An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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19. FARRINGDON WARD WITHOUT.
Farringdon Ward Without consists of the parishes of St. Bartholomew the Great, St. Bartholomew the Less, St. Bride and St. Dunstan in the West, parts of the parishes of St. Sepulchre and St. Andrew Holborn, the liberty of the Temple, the precincts of Whitefriars and Bridewell, Barnard's Inn, Serjeants' Inn (Fleet Street), and Furnival's Inn. The principal monuments are the churches of St. Bartholomew the Great, St. Bride and St. Andrew Holborn, the Temple Church, the Middle Temple Hall and Gatehouse, Barnard's Inn and the gatehouse of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.
(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew Holborn stands on the S. side of Holborn Viaduct between Shoe Lane and St. Andrew Street. The church is built in the Renaissance style on a Gothic plan and has a West Tower; the walls are faced externally with Portland stone and the roofs are covered with lead. The church was re-built in the 15th century and escaped the Great Fire, but became so ruinous as to necessitate its rebuilding in 1686–7 by Sir Christopher Wren at a cost of about £9,000; the three lower storeys of the mediæval tower were retained, but were refaced externally with Portland stone in 1704 and the upper stage was at the same time added by Wren. The building was restored in 1851 and a a good deal altered internally in 1872.
Architectual Description—The church is rectangular (91 ft. by 64¼ ft.) with middle and side Aisles, a rectangular Sanctuary projecting further eastwards 10 ft. and flanked by Vestries, and a West Tower (14½ ft. square) flanked by two Vestibules.
East Elevation. The E. end of the Sanctuary stands on a high plinth. The E. window has two tiers of three lights divided from each other by Corinthian columns with pilasters to the jambs. The lower tier are all square-headed with a cornice above them on which stand the columns and pilasters of the second tier; here the side-lights have an entablature above them stopped on either side of the round-headed central light. Below the sills of this window runs a cornice and the wall is finished with a pediment having a round window in the tympanum and crowned with three stone vases. The cornice of this pediment is continued round and forms a finish to the side walls of the Sanctuary. The E. walls of the aisles have each a round-headed window with eared architrave and plain key, and are finished with a cornice supporting a parapet, with a scroll against the higher side walls of the Sanctuary. The vestries in the angle between the aisle and Sanctuary are of one storey on a high plinth with a segmental-headed window in the E. wall of each and a lead-covered domed roof over the northernmost; the window to the S. vestry is blocked and in the plinth below is a segmental-headed doorway to the crypt with a moulded architrave; the walls are finished with a cornice and parapet. North Elevation. The N. wall is in two stages seven bays long; the upper has as many round-headed windows with eared architraves and plain keys and plain plinths; the five middle bays of the lower stage have each a segmental-headed window with architrave and plain key; the first and last bay have each a square-headed doorway with eared architrave and a segmental pediment above resting on consoles; the two stages are divided by a moulded band and the wall is finished with a cornice and balustraded parapet. The vestibule is also in two stages finished with a cornice and divided by a band. In the upper stage is a round window with a moulded architrave and below it is a square-headed doorway with a moulded architrave, pulvinated frieze and a moulded cornice. The South Elevation is uniform with the N. Elevation, and in the S. wall of the S.E. vestry is a square-headed doorway. West Elevation. The walls of the Vestibules flanking the tower are uniform with their respective N. and S. walls, but instead of the doorway have each, in the lower stage, a segmental-headed window with moulded architrave and plain key.
The Tower stands in the middle of the W. front and is of two stages externally, finished with an entablature with shaped brackets to the frieze and surmounted by a balustraded parapet with pedestals at the angles supporting enriched pinnacles. At the W. angles of the lower stage are diagonal buttresses. Above the modern entrance-doorway is a 15th-century window with casement-moulded jambs and of three trefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. Higher up in each wall is a window with a two-centred head; the window in the E. wall is now only visible internally; that in the W. wall is fitted with two trefoiled lights and has a pierced spandrel; higher up in the E. and W. walls is a small circular light; on the W. wall is a raised 18th-century clock-face with a voluted pediment and on the S. wall a modern clock-face; these are set within earlier blocked windows of which there was one in each wall at this level, but only the splays and rear-arches are now visible. At the level of the bell-chamber is a moulded cornice. In each face of the bell-chamber is a two-light, segmental-headed louvred opening with Doric pilasters at the sides, the whole being enclosed under a semi-circular arch with moulded archivolt, imposts and a keystone carved with a lion's mask. In the tympanum between the head of the opening and the semi-circular arch is a carved cartouche with an oval opening in the middle.
Interior (Plate 166)—The E. window is finished inside in the same manner as the exterior, the lower cornice being carried along and returned round the Sanctuary walls, resting on Corinthian pilasters at the W. angles. Above and below it on the end and side walls of the Sanctuary are large panels with enriched borders. The middle is divided from the side aisles by arcades of seven bays of round arches groined into the ceiling and resting on Corinthian columns and half-columns as responds with a separate cornice to each; the columns stand on bases rising to the height of the gallery-front and consist of four engaged and panelled pilasters, back to back. Against the side walls of the aisles, below the galleries, are corresponding pilasters. The main ceiling is elliptical in form, the spandrels of the arcade being richly decorated with foliage-festoons, ribbands and cherub-heads and with a cartouche over the middle of each arch. The remainder of the ceiling has three panels to each bay with moulded borders with bay-leaf enrichment; the middle panel in alternate bays has a plaster rose. The ceiling over the Sanctuary is more richly decorated with foliage and has a circular glazed panel in the middle and smaller panels at the sides. The aisles above the galleries have plain groined vaults to each bay con-centric with the arcade and have a plaster rose at each intersection; the vaults spring from moulded brackets on the outer walls. Below the galleries, the ceilings of the aisles are divided into bays by panelled beams and in each bay is a semi-dome to admit the head of each window in the lower range. The tower opens into the church by a lofty 15th-century arch in the E. wall; it is two-centred and of three hollow-chamfered orders with the outer orders continuous and the inner resting on circular shafts with moulded capitals, but the bases are hidden below the later pavement; in the N. and S. walls are similar but lower arches of the same date.
Fittings—All the fittings, unless otherwise stated, are of late 17th-century date. Bells: eight, all modern and a sanctus by Robert Mot, 1587. Communion Rails: with heavily moulded and enriched rail, moulded base, turned and twisted balusters and panelled and carved standards. Cupboard: in N. aisle at E. end, formed from refixed doors and door-case, originally in N.E. lobby (see Doors). Desks: two, one in the Sanctuary, the other used as litany-desk, both with moulded and enriched rails and twisted balusters, all of same detail as Communion Rails and with ball-feet below bottom rail. Doors and Doorcases: Main doors to entrances to N. and S. aisles and tower-vestibules each in two leaves, which are each of four raised and moulded panels externally and plain framed panels internally. To entrance to crypt, now blocked up, with segmental head and of five panels. Inner doors to entrance in side walls of N. and S. aisles, in doorcases, with side doors each in two leaves, not now used, each of two bolection-moulded panels and larger main doors each in two leaves, each of four bolection-moulded panels with moulded architraves and cornices with curved pediments above. Doorcase to easternmost entrance to N. aisle now used as cupboard (see Cupboards). To doorways to vestries, in E. walls of aisles, each of two bolection-moulded panels. To doorways between N. and S. aisles and tower-vestibules and between staircase-landings and galleries, each in two leaves, each of four bolection-moulded panels. Font (Plate 10): of white veined marble, octagonal, with scalloped bowl with four cherub-heads at angles and fluted baluster-shaped stem with moulded cap and base. Font-cover: of oak, varnished and gilded, octagonal, with ogee-shaped top with moulded and enriched rolls at angles, surmounted by a dove and inscribed "St. Andrew's Church 1686" in modern letters. Galleries: over side aisles with front between each pier carried on entablature and with three bolection-moulded panels to each bay with modern piercings and moulded base and capping. Glass. In N. aisle—in E. window to gallery, large achievement (Plate 167) of the royal arms of Queen Anne (before the Union) under tent-like looped-up canopy with letters A and R above respective supporters; below achievement, representation of stone capital with oval panel in front with scroll-work and shield of the arms of Hodgson; on either side of panel, scroll inscribed "Ex dono Thomae Hodgson de Bramwill in agro Eboracen. Militis"; the whole rests on black and white chequer pavement in perspective with enriched border at sides. In S. aisle—in E. window of gallery, achievement-of-arms (Plate 167) of Thavie's Inn surrounded by scroll-work under tent-like canopy with ribband below shield inscribed "Pax et Concordia," the whole within border of scrolls; below shield, shaped panel surrounded by scroll-work and inscribed "John Thavie Esq. Ao Dni 1348 left a considerable Estate toward the support of this Fabrick for ever"; both windows early 18th-century. Masons' Marks: On responds of tower-arch, various masons' marks. Monuments: in Sanctuary—on N. wall, (1) to Susan, 1690, and Margaret daughters of Walter Bouchier, painted marble wall-tablet of cartouche form with cartouche-of-arms above, surmounted by a small vase and cherubs and swags at sides. On S. wall, (2) to Richard Dewe, 1687, large wall-tablet with twisted columns at sides supporting entablature and broken scrolled pediment surmounted by cherubs; below columns, console-brackets supported on cherub-heads; in pediment, achievement-of-arms. In tower—refixed on S. wall, (3) to David Knight, citizen and brewer, 1679, and Elizabeth, his daughter, white marble wall-tablet with cornice and broken scrolled pediment, side scrolls, coved shelf-moulding and shields above and below; (4) to Robert Barcroft, 1679, and Mary (Hollingsworth) his wife and afterward wife of Richard Husband, 1706, marble tablet with eared architrave with scrolls at sides, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice with broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; refixed on E. wall above tower-arch, (5) to William Horsnell, principal of Thavie's Inn, 1655–6, oval tablet with bay-leaf wreath, palm-branches and swags; (6) probably to Robert Catterall, 1714, and Mary his wife, shaped marble tablet with scrolls, cherub-heads, winged skull and drapery; on N. wall, (7) to Dorothy (Reade) wife of Robert Gryme, 1681, Robert their son, 1684, with inscription-panel flanked by Ionic columns and scrolls surmounted by cornice and cartouche-of-arms with shield-of-arms below. Organ: built originally by Renatus Harris 1699, and designed for the Temple Church; reconstructed and perhaps entirely renewed in 1872. Organ-case: modern but supported on either side by two original fluted columns surmounted by return ends of entablature and front to gallery; parts of old case preserved in the Courthouse (see Monument No. 15, p. 160). Paintings: on E. wall of sanctuary, on panels, with figures of St. Andrew, St. Paul, the Holy Family, etc., but subjects can no longer be distinguished. Panelling: round side walls of body of the church, high panelled dado; against W. wall, under gallery, partly bolection-moulded; panelled dado surrounding gallery; to N. vestry, walls lined with bolection-moulded panelling with moulded cornice and small carved scrolls on either side of frieze above doorway; to N. and S. walls of Sanctuary, in two heights with enriched dado-rail and enriched mouldings to upper panels continued round from reredos with entablature and panelled attic. Plate: includes a cup without date-letter but inscribed with the cross of St. Andrew between the letters "S.A." with the date "1624" above and "Holborne" below, a cover-paten of 1635 given the same year inscribed with similar device as cup and a large brass alms-dish with representation of Adam and Eve, in repoussé within a border of animals and foliage, probably Flemish, 17th-century. Pulpit (Plate 34): hexagonal, with enriched and moulded cornice, carved frieze with console-brackets at the angles and moulded and carved base and raised inlaid panel on each face with outer mouldings deeply carved with foliage; below console-brackets at angles, winged cherub-heads with pendants of fruit and foliage below; stem modern and staircase 18th-century. Rainwater-heads: on N. and S. fronts, of lead inscribed "ST. A. H. 1686." Reredos: in three bays separated by narrowed bays and occupying whole of E. wall of Sanctuary with entablature and attic, continuing lines of gallery and its front, and carried on fluted Doric pilasters with columns flanking middle bay; entablature stopped over column of middle bay and cornice carried across to form curved pediment; between pilasters and also to middle bay, enriched dado-moulding with large panel above and small panel below; frieze and soffit of pediment carved, and, behind altar, modern fitting. Seating: in gallery, original pews of deal panelled; in tower, bench with incised inscription "T.H. Novr 22. 1696 T. Hopper." Staircases: two, in tower-vestibules, of oak, each with a moulded string and handrail, panelled dado, square newels and twisted balusters. Pavement: original remains in middle of nave, aisles, vestibules and tower, of black and white marble squares laid diagonally; black squares renewed in places by slates. Miscellanea: carved stone panel with representation of the Last Judgment, now built into the external face of the N. wall; said to have originally been over the gateway to the former workhouse buryingground in Shoe Lane.
(2) Parish Church of St. Bartholomew the Great (formerly the church of an Augustinian Priory), on the E. side of West Smithfield and S. of Cloth Fair, is the eastern part of a large cruciform building. The mediæval portions are of rag-stone rubble with freestone dressings and the tower and some other portions are of red brick. The roofs are of lead and slate.
The Augustinian Priory was founded by Rahere in 1123, and to this period belong the Presbytery with the remains of the apse, the Ambulatory and presbytery-aisles and the remains of the E. and S. apsidal chapels. About the middle of the same century the presbytery was completed and the Crossing, Transepts with the lower part of the first bay of Nave and Aisles built. In the 13th century the nave was completed and about 1330 the E. apsidal chapel was pulled down and the Lady Chapel built with the Crypt under it. Shortly after the Sacristy was built on the S. of the presbytery and towards the close of the century the main apse was pulled down and the two central piers, supporting it, removed and a square E. end substituted. At the same time the clearstorey of the presbytery was re-built. About 1409 the Cloister was reconstructed and about the same time the central tower was re-built, the N. and S. tower arches altered and two strainer arches inserted to strengthen the former; the adjoining arch of the nave-arcade with the triforium arches on both sides of the nave were filled in for the same purpose. Late in the 14th century a chapel was built on the N. of the presbytery, the aisle-wall being pierced by three arches opening into it. Early in the 16th century a rectangular chapel was built out from the S.E. ambulatory by Prior Bolton, the 12th-century wall being removed for the purpose. The same builder inserted the oriel window in the S. triforium of the Presbytery and erected another building south of the chapel before mentioned. The Priory was dissolved in 1539 when the nave, except the E. bay, part of the S. aisle wall and the S.W. doorway, was demolished, the remaining portions being walled off and becoming the parish church. Later in the 16th century the N. triforium of the presbytery was turned into a school, the outer wall refaced or re-built and a small dwelling-house erected to the N.E. Probably during the same period most of the N. Transept was pulled down, the chapels round the presbytery-aisles and ambulatory were demolished and the arches opening to them were walled up; a window was also inserted in the N. aisle of the presbytery and another in the N. wall of the Lady Chapel. In 1628 the central tower was pulled down as being unsafe and the present Tower built over the E. bay of the S. nave-aisle. The Lady Chapel, Sacristy, Cloister and the other monastic buildings were secularised at the Dissolution and were much damaged and altered. In the 18th or early 19th century the S. transept, Sacristy, Cloister and Chapter House were demolished. During the 19th century the church has undergone two important restorations in 1863–66 and in 1885 and the succeeding years. In the course of the second, the square E. end was removed and the apse restored, the two transepts were also re-built, but not on the old plan. In 1896 the restored Lady Chapel was again added to the church; in 1905 three bays of the E. cloister and in 1928 five more bays were restored and re-opened.
The church is a monument of unusual interest and though much mutilated and restored, it retains its Presbytery and Crossing, and much excellent 12th-century work. The plan of the whole structure has been recently recovered, and besides being an interesting example of the apsidal termination, it was amongst the largest Augustinian churches in the country. The planning of the 12th-century E. chapels now destroyed above ground is only paralleled in England at Norwich Cathedral. The oriel window in the Presbytery is an unusual feature, and amongst the fittings, the mediæval peal of bells and the Founder's monument are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Lady Chapel (61½ ft. by 23½ ft.) projects centrally to the E. of the main apse and is of early 14th-century date, four bays long, divided externally by buttresses all partly original, but the fourth on the N. has been removed. The walls are largely refaced and stand on a plinth, which is mainly original. The E. end is largely modern with modern niches behind the altar. In the N. wall are five windows, the first four being all modern except for portions of the jambs and internal reveals which have attached shafts, with moulded capitals and bases carrying the rear-arches; the fifth window is a small rectangular late 16th-century opening. In the S. wall are four windows similar to the first four on the N. but entirely modern; below the fourth is a modern doorway. At the W. end of the chapel on the N. side is a rough rubble foundation, probably implying the former existence of an arch across the entrance.
