simple Doric columns with half columns as responds. The ground stage of the tower has in the E. wall a square-headed doorway with architrave and cornice.
The body of the church is covered by a plaster ceiling, flat in the middle and coved at the sides. The cove springs from an enriched cornice and is groined back over the clearstorey windows and main E. and W. windows, all of which interrupt the cornice. Between the cove and the flat ceiling is an enriched cornice within a wide band of acanthus-foliage; at the E. end of the ceiling are three rectangular panels, of which the middle panel has a cartouche with scrolls and branches; in the middle of the ceiling is a large oval panel with a wide border of flowers. The tympanum above the square-headed W. window is filled with foliageenrichment. The ceiling of the S. aisle is divided into bays by panelled and enriched trabeations with a cornice on the walls and returned along the trabeations.
Fittings—All of late 17th-century date unless otherwise described. Bells: six and clock-bell; 1st, 3rd, and 4th by John Darbie, 1672; 2nd and 5th by same founder, 1671; clock-bell, now loose, given by Peter Pickering in 1706. Brass: In chancel—to Ann and Elizabeth, daughters of Thomas Hall, 1678 and 1680 respectively, inscription only. Communion Tables and Rails: Tables: (1) with carved top-rail, four carved angels as supports and ornamented with cherub-heads (Plate 43), re-made; (2) with carved edge, quadrant corners in front, two supports each with two carved scrolls, moulded rails and ball-feet, possibly from St. Matthew Friday Street. Rails: with turned and twisted balusters, panelled uprights and moulded rails. Doors: panelled and bolection-moulded doors to (a) Vestry doorway; (b) in middle of screen, of two leaves, and in sides of screen; (c) in N. doorway of vestibule, of two leaves; (d) in main W. doorway, of two leaves, with carved panels on E. face of head; (e) in outer N. doorway, of two leaves; (f) in E. doorway of tower, of two leaves; and (g) in three doorways to turret-staircase. Gallery: at W. end, resting on two Doric columns with half-columns against walls, front with moulded and enriched base, forming entablature, bolection-moulded panels and a cresting of pierced and carved panels; staircase with moulded rail and straight string, twisted balusters and square newel. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: on N. wall—(1) to Mary Wakefield, 1715, and to William Wakefield her father, 1663, marble tablet with segmental head, urn, side-pilasters, standing figures of cherubs and a cartouche-of-arms; (2) to William Hall, 1680, marble tablet in the form of a cartouche, with scroll-work, drapery, cherub-head and cartouche-of-arms. On S. wall—(3) to William Fuller, D.D., 1659, vicar of St. Giles, small marble tablet with scrolls, cornice, pediment and cartouche-of-arms. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (4) to Robert South, 1624, Elizabeth his wife, 1663, and Lewis, 1659, and Anne, 1649, their children, marble tablet with Composite side-columns, entablature and achievement-of-arms, scroll-work and shield below shelf; (5) to Sir John Johnson, 1698, alderman, large marble tablet (Plate 25) with Corinthian side-pilasters, drapery, entablature, segmental pediment, cherubs and a blank cartouche; (6) to Mary (Hacket) wife of John Davenport jun., 1672, marble tablet with Corinthian side-columns, entablature, broken pediment, two cherubs, achievement and two shields-of-arms; (7) to John Davenport, 1683, and Katherine (Miles) his wife, 1679, marble tablet with recessed pilasters at sides, entablature, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; (8) to Sir Edward Clark, 1703, Lord Mayor, marble tablet with segmental head, drapery and cherub-heads, flanked by twisted Corinthian columns with entablature and segmental pediment, civic insignia on apron, monument removed from St. Matthew Friday Street. Floor-slabs: At E. end—(1) to . . . Ambrooke, late 17th-century, with cartouche-of-arms; (2) to Grace, wife of Joseph Yates, 1673; (3) to Frances (Pooley), wife of Joseph Beachcroft, 1711, Joseph, her husband, 17.. and Mary (Fuller), his second wife, 17.., with shield-of-arms; (4) to Jane Browne, 1711, and her children, William, 