The Crypt (25½ ft. by 23½ ft.) lies below the two E. bays of the Lady Chapel, with which it is conterminous. The E. wall has two modern windows and the N. wall one two-light and two single-light windows, the E. one modern, but the other two of the 14th century; the third window has been much cut away and altered. In the S. wall are three 14th-century windows deeply splayed and uniform with the second on the N.; to the W. of them is a doorway of which portions of the W. jamb are of the same date, the rest being modern. The crypt has a segmental barrel-vault in six bays all modern except for parts of the E. and W. wall-ribs; the ribs are chamfered on each edge and continued down the side walls as piers; below the springing they are of the 14th century and are stop-chamfered above chamfered plinths. These are at a different level on the two sides, those on the S. being raised on a rubble bench. Remains of the foundations of the first apsidal E. chapel have been found beneath the two W. bays of the Lady Chapel.
The Eastern Arm or Presbytery (central span 65 ft. by 27¾ ft.) is four bays long with an apse of seven bays (Plate 169). The apse-piers are cylindrical and support stilted round-headed arches; all the piers are of early 12th-century date except the central pair, which are modern; the arches are all modern except the two westernmost on each side, which have modern repair but are otherwise contemporary with the piers. They are of two orders, the inner plain and the outer, on the presbyteryside, moulded and enriched with billeting; the pier-capitals are scalloped, with moulded necking and square, moulded abaci, the bases are moulded and stand on square plinths; both capitals and bases are much restored. The apse-triforium is modern except for one 12th-century bay on the W., at each side. These two arches are similar to those below, but spring from square responds, with scalloped capitals and each encloses three semi-circular sub-arches of equal height and one plain order, resting on circular shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases; the tympanum over them is plain and the sub-arches are blocked by a wall at the back of the shafts. Cutting across this bay, about the middle of the E. sub-arch, are the remains of the late 14th-century square E. end; little but the start of this wall above the triforium-level remains, and on it stand the jamb-shafts, with moulded capitals and bases, of a moulded, four-centred arch spanning the church; this appears to have been either a wall-arch or the opening of a very large E. window, the sill of which was level with the spring of the triforiumarches; below it ran a string-course, of which the start remains on both sides of the church. The clearstorey, E. of this point, is entirely modern. Below the triforium runs a chamfered string-course and above it a moulded late 14th-century string-course, both being only original in the W. bays. The N. arcade of the presbytery has four semi-circular arches, of similar detail to those of the apse; the piers are much restored and cylindrical except the third, which is rectangular with a half-round attached shaft on the E. and W.; the respond attached to the N.E. tower-pier is similar. The triforium-arcade is similar to the westernmost bay in the apse, but the arches are semi-circular and enclose four sub-arches springing from carved and fluted capitals of varying design; in the E. arch these shafts and sub-arches are modern and the other bays have modern repair. The outer wall of the triforium has three 16th-century windows, the first of two lights, the others of three with square heads and oak frames with four-centred heads to the lights. Above the triforium, the outer wall is carried up, in brick, to form a second storey and attics, lit by similar windows and approached by a turret-staircase, all of the 16th century. The late 14th-century clearstorey is pierced by a pointed two-light window in each bay with moulded rear-arch and internal label with head-stops; the mullions and tracery are modern and the other work partly restored. The clearstorey-passage is carried along at the level of the sill, being entered by narrow, shouldered arches in the window-jambs. The face of the clearstorey-wall is continued straight up to the start of the former square E. end and does not follow the curve of the apse. The S. wall of the presbytery (Plate 172) is similar to the N. in regard to the main arcade and clearstorey and also the general character of the triforium. The E. triforium-bay is much restored and in the second the piers and sub-arches have been removed and an early 16th-century oriel window inserted, of semi-octagonal form, projecting into the presbytery; the window has three transomed lights on the face and a single similar light in each return; the upper lights are trefoiled and the lower have four-centred heads; below the sill the face has three quatrefoil-panels, that in the middle sub-cusped and bearing the 'bolt in tun' rebus of Prior Bolton, and the other two, blank shields; the returns have each a blank shield in a trefoil-headed panel. The oriel rests on stone corbelling deeply moulded and is finished with a moulded and embattled cresting. A set-back between the third and fourth bays of the S. wall and extending up to the base of the clearstorey indicates a cessation in the building operations.
The Ambulatory of the apse (12 ft. wide) has the three eastern bays open to the Lady Chapel, the side walls of which are connected with the apse-wall by two two-centred 14th-century arches, of three chamfered orders with a moulded label, crossing the ambulatory and springing, on the E. side, from round attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the arches rise above the level of the ambulatory-vaults adjoining, which are finished with a vertical face under the archhead. In the angles between the arches and the apse are the springers of a stone vault, apparently never completed. The three N. bays of the ambulatory are divided on the outer walls by flat responds, of two orders, with moulded bases and capitals and with cheveron-enrichment, from which springs a plain groined vault of rubble plastered on the soffit and having plain wide bands dividing the bays, all of early 12th-century date. In the second bay is a late 14th-century window with a two-centred head, modern mullions and tracery; in the third bay is a plain semi-circular arch of early 12th-century date with chamfered imposts and formerly opening into a side chapel; it is now filled in at the back with a re-set 16th-century wooden doorway in the filling. The outer wall and the vault of the first two bays S of the Lady-Chapel arch were removed early in the 16th century and a small chapel built out square with the main walls of the E. arm. In the E. wall is a modern three-light window, and in the S. wall an early 16th-century doorway with a four-centred arch under a square head and having spandrels carved with foliage and the 'bolt in tun' rebus; the jambs are moulded and stop-chamfered. The third bay of the ambulatory on this side is similar to the corresponding bay on the N. with an archway in the outer wall, formerly opening to a side-chapel and now partly blocked.
The N. Aisle of the presbytery (12 ft. wide) is four bays long (Plate 170), the N. or outer wall being divided by 12th-century responds similar to those in the ambulatory and supporting a similar vault; the respond between the third and fourth bays is, however, of three orders, as is the respond opposite attached to the pier of the main arcade. In the E. bay of the N. wall is a mid 16th-century square-headed window of two lights with four-centred heads all in brick. In each of the other three bays is a two-centred and moulded late 14th-century arch (Plate 171) of two orders springing from shafted responds; they now open into recesses in the thickness of the wall, each with a modern window, but they formerly communicated with a chapel, of three bays, to the N. of the aisle.
The S. Aisle of the presbytery (12½ ft. wide) is uniform with the N. in regard to the 12th-century responds and vault. In the second bay of the S. wall is the four-centred rear-arch of a 15th-century window, now blocked; in the fourth bay is a 14th-century doorway, with a two-centred head, formerly opening to the Sacristy but now blocked on the outside and used as a cupboard. The 12th-century E. arm had originally three apsidal chapels grouped round the ambulatory, that on the E. has already been mentioned, and that on the N. is entirely destroyed, but portions of the outer walls of the southern one remain; it consisted of two intersecting apses, one to the E. and one to the S., and a considerable portion of the N. half of the E. apse remains standing some 3 ft. high and also parts of the S. and W. walls. To the S. of the early 16th-century chapel in the ambulatory are remains of a building, of similar date, beneath the present vestry; they consist of a brick wall parallel to the S. chapel-wall and containing a four-centred foundation-arch. The Sacristy formerly standing between the S. presbytery aisle and the S. transept is now destroyed, except for the start of the 14th-century E. wall.
The Crossing (24¾ ft. by 27¾ ft.) is of mid 12th-century date; the four piers formerly supporting the central tower are rectangular on plan, and the inner faces (towards the Quire) are flat, as the quire-stalls were formerly placed against them. The E. and W. arches are semi-circular and of two moulded orders, the inner having two half-round members on the soffit and over each arch is a cheveron-on-edge label; the E. arch springs from corbels in the form of a respond-head with four attached shafts, with scalloped capitals and conical terminations, all restored. The corbels of the W. arch, which are moulded, are 15th-century insertions. The N. arch has square responds, each with two attached half-round shafts and two other shafts in the angles at each side; the 12th-century capitals and the E. bases were replaced in the 15th century by the existing moulded capitals and bases; across the base of the archway are two strainer-arches (Plate 174), forming a screen, of the same date, of which the S. face is modern restoration, the N. is much decayed but original; the arches are four-centred with continuous mouldings and a horizontal moulded coping above them. The responds (Plate 171) of the S. arch of the crossing are similar to the N. arch, but retain the scalloped 12th-century capitals and moulded bases. The N. and S. arches are uniform, pointed and slightly stilted, the detail being similar to the E. and W. arches. Immediately above the arch runs a string-course, enriched with cheveron-ornament, carried round the crossing and supporting the flat roof; below it, in each spandrel, is a round-headed recess or panel placed in the angle and forming four pairs, each with a common shaft having a scalloped capital and moulded base; the outer jambs and heads are enriched with lozenge-ornament; the remaining space in the spandrels is occupied by sunk quatrefoils filled with carved foliage.
The N. Transept (19¼ ft. by 27½ ft.) is almost entirely modern and occupies only the southern part of the space occupied by the mediæval structure. In the E. wall is a round-headed 12th-century arch opening to the presbytery-aisle and refaced on the W.; the S. respond is partly 15th-century work with moulded capital and base. To the N. of this arch is a modern recess, but attached to the S. jamb is a broken 13th-century base. In the W. wall, adjoining the crossing, is a modern arch with a half-round respond attached to the crossing-pier, the lower part of which is of 12th-century date.
The S. Transept (27 ft. by 27 ft.) is also largely a modern restoration extending two bays S. of the crossing, of which the northern is 12th-century work together with the lower part of the remainder of the W. wall. In the first bay of the E. wall is a round-headed arch of two plain orders with square responds, recessed on the S. side, scalloped capitals and moulded bases, opening into the S. presbytery-aisle; both orders on the W. are restored. The round triforium-arch, above it, is of two orders, the inner plain and the outer moulded; the responds are similar to those in the presbytery, but the three sub-arches are modern. Below the modern clearstorey is a 14th-century moulded string-course. The first bay of the W. wall has a round-headed arch of two plain orders opening into the S. nave-aisle; the responds have half-round attached shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases. The triforium-arch above it is of similar form and two orders, the outer moulded and the inner with lozenge-enrichment; the jambs have angle-shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases, and in the S. jamb is an elliptical-headed doorway to the triforium-passage. The N. jamb of the corresponding arch of the next bay remains, but the rest is modern. The core of the lower part of the rest of the W. wall is of the 12th century and is continued S. beyond the modern building, where it forms the boundary of a small churchyard. This churchyard marks the extent of the 12th-century S. transept, which extended four bays S. of the crossing. In 1912 the lower part of the S. wall was uncovered; it was divided externally by flat pilaster-buttresses, ashlar-faced and stained with fire, into three bays, with a doorway in the centre opening into the former slype.
The Nave (centre span originally 160½ ft. by 27¾ ft.) was originally ten bays long, but of this only the E. bay is included in the present church. In the N. wall is a 12th-century arch similar to the first pair E. of the crossing, but with no billet-ornament; it has a thin 16th-century filling pierced by a tall opening with a four-centred arch; this opening is now blocked and a low doorway inserted. The 12th-century triforium-arch of this bay is round-headed with billet-ornament and had side-shafts with carved and slightly foliated capitals; only one order of the arch is exposed, the other being concealed by 15th-century filling inserted to strengthen the tower and pierced by a doorway, with a four-centred head, at one side, opening to a blocked stairway. The clearstorey has a 13th-century window with a pointed head and rear-arch and a moulded label with head-stops; it has two uncusped lights with a plain circle in the head. The corresponding bay on the S. is similar, but here the main arch has not been blocked and the clearstorey window, a good example of platetracery, opens into the existing tower. Between the first and second bays the nave is built across by a solid wall, now entirely refaced. The lower part probably represents the monastic pulpitum and the upper must have been built immediately after the Dissolution. Below the N.W. buttress is the much weathered base of the E. respond of the second bay of the N. nave-arcade; it is of semi-octagonal form and stands on a sleeper-wall. The site of most of the nave is now a churchyard, but there are no other remains of the centre or north aisles.
The S. Aisle of the nave (12¼ ft. wide) is destroyed except for the E. bay, which is included in the present church. In the S. wall is the 12th-century E. processional-entrance from the cloister; it is round-headed and recessed, externally in two orders, with a chamfered label and one restored shaft to each jamb, with carved cap and moulded base; the rear-arch is also round. In the W. wall is a modern doorway from the modern W. porch which occupies the site of the second bay. In the E. angles of the first bay are groups of 13th-century vaulting-shafts, the northern consisting of three shafts and now standing free, and the southern of two shafts attached to the S. wall; they have moulded or foliated capitals. The lower part of the S. wall of the second, third and fourth bays of this aisle remains standing, and against it are the much weathered bases of three 13th-century vaulting shafts. The whole length of this wall has been traced by excavation and in the seventh bay was the W. processional-entrance from the cloister. The W. wall with a 13th-century richly moulded doorway has a vaulting shaft in the inner S.W. angle and forms part of No. 57 West Smithfield.
The Tower built in 1628, after the destruction of the one over the crossing, is of four stages, supported by flat buttresses on the W. face and finished with a modern embattled parapet. It stands over the remaining bay of the S. naveaisle which forms the first stage. In the E. and N. walls of the second stage are the blocked arches of the 12th-century triforium, and in the W. wall is a 17th-century round-headed window of three lights with rounded heads and pierced spandrels over the side lights. In the N. wall of the third stage is the 13th-century clearstorey-window, before described, and in the W. wall a 17th-century window, similar to the one below. The fourth stage or bell-chamber has a segmental-headed louvered opening in each face of three plain lights, with an internal wooden lintel. A doorway in the N. wall gives access to the main roof. On the tower roof stands a 17th-century square timber cupola with four-centred openings in each face and an ogee-shaped lead covering, capped with a ball and vane.
The Cloister (formerly about 108 ft. square) was originally nine bays long, but of these only the eight N. bays of the E. alley now remain, walled off and partly restored. Portions of the base of the E. wall (the W. wall of the S. transept) are 12th-century, and an arched recess in the first bay has the original chamfered plinth at the back. The base of the arcade-wall on the W. is largely early 15th-century, as are the piers between the modern windows. The range is covered with a modern ribbed vault with some old voussoirs and bosses introduced; it springs from vaulting-shafts against the outer and arcade-walls, all more or less restored; the wall-ribs also retain some of the original early 15th-century work; at the S. end of the alley, between the eighth and ninth bays, is a moulded transverse arch. In the E. wall are the three early 15th-century arches opening into the former Chapter House and now blocked; they have moulded jambs and two-centred arches; the side-arches are not symmetrical, the outer jamb of each arch being carried up vertically to cut the arc of the arch at about half its height. In the E. wall of the eighth bay is an early 13th-century doorway, partly covered by the early 15th-century work; it has a segmental head enclosed in a round arch of one moulded order with moulded imposts; in the tympanum are remains of a trefoil-headed panel. The site of the first bay of the N. range or alley of the cloister has recently been cleared, and remains of the first pier and buttress with the adjoining window-jambs have been uncovered.