1683, John, 1707, John and Faith; in nave—at E. end—(5) to George Hill, 1693; (6) name obliterated, 1698–9, with defaced cartouche-of-arms; (7) to George Coles, 1683. In S. aisle— (8) to Mary Grant, 1707, and Thomas Grant, 17 ... Panelling: The walls of the church have panelled wainscot, in two heights, all round, finished with a moulded capping. The walls of the vestry have bolection-moulded panelling finished with an entablature; against the E. and W. walls are panelled lockers and in the S.E. corner is a panelled cupboard, the door of which is flanked by Doric pilasters with an entablature. The walls of the second stage of the tower are panelled, and across the window-openings are moulded rails with turned balusters. Plate: includes two flagons of 1639, the gift of John Banks, 1630; flagon of 1641, given by Edward Bradbarne, 1642; flagon of 1660, given in memory of Francis Manning; cup of Edwardian or early Elizabethan date, with cover-paten of 1707; cup and cover-paten of 1559; cup and cover-paten of 1630; cup and cover-paten of 1656, given by William Hall, 1657; paten of 1645, the gift of John Banks, 1630, with his arms; stand-paten of 1664; alms-dish of 1607; two alms-dishes of 1650, given by Anthony Tuckney, D.D., 1650; and a spoon given by Sir James Hallett, 1708; also four pewter alms-dishes, dated 1708. Poor-boxes: two at W. end, with carved supports of square baluster-form, moulded bases and square boxes. Pulpit (Plate 79): hexagonal with moulded and enriched base and capping, each face with enriched and inlaid panel surmounted by foliage and palms; at angles of pulpit, cherub-heads with pendant festoons; ogee-shaped soffit with enriched necking and panelled hexagonal stem; sounding-board carried on square panelled column with enriched cap and base, hexagonal board with slightly projecting angles and enriched cornice, inlaid soffit; stairs, probably later, with moulded rail, turned balusters and cut string. Reredos (Plate 162): of three main bays, divided and flanked by fluted Corinthian columns, standing on panelled pedestals and supporting a continuous entablature with a broken segmental pediment over the middle bay; middle bay with two enriched round-headed panels surmounted by a carved pelican 'in her piety,' palms and festoons; oblong panel below with two cherub-heads and festoons; side-bays each with rectangular panel surmounted by cornice, segmental pediment and foliage-festoons; oblong panel below with festoons of fruit and foliage; above main entablature, a panelled attic with enriched pilasters or pedestals above the columns and five tall vases; middle bay with enriched pediment and containing large round panel surrounded by carved cherubs with trumpets, palms, etc.; side-bays each with a rectangular panel enclosing a mitre; flanking reredos on each side, a large carved scroll. Royal arms: On N. wall— of William III, of carved wood on panel with segmental pediment and panel below with modern inscription recording rebuilding of church. Screens: flanking sanctuary, two panelled screens with pierced and carved panels; at W. end of quirestalls, at back of organist's seat and W. of organ, similar screens. Under W. gallery—partly panelled and partly glazed screen with three doorways and four fluted Corinthian pilasters, supporting entablature with enriched cornice and carved lower panels, forming backs to Churchwardens' pews. Seating: pews are the old material cut down and altered; churchwardens' pews against screen at W. end. Stalls: modern but incorporating old frieze with acanthus-enrichment. Table: In vestry—rectangular with flap extensions, turned legs and thick rails, 17th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel—two desks and Litany-desk, made up of old material with twisted legs and pierced carving. At W. end of S. aisle—semi-circular panel with irradiated dove and cherubs. In gallery and tower—six tables of benefactors, with eared architraves; also framed panel in tower with segmental pediment and containing details of rebuilding, from St. Matthew Friday Street. On W. wall of vestibule—two bread-shelves with enriched edges, panelled pilasters at sides and cornice over. In tower—panelling and pierced carving; in S. and W. windows of second stage, wooden balustrading.