Fittings—Bells: five, all by Thomas Bullisdon, c. 1510, the 1st inscribed "Sancte Bartholemew ora pro nobis," and the rest with similar inscriptions invoking St. Katherine, St. Anne, St. John the Baptist and St. Peter. Brass-Indent: In Cloister—broken slab with part of small figure and inscription. Chest: In S. ambulatory—plain, with ornamental lock-plates and moulded lid, 17th-century. Coffin and Coffin-lids. Coffin: In N. aisle of presbytery—broken stone coffin. Lids: Under sub-arch on N. side of crossing— tapering marble slab with moulded edge. In N. triforium—lower half of coped lid with base of cross, 13th-century. Doors: In doorway from cloister—of two leaves, nail-studded, with moulded panels, late 16th or early 17th-century. In doorway to S. vestry—with moulded panels and pedimental - shaped head, early 17th-century. Font: In S. transept—octagonal with moulded base and necking below the bowl, indent of small brass inscription on one face of bowl, 15th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs—Monuments: In presbytery—under E. arch on N. side, next to apse, (1) to Rahere [died 1144], founder and first prior of St. Bartholomew; canopied monument (Plate 173) in four bays, the three western occupied by an altar-tomb with four cusped quatrefoils in square panels, on the front, each having a shield in the centre (probably restored) bearing the following arms—the City of London, the Priory, France and England quarterly and gules a bend between two birds argent; on the tomb a painted stone effigy (Plate 70) in a black Augustinian habit with hood thrown back, and head on cushion, on either side, level with the knees, a small kneeling figure of a canon similarly habited holding a book, that on the S. bearing the Latin of Isaiah ii. 3; front of slab inscribed in 'black-letter,' "Hic jacet Raherus Primus Canonicus et Primus Prior hujus Ecclesiae"; at the feet in the end wall, a half-angel issuing from clouds and holding a shield of the Priory arms gules two leopards and in chief two crowns or; back of monument closed in and pierced by three square-headed and traceried two-light openings; above the tomb, a stone canopy, supported on buttressed piers and having three cinque-foiled arches to the front, with pendants between and an ogee crocketed label over each, face of canopy above these, panelled and finished with a moulded cornice and pierced and finialed cresting; soffit with panelled vaulting in three bays; canopy-front continued in one blank bay to the E. of tomb; formerly extending two bays further and enclosing a doorway, but these now removed, late 15th or early 16th-century; on N. wall, (2) to Sir Robert Chamberlane, 1615, wall-monument (Plate 23) with kneeling figure of man in armour of the period under curtained canopy with curtains held back by two figures of angels; inscription-tablet, corbel and moulded shelf below, and, above, two obelisks and central panel, segmental on plan, with side pilasters, entablature, broken and curved pediment and cartouche-of-arms. On S. wall, (3) to John Kellond, 1685, elliptical marble tablet (Plate 26) with drapery, cherub-heads and, at head, cartouche-of-arms; (4) to Percival Smallpace, 1558, and Agnes his wife, 1588, two square recesses (Plate 24) with busts of man and woman with carved Ionic pilasters at sides and, below, inscription-tablet with two incised nude figures in base; at bottom of monument, second inscription-tablet and shaped apron with shield-of-arms; (5) to John Whiting, 1704, wall-tablet with scrolls, drapery, fruit, flowers and cherub-heads, and, at top, cartouche-of-arms. In S. aisle—(6) to Thomas Roycroft, 1677, marble tablet within moulded frame flanked by Ionic columns standing on bracketed shelf and supporting entablature with two scrolls above, in form of a broken pediment, with cartouche-of-arms within. In N. ambulatory—(7) to Francis Anthony, 1623, doctor in Physick, and John his son, 1655, also doctor in Physick, rectangular marble tablet incised with three columns supporting chaplet of roses, and having scroll-projections at sides and at foot and achievement-of-arms in scrolled cornice. On S. side, (8) to Anthony Lowe, 1641, marble tablet within sunk panelled frame, with scrolls at sides, shelf with apron of carved drapery, skull, etc. below, and, above, entablature with broken curved pediment containing cartouche-of-arms; (9) to Ellis Yonge, 1659, rectangular marble tablet with lower part segmental, surrounded by scroll-work with shield-of-arms in head. In N. aisle of presbytery—(10) to John Whiting, 1681, and Margaret his wife, 1680, wall-tablet flanked by elongated scrolls enriched with palm-branches, carved swags on apron and, above, two shields and an achievement-of-arms. In S. aisle, (11) to James Master, 1702, and his mother Ann (Oxenden), 1705, marble tablet with pilasters, segmental pediment and shield-of-arms, erected apparently after 1724; (12) to Sir Walter Mildmay, 1589, and Mary his wife, 1576, founder of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, Chancellor and Sub-Treasurer of the Exchequer, etc., large panelled altar-tomb of coloured marble with architectural composition above, consisting of inscription-panel against wall surrounded by eight shields-of-arms with ribbandornament with flanking Corinthian columns brought forward on pedestals supporting entablature; above columns, two carved cartouches and, in square panel above entablature, achievement-of-arms; (13) to Captain John Millett, 1660, tablet flanked by panels carved in relief, with simple moulding and cartouche-of-arms above. In S. transept, (14) to Elizabeth (Orme), wife of Thomas Freshwater, 1617, and her parents Mary, 1616, and John Orme, 1618, wall-monument (Plate 23) with figure of woman in costume of the period kneeling at desk within round-arched recess, with brackets at sides, cornice and curved broken pediment above flanked by two cartouches and enclosing achievement-of-arms; below, modern inscription-panel with cherub-head in base; (15) to Henry Tulse, 1705, rectangular tablet, with side-brackets, carved apron below and cartouche and flowers above. In N. aisle of presbytery—(16) to Elizabeth, wife of Philip Scudamore, 1593, rectangular tablet with shaped projections at side and base and cornice with scrolls and shield-of-arms above. In S. aisle— at E. end, (17) of James Rivers, 1641, half-length figure of man in civil costume of the period holding book in hand, in elliptical recess, flanked by Ionic columns supporting cornice carried up in form of broken curved pediment with mouldings terminating in volutes; below recess, inscription-tablet and above cornice two shields and an achievement-of-arms; (18) of Edward Cooke, 1652, half-length figure of man holding book in hand, set within round-headed recess with plain pilasters at sides and moulded key-block to each; above, moulded cornice and scrolls set pediment-wise with cartouche-of-arms between and, below figure, moulded shelf on cherub-head corbels with tablet and shield-of-arms flanked by scrolls. In S. triforium—(19) to E.S.S., 1631, plain tablet, In churchyard, (20) to Judith Smith, 1698, tablet. Floor-slabs: In presbytery—(1) to Richard Porter, 1669, and Barbara, his wife, 1714. In N. aisle of presbytery—(2) to Joseph Sturt, 1699. In S. aisle and ambulatory—(3) to Nicholaus Orme, 1628, Nicholas Gundry, 1675; (4) to Margaret, wife of . . . with shield-of-arms, late 17th-century; (5) to John H. . ., 1690. Plate (Plate 29): includes two inscribed cups with covers, both of 1689 and given by John Whiting and Antony Burgess in 1690, and a large inscribed paten of 1689. Tiles: now set in wall connecting S. wall of Lady Chapel and apse—slip-tiles with foliated and geometrical designs, 13th and 14th-century. Miscellanea: In triforium—numerous worked and moulded stones, including some carved 12th-century capitals; also some 17th-century carved cherub-heads in wood and a pair of carved brackets of the same date. In cloister—numerous worked, moulded and carved stones, including 13th-century kneeling figure of canon in low relief from arm of stone seat; part of incised slab with remains of figure, perhaps 15th-century; vault-boss carved with a pelican 'in her piety' and part of another carved with an Annunciation; two carved head-corbels, early 15th-century, and a stone bowl, probably of a stoup.
(3) Parish Church of St. Bartholomew the Less stands within the Smithfield gate of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The Tower and Vestry at the W. end date from the 15th century, but the rest of the church was re-built, with the possible exception of parts of the outer walls, in 1789 and again in 1823 and the whole restored in 1865. The tower is built of rubble-masonry partly faced with ashlar and rendered externally in modern Roman cement.
Architectural Description—The South West Tower (10¼ ft. square) is three stages high with an octagonal stair-turret at the S.W. angle, rising above the parapet. In the E. and N. walls are two-centred 15th-century arches, much restored, opening into the S. aisle and vestry respectively. The responds have moulded bases and capitals and a moulded band at half their height, carried round the tower-walls. In the S. wall is a blocked doorway with a two-centred head and above it another blocked doorway; in the S.W. angle is a doorway, with a two-centred head, opening into the stair-turret. A second doorway, above it, may have led into a ringing-gallery. The W. door and window are modern. The second stage has, in the E. wall, a doorway with a two-centred head and 17th-century architraves of wood. The bell-chamber has a pointed window in each face, all modern but representing 15th-century openings and having wood architraves. The plain parapet is also modern. The Vestry (21½ ft. N. to S. by 15 ft. E. to W.) adjoins the tower on the N. In the E. wall is a modern door to the church and in the W. wall is a four-light window, with a two-centred head, all completely restored.
Fittings—Bells: four in all, 2nd probably by John Langhorne, c. 1400, inscribed "Vincentius reboat vt cunta noxia tollat," 3rd by Robert Crouch, c. 1440, inscribed "Intonat de celis vox campana Michaelis." Brass: in Vestry, of William Markeby, 1439, and Alice his wife, small figures in civilian dress, and foot-inscription, all much defaced. Door: In tower-staircase—with heavy strap-hinges, 17th-century. Monuments: in nave—on N. wall, (1) to Anne, wife of Sir Thomas Bodley (founder of the Bodleian Library) , black marble tablet flanked by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature and pediment, strapwork-apron below; (2) to William Hone and Joyce his wife, brown marble tablet with freestone border, late 16th-century. On S. wall, (3) to Robert Balthorpe, 1591, mural tablet with kneeling figure in round-arched recess flanked by Corinthian columns supporting entablature with circular shield-of-arms with ornamental border above; in vestry—against W. wall, (4) altar-tomb of c. 1500 with Purbeck-marble slab and panelled recessed canopy, with brattishing on cornice, modern tablet inserted at back. Niches: in N. wall of vestry, with cinque-foiled head, and containing an angel bearing a shield-of-arms: a sunk panel below enclosing a shield—Edward the Confessor impaling France and England quarterly, supported by two angels and surmounted by a crown: on each side the W. window in vestry, similar to that on N. wall, the southern with shield lost, the northern much defaced, all 15th-century. Plate: includes an inscribed cup dated 1639, two inscribed patens of 1678 given in 1679, two inscribed tankards of 1682, an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1682, an inscribed dish of 1685, an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1703 and four pewter dishes of 1648.
(4) Parish Church of St. Bride stands on the S. side of Bride's Passage on the W. side of Bride Lane. The church is built in the Renaissance style on a Gothic plan and has a West Tower; the walls are faced with Portland stone and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The former church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and the present building was erected by Sir Christopher Wren in 1670–84 at the cost of £11,430 5s. 11d. It was "further adorned" in 1699, and modern work includes the additions of the Vestries at the E. end of the S. aisle and the S.W. of the same aisle.
Of the re-built city churches, St. Bride's ranks only second to St. Lawrence Jewry and Christ Church in cost; the interior of the building is generally considered one of Wren's most successful designs.
Architectural Description—The church is built on a symmetrical plan and has a central Chancel and Nave (97 ft. by 28¼ ft.) undivided structurally, North and South Aisles (11½ ft. wide), a West Tower (14¾ ft. square) with staircase-lobbies on either side and modern Vestries; the Sanctuary projects 6¾ ft. eastward beyond the E. walls of the aisles, and over both aisles and the W. end of the nave are galleries; a later screen has been inserted below the latter.
East Elevation. The sanctuary has a large round-headed E. window with moulded archivolt and side pilasters with moulded capitals and bases. Outside these a pair of panelled pilasters support carved scrolls on which rest small separate entablatures and a pediment over the window. The wall stands on a moulded plinth and is finished with rusticated angles and a moulded cornice and pediment, the latter containing a round window with a moulded architrave; above the pediment is a blocking course with central and sidepedestals. The cornice is returned along the sides of the sanctuary and continued in simpler section along the clearstorey-walls. The ends of the aisles have each a round-headed window with eared architrave, that on the S. being cut short by the modern vestry below. The side walls have moulded plinths, as to the sanctuary, rusticated angles and a cornice and plain parapet continued round the side aisles. North Elevation. The first and fifth bays of the aisle-wall have round windows with moulded architraves. Below that in the first bay is a square-headed blocked door with architrave, frieze and cornice with a pediment resting on carved consoles, and a projecting panel in the middle of the head. In the second, third and fourth bays are round-headed windows uniform with those at the E. end of the side aisles. Below the window in the fifth bay is a round-headed doorway with rusticated jambs and head and moulded imposts. Against the jambs are engaged Ionic columns supporting an entablature and pediment. The wall is finished as the E. end of the aisle. The staircase has a plain blocked square-headed doorway and a square-headed window with architrave and cornice over, and is finished like the aisle. The clearstorey has five oval windows with moulded architraves and is finished with a cornice and plain parapet. The South Elevation is uniform with the N., except that part of the W. end of the aisle and staircase are concealed by a modern vestry. The doorway in the fifth bay is round-headed, with a moulded architrave. West Elevation. The ends of the aisles have parapets curved upwards and finished with volutes against the clearstorey-walls. The W. ends of the staircases are similarly finished and have each a round window with a square-headed window below uniform with that in the N. vestibule wall.
The ground-stage has a square-headed doorway, in the W. wall, with rusticated jambs and head and a keystone elaborately carved with a cartouche inscribed "Domus Dei" surmounted by a cherub-head; each jamb has an engaged Ionic column supporting an entablature and segmental pediment; the W. angles of this stage are rusticated and above it is a cornice or string, level with the cornice of the W. door. The second stage is set back about a foot and has a modern clock-face in the N. wall, and in S. wall a round opening. In the W. wall is a round window with moulded architrave, and below it, and standing on a panelled base, is a square-headed window with architrave, frieze, cornice and pediment; these two windows are both within a round-headed recess, with concave reveals; this stage is finished with a modillioned cornice. The third stage or bell-chamber has a round-headed louvered opening in each face with a wooden frame of three transomed lights; the openings have moulded imposts, archivolts and panelled bases and are set in a square-headed recess; at each angle of this stage is a pseudoCorinthian column and two similar pilasters supporting a continuous entablature with a seg mental pediment in the middle of each face; the pilasters stand on a high continuous base with cornice and plinth; the stage is pierced on the N. and S. by round windows; above the entablature is a panelled parapet with moulded capping and a high plinth; it is recessed at the corners and supports two vases at each angle.
The Steeple stands on a circular base and is five diminishing stages high; the first three stages are octagonal and similar in character with a round-headed, keyed opening in each face and pilasters at the angles supporting continuous entablatures; the pilasters are Doric in the two first stages, Ionic in the third and Corinthian in the fourth; the latter has a square-headed opening with a round one above in each face; the top stage is an octagonal panelled spire standing on a plinth, with a moulded capping, square openings on the alternate faces and small balls at the angles.
Interior (Plate 175). The E. wall of the Sanctuary is divided into two stages by an entablature stopping on either side of the E. window and supported on two Doric pilasters flanking the window and half-pilasters in the angles; the wall-space between has on either side a shallow round-headed recess with a rectangular panel above finished with a small cornice; the upper stage has a second range of pilasters immediately above those below; they support an enriched cornice on which stand enriched scrolls supporting an entablature and segmental pediment above the E. window; the side wall-spaces between the pilasters are filled on each side with a rectangular panel surmounted by a richly modelled swag; the E. window has a scrolled key and in the panelled spandrels are moulded cherub-heads; the pilasters and panels at the sides of the E. wall are repeated on the side walls of the sanctuary. W. of this projecting bay the Chancel and Nave are divided from the aisles on either side by an arcade of five semi-circular arches; the piers stand on octagonal plinths and consist of two engaged Doric columns with a small attached pilaster on the E. and W. sides below the gallery-front, and support separate entablatures from which spring the arches; these have moulded archivolts, cherub-head key-blocks and coffered soffits with a rose-enrichment in the middle of each compartment.
The North Aisle has in the W. wall, above the gallery, a semi-circular archway, opening into the upper part of the staircase-lobby, with moulded imposts and archivolt; above the arch is a round light with a moulded architrave.
The South Aisle has in the E. end of the S. wall an opening into a modern Vestry, and in the W. wall an archway uniform with that in the W. wall of the N. aisle. The staircase-lobby has in the S. wall a square-headed doorway now opening into the modern vestry.
The main ceiling is segmental in form springing from a cornice and groined back to the clearstoreywindows in each bay. The bays are divided by coffered bands, with rose-enrichments, springing from plaster brackets of cartouche-form with enriched moulding above; in the middle of each bay is a large square panel with enriched border. The ceiling of the sanctuary has seven ornate panels divided by bands of guilloche-enrichment and with enriched roses. The aisles have a plain groined plaster vault to each bay, divided by transverse arches which spring, against the outer walls, from cherub-head brackets each surmounted by a separate cornice.
The Tower has a round-headed arch on each face of the E. wall of the ground-stage and opening into the church, with moulded imposts carried round the interior of the stage. In the thickness of the wall between the arches is a barrel-vault with a double band of coffers with enriched soffits; below the imposts on the N. and S. sides are round-headed niches. The W. wall is similarly treated. The N. and S. walls have each a segmental recess, with a round head and a moulded archivolt. The stage has a domed roof, carried on pendentives and has a circular bell-way in the middle with an enriched border. In the E. wall of the first storey of the second stage is a round-headed opening set in an external recess with concave jambs, round head and pediment resting on brackets, and in the same wall of the second storey of this stage is a doorway to the roof. The bell-chamber is roofed with a conical dome of stone within the base of the steeple. The circular stairway is within the N.W. angle of the tower. A circular stairway is carried up the centre of the steeple, finishing at the fourth stage. This stage has a domed roof with a round aperture in the centre open to the interior of the spire.
Fittings—All fittings, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th-century date. Bells: twelve; 3rd and 4th and 7th to 12th all by Abraham Rudhall, 1710. Chest: in vestry, of iron with raised bands. Doors and Doorcases. Doors: To W. doorway of tower, in two leaves each of four panels, renewed externally. In N. doorway—of two leaves, each of four panels and hung on heavy strap-hinges. In doorway to tower-staircase— nail-studded and with four-centred head. Doorcases: To lobby doorways at W. ends of N. and S. aisles, each with flanking fluted and attached Composite columns supporting enriched entablature with architrave raised over door enclosing panel with carved scrolls on either side and semielliptical pediment above, flanked by two pine-apple ornaments; sides of lobbies panelled. Font: (Plate 9): of grey-veined white marble with moulded and enriched octagonal bowl with circular underside, with, on S. face, large cartouche inscribed "Deo et Ecclesiae Ex Dono Henrici Hothersall Anno 1615" surmounted by painted shield-of-arms; stem of dark grey marble of circular baluster-form with moulded cap, bulbous shaft with leaves carved in low relief on lower part, and moulded foot. Galleries: in N. and S. aisles, front to each bay with moulded base and capping divided into three by panelled projections of pedestal-form and supported on entablatures between piers of main arcade; architrave of entablature raised under each panelled projection and cornice dropped under middle of each division in inverted segmental form; end divisions in each bay panelled and middle division with raised panel and carved oval wreath. Over W. end of nave, similar but in five divisions with clock in middle division with capping carried round head. Monuments: On S. wall, (1) to Anne (Berners), wife of Charles Blount, 1686–7, marble cartouche surrounded by scrolls on background of drapery and surmounted by cherub-head. On W. wall, (2) to James Molins, 1686–7, physician to Kings Charles II and James II, plain marble tablet recessed at angles, with drapery and palm-branches below and surmounted by cornice with shield-of-arms and cherub-heads; (3) to Jasper Nedham, 1679, marble cartouche with scroll-work on background of drapery, cherub-head supporting cartouche-of-arms surmounted by crest. On S. wall of S. staircase, (4) to Thomasine, wife of Henry Dove, D.D., vicar, 1678, small painted stone tablet in moulded frame flanked by two narrow pilasters with acanthus-leaves substituted for capitals and supporting scrolled brackets and segmental pediment enclosing shield-of-arms. In returning wall on E. side of path approaching N. door from Fleet Street, (5) to N. Holden, 1657, stone entrance to vault with achievement-of-arms. Organ and organcase: in W. gallery, with lower part panelled and surmounted by enriched entablature, with pierced carved frieze, and cornice projected in middle and at ends of original case with carved cherub-head corbels under latter and carved acanthus-leaf corbel under former, each supporting circular 'tower' of pipes; 'towers' with enriched entablatures with pierced carving below and surmounted by ogee-shaped cupolas terminating in mitres to side and crown to middle towers; connecting panels of pipes each in two heights with pierced carving to lower panels and heads in form of segmental pediment carried at sides on scrolled brackets and broken in middle by central 'tower'; above pediment, seated on either side of central tower, large carved figure of angel holding trumpet; organ attributed to Renatus Harris but with modern additions and action; original sides of case partly extended along front with modern pipes above. Panelling: to wall of aisles, in three heights with raised panels and enriched capping. Paving: In Sacrarium—of black and white marble squares set diagonally. In ground-stage of tower, under W. gallery, and in staircase-lobbies—similar paving with simple star-shaped design in centre. Plate: includes an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1630, an inscribed cup dated 1629 but without date-letter and with a similarly inscribed cover-paten with later date-letter, cup and cover-paten of 1682 inscribed as having been given in 1590, a cup and cover-paten of 1672 inscribed and dated 1671, a similarly inscribed bread-dish and cover (Plate 33) and a flagon all of the same date, a flagon of 1675 inscribed and dated 1676, a dish of 1675 inscribed and dated 1676, a large inscribed dish dated 1678 but without date-letter, a spoon of 1683, two spoons of 1701, a churchwarden's staff with copper pear-shaped knob of 1691, and five inscribed and dated pewter plates, two of 1699 and three of 1705; also a large inscribed mace (Plate 33), dated 1703, but without date-letter, with head embossed with cherubs, terminating in acanthus-leaves, alternating with a crowned rose, thistle, fleur-de-lis and harp, the whole surmounted by a crown, on top of head, royal Stuart arms, inscribed stem with enriched knop and end. Poor-boxes: two, at W. end of church, of brass, each with three key-holes, ornamental hinges and surrounds to slots, inscribed "The gift of Mr. Sergeant Turner," c. 1678. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal, with square panel on each side with enriched border with cherub-heads at top and bottom, enriched capping and band at base carved with oak and laurelleaves with festoons beneath; lower part of ogeesection terminating in carved pendant and supported on plain beam projecting from piers of N. arcade. Reredos: below and same width as E. window, divided into three bays by two engaged and fluted Corinthian columns with similar half-columns at either side supporting enriched entablature, recessed between columns, the whole much altered and with panels with modern decorations now filling bays. Seating: in body of church, and against sides and E. ends of aisles— pews, of oak with panelled backs and two panelled and bolection-moulded doors. Churchwardens' pew at W. end of nave—similar but with higher back and with pierced frieze-panels on fronts and sides. Staircases: to galleries, in lobbies N. and S. of tower—of oak, with moulded strings and handrails, square newels and twisted balusters.
Fittings—Brass and Indent. Brass: In N.W. bay—on wall, of Henry Dacres, 1530, alderman, and Elizabeth his wife, two kneeling figures with scrolls and foot-inscription. Indent: see monument (21). Monuments. In N.E. bay—(1) to Albrecht Otto Faber, 1684, marble wall-monument with inscription-tablet of convex-section within moulded frame and flanked by Corinthian columns resting on scrolled brackets and supporting entablature and broken curved pediment finishing in volutes; below tablet, cartouche-of-arms and within pediment pedestal and vase with laurel-branches at sides; (2) to Anthony Low, 1685, white marble wall-tablet with black marble inscription-panel supported on moulded shelf with carved cherub-head corbel, flanked by fluted scroll-brackets and surmounted by moulded cornice; (3) to Mary (Blagge), wife of Adam Colclough, elliptical stone panel within moulded border with corbel below and cartouche-of-arms above; (4) to Margaret [Windsor], widow of John Talbot, 1620, mural tablet with black marble slab incised with kneeling figure in gilt lines, within architectural frame with cherub-head in base, broken pediment above and shield and lozenge-of-arms at sides; (5) on modern bracket, alabaster kneeling figure (Plate 21) of man in civil costume of the late 16th century. In E. bay—(6) to Damaris (Worthington) wife of Nathanial Turner, 1703, cartouche (Plate 26) with flowers and foliage, skull in base and cartouche-of-arms at head; (7) to Alexander Layton, 1679, swordsman, marble wall-tablet, with raised oval panel between two fencing-foils, erected 1681. In S. bay—(8) to Giles Campion, 1697, small wall-tablet of concave-section; (9) to Sir William Carew , plain wall-tablet in modern frame. In S.W. bay, (10) to Gerard Legh, 1563, marble wall-monument with inscription in moulded frame, caryatid figures standing on shaped trusses and supporting entablature; southern figure represents Mercury; on trusses below figures and on frieze above, four shields-of-arms and, above cornice, achievement-of-arms; (11) of William Morecroft, 1657, black and white marble wall-monument with bust in circular recess, curtained at sides and flanked by attached Ionic pilasters surmounted by entablature, the whole resting on shaped and moulded base with large raised inscription-panel in middle; below, skull and scroll-work between two moulded trusses; (12) to Edward Marshall, 1675, master-mason of England, Ann his wife and Joshua his son, 1675, marble wall-monument with inscription-panel surmounted by eared architrave with curved head enclosing shaped panel with carved cherub-head below; panel flanked by Corinthian columns, resting on scroll-corbels with cherub-heads below and supporting entablature with broken scrolled pediment surmounted on either side by a reclining cherub; below monument, carved cartouche with cherub-head below and scroll-brackets at sides and, within pediment, cartouche-of-arms; (13) to William Atkinson, 1673, marble wall-tablet in form of cartouche overlaid with drapery with shield-of-arms above surmounted by flaming vase. In W. bay, (14) to Elizabeth, wife of George Moore, 1668, wall-monument with black marble panel within eared architrave terminating in scrolls and with segmental head enclosing projecting tablet with cherub-head below; panel flanked by Corinthian columns and standing on carved corbels and supporting entablature with broken curved pediment over central panel enclosing lozenge-of-arms and surmounted by carved swags; (15) of Cuthbert Fetherstone, 1615, with bust of bearded man wearing ruff and costume of the period, within circular recess (Plate 21) surrounded by strapwork and with painted stone panel below within strapwork frame; (16) to Sir Richard Hutton, 1638, wall-monument by Nicholas Stone with inscription-tablet surmounted by moulded architrave, recessed at top angles and surmounted by cornice with broken scrolled pediment; tablet flanked by Ionic columns resting on shaped corbels with carved swags between them and cherub-heads below. In N.W. bay, (17) to Robert Houghton, 1623, plain stone tablet with moulded frame having coupled ears at the angles and scrolls at sides and below; (18) of Elizabeth (Gilbert) wife of Roger North, 1612, with kneeling figure of woman (Plate 21) in costume of the period at prayer-desk within semi-circular arched recess flanked by Corinthian columns of reddish marble supporting architrave and frieze and plain slab in place of missing cornice; behind columns, panelled and carved pilasters and, below, carved head-corbels with carved panel between them of two sons and daughter kneeling at prayer-desk; below, inscription-panel surrounded with strapwork and strapwork-ornament at sides of monument; (19) to Henry Jones, 1695, and Hannah (Jolly) his wife, 1708, wall-monument with panel of convex-section within moulded frame on scalloped base with moulded voluting below terminating in cherub-head; above panel, moulded cornice supported by scroll-brackets at sides and surmounted by broken scrolled pediment enclosing achievement-of-arms; on either side of panel, an infant mourner; (20) to Thomas Valence, 1601, square wall-tablet of black marble with elaborate marble frame carved with strapwork, scrolls, fruit and flowers and emblems including hour-glass, skull and shield-of-arms above. In vaults under church, (21) to John Cave, 1601, with indents of kneeling figure and shield-of-arms; (22) to Henry Axe (? Asce), 1699, stone tablet. In churchyard on N. side of Breams Buildings, (23) to Samewell, second son of Edward Marshall and Anne his wife, 1631, Anne their daughter and Nicholas their third son, 1635, head-stone. Plate: includes a cup of 1599 with cover-paten of 1598, an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1623, an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1634, a paten of 1599, two inscribed patens of 1671, two spoons of 1675 and 1679 respectively, and a mace of 1680. Seating: incorporated in backs of modern stalls, twenty-four small and one large panel of pierced carving. Miscellanea: in niche over S. doorway, freestone statue (Plate 66) of Queen Elizabeth, wearing cloak, farthingale and crown and holding in right hand a sceptre and in left an orb, modern date 1586 on base, from W. front of Ludgate. Niche semi-circular with round head with continuous moulded architrave and flanked by two Doric pilasters supporting entablatures and broken curved pediment with mouldings terminating in volutes; below pilasters, moulded corbels with mouldings continued from semi-hexagonal projection below statue; above niche and within pediment carved cartouche and ribband; niche apparently original and also from Ludgate, probably of date of restoration after the Great Fire of 1666.
(6) Parish Church of St. Sepulchre (Plate 176) stands on the N. side of Newgate Street between Giltspur Street and Snow Hill. The walls of the aisles and tower are of ragstone rubble; the E. end and S. aisle have been refaced with Portland stone and the walls of the chapel adjoining the N. aisle are rendered in cement; the modern dressings of the tower are of Portland stone; the external facing of the S. porch appears to be of Bath stone and the original internal dressings of the porch are of Reigate stone; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The church was entirely re-built about the middle of the 15th century, when the S. chapel and S. porch were erected by Sir John Popham; at the same time or shortly after St. Stephen's Chapel was built outside the N. aisle of the nave. In the Great Fire of 1666 the church was burnt out, but the outer walls of the main building and the tower and porch were not destroyed. The church was restored in 1670–77 at the cost of £4,993 4s. by Sir Christopher Wren, who re-built the present arcades, repaired the outer walls and re-built the parapets and buttresses. In the 18th century the N.E. vestry and adjoining Watch House were built and the Gothic windows in the outer walls of the church were replaced by windows of Renaissance design. The church was restored several times during the 19th century, when the roof was renewed, the upper parts of the tower and S. porch were re-built, new buttresses and parapets built and Gothic tracery placed in the aisle windows. The present ceiling was constructed in 1837.
Architectural Description—The Chancel is without structural division from the nave (the two together measuring 128 ft. by 23 ft.) and formerly embraced the three eastern bays; it is now of two bays only. The Renaissance E. window is round-headed and of three lights, the centre one arched and the sides with a transom across at the spring of the arch. It is of late 17th-century date and above it externally is a cornice. Across the E. wall internally runs a deeply projecting wood cornice with modillions, continued along the side walls and the W. end. The arcades of late 17th-century date have round arches, with enriched architraves and panelled soffits and resting on Doric columns on high octagonal pedestals.
The North Chapel (20 ft. wide) is conterminous with the chancel and forms the eastern part of the N. aisle; the E. window is of five transomed lights with a traceried four-centred head; portions of the moulded internal reveals and head are of 15th-century date, but the rest is modern. In the three bays of the N. wall are as many pointed three-light windows with two-centred heads and modern tracery; some stones of the internal reveals and head are of 15th-century date; below the two eastern are as many modern doors to the modern vestries adjoining on the N.
The South Chapel (15¼ ft. wide), formerly Popham's Chapel. The E. wall is not at right angles with the church. It contains a four-light E. window apparently entirely modern. The two bays of the S. wall are divided by buttresses of two stages all refaced and have each a three-light window, with a two-centred head, of which only some stones of the internal jambs and head are of the 15th century. The tracery is a copy of that still existing early in the 18th century.
The North Aisle extends to the W. face of the tower and is seven bays long. In the N. wall of the first bay is a door with a four-centred head enclosed in a square label, leading to the vestry; the head and part of the label are of 15th-century date, the rest modern. Further E. and high up in the wall is a 15th-century blocked four-centred doorway formerly opening to the rood-loft. Occupying the second and third bays on this side is a late 17th-century arcade of two round arches resting on a Doric column with half-columns as responds and a cornice interposed, between the columns and arches, and opening into a chapel now used as the organ-chamber. W. of this the N. wall is divided externally into four bays and rendered in cement; at the W. end are two buttresses each of two bays with portions of the 15th-century facing remaining. The four windows have two-centred heads and similar to those before described, only portions of the internal reveals are of the 15th century; below the westernmost is a modern N. door. In the W. wall of this aisle is a modern window, but the opening of the 15th-century window with a segmental-pointed rear-arch is visible round it internally.
St. Stephen's Chapel (38 ft. by 15½ ft.) adjoining the N. aisle has a blocked window in the E. wall and three 18th-century round-headed windows with plain impost-blocks and keys in the N. wall. There is a similar window in the W. wall.