(5) Wall, on the S. side of the detached graveyard of St. Anne Blackfriars, on the N. side of Ireland Yard, is of rag-stone rubble and appears to have formed part of the S. wall of a vaulted undercroft to the E. of the cloister of the Dominican Convent. The remainder of the undercroft was destroyed in 1900 and portions removed to the Dominican Church, Haverstock Hill (see London, Vol. II, p. 89).
(6) The Times Offices. Mediæval walling, running E. and W. and composed of chalk, ragstone, etc., was found in 1928 under the buildings to the N.W. of Printing House Square. They formed part of the outlying buildings of the Dominican Convent and portions of them will be preserved in situ.
(7) Apothecaries' Hall (Parish of St. Anne Blackfriars) stands on the E. of Water Lane and is of two storeys. The walls are built of brick, rendered in cement, and the roofs are covered with slates. The lower part of the N.E. angle of the building is mediæval work; in 1915 a two-light window, probably of the 15th century, was uncovered in the W. wall near the N. angle; in 1928 a return-wall, also mediæval, was found a little to the S. The E. and N. sides of the courtyard were built in 1670, the old building having been destroyed in the Great Fire; some brick vaults to the N. are also of this date. The remaining sides of the courtyard were built and the older buildings in part refaced in 1786. Other additions and alterations have been made in modern times. The Hall-block stands on the site of the W. cloister-range of the Blackfriars Priory, which became Lord Cobham's house at the dissolution.
The buildings are disposed round a central courtyard entered by a modern archway from Water Lane, in the middle of the W. side. The ancient buildings occupy the E. and N. sides, the Hall being on the E. with the Court Room to the N. of it. Both are on the first floor with various apartments of modern formation beneath them. The N. wing has a Colonnade, now enclosed, to the ground-floor with the Library above it. Adjoining it on the N. is the Staircase and a small Pantry. The E. Elevation of the courtyard was rendered in cement in 1786, when the window-frames were set back and a pediment added in the centre. A doorway at the S. end, approached by a staircase, is probably of this date; four square-headed windows at the first-floor level with as many round lights above them light the Hall.
The N. Elevation of the courtyard has a colonnade of the Doric order, at the ground-floor level. The wall above was refaced in 1786 and contains five square-headed windows, one lighting the corridor and four the Library. The E. Elevation of the Hall-block is largely in its original state, the walls faced with red brick and finished with a modern parapet. A modern addition, at the S. end, obscures part of the Hall, but to the N. of it two windows remain open, and S. of it is a window now blocked. Beneath the first window is an elliptical-headed archway with moulded architrave and imposts. Two large square-headed windows light the Court Room.
Interior:—The rooms on the ground-floor are much modernised and contain no features of interest. The Staircase has a square well, moulded handrail and turned and twisted balusters; the newels are square with moulded drops and half balusters against them. In the windows are five shields, in glass, of the arms of the City of London, the Company (dated 1671), John Lorymer and James Lowe Wheeler. The Hall (59 ft. by 28½ ft.) is six bays long. The 18th-century ceiling is finished against the walls with a late 17th-century wooden modillioned entablature. The walls are panelled to the height of the lower range of windows and have a panelled dado and an entablature carried round as a capping; at the S. end (Plate 48) is a shallow round-headed and panelled central recess flanked by fluted Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature and a broken pediment on which is an elaborately carved cartouche of the Company's arms. There is no screen at the opposite end, but against the wall in the middle is a round-headed panel with an enriched architrave and with a modern gallery over and an elaborate carving of the royal Stuart arms. At the S. end is a marble bust (Plate 46) of Gideon de Laune, apothecary to Anne of Denmark, said to have been saved from the Great Fire. The Court Room (28½ ft. by 27 ft.) has a fireplace on the S. with a moulded architrave round the opening. In the middle of the head is a carved cartouche (formerly on the state barge) inscribed, "I . G . (for John Glover, Master) Altissimus . de . caelo . creavit . medicinam . 1691." The walls are panelled to the ceiling and finished with a cornice; on the N. wall is a modern central feature, behind the master's seat, with a modern pediment above it and a carving of the royal Stuart arms. A carved arms of the Company above the W. door was formerly on the state barge. The N. and W. doorways have moulded architraves and cornices. The Library, a long narrow apartment, has walls panelled to the ceiling. The Pantry, N. of the staircase, retains a small original window heavily barred. Under an 18th-century building to the N.E. of the main block is an extensive late 17th-century basement, vaulted in brick.
(8) Barbers' Hall (Parish of St. Olave Silver Street), between Nos. 32 and 33 Monkwell Street, stands on the W. side of that thoroughfare and is partly of one storey and partly of three. The walls are of brick with some stone dressings and the roofs are covered with lead and slate. The Hall, formerly the Court Room, was built from the designs of Inigo Jones in 1636, and this with the operating theatre, since destroyed, and possibly the great staircase survived the Great Fire of 1666. The rest was re-built shortly after, together with the old hall and kitchens formerly standing immediately to the S. In 1864 the old hall (except the N. wall) and the kitchens were pulled down and the main entrance transferred to the N. wing, which was then divided up by partitions and otherwise altered. Other modern alterations include the addition of a small wing to the N.
The buildings form an irregular L-shaped block with a small courtyard on the W. approached by a modern corridor from Monkwell Street. The southern portion or Hall-block is one storey high and contains the present Hall (formerly the Court Room) with a small block behind rising higher and containing the Ante Room and Committee Room above it. The N. block is three storeys high, with the Great Staircase at the W. end and a Vestibule and Corridor to the E. The first floor contains the present kitchen with living rooms above.
The E. Elevation of the Hall is of red brick and is finished with a wooden cornice having a low enriched wooden pediment, with scrolled ends, in the middle. In the wall are three windows, the middle one with a semi-circular head and the side ones square-headed; all have moulded stone architraves largely restored. The N. wall of the Old Hall remains, incorporated in a modern building; it is of two storeys divided by a band and the face is plastered. In the courtyard, further E., is a carved achievement of the company's arms and an iron fire-back with the same arms (Plate 17). The S. Elevation of the N. wing has been much altered and the eastern portion refaced; the walls are apparently of late 17th-century date, with brick bands between the storeys. The modern entrance near the E. end has a large timber hood (Plate 150) above it, formerly over the Monkwell Street entrance; it is supported on richly carved brackets and contains in the tympanum a carved achievement of the Company dated 1671; the lintel below is carved and has a grotesque mask in the centre. The N. Elevation of this wing is only exposed at the W. half and is rendered in cement; the plain window-openings are probably original. Above the back entrance in the modern N. wing is a late 17th-century square stone carved with the Company's achievement. The W. Elevation is cement-rendered and the openings are all modernised.