The South Aisle is seven bays long, of which the five eastern have windows all uniform with those in the S. wall of S. chapel. In the W. bay is the S. doorway, largely of 15th-century date; it has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label and a modern plinth; the four-centred rear-arch except for the E. springer is modern. In the W. wall is a modern three-light window.
The West Tower (16¼ ft. square) stands within the church at the W. end and is four stages high. The ground-stage has a lofty pointed and moulded arch on the E., the inner order resting on an engaged shaft with moulded capital and base and the other mouldings continuous; it is completely restored. Similar but much lower arches pierce the N. and S. walls, and the northern mouldings of the N. arch with the face of the wall above are of 15th-century date. The rest is modern except for portions at the base. A pointed arch resting on circular shafts with moulded caps and bases, all restored, encloses the modern W. window; the W. door below it is also modern. The second stage has a two-light pointed window with an ogee hood in the N., S. and W. walls all modern restorations, and the third stage has similar but smaller windows in the E., N. and W. faces all restored and a modern setting for the clock-face on the S. The fourth stage or bell-chamber has a pair of similar windows all restored in each face. The tower is finished with a restored string-course, modern pierced parapet and tall octagonal crocketed pinnacles at the angles, all restored; the angles of the tower have each two buttresses, all restored, with gabled offsets at each stage and finishing at the base of the bell-chamber.
The South Porch is entirely modern externally; it is three storeys high with diagonal buttresses at the outer angles and a buttress in the centre of each side all finished with modern pinnacles; the vise is enclosed in a turret in the N.W. angle. The outer door is modern externally, but the segmental rear-arch is mainly 15th-century; the three-light side windows are all modern. The porch has a stone vault in two bays, of 15th-century date with moulded ribs and cusped cells; the bosses have decayed, but one appears to bear the symbol of the Trinity. The first floor of the porch has a modern oriel window on the S. and modern two-light windows in the E. and S. walls. It is roofed with a ribbed and pointed barrel-vault of stone. The second floor is entirely modern.
Fittings—Bells: 10 and a sanctus. The sanctus by William Eldridge, 1698. A small bell used in connection with the Newgate executions is preserved at the E. end of the N. aisle. Brassindents: In the S. porch—(1) of kneeling figure with scrolls and foot-inscription, now hidden; (2) of three small figures and foot-inscription. Font-cover (Plate 13): of oak, octagonal on plan and ogee-shaped with cherub-heads on faces, carved ribs and terminal, of 1670. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Quire—against first pier on N. side, (1) to Richard Reeve, 1702, cartouche with flowers and foliage with skull below and cartouche-of-arms above flanked by two cherub-heads; against second pier on N. side, (2) to Sir Thomas Davies, 1679, cartouche with drapery and palm-foliage surmounted by cartouche-of-arms; against third pier on N. side, (3) to Thomas Sawyer, 1672, Martha his wife, 1693, and Thomas his son, 1695, cartouche with foliage and flowers surmounted by cartouche-of-arms flanked by pair of cherub-heads, with urn above. In N. aisle— on N. wall, (4) to Roger Reeve, 1691, cartouche with scroll-work, winged skull below and cartouche-of-arms above; (5) to Edward Arris, 1676, and Mary his wife, 1674, monument with two segmental-headed recesses enriched with wreaths and drapery with cherub-head between and containing busts of man and woman; projecting shelf with inscription-tablet flanked by brackets below, and above, broken segmental pediment and shield-of-arms of Drake exchanged, by mistake, with those on monument No. (10); (6) to Thomas Glover, 1677, tablet flanked by carved brackets and surmounted by simple cornice and broken segmental pediment with achievement-of-arms; (7) to Joshua Peirce, and Ann his wife (c. 1680), draped cartouche with three cherub-heads below and cartouche-of-arms above surmounted by an urn. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (8) to Anthony Hinton, 1678, tablet in form of draped hanging surmounted by achievement-of-arms; (9) to Edward Greenberg, 1694, and Ellinar his wife, 1681, cartouche with scroll-work flanked by four cherub-heads, on background of drapery and surmounted by shield-of-arms beneath a canopy. In outer vestibule, at W. end of N. aisle—on W. wall, (10) to Thomas Drake, 1675, small tablet flanked by pilasters resting on a plain moulded shelf and surmounted by simple cornice with broken segmental pediment enclosing achievement-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel, (1) to Roger [Reeve 1690–1], also to Elizabeth, 1713–4, Roger, 1692, and Deborah Reeve, 1712, with shield-of-arms; (2) to . . . grocer, 1696–7; (3) to William Walters, 1712, with shield-of-arms; (4) to . . ., 167–. In N. aisle—(5) to . . ., 1709. In S. aisle, (6) to Thomas Mason, 1668, and Susan his wife, 1679, with shield-of-arms; (7) . . . 1682; (8) to — [Tanner], inscription obliterated but with shield-of-arms; (9) to John Forster, 1708, and William Forster 1709, recorded on stone dated 1717; (10) to Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Blackerby, 1691, Samuel Blackerby, 1714, Barnardiston, 1689, and Jane their daughters, and Lettice their granddaughter, with shield-of-arms; (11) to Henry Kettle, brewer, 1671, with obliterated shield-of-arms; (12) to Ann Webb, 1710, and Robert her son, 1710; (13) to Dorothy, daughter of Richard Phrip, 1705; (14) to John Murdocke, 1684, and Barbara his wife, 1698, and Joseph Broomer, their son-in-law, 1705, with shield-of-arms; (15) to Richard Freeman, 1691, with shield-of-arms; (16) to Issabel L . . ., date obliterated, c. 1700; (17) to Thomas Allen, 1698. In inner vestibule, N. aisle, (18) to John Jacobs, 1683, and Rachel his wife, 1691, with shield-of-arms; (19) to Gabriel Wittenhall, clothmaker, c. 1690; (20) to Ann Hewitt, 1713. Niches: In S. porch—in door-heads in N. and S. walls, small canopied niches both containing mutilated figures, 15th-century. Organ-case: Organ originally built by Renatus Harris, 1677; removed to present position in St. Stephen's chapel from W. gallery and re-arranged; in two heights with lower part panelled and upper divided into four divisions by five 'towers' of pipes; the two outer 'towers' on each side carried on semi-circular brackets supported by cherub-heads and finished at top with pierced carving surmounted by entablatures with carved frieze; middle tower of wedge-shaped projection with carved panels above brackets; divisions with semi-circular heads with archivolts on small scrolls and spandrels carved with cherub-heads under carved cornice; above two middle divisions, portion of broken segmental pediment supporting reclining figure of angel, and in middle over inner part of organ two figures of angels supporting a crown. Panelling: The churchwardens' pews at the W. end of nave have a small amount of late 17th-century woodwork re-used. In modern screen across the W. end of church five carved panels of foliage, festoons, cherub-heads, etc., of late 17th-century date, from old gallery-front; similar panels also occur in the screens adjoining the tower, one with cypher C.R. Piscinœ: (1) at E. end of N. chapel in abutment of arcade, with shelf and two pointed arches over resting on a bracket, 15th-century. (2) In S. wall of S. nave-aisle just outside chapel, mutilated recess with shelf, 15th-century. (3) In St. Stephen's chapel—in S. wall, recess with cinque-foiled head and shelf, 15th-century. Plate: includes two inscribed flagons of 1668, one of which has a repaired lid with date-mark of 1741, a cup of 1670, a paten of 1672 given in 1674, an early 18th-century spoon, three staves with pear-shaped silver heads of 1677, 1681 and 1697 respectively, and a richly chased and engraved mace with the Stuart arms and inscription, dated 1688, and second inscription recording the repairing of the cap in 1752. Recess: In S. wall, fourth bay— tomb-recess, large with moulded four-centred arch, late 15th or early 16th-century. Said to be in N. wall of St. Stephen's chapel—tomb-recess, now covered by organ. Reredos: of oak, in three bays occupying whole E. end of chancel with attached and fluted Corinthian columns to middle bay and similar pilasters to side bays standing on dado with moulded capping and base and supporting enriched entablatures with modillioned cornice; cornice carried over middle bay as segmental pediment enclosing three carved cherub-heads. In middle bay, bolection-moulded panel inscribed with the Decalogue surrounded by an enriched and eared architrave with top member raised and ornamented with swags and ends finished with carved consoles; below panel, low pedestal-base with moulded capping and carved panel; side bays with similar panels of more simple designs inscribed respectively with the Lord's Prayer and the Creed; spaces above panels between capitals carved with swags and below with rectangular and carved panels. Inner faces of respond on N. and S. panelled in three heights with dado and surmounted by entablature continued from solid divisions of reredos; narrow ends facing W. carved with festoons, all enrichments and some mouldings of reredos gilded, late 17th-century. Sun-dial: In parapet of S. aisle, vertical stone with incised dial, 17th-century.
(7) Temple Church of St. Mary the Virgin stands on the E. side of Inner Temple Lane, 60 yards S. of Fleet Street. The walls are partly of ragstone-rubble, but mostly faced with modern freestone, the columns, etc., inside are of Purbeck marble. The roofs are covered with lead.
The site on which the church stands was acquired early in the reign of Henry II by the Knights Templars, who then began building the new church; this church, consisting of the existing round Nave and Aisle with a chancel probably aisleless and apsidal, was consecrated in 1185 by Heraclius Patriarch of Jerusalem; the West Porch is of the same date. The former tympanum of the S. doorway (destroyed in 1695) was inscribed as follows—"Anno ab Incarnatione Domini MCLXXXV dedicata hec ecclesia in honore Beāe Marie a Dn~o Eraclio Dei Grā Sce~ Resurectionis ecclesie Patriarcha iiii idus Februarii qi ēā annatim petētib' de ījunta S. Penitētia LX dies indulsit." In the first half of the 13th century the old chancel was pulled down and a new Chancel built with North and South Aisles, arches being pierced from them into the round aisle. This chancel was consecrated in 1240. About the same time the Chapel of St. Anne was added S. of the round. Probably in the 15th century an embattled parapet was added to the nave-clearstorey and its conical roof was perhaps removed at the same time. In 1678 St. Anne's Chapel was shattered by gunpowder during a fire, and late in the same century a brick three-storey house was built over the W. porch and probably at the same time the buttresses of the nave were 'classicised' and a classic cornice added to the aisle-parapets. In 1825 the remains of St. Anne's Chapel were removed except the base of the walls of its undercroft. The church was restored in 1828 by Mr. Robert Smirke, but the great restoration took place in 1840–2 under Sir Sidney Smirke and Mr. James Savage. It included the almost complete rebuilding of the round and the outer walls of the chancel and aisles, and practically none of the internal detail work is ancient. Amongst other alterations, the wooden organ-screen, of 1681, between the nave and chancel, was removed and all the monuments except those of the 13th century were placed in the triforium. The organ chamber was built in 1842 and the choir and clergy vestries added 1868–9.
The church is mainly of interest from its plan which places it amongst the five 'round' churches still standing in England. The W. doorway is a fine late 12th-century work and the monuments, especially those of the 13th century, are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—In the following description all the work not specially mentioned is either modern rebuilding or old work refaced or re-cut. It follows, however, the old lines and probably reproduces the old mouldings.
The Chancel with its aisles (86½ ft. by 59 ft.) was consecrated in 1240. The E. wall is gabled and has a window of three grouped and graduated lancets finished externally with attached jambshafts with moulded caps, bases and labels, the last with two mask-stops; internally the moulded heads have labels with two head and two foliated stops, and spring from detached Purbeck-marble jamb and dividing shafts; these have moulded caps and bases and metal bands to the joints at half their height; in the spandrels between the heads of the centre and side lights are moulded quatrefoil panels. The gable has a single lancet light, opening into the roof, and of similar detail, externally, to the windows below. The N. and S. arcades (Plate 180) have each five moulded two-centred arches forming ribs to the vaulting; they spring from Purbeck-marble columns circular on plan, with four attached shafts facing the cardinal points; the moulded caps and bases follow the outline of the piers and shafts; the marble of these columns is largely original but has been re-cut and polished; the eastern responds consist of three grouped shafts, of which the middle one only is of marble banded in metal half-way up; they have marble moulded caps and bases; the western responds are similar but are set against rectangular abutments, the inner angles (towards the chancel) of which are cut into keeled shafts of freestone with marble caps and bases; they support a moulded and pointed arch against the round wall of the nave-aisle. The stone vault is quadripartite in each bay and has moulded main and diagonal ribs with carved foliage-bosses at the intersections.
The North and South Aisles of the chancel are uniform (16 ft. wide), and have gables with windows at the E. end uniform with the chancelgable and ridged roofs. Each bay in the outer walls on the E., N. and S. (except the third on N.) has three grouped lancets similar to those in the E. wall of the chancel except that the outer internal label-stops are plain; in the third bay on the N. the arrangement is similar but opens into the organ-chamber; in the first and third bays of the N. wall are modern doorways. Between each bay of both aisles are responds similar to the eastern responds of the arcades except in the angles, where there are single marble shafts only. The vault is quadripartite in each bay with moulded main and diagonal ribs and foliage-bosses as to the chancel. In the W. wall of each aisle is a two-centred arch, of two moulded orders, the inner springing from short Purbeck-marble shafts with moulded caps and bases standing on carved head-corbels of freestone. A second two-centred arch, of two moulded orders, further W., opens into the round aisle and rests on two marble shafts on each side with foliated capitals and moulded bases and a moulded band; the larger shaft is stopped at this band and is supported on a carved head of freestone; below the head is a vertical band of carved foliage; the space between these two arches is roofed with a pointed barrel-vault triangular on plan. At the W. end of the N. aisle N. of the eastern arch is a modern round-headed doorway opening into a large stair-turret; a short distance up is a small chamber with plain loops in the S. and E. walls opening into the church. The turret rises three stages; the third having pointed openings and being finished with a pyramidal stone roof all recently restored. All round the outer walls of the chancel and aisles on the E., N. and S. is a moulded marble string-course broken by the vaulting-shafts and responds.
The Nave (30 ft. diam.) was consecrated in 1185 and has a circular arcade (Plate 178) of six bays with moulded two-centred arches springing from piers each formed of four detached circular shafts of Purbeck marble; the shafts under the arches are larger than the other pair, but all have foliated capitals (of differing design) with square abaci, and moulded bases standing on a common octagonal plinth, and a moulded band at half the height. The Triforium (Plate 179) is separated from the arcade below and from the clearstorey above by moulded string-courses; the triforium is divided into bays by round marble vaulting-shafts (banded by the strings above mentioned) which have moulded bases resting on the abaci of the main piers, and foliated capitals at about half the height of the clearstorey, with square abaci. Each bay of the triforium has a wall-arcade of six bays with moulded interlacing semi-circular arches resting on marble shafts with foliated capitals, square abaci and moulded bases; the two middle divisions of each main bay are pierced by openings to the triforium gallery, square-headed on the inside and round-headed on the gallery side. The Clearstorey is divided into bays externally by flat buttresses and has a moulded corbel-table; in each bay is a round-headed window of two plain chamfered orders externally and with stone splay-shafts internally having foliated caps and moulded bases. The nave is covered by a modern wooden vault and pyramidal roof; the moulded wall-ribs and springers of the vault are of stone.
The Aisle (13 ft. wide) has a total diameter with nave 59 ft. The northern part is built of ragstone rubble, probably original; the southern half is faced with ashlar, almost entirely modern. Internally the outer wall is divided into twelve bays by marble vaulting-shafts with foliated capitals all differing, with square abaci, moulded bases and bands; the bands are continued in stone as a string-course and sprung over the W. doorway as a hood; there are no vaulting-shafts between the arches opening into the chancel. Alternate bays of the aisle, including the W. and E. bays, are covered by a quadripartite vault of stone with moulded main and diagonal ribs and carved foliage bosses at the intersections; the intermediate bays have a plain triangular vault with a T-shaped ridge starting above the window. In the E. wall of the E. bay is a moulded and two-centred arch opening into the chancel; it springs from three equal marble shafts with moulded and foliated capitals having a common abacus, moulded bands and bases. Four bays on the N. and four on the S. have each a round-headed window of two orders externally, the outer with attached jamb-shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases; internally they are similar to the clearstorey windows; below the string-course above mentioned is a wall-arcade of six divisions to each bay; the pointed arches have billet-ornament and spring from round freestone shafts with foliated capitals, square abaci, and moulded bases standing on a stone bench; each spandrel of this arcade has a carved human face; one and a half divisions of this arcade remain in each of the two spaces between the three arches opening into the chancel. In the W. bay is the W. doorway (Plate 181) largely original except in the jambs, which are much restored; the semi-circular arch is recessed in seven orders alternately enriched with foliage and moulded; the innermost order is also enriched with a series of grotesque heads amongst the foliage; the jambs have each three detached shafts with foliated capitals, foliated abaci and moulded bases; the abaci are continued over the intermediate orders, each of which terminates below the abacus in a small demi-figure; these orders are differently enriched with (a) the inner, a row of rosettes, (b) a variety of reel-ornament, (c) cheveronornament with foliage, (d) lozenges with foliage. Above the doorway is a round window with a central circle and eight radiating lights. On each side of the W. doorway is one bay of wall-arcade similar to those in the other bays.