Interior:—In the Vestibule and Corridor are several fittings removed from the destroyed portions of the building; the doorway between the two is partly of late 17th-century date, with a carved mask between scrolls in the centre of the lintel; the modern fireplace against the E. wall has an architrave, panelled overmantel and cornice with acanthus-enrichment; set in the overmantel is the oak matrix, for casting the heraldic iron fire-backs of the Company. Against the N. wall of the vestibule is a table of benefactors, partly renewed, having the royal Stuart arms above and panelled and carved pilasters at the sides. The Corridor contains a doorway with a pediment over it, in the N. wall; a wooden archway towards the W. end, with a coffered soffit enriched with roses and carved pilasters at the sides and beyond it two Corinthian fluted columns of oak. All these fittings are late 17th-century. The pavement of black and white marble squares was given by Laurence Loe in 1646. The Great Staircase (Plate 165) is an irregular square with a well in the centre; it has enriched and plain moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with balls and carved drops and half balusters against them, all probably of mid 17th-century date. The Ante Room has three old doorways, that on the S. not being in its original position; the doorway on the E., to the Hall, has on this side a carved mask between scrolls in the middle of the lintel, and the other two doorways have pediments over a pulvinated frieze of bay-leaves. In the modern windows are two medallions of 17th-century glass, one representing a naval action between the Dutch and Spanish, 1631, the other the arms of the Company, dated 1671. The Hall (Plate 164), formerly the Court Room (32 ft. by 22¼ ft.), was built in 1636, and has a flat ceiling richly ornamented, with a central oval opening surrounded by a deep curb of modelled plaster foliage and fruit and flowers, all within a rectangular panel with curved projections; the spandrels are enriched with foliage and flowers, the arms of the City and Company and skulls and crossbones; above it rises an 18th-century lantern. The doorway from the Ante Room has an architrave and pediment over, of late 17th-century date; the fireplaceopening on the S. has an architrave with egg and tongue enrichment and the panelled overmantel above is flanked by carved and panelled Corinthian pilasters. In the W. wall, on either side of the fireplace, are pairs of panelled doors now enclosing cupboards but formerly opening into the Hall. In the middle window at the E. end is a stained glass achievement of the Company given by Henry Barker in 1660. The walls are lined to the ceiling with bolection-moulded panelling. In the Committee Room the fireplace on the W. has an enriched architrave with a panelled overmantel surmounted by a carving of the Company's arms from the barge; the walls are panelled to the ceiling. The panelled double doors in the S. entrance from the Staircase are matched by similar doors in the N. wall now enclosing a cupboard. The floor over the corridor, now cut up into rooms and including the Kitchen, was probably once a long Gallery; it contains a large fireplace with a bolection-moulded panel above the mantel having a painted achievement of the Company and flanked by panelled pilasters; the walls are panelled with a cornice at the ceiling-level.
(9) Stationers' Hall (Parish of St. Martin Ludgate) stands on the W. of Stationers' Hall Court and on the S. of Amen Court, and is of one storey with a basement to the Hall-block, three storeys to the Court-Room block and one to the storehouses. The walls of the hall have a chalk core to the lower parts and are of brick above; the other buildings are of brick with some Portlandstone dressings and the roofs are covered with tiles and slate. The core of the walls of the basement may perhaps be part of the house of Lord Abergavenny, acquired by the Company and reconstructed in 1611. It was burnt in the Great Fire of 1666 and re-built in or about 1670. In 1800 the E. side of the hall was refaced and the windows altered. More modern alterations include the building of the E. wing on the site of a late 17th-century structure and various alterations to the Court-Room block.
The buildings are disposed round a central courtyard having the Hall on the E. with various apartments in the basement under it; the Court-Room block on the N. with the Court Room on the first floor over a Loggia and having several apartments above it; and the Storehouses on the W. The courtyard was used, at any rate in part, as the churchyard of St. Martin Ludgate, which forms the S. side of the quadrangle. A modern wing projects to the E., from the N. end of the hall, and contains the Stock Room.
The E. Elevation of the Hall-block is entirely modern, but one old lead rainwater-head bearing the Company's arms has been retained. The S. Elevation has three blocked square-headed windows. The W. Elevation of the hall-block has been rendered in cement; it has a range of six original square-headed windows lighting the hall with oval lights above them, now blocked. There was a seventh window, at the N. end, now covered by the adjoining building. One original rainwaterhead remains similar to that on the E. The basement has four original windows, all of two lights. Towards the N. end is a blocked doorway with a moulded hood. The N. Elevation of the hall-block is faced with red brick and contains a large round-headed window. At the S. end of the hall two original rainwaterheads remain. The S. Elevation of the CourtRoom block has an arcade of four round-headed arches to the ground-floor, now blocked, resting on square piers with Portland-stone imposts and plinths, all much restored; above it are four square-headed windows lighting the Court Room which have been lengthened by cutting down the sills; the second-floor windows are original and have solid frames and leaded glazing. A small building, of the same date and set back considerably, is interposed between this and the hallblock. The Storehouses, forming the W. side of the courtyard, have a tiled roof hipped at the S. end and are entered by four doorways, two in the centre retaining their original panelled doors and all having an original two-light opening in the head. There are six windows, each of two lights with solid frames and transoms and leaded glazing.
Interior:—The Hall (83½ ft. by 33½ ft.) is seven bays long; the walls are panelled to half their height with a moulded cornice or capping. The screen (Plate 168) at the S. end is divided into three bays by fluted Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature over the side bays; the frieze is carved with the crest of the Company and swags; the cornice only is carried over the middle bay and supports a segmental pediment; the middle bay has a large round-headed doorway with carved spandrels and imposts and a carving of the Company's arms and supporters in the tympanum of the pediment and a carved achievement of William III, repainted in 1754, above it; two children holding fruit recline on the pediment. In the side bays are dressers of five shelves with oak-leaf frieze, segmental pediment and carved scrolls at the sides of each, the whole framed in a festoon of fruit and flowers. The gallery over the screen is approached by a small staircase behind it, with turned balusters and lined with panelling; the gallery has a panelled front forming an attic, with vases of flowers at each end and above the columns. Towards the N. end of the Hall are doorways in the E. and W. walls, leading to the Stock and Court Rooms, and both with enriched architraves; adjoining them, on the S. side, are dressers of four shelves, with carved cornice, broken pediment with scrolled ends enclosing a crest. Round the N. end are a series of enriched panels with carved panels above; there is a further series of carved panels below the N. window. The Court Room was entirely refitted in the 18th century. The Stock Room contains some late 17th-century enriched panelling, carved overdoors and a fireplace (Plate 8) with carved surround and mantelpiece refixed here; the overmantel has a carving of the Company's arms and festoons; there is also an iron fire-back of c. 1700.
(10) Saddlers' Hall (Parish of St. Vedast Foster Lane) stands on the N. of Cheapside and is a modern building, dating from 1822. It contains the following fittings from the old Hall: On the staircase—three shields-of-arms in glass of Charles II, the Company and the City of London. In the corridor—arms of Charles II, carved in wood. In the Court Room—embroidered funeral-pall, on the flaps eight shields of the Company's arms and the inscription, "In te Dn~e. speravi nō con~fundar in eternu~," c. 1520.
(11) Cutlers' Hall (Parish of Christ Church) stands on the W. side of Warwick Lane and is a modern building. It contains the following fittings from the old hall formerly standing in Cloak Lane: In the Hall—Royal arms (Stuart) small wood carving over master's chair, late 17th-century. In vestibule—arms of company in stone, late 17th-century; sculptured panel in oak with elephant and howdah, dated 1569. In corridor—twelve shields in glass of the arms of Thomas Powell 1674, Thomas Bradford 1677, Thomas Hooker 1677, Simon Weaver 1678, Harry Panton 1680, Edward Folkingham 1683, Thomas Penington 1684, John Willcocks 1695, Cap. Bi. Blaney, Robert Gryme, the city of London 1679, and the Cutlers' Company 1680.
(12) St. Paul's Chapter House stands on the N. side of St. Paul's Churchyard, opposite the nave of the cathedral. It is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick with Portlandstone dressings and the roofs are covered with lead. It was begun in 1712 from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren and completed two years later. Some internal alterations were made late in the 18th century and the attic-storey is modern. The building is now used for commercial purposes.