The West Porch (Plate 181) is square and externally is almost entirely modern. It has a moulded and pointed archway of two orders in the N., S. and W. walls each springing from three detached shafts with foliated capitals, square abaci and moulded bases. The porch is covered by a quadripartite vault with moulded stone diagonal ribs springing from triple vaulting-shafts in the angles with common foliated capitals and moulded bases. The web of the vault in the E., S. and half the N. cell is of clunch and probably original, the rest is of red brick and probably of the 17th century.
The remains of the lower storey of the Chapel of St. Anne are now contained in an underground chamber to the S.E. of the round nave. They consist of the lower part of the E., S. and W. walls and are all of 13th-century date. Against the greater part of the S. wall is a stone bench and standing on it, in the S.W. angle, is a vaulting-shaft with moulded capital and base; further E. is a respond with three shafts standing on the bench or floor; near the E. end and in the S.E. angle are two more vaulting-shafts with moulded bases. At the E. and W. ends of the chapel are the bases of the buttresses of the main building. The N. wall is of modern brick. A portion of the S. wall retains its original plastering with red masonrylines. Preserved in the chamber are various fragments of worked stone, including shafting, branching-mouldings, late 12th-century caps, mid 13th-century vaulting-ribs, the trefoiled head of a niche, etc.
Fittings—Bell: one by James Bartlett, 1696. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: Outside church on S. side, (1) to Thomas Nash , inscription-plate; (2) to Edward Littleton , elaborate inscribed scrolls with shield-of-arms and 28 smaller shields, 14 on either side. See also monument No. (28). Indents: In churchyard, on N. of church, of civilian with wife, children, shield, foot and marginal inscription, late 16th-century; (2) on Purbeck-marble slab, defaced. Coffin-lids In churchyard—N. of nave, six tapering stone slabs, five of them coped, probably 13th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Monuments: In chancel—in S. aisle, in modern recess in S. wall, (1) probably of Sylvester de Everdon, 1255, Bishop of Carlisle, Purbeck-marble effigy (Plate 184) in high relief, on tapering slab with moulded edge, having a plain trefoiled 'gablet' springing from side-shafts with moulded bases and capitals and square pinnacles with sunk panelling and pyramidal caps; effigy in mass-vestments with mitre, gloves, right hand raised in benediction, left hand holding crosier with foliated crook and veil knotted above knop; foot appearing to impale head of a dragon beneath the bishop's feet; above the 'gablet' are two small angels. On S. wall of S. arch at junction of chancel and round, (2) to John Seldon, 1654, black marble slab set in modern alabaster frame. In round—on N. side, group of four effigies (Plates 182, 185–187), beginning with the two easternmost, (3) effigy in Purbeck marble, hands crossed on breast, legs crossed, head with eyes closed resting on plain cushion; in complete mail finishing at neck, with padded leather cap to carry the great helm, long heater-shaped shield, surcoat to below knees and open in front showing the hauberk and girt round waist with narrow belt, sword and shield, straps ornamented with lozenges, quatrefoils and bars, sword in scabbard on right but outer quillon broken, prick-spurs, effigy carved on slab with hollow-moulded edge, mid 13th-century; (4) S. of (3), effigy in Purbeck marble, hands in prayer, feet on grotesque head, head on plain cushion; in complete mail, including coif, hauberk to knees, etc., with prick-spurs, padded leather cap as to (3), long heater-shaped shield, surcoat to knees, enriched sword and shield-straps, sword on right side; effigy lies on chamfered slab, second quarter of the 13th century; (5) W. of (3), effigy in Purbeck marble, right hand on breast, left behind shield; in complete mail finishing at neck, with throat and head in close-fitting padded leather covering cut round the face, heater shield, plain belts, surcoat to knees, sword on left appearing below shield, with knob at end of scabbard; effigy on plain slab, first half of the 13th century; (6) S. of (5), effigy in Purbeck marble, right hand on breast, left behind shield, legs crossed and head on plain cushion; in complete mail with barrel-helm with ridge down front, prick-spurs, long surcoat to below knees, open in front and showing hauberk to knees, sword on right, plain straps, long heater shield, its surface diapered and charged with an escarbuncle; c. 1260. On S. side (Plates 183, 185–187), beginning with two easternmost, (7) effigy in Purbeck marble with head on plain cushion, right hand on breast, left hand on scabbard of sword, legs crossed; figure in complete mail, with coif, prick-spurs, long heater-shaped shield, surcoat open at bottom and showing hauberk, both to just below knees; buckled sword-strap enriched with beads, sword with large disk-pommel, on plain slab with chamfered edge, mid 13th-century; (8) to S. of (7), effigy said to be Reigate stone, with head on plain cushion, right hand grasping pommel and drawing sword, left holding scabbard, right leg raised, both feet on winged dragon; figure in complete mail, with coif, band round forehead, leather knee-cops or drawers, long heater-shaped shield on left arm, long surcoat to below knees, hauberk to knees, shield-strap enriched with small shields, enriched buckled sword-strap, fluted pommel to sword, slab with hollow-chamfered edge, late 13th-century; (9) W. of (7), effigy said to be of Reigate stone with head on plain cushion, right hand on pommel sheathing sword, left hand holding scabbard, legs crossed, feet on lion; figure in complete mail, with coif, band round forehead, knee-cops as to (8), surcoat to below knees and open from below waist, hauberk to above knees, slit up front, plain sword and shield-straps, heater-shaped shield on left side charged with a lion; plain slab with chamfered edge, last quarter of the 13th century; (10) S. of (9), effigy in Sussex marble with head on octagonal cushion, right hand grasping pommel of sword, sword extending perpendicularly down right side and impaling head of smooth-haired beast (? leopard) on which feet rest; figure in complete mail, with coif, long heater-shaped shield with scabbard below it on left, surcoat below knees open from waist and showing hauberk to above knees, plain belts; slab with spray of stiff-leafed foliage on either side of cushion, third quarter of the 13th century. In round aisle, on N. side; (11) coped slab (Plate 184) of dark marble with moulded edge and hipped ends, ridge and hips with raised band and having on the E. gable a calf's head and on W. gable a lion's face; near middle of ridge, on either side, a volute of foliage, 13th-century, probably first half. On S. side, (12) effigy (Plates 184, 185) said to be of Roche Abbey stone, with bare head on two cushions, hands joined in prayer, legs crossed and feet on lion; figure in complete mail-armour with knee-cops, head with curly hair, mail coif thrown back on shoulders, surcoat to below knees and with sleeves to wrists, hauberk to just above knees, sword-belt ornamented with leopards' heads, sword with disk-pommel and heater-shaped shield on left side charged with three water-bougets for Roos, plain chamfered slab, c. 1300. In triforium of round, on outer wall, beginning at entrance and proceeding E. to S., (13) to Sir John Witham, Bart., 1689, large tablet by Thomas Cartwright, with inscription-frame of bay-leaves flanked by Composite columns and pilasters resting on shelf with trusses below and supporting an entablature with broken scrolled pediment containing achievement-of-arms; under trusses, cherub-heads and, below tablet, draped skull; (14) of Richard Martin, 1615, large monument (Plate 188), consisting of base with plinth and cornice supporting a painted figure wearing long red cloak and ruff, kneeling on cushion before a desk with open book; above, a round-arched canopy with coffered soffit and broken Jacobean cresting, springing from pilasters with ribband-enrichment on face; on front of plinth, shield-of-arms surrounded by wreath; (15) to John, second son of Sir Thomas Ellys, 1686, oval marble tablet enriched with scrolls, palms, foliage, fruit and two cherub-heads and surmounted by cartouche-of-arms; (16) to Sir Thomas Robinson, Bart., 1683, large marble wall-monument, middle part with inscription, curved on plan, and flanked by Corinthian columns standing on brackets and supporting separate entablatures and a common broken and curved pediment enclosing carved foliage and a cartouche-of-arms; below middle part, carved cartouche-of-arms, festoons and cherub-head; (17) to James Howell, 1666, tablet with rectangular inscription-slab in moulded frame flanked by Corinthian columns supporting separate entablatures each surmounted by a vase; above middle of tablet, pediment and achievement-of-arms; (18) of Edmund Plowden, 1584–5, Treasurer of Middle Temple, altar-tomb (Plate 188) with canopy and recumbent painted effigy of man with head on cushion and hands in prayer, wearing skull-cap and long cloak with sham sleeves; altar-tomb with moulded slab and plinth, panelled pilasters at sides and, in middle, carved achievement-of-arms; on either side of figure panelled piers, each with a woman's face in front and supporting an obelisk and semi-circular canopy with coffered soffit enriched with rosettes and surmounted by lamp and remains of Jacobean cresting; at back of recess, frieze of Jacobean reeding with carved putto in middle seated on a skull, and, in tympanum, enriched inscription-panel surmounted by carved fruit, emblems of mortality, etc.; (19) to Thomas and William Jollyffe, 1671 and 1680–1, marble tablet surrounded by moulded frame and flanked by Composite columns supported on shelf and trusses and surmounted by broken scrolled pediment; (20) to Ann (Littleton) wife of Edward Littleton, 1623–4, inscription-tablet and large shield-of-arms with square panel above with winged skull and hour-glass, and below, scrolled brackets and shield; (21) to Ralph Quatreman, 1621, square inscription-tablet, flanked by panelled pilasters with ribband-ornament, etc., supporting an entablature surmounted by small niche containing a skeleton and a small panel; (22) to Thomas Agar, 1673, square inscribed tablet within moulded frame; (23) to Sir William Morton, 1672, Colonel of horse and foot under Charles I, plain inscribed slab with additions of mouldings, etc., at top, probably belonging to another monument; (24) to John Morton, 1668, eldest son of the above and Ann his wife; formerly part of same monument as (23), now made up with other portions, plain inscribed slab surmounted by two carved panels with trophies-of-arms with achievement-of-arms between them; (25) to Ann (Smith) wife of Sir William Morton, 1668–9, originally part of monument (23), plain slab similar to (23) with pieces of monument above; (26) to Sir John Williams, 1668–69, shaped marble cartouche (Plate 189), by John Stone, with cherub-head in base, and, above, large eagle displaying shield-of-arms; (27) to Thomas Williams, 1645, tablet with inscription in ornamental frame with large eagle with shield-of-arms similar to (26). On inner circular wall beginning opposite entrance and continuing E. to S., (28) of Roger Bisshop, 1587, square inscribed tablet with wide scroll-work and foliage-frame and shield-of-arms; above, a square panel with a brass plate with kneeling figure and scroll; (29) to William Freman, monument erected 1701, marble monument (Plate 189) with segmental-headed inscription-tablet within a moulded frame, flanked by Ionic columns supporting entablatures and segmental pediment surmounted by a vase and military trophies; outside columns, carved foliated scrolls and, below columns, moulded shelf with small trusses resting on cherub-heads and, in middle, cartouche-of-arms; (30) to William Petyt, 1707, Treasurer of Inner Temple and Keeper of the Records in the Tower, plain marble tablet with semi-circular head and moulded edges; (31) to Sir John Vaughan, 1674, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, tablet with inscription-panel surrounded by moulded architrave and flanked by Composite columns supporting entablatures with broken scrolled pediment enclosing cartouche-of-arms; (32) to Edward Turnor, 1623, and Arthur his second son, 1651, inscribed and painted slab (Plate 189) of black marble with two divisions each surrounded by a bay-tree with one shield above and three below; slab flanked by half Ionic columns and, above slab, heavy lintel with broken scrolled pediment enclosing two smaller segmental pediments over each division of inscription, each surmounted by a wreathed skull and, in middle, carved cartouche-of-arms; (33) to Clement Coke, 1629–30, inscription-tablet (Plate 189) in moulded frame with clasped hands flanked by two shields above and surmounted by a third shield and, above, a curved pediment and achievement-of-arms; below, two carved brackets and shield-of-arms, the whole probably not in the original form but put together on a modern slab; (34) to Sir Thomas Hanmer, 1687–8, white marble monument (Plate 26) formerly on column and semi-circular on plan, inscription in frame diminishing towards base and resting on two cherub-heads, cornice above continued beyond on two carved brackets, each with a shield-of-arms; above, concave truncated pyramid with an achievement-of-arms flanked by two seated putti; (35) to Thomas Lake, 1711, shaped white marble tablet ornamented with foliage and flowers at sides, surmounted by cornice and achievement-of-arms and, below, draped cartouche-of-arms; (36) to George Wylde, 1679, inscription-tablet (Plate 189) slightly convex on plan flanked by carved foliated scrolls and resting on carved base with cherub-head in middle; above, cornice, surmounted by carved foliated scrolls and achievement-of-arms; (37) to John Churchill, 1709, white marble cartouche on background of carved drapery with trumpets at sides, cherub-head below and, above, shield-of-arms between two cherub-heads; (38) to Sir Samuel Baldwyn, 1683, white marble cartouche with drapery, cherub-head below and, above, cartouche-of-arms; (39) to Sir John Sympson, 1681, serjeant-at-law, white marble cartouche with flowers, foliage, etc., cherub-head on carved bracket below and cartouche-of-arms above; (40) to Sir John King, K.C., 1677, Solicitor-general to James Duke of York, large marble tablet with inscription in carved bay-leaf and foliated frame flanked by Composite columns resting on moulded shelf and supporting entablature with broken scrolled pediment enclosing flaming urn; (41) to James Sloane, 1704, white marble tablet (Plate 26) consisting of draped inscription hanging from bunch of flowers with shield-of-arms in front, two cherubs above drapery and one below; (42) to Edward Eaton, 1687, white marble scrolled tablet with winged skull below and shield-of-arms above; (43) to William Ceely, 1662, white marble cartouche with drapery, acanthus and foliage and cartouche-of-arms at top, erected after 1682; (44) to Mary Gaudy, 1671, Bassingborne and William, her two brothers and Framlingham Gaudy her cousin, all 1660–1, curved marble tablet in moulded frame with carved fruit and supports at sides, cherub-head at base and scrolls above with cartouche-of-arms in middle; (45) to Roland Jewkes, 1665, large tablet with inscription in moulded frame with cherub-head in top, flanked by Ionic columns supporting entablature with broken scrolled pediment with flaming urn in middle connected to sides of pediment by carved swags; (46) to Edmund Gybbon, 1677, white marble tablet by W. Stanton in form of drapery surmounted by achievement-of-arms; (47) to Hutton Byerley, 1695, white marble tablet with moulded cornice, broken pediment and shield-of-arms; (48) to Henry Wynn, 1671, marble tablet (Plate 189) flanked by Composite pilasters surmounted by entablature with broken scrolled pediment enclosing achievement-of-arms; (49) to Sir George Treby, 1700, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, large white marble tablet, with middle part with inscription semi-circular in plan and having two winged cherub-heads at top and base carved with trumpets, scales, palm-leaves, flowers, etc.; flanking middle part, two twisted Composite columns resting on carved brackets and supporting an entablature and curved pediment with cartouche-of-arms in middle and tympanum carved with foliage in low relief; (50) to John Denne, 1648, painted stone tablet flanked on either side by a row of five shields, surmounted by cornice and broken pediment enclosing cartouche-of-arms and having, below, large shield-of-arms flanked by carved scrolls. Floor-slabs: now in churchyard, N. of church—(1) to John F . . . ns, 1686 (?), partly defaced; (2) to Sir Thomas Clarke, 1660, and Mary his wife, 1672; (3) name effaced, with shield-of-arms, late 17th-century; (4) to Robert Hunt, 1676, with achievement-of-arms; (5) to John Fitz-James, 1669; (6) to John Thacham, 1685; (7) to Francis Jeremy, 1668; (8) to William Petyt ; (9) to Samuel Corbet, 1701, Sarah his wife, 1713, and another later; (10) to Edward Barnard, 1660; (11) to William Langston, 1655; (12) to Sir John King, 1677. On S. side, (13) to Richard Ball, S.T.P., 16, chaplain to Charles II with shield-of-arms. Organ: originally built by Bernard Schmidt in 1688, but added to and reconstructed on several occasions and removed from its original position. Plate: includes two large cups of 1609 inscribed with the names of George Croke and Nicholaus Overburye, 1610; two coverpatens of the same date; two stand-patens of 1627 with cartouche-of-arms; three flagons of 1637, two with same arms; and a flagon of 1639.
(8) House of the Master of the Temple stands at the N. end of the garden at the E. end of the Temple church. It is of three storeys with attics and a cellar. The walls are of brick with stone dressings; the roof is covered with slate. The house was re-built in 1667 after the Great Fire which had consumed the former house erected a few years previously. An addition was made on the E. side of the house in 1765, and the earlier building was re-roofed in 1764. The interior has been considerably modernised. The front or S. Elevation (Plate 190) is symmetrically designed. It has a plinth, stone bands between the storeys, stone quoins and a modillioned eaves-cornice of wood. The middle of the front projects slightly; over it the main cornice is carried up in a pediment. There are six square-headed windows to the ground-floor and seven to the two upper floors; the windows have flush frames, but most of these and the hung sashes have been renewed. In the roof are flat-topped dormers. The entrance-doorway in the middle of the ground-floor is of stone, square-headed, with a moulded architrave and panelled pilasters with console-brackets supporting a moulded cornice and curved pediment. The W. Elevation has brick bands between the storeys. The eaves-cornice from the front is returned for only a few feet on this elevation, the greater part of the wall being carried up in a plain brick parapet. The house has been built against on the N. side, and on the E. end are the late 18th-century additions. Inside the building on the ground-floor the Dining Room, at the W. end of the house, is lined with 18th-century moulded panelling in two heights with a moulded cornice, dado-rail and skirting. The hall is lined with 18th-century panelling. On the first floor the staircase and a large landing occupy the whole of the middle part of the house, the staircase being built against the N. wall. The landing is lined with bolection-moulded panelling in two heights with a moulded cornice, dado-rail and skirting; across the ceiling is a panelled beam supported on Doric pilasters against the side walls. One room on the first floor has plain panelled partitions and a moulded cornice. The staircase from the ground to first floor is of early 18th-century date and has twisted balusters, carved cut string, moulded handrails and square newels with an open moulded panel on each face with a twisted baluster in the middle. The first-floor landing and the upper part of the staircase (Plate 201) have heavy turned balusters, moulded string and handrail and square newels.
(9) Inner Temple, hall, and chambers in King's Bench Walk and Fig Tree Court, lies on the eastern side of the Temple Liberty. The Society of the Inner Temple together with that of the Middle Temple first settled on this site at some uncertain date in the 14th century. The two societies held the old precinct of the Knights Templars from their successors the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, having the common use of the Temple church as their private chapel. The old Hall of the Inner Temple was built probably in the 14th century but was pulled down and re-built in 1868–70, leaving only two vaulted rooms at the W. end. The other buildings suffered from a series of fires late in the 17th century, including the Great Fire of 1666; the chambers in King's Bench Walk and Fig Tree Court were re-built after one or other of these fires and mostly still survive. The Inner Temple Gateway into Fleet Street was apparently reconstructed in 1748 and is described under No. 17 Fleet Street (Monument 18) which is built over it.
The Inner Temple Hall was re-built in 1868–70 with the exception of a small apartment at the W. end which is incorporated in the new building. It is known as the "buttery" and has a crypt or cellar of the same date and size below it. The buttery (16¼ ft. by 14 ft.) is probably of 14th-century date and is roofed with a quadripartite vault with hollow-chamfered ribs which spring from the floor-level. The walls and the web of the vault are plastered. The crypt has a similarly vaulted roof and a large recess in the N. end, in which is a Tudor fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred head with blank shields in the foliated spandrel. Above the fireplace is a re-set stone bracket of c. 1500 carved with an angel holding two shields, (a) a cheveron charged with a molet between three lions' heads razed; (b) five palets, on a chief three lozenges. In the W. wall are two small cupboards, one to the W. of the recess with a rebated arched head, the other in the E. jamb of the recess and square with rebated jambs and head.
Refixed high up on the E. wall of the modern Hall is a large painted panel with an arched head. It was formerly on the end wall of the earlier Hall, occupying the space enclosed by the arched principals of the roof, and represents Pegasus leaping from the summit of Mount Helicon with the Fountain of Hippocrene rising from the ground beneath his hoof, with Mercury and the Arts and Sciences in attendance. It was painted for the Society by Sir James Thornhill in 1709. Two refixed Elizabethan doors also remain, one (Plate 194) at the N. end of the 'screens' passage, the other in the S. wall of the corridor on the S. side of the Hall. They are of similar character elaborately carved on one side and plain on the other, and are each pierced by a central wicket with a semi-circular head; the wickets are elaborately carved with Elizabethan ornament and each have an iron ring hanging from a lion's mask; the wickets are surmounted by ornamented rusticated architraves carved on the main door and flanked by panelled pilasters carved with torsos, musical instruments, fruit, etc., and surmounted by shaped brackets supporting seated figures carved in low relief with carved cartouches between them; the door on the S. side of the Hall is dated 1575.
The Benchers' Reading Room (Plate 197) adjoining the E. end of the Hall is lined with early 18th-century oak panelling, but the date of the structure of this part of the building is indeterminate. The panelling was scraped of its paint and renovated a few years ago. The panelling is bolection-moulded and in two heights with moulded skirting, dado-rail and moulded and enriched cornice; the doorways have bolection-moulded architraves. The projecting piece on the E. wall has a modern fireplace surmounted by a modern oak panel, above which is a long original panel of oak with enriched bolection-mouldings; carved on the panel, in full relief, in a lighter wood, are branches of oak and laurel-leaves with floral swags supported at either end of the panel by small cherubs with shields; above the panel, seated on scrolls, are two cherubs, each holding a snake and a scroll with, between them, a carved cartouche inscribed "T. Thoma Walker AR" surmounted by a Pegasus and with the date "1705" below; flanking the carving are swags of leaves and flowers, fish and shells, surmounted by small birds.
The modern Library contains, in the S. window, two panels of heraldic glass from Clifford's Inn. The first bears the name of Sir Edward Coke, but the arms are probably those of Heath; the second bears the name of Sir Thomas Bromley, 1680, but the arms are probably those of Hicks; both panels have scrolled borders and are of 17th-century date.
King's Bench Walk. Nos. 1 and 2 stand at the N. end and on the E. side of the walk. The buildings are each of three storeys with attics and basements. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. They were built late in the 17th century after the Great Fire. No. 2 was altered in the first half of the 18th century when the main staircase above the first floor was reconstructed, and the interior has been considerably modernised. The interior of No. 1 has also been altered at later dates. The W. or front elevation of No. 1 has a plinth and brick bands between the storeys and a later brick parapet and attics. The middle part of the front projects slightly. The central entrance-doorway has a semi-circular head with moulded imposts; it is flanked by panelled brick pilasters which support moulded cornices and a pediment. The windows have square heads and are fitted with later flush frames and sashes, except that over the doorway which has a solid frame, mullion and transom. The W. front of No. 2 is generally similar to that of No. 1, but has a stone band at the first-floor level and retains its moulded wood cornice. There are flat-topped dormers in the roof, which is hipped at the S.W. angle. Inside the building No. 1 has an original staircase in the middle of the W. side on either side of which, on each floor, is a set of chambers. Some of the rooms retain their original panelling, either plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with cornices, dado-rails and skirtings. Some of the old fireplaces remain; one on the first floor has a black marble bolection-moulded surround; another in the N.E. room on the ground-floor has a moulded and eared architrave flanked by scrolled brackets, pulvinated frieze and moulded shelf surmounted by an overmantel with panelled pilasters at either side, over which the main cornice is returned. The staircase has straight moulded strings and handrail, turned balusters and square newels. The interior of No. 2 has been much altered and modernised. The main staircase from the ground to the first floor is original and of similar character to the staircase in No. 1; above the first floor it is of later date. A back stair is original from the basement to the top floor and has turned balusters, straight moulded strings and handrail and square newels with turned pendants.
Nos. 3 to 6 form blocks of chambers on the E. side of the walk immediately N. of the way through to Tudor Street, and are of four storeys with basements; all have attics except No. 3. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. No. 4 was re-built in 1678 after a fire in the previous year which destroyed this and perhaps the adjoining blocks of chambers that had been recently erected on the site. Various alterations have since been made to the buildings; some of the rooms have been altered and others completely modernised. The W. or front elevations have plinths and brick bands between the storeys. Owing to the slope of the ground towards the river these are not continuous, as the floor-levels of each building are respectively a few feet higher than those of the adjoining building on the S. No. 4 has a modillioned cornice of deep projection at the eaves, but the remaining buildings have later brick parapets. The walling has in some places been re-built, including that to the top floor of No. 3. The front of each building is symmetrically designed with a central doorway and square-headed windows; the windows to the basement have been, in some cases, enlarged for doorways. The front to No. 3 differs slightly from the other fronts in the number of its windows. Except the windows on the first and second floors immediately above the doorway of No. 3, which have solid frames, mullions, and transoms, all the windows on this front have hung sashes and flush frames, but most of these have been renewed. The entrance-doorway to No. 3 is round-headed and is flanked by Doric pilasters supporting an entablature and segmental pediment, all in rubbed brick. The entrance to No. 4 (Plate 192) is also in rubbed brick; it has a round-headed doorway with a plain key and moulded imposts and is flanked by Doric pilasters with acanthus-leaf enrichment to the caps, supporting an entablature with a pediment; between the triglyphs of the frieze is the following re-painted inscription, "Conflagratam, An°. 1677 Fabricatam An°. 1678 Richardo Powell Armiger Thesaurar." The doorway to No. 5 (Plate 192) has a round arch with moulded archivolt and imposts; flanking it on each side are two Corinthian pilasters with an engaged column of the same order in advance of them; they support a continuous entablature and a segmental pediment. The whole doorway is executed in rubbed brick except the capitals and bases to the columns and pilasters, which are of stone. The doorway to No. 6 is uniform with the doorway to No. 4, but the caps to the flanking pilasters are without enrichment. In front of the areas between the entrance-doorways to Nos. 4 and 5 the original wrought-iron railing remains; the alternate stanchions have foliated ends and the railing is divided into lengths by ornamental panelled standards and baluster-shaped posts on panelled pedestals. The E. elevations to Temple Lane appear to have been refronted at a later date; the brickwork to the southern end of No. 6 is modern, as is also that to the back of No. 3. The windows have segmental heads and hung sashes except those lighting the staircase, which are transomed and mullioned. The S. elevation to No. 6 is modern. Inside the building, each block has a central staircase, on either side of which, on each floor, is a set of chambers. The staircases are original and have straight moulded strings and handrails, turned balusters and square newels. Each set of chambers has an inner and outer entrance-door. The outer doors are mostly original and are flush on the inside, panelled on the outside, and hung on two heavy strap-hinges. Some of the rooms are lined with original panelling either plain or bolection-moulded and in two heights with cornices, dado-rails and skirtings and several retain original two-panelled bolection-moulded doors. Several rooms have old fireplaces with bolection-moulded surrounds of marble or wood or plain marble surrounds with outer wood mouldings; a few have panelled marble surrounds. In No. 4, on the first floor, the W. room on the N. side of the staircase, has an original fireplace with an enriched wood bolection-moulded surround, a moulded shelf enriched with acanthus leaves, and an enriched bolection-moulded panel to the overmantel flanked by carved swags of flowers hanging from ribbands; the main cornice above the chimney-breast is also enriched. On the second floor, the room above that just described has a modern fireplace flanked by original panelled pilasters enriched with carved swags and supporting a moulded and carved shelf carved with acanthus leaves; the overmantel has a central panel with enriched mouldings with panelled pilasters at the sides with swags of fruit, flowers and leaves and supporting the main cornice, which, over the chimney-piece, is enriched. In No. 5, on the first floor, the main W. room on the S. side of the staircase has an enriched cornice and enriched door and window-architraves. The corresponding room on the second floor has a fireplace with a moulded surround, pulvinated frieze, moulded cornice and an overmantel with a central panel flanked by panelled pilasters. In No. 6, on the second floor, the main W. room on the S. side of the staircase has a fireplace with an eared marble surround with enriched outer moulding of wood, a frieze carved with two conventional dolphins, a moulded and enriched shelf and an enriched bolection-moulded panel above; the main cornice over the chimney-breast is here coved.
No. 7, block of chambers, immediately S. of roadway leading to Tudor Street, is of four storeys with a basement. The walls are of brick, the roof is tiled. The building which formerly stood on the site was destroyed by fire in 1683 and the present building was erected shortly afterwards. There is a later addition at the back, and the back and end walls appear to have been refronted. Inside the building several of the rooms have been altered, some of the old partitions have been removed and others inserted. The front or W. elevation is symmetrically designed and is generally similar to the corresponding fronts of the more northerly chambers already described. It has a modillioned eaves-cornice. The window-frames and sashes have mostly been renewed. The central entrance-doorway has a segmental head and is flanked by panelled pilasters surmounted by brackets supporting a segmental pediment. Inside the building the arrangement and design of the chambers are generally similar to those already described. The staircase is original and several of the rooms have old panelling. On the ground-floor the W. room on the N. side of the entrance passage is more elaborate than the majority of the rooms. It is lined in two heights with bolection-moulded panelling and has a moulded cornice enriched with acanthus leaves, and a moulded dado-rail and skirting. The two six-panelled doors in the E. wall are bolection-moulded and have enriched bolection-moulded architraves and plain friezes with scroll-brackets at the sides supporting moulded or enriched cornices; above the cornices to the doors and the main cornice are carved panels of scroll-work. There is an enriched member to the window-architraves. On the first floor, on the S. side of the southernmost chimney-stack, is a small closet with a small coved recess, having a semi-circular head and shaped shelves.
Fig Tree Court (Plate 199) is situated to the W. of Inner Temple Hall. The range of buildings on the N. side of the Court is of two storeys with basements. The walls are of red brick and the roof is covered with lead. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century after the fire which occurred in the Temple in 1678–9. The original roof has since been replaced by a flat roof covered with lead and some of the windows on the back elevation have been altered, as has also the interior. The front or S. elevation to Fig Tree Court has a plinth, a plain brick band at the level of the first floor and a modillioned eaves-cornice of wood. There is a low area in front of the basement-windows protected by an 18th-century iron railing. The middle of the front projects slightly and round it the cornice breaks. The windows are square-headed and have flush frames and sashes, but all of these appear to have been renewed. In the middle of the ground-floor is a round-headed archway with plain impost-blocks and keystone. It gives entrance to a passage through the middle of the building to an alley-way connecting the Cloisters to Elm Court. The back or N. elevation appears to have originally been similar to the S. front, but without any central projection and with a moulded eaves-cornice without modillions. It is now whitewashed, and the arrangement of the windows has been altered, some being blocked and others enlarged; two of the windows to the upper floors have solid frames, mullions and transoms. The chambers on the E. side of the central passage are entered from the passage through an old doorway with a two-panelled bolection-moulded door. Inside the building the chambers on the S. side of the central passage have been considerably altered. Some of the rooms have plain panelling and old cornices, and two have old surrounds to the fireplaces. The staircase to the upper floor is original and has turned balusters, straight moulded string and square newels. The chambers on the W. side of the central passage have had the entrance-hall altered and an 18th-century staircase inserted rising to the upper floor. Some of the rooms are lined with old panelling, either plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with moulded cornices and dado-rails. On the ground-floor one room has a fireplace with a bolection-moulded stone surround and moulded shelf. In another room is a fireplace with an eared marble surround with an outer moulding of oak, an enriched pulvinated frieze and enriched and dentilled moulded shelf. On the first floor one room has an early 18th-century fireplace with an eared marble surround, with an enriched outer wood moulding, a frieze carved with a woman's head with fruit and flower swags, and at either end small enriched panels; the fireplace has a moulded shelf and an overmantel with eared corners with small swags at the sides; it is surmounted by a broken scroll-pediment with a shell in the middle; the middle of the overmantel is occupied by a modern mirror. The two doorways in this room each have the architraves surmounted by pulvinated friezes and moulded cornices. The room adjoining has a similar doorway.