Elevations—The building is symmetrically designed and has a stone plinth and rusticated pilasters at the angles supporting a stone cornice carried round above the second-floor windows. The windows generally have square heads in rubbed brick and brick aprons below the sills of those on the ground and first floors. The middle bay on the S. front projects slightly and has rusticated pilasters at the angles; at the extreme E. and W. ends are doorways with square heads, stone architraves, entablatures and segmental pediments resting on brackets. There are several original lead rainwater-heads and pipes, the former bearing the arms of the Deanery.
Interior—The entrance-hall is divided into two portions by a colonnade of two Doric columns. The walls have moulded panelling with dado-rail and cornice; the windows have architraves and panelled shutters. The fireplace, in the E. wall, has a moulded stone surround. The stone staircase, in the back part of the hall, has moulded nosings to the treads, carried round the ends and continued on the soffit; the wrought-iron balusters are the work of Thomas Robinson, smith; the newel at the bottom of the stairs is of moulded baluster-form with an open ring in the middle; the moulded hand-rail is of wood. The wrought-iron balustrade at the first-floor level has a panel with the arms of the Deanery. The staircase, above the first floor, is of wood, with twisted balusters, square newels and cut strings. To the E. of the hall, on the ground-floor, is a long room which was probably once divided into two apartments; the western half retains its original panelling, dado and cornice, but the eastern half was refitted later in the 18th century. The remaining rooms on the ground-floor have original panelling, dado-rails and cornices, and the N.E. room has a fireplace with a stone architrave and a plain panelled overmantel. The secondary staircase is of similar detail to the upper flights of the main staircase. On the first floor, the large room has been redecorated late in the 18th century. The remaining rooms have original panelling; the fireplaces have stone surrounds, except one which has an eared wooden architrave with leaf-ornament. On the second floor is some original panelling, doors and fireplaces of similar character to those already described.
(13) Canons' Houses, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, in the middle of Amen Court, form a single block, of two storeys in front with basements and attics and of three storeys at the back; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with tiles and slate. They were built in the 17th century, but a certain amount of alteration was made early in the 18th century, when two small projecting wings at the back were perhaps added. The S. Front is of red brick with lighter coloured dressings. There is a moulded string-course of rubbed brick between the storeys and the front is finished with a later parapet. The windows, generally, have square heads, but with two exceptions the windows in the basement have been raised; three windows on the ground-floor have early 18th-century sashes, but the remainder and the doors appear to be of late 18th-century date; beside the doorsteps are wrought-iron torch-extinguishers. The N. Elevation has been somewhat altered; there are brick bands between the storeys. The windows have cambered heads; some of the frames are solid and some have sashes; two doors to the basement are original. Interior—In No. 1 the staircase is original and has enriched moulded strings, turned balusters, enriched hand-rails and square newels with moulded caps; the back staircase is also original and has moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with shaped tops. The same house has a number of original panelled or battened doors; the hall has some plain panelling and an eared surround to the fireplace, with two bolection-moulded panels above it. In the attic is a fireplace with a moulded surround, plain key-block and moulded shelf. No. 2 has been entirely refitted internally. No. 3 has a backstaircase similar to that in No. 1. The hall has some bolection-moulded panelling and a white marble surround to the fireplace; the S.W. room has similar panelling. In the attics are some original panelled and battened doors, and one room has a moulded wooden surround to the fireplace.
The Gates to Amen Court have a pair of square brick piers with moulded stone cappings to the plinths and ball-terminals at the top; the wrought-iron overthrow is modern. On the lawn, N. of No. 1, is a modern sundial with a stone table resting on four balusters.
(14) Houses, Nos. 3 and 4, on the N. side of Amen Corner and adjoining (13) on the E., are of three storeys with cellars and attics. They were built late in the 17th century and remodelled in the 18th century and in modern times. The back elevation of both houses has brick bands between the storeys. Inside No. 4 the back room on the first floor retains parts of a modelled plaster ceiling with a wreath enclosing an amorino and flowers. There is some plain and bolection-moulded panelling in the house, and on the second floor a fireplace with an early 18th-century moulded surround of wood. The staircase is original and has moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels.
(15) Amen House, No. 12, on the W. side of Warwick Square, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been extensively altered in modern times and a wing added on the W. side. The E. front has a moulded brick band between the two lower storeys and a moulded cornice between the two upper storeys. The windows are symmetrically arranged; those of the two lower storeys, generally, have square heads, but the windows of the top storey are segmental-headed; the parapet is modern. Inside the building, the hall has original bolection-moulded panelling on the E. wall, with dado and cornice; opening on to the staircase is an archway with enriched imposts and archivolt and flanking pilasters; the key-block on the E. face is scrolled, that on the W. face has scrolled acanthus-ornament and there is scrolled foliage, etc., in the spandrels of the arch. The staircase is original and has straight moulded strings and hand-rails, twisted balusters and heavy square newels. On the half-landing is a modern archway incorporating spandrels similar to those of the archway below. The landing has a modelled plaster ceiling with a large moulded rib forming a square panel and two smaller panels each enclosing a wreath of bay-leaves; on the E. wall is some bolection-moulded panelling. The N.E. room on the first floor has a modelled plaster ceiling (Plate 211) with an oval central panel and wreath of flowers, bay-leaves, etc.; the remainder of the ceiling has shaped panels with wreaths and scrolled foliage and a rosette on the E. and W. sides of the main panel; flanking the fireplace are small enriched panels with sprays of bay-leaf. The walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling, with dado and enriched cornice; the windows have moulded architraves and flanking the fireplace are panelled pilasters.
(16) Houses, Nos. 26 and 27, on the W. side of Ivy Lane, 20 yards N. of Paternoster Row, are of four storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick. They were built late in the 17th century, but have been much altered. No. 26 has been refronted late in the 18th century. The E. front of No. 27 is plastered and has a moulded band at the second-floor level and a plain band at the thirdfloor level. The staircase of No. 26 is original above the first-floor level and has straight moulded strings and turned balusters.
(17) Shops, Nos. 123 to 126, on the N. side of Cheapside, at the W. corner of Wood Street, are of two storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick. The structure was built in 1687, but the S. front is entirely modern. The back faces the churchyard of St. Peter West Cheap, and is of red brick with a wooden cornice at the first-floor level and a brick cornice at the top. There are several small window-openings and near the middle of the wall is an ornamental stone tablet, inscribed "Erected at ye sole costs and charges of the Parish of St. Peter Cheape Ao. Dm. 1687, William Howard, Jeremiah Taverner, Church Wardens."
(18) House, No. 81, on the S. side of Carter Lane, immediately opposite the E. frontage-line of Broadway, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been much altered. The N. front is plastered and has a brick band at the second-floor level and a later parapet.
(19) Sculptured Sign, on the E. wall of No. 9 Newgate Street, at the W. corner of Warwick Lane. The sign is at the first-floor level of the modern building and is a square panel having a figure in low relief of Guy Earl of Warwick, in mail armour, with a bascinet and holding a sword and a shield of Newburgh; above is the date 1668, at one side the initials G.C. and at the other a shield bearing three voided lozenges on a bend. It was restored in 1817.
(20) Sculptured Sign, on the S. front of No. 78 on the N. side of Newgate Street. The sign is set at the first-floor level of the modern building and is a rectangular panel with two figures in relief, representing the giant porter and dwarf of Charles I. It is of late 17th-century date.
(21) Sculptured Sign, on the W. front of the building on the E. side of Panyer Alley. The stone is in the form of a tablet with carved scrolls at the sides and surmounted by a panel, with a round head, enclosing a seated figure in relief of a naked boy holding a panyer. The inscription is as follows—"When ye have sought the city round yet still th's is the highs't ground August the 27 1688."