(10) Middle Temple, hall, chambers in Lamb Building, the Cloisters, Pump Court, Elm Court, Brick Court, Essex Court, New Court and Middle Temple Lane, Middle Temple Gatehouse, Little Gate and Fountain, lies on the western side of the Temple Precinct. The Hall was built in 1562–73, but the whole of the rest of the buildings to be described date from late in the 17th or early in the 18th century.
The Middle Temple Hall stands on the S. side of Fountain Court. It is of one storey with a basement. The walls are of brick with stone dressings, partly painted and partly of Portland stone; the roofs are covered with slates. It was in process of building in 1562, and the date 1570 which appears above the gallery at the E. end of the Hall suggests the opening of the building in that year. The roof was repaired at various times in the 17th century. In 1732 a new cupola with a weather-vane replaced the former central feature on the roof, the embattled parapet added on the N. side in 1745 and the Portland-stone dressings were added and other alterations made in 1757–8. Probably at the same time the W. end was strengthened and the S. oriel refaced. The Porch and the existing lantern are modern, and modern buildings have been added at the E. end and on the S. side of the building.
The N. Elevation is of seven bays, of which the first is occupied by the modern porch and the seventh by the N. oriel. The remaining bays are divided by buttresses of three stages with 18th-century stone dressings and the wall has a modern parapet. Each of the second to the sixth bays has a square-headed window of two elliptical-headed lights to the basement, all completely restored and having moulded external reveals. Above each is a square-headed window with transom and four elliptical-headed lights, lighting the Hall. The middle mullion in each case has an extra member and the jambs have moulded external reveals. The N. oriel has 18th-century rusticated angles and a four-light N. window similar to those described. The E. Elevation is concealed below by modern buildings. The facing and gable above are also modern. In the centre is a large double-transomed and elliptical-headed window of six pointed lights with pierced spandrels. It is considerably restored. The S. Elevation is similar to the N., but the lower storey is concealed by modern buildings adjoining. The S. oriel, refaced probably in the 18th century, has a modern parapet and a five-light square-headed S. window with three transoms and a wood lintel. The W. Elevation is all modern refacing below the gable. The window in the gable is like that in the E. wall, but has only one transom. At the basement-level are two modern doorways, now transformed into windows but perhaps representing original openings; between them is a modern two-light window.
The Interior (Plate 193) of the Hall (101 ft. by 40 ft.) is of seven bays, of which the easternmost is occupied by the 'screens' with a gallery above. The N. and S. walls are lined with panelling up to the level of the window-sills; the panelling is in four heights and surmounted by an entablature with triglyphs and metopes in the frieze, the latter being enriched with ornamental plaques. The W. wall and the 'oriels' which project on either side of the westernmost bay are lined with similar panelling which is taken up, in six heights, to a higher level on the W. wall; on the N. side of the N. 'oriel' the panelling varies and has two fluted Doric pilasters flanking a buffet. The Hall has an open timber roof (Plate 195) with double hammer-beam trusses dividing the bays. Though constructed on mediæval lines, the detail is of Renaissance character and the mouldings of the main timbers are of classic form. At about midway between the floor and the wall-plate are moulded corbels surmounted by square panelled pedestals, from which rise the wall-posts and the curved lower hammer-braces; the mouldings of the lower hammer-beams are those of a classic entablature and the lower side-posts terminate in elaborate turned pendants with a square cap above, from the soffit of which hang smaller pendants at the angles; the upper hammer-beams with their side-posts are similar to those below, and from both hammer-beams spring four-way curved braces; the longitudinal braces form arches below the purlins and have turned pendants at the apex; the braces below the collars form four-centred arches; in the middle of each arch is a moulded pendant, and above the collars is a row of posts in the form of small columns standing on pedestals; similar columns form the ashler-pieces.
The screen (Plate 194) is in five bays with openings in the second and fourth divisions and supports the front to the gallery above the 'screens.' The bays to the lower part are divided by fluted Doric columns which stand on panelled pedestals and support, over the middle and end bays, dentilled architraves and convex friezes ornamented with strapwork-enrichment with jewel-ornament above; over this and across the whole screen is carried a full Doric entablature with metopes and triglyphs in the frieze, with the former enriched with ornamental plaques or medallions; above each column the entablature breaks forward and on the frieze, in place of the triglyphs, is a carved bracket; on each of the front panels of the pedestals below the columns flanking the openings is carved a figure of Hercules; the openings have semi-circular arches with enriched archivolts and soffits and moulded imposts supported on carved terminal figures (Plate 47) standing on panelled pedestals; above the arches are carved brackets and, in the panelled spandrels, winged female figures each holding a wreath and a palmbranch; below the imposts the openings are filled by doors, but these were not added until 1671; the door-posts are enriched with carved cherub-heads and pendants and the doors are each in two leaves with the capping curved downwards to the middle style; each leaf is in three panels with enriched mouldings, carved enrichment on the styles, carved swags on the middle rail, pierced and carved scrolls to the middle panels and carved foliage to the upper panels; the enriched capping is surmounted by wrought-iron chevaux-de-frieze with spikes alternating with fleur-de-lis and scroll ends. The gallery-front above the main entablature, has the bays divided by terminal figures, standing on pedestals and surmounted by Ionic capitals supporting a continuous entablature with an elaborately enriched frieze and modillioned cornice; on the frieze are carved grotesque masks; the base to the gallery-front is formed of a plinth of carved panels; between the terminal figures the closed front of the gallery stops at about half the height of the figures; each bay is in three divisions; the middle division has a round-headed niche flanked by small fluted Ionic pilasters and contains a small female figure with varying attributes, and each of the side divisions is filled with an elaborately carved Jacobean cartouche; the closed front is surmounted by an enriched convex capping and over each of the small pilasters is a carved mask; between the closed front and the upper entablature each bay is divided by a central post which is panelled at the sides and back and has carved, on the front, a satyr in full relief; below the upper entablature each division has coupled enriched arches which spring off carved corbels and terminate, in the middle, on a pendant carved in the form of an Ionic capital. The 'screens' have a plain plastered ceiling below the gallery. The E. side of the screen has a panelled dado with moulded base and capping; this projects slightly below the fluted Doric pilasters which divide the screen into bays and support a continuous entablature. At the S. end of the 'screens' passage is a doorway with a four-centred head and a late 16th-century door; the door is in two leaves, plain on the S. side but towards the 'screens' it is elaborately decorated and divided by a central and side fluted Doric pilasters supporting a frieze enriched with jewel-ornament; the arched head above is ornamented with radiating fluting; between the main pilasters are semi-circular arches, enriched and with foliated spandrels; they spring off smaller Doric pilasters which are also fluted. Glass: In E. window are the following shields-of-arms set within various architectural compositions with scroll-work, flanking Corinthian and other columns, cartouches, etc., with inscriptions below, and in the bottom of two middle lights of upper row the date 1570 in large figures—in upper row, (a) George Snigg, 1602; (b) Thomas Denton and John Hugford; (c) Matthew Smith and Thomas Dudley; (d) Edward Ameridith, 1574, and Thomas Aldersaye, 70; (e) Thomas Andrews and Edward Osborne; (f) Richard Carew of Athoy. In second range, (a) Francis Saunders and Thomas Walcot; (b) John, Lord Peter and Sir Nicholas Hyde, 1626; (c) Sir Anthony Browne and Sir John Popham; (d) Miles Sandes and Sir Walter Pye; (e) George Nichols 1559; (f) John Agmondisham and Sir Edward Turner. In third range, in elliptical panels with wreaths, (a) Matthew Evens; (b) Sir William Perriam; (c) William Wheatley; (d) Henry Somaster; (e) Humphrey Moseley; (f) John Huyde. In N. wall—in first window, (a) Sir William Weston; (b) Thomas Fortiscue; (c) Walter Dowriche; (d) Sir John Clifton; (e) Thomas Fermer; (f) Thomas Eynes; (g) Christopher George. In second window, (a) Richard Hackluyt; (b) Philip Jermyn; (c) John Savell; (d) Thomas Nichols; (e) John Ashefield; (f) Edmund Buckenham; (g) William Fleetwood; (h) Henry Vernon. In third window, (a) Sir Robert Napper; (b) [Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, K.G.], within garter surmounted by a coronet; (c) George, Lord Audley, surmounted by a coronet; (d) Sir Edward Sanders (Plate 196); (e) Sir Walter Rawleighe; (f) John Popham; (g) Edward, Lord Windsor (Plate 196); (h) Sir Thomas Barington; (i) Edward, Lord Stafford; (j) Sir Augustus Nicholls; (k) Francis Morgan; (l) Christopher Turnor. In fourth window, (a) George Carey; (b) Sir Maurice Barkely; (c) Peter Vavasor; (d) Thomas Fanshew; (e) Nicholas Havard; (f) Lewis Fortescewe; (g) Thomas Powle; (h) Sir James Dyer (Plate 196); (i) Richard Moldworth; (j) Edward Fenner; (k) William Rede; (l) Thomas Gent. In fifth window, (a) Lewis, Lord Mordant; (b) [William, Earl of Worcester], within a garter surmounted by a coronet (Plate 196); (c) [George Earl of Huntingdon], with a garter surmounted by a coronet; (d) Edward Hodye; (e) Andrew Corbet; (f) Henry Ferres (Plate 196); (g) George Grenfeilde; (h) Richard Weston; (i) Sir Thomas Edmonds; (j) George Frevill. In N. oriel window, (a) Edmund Mervin; (b) Sir Henry Calthorpe; (c) Sir David Williams; (d) Sir Edward Phelips, 1610. In S. wall—in first window, (a) John Newcourt; (b) Sir Christopher Browne; (c) Richard Lewkner; (d) Edward Martyn; (e) Sir William Periam; (f) Thomas Hatton; (g) Thomas Tresham; (h) Thomas Meade. In second window, (a) Richard Ingepene; (b) Nicholas Luke; (c) John Talbot; (d) John Spenser; (e) Ralph Sheldon; (f) Thomas Morgan; (g) John Ratcliff; (h) Sir Christopher Heydon (Plate 196). In third window, (a) Thomas Carus; (b) Lewis Stuart, Duke of Richmond, within a garter surmounted by a coronet (modern restoration); (c) George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, within a garter surmounted by a coronet (modern restoration); (d) Sir Edward Hoby; (e) Sir George Denys; (f) Ferdinand, Lord Strange; (g) John, Lord Darcy; (h) Sir John Throgmorton; (i) Richard Parker; (j) Sir Thomas Malet, 1641; (k) Sir Robert Barkely, 1632; (l) Sir Francis Hervey, 1626. In fourth window, (a) Edward Horsey; (b) Sir Humphrey Browne; (c) John Southcote; (d) Sir William Babthorp; (e) Edward Stampe; (f) Sir Hugh Pawlet; (g) Sir John Bramston; (h) Robert Jermyne, 1574; (i) Pepys; (j) George Sydenham. In fifth window, (a) Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague; (b) [George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury], within a garter surmounted by a coronet; (c) [Charles Blount, Earl of Devon], within a garter surmounted by a coronet; (d) Thomas Meynell; (e) George Gascoigne; (f) Tristram Mychell; (g) Richard Ferrers; (h) Reynold Braye; (i) Sir Henry Mountague; (j) Puleston; (k) Robert Hyde; (l) Sir Robert Catlyn. In S. oriel window (repaired 1735–1787), (a) Sir James Whitlock, 1624; (b) Sir Nicholas Lechmere, 1689; (c) Edmund Plowden; (d) Sir Edward Montagu; (e) Sir Geoffrey Palmer, Bart.; (f) William Montagu; (g) Sir Henry Hatsell; (h) Robert Tracy; (i) 18th-century; (j) Sir Robert Hyde; (k) Sir Peyton Ventris; (l) Sir George Treby; (m) achievement - of - arms of Edward, Earl of Clarendon; (n) achievement-of-arms of Thomas, Lord Clifford of Chudleigh; (o) achievement-of-arms of Henry, Earl of Clarendon, 1685; (p) Sir Henry Gould; (q) Sir Edmund Saunders; (r) achievement-of-arms of Laurence, Earl of Rochester, 1685, within a garter surmounted by a coronet all under a curtained canopy; (s) 18th-century; (t) 18th-century; (u) achievement-of-arms of John, Lord Sommers, 1698; (v) achievement-of-arms of Francis, Lord North, 1682, under curtained canopy. In W. wall, in W. window (Plate 14) (a) within cartouche of scroll-work, shield-of-arms of the Middle Temple; within cartouches of scroll-work surmounted by crowns, (b) a fleur-de-lis; (c) a rose; (d) a pomegranate; (e) a falcon and fetterlock; (f) similar to (a); (g) Royal Arms of the Stuarts within a garter surmounted by a crown; (h) within cartouche of scroll-work surmounted by a crown, the arms of England; (i) Royal Arms of the Tudors within a garter surmounted by a crown; (j) similar to (i); (k) similar to (h); (l) similar to (g).
In the Basement at the foot of the stair from the ground-floor is a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; it is fitted with an old nail-studded door, plain on the inside but towards the staircase with a moulded surround and vertical ribs planted on the surface; it is hung on two strap-hinges and was placed in its present position a few years ago.
Lamb Building (Plate 190) stands in Tanfield Court immediately S. of the Temple Church. It is an isolated rectangular building of four storeys with attics and a basement. The walls are of red brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built in 1666–7 immediately after the Great Fire. Alterations have since been made to the roof and the present parapet probably replaces a former eaves-cornice. Inside the building several of the rooms have been modernised and the plans of some of the chambers have been altered by the removal of old or the insertion of later partitions. The front or W. elevation is symmetrically designed and has a plinth and brick bands between the storeys and below the parapet. There are six square-headed sash-windows to the ground-floor and seven to each of the three upper floors; the windows have flush frames, but most of these and the sashes have been renewed. Below the ground-floor windows are square-headed recesses, pierced for ventilation, and the attics have flat-topped dormers. The entrance-doorway in the middle of the ground-floor projects slightly in front of the general wall-face. It has a semi-circular arched head with projecting imposts and is surmounted by a pedimental hood of wood supported on scroll-brackets carved with lions' heads on the fronts and acanthus-leaf on the soffits; on the tympanum is carved an 'Agnus Dei.' The doorway is approached by a flight of seven steps flanked by plain iron railings. The roof is hipped. The E. elevation is similar to the W. front and has, to each floor, a range of six windows with a central square-headed recess or blocked window. The end elevations are covered with plaster and have windows similar to those on the front; some of these are blocked. Inside the building there is a central staircase on the W. side of the house on either side of which, on each floor, is a set of chambers. Each set of chambers appears originally to have consisted of three rooms, two on the E. side and one on the W. side of the building, with a passage against the staircase-wall and a cupboard between the back of the staircase and the W. wall of the inner E. room. Some of the rooms retain their bolection-moulded panelling, which is in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and skirting; other rooms are similarly lined with plain panelling. A few of the rooms have old fireplaces. On the ground-floor the S. wall of the S.W. room is lined with long narrow vertical panelling with hollow-chamfered styles. On the second floor, one room on the E. side of the S. set of chambers which retains its original bolection-moulded panelling has a good original fireplace; it is of marble with a bolection-moulded architrave with a panelled frieze flanked by small brackets and a moulded and enriched cornice. On the third floor, the S.E. room is lined with re-used early to mid 17th-century panelling in five heights of square panels, each of which is divided saltirewise in four raised triangular panels; flanking the doors are panelled pilasters.
The Cloisters (Plate 191) stand to the S. of the W. end of the Temple Church and form the E. end of Pump Court. They are of four storeys. The walls are of red brick and Portland stone; the roofs are tiled. They were re-built from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren in 1681 on the site of the former cloisters which were destroyed in the fire of 1678–9. The building is rectangular and at the N. end is a later small semi-octagonal projection containing a staircase; there is a second staircase on the W. side of the S. end overlooking Pump Court. Part of the wall to the top floor at the S. end of the E. front appears to have been re-built and the former eaves-cornice was replaced by parapet-walls in the 19th century. There was originally a small wing projecting eastwards from the N. end of the building which was taken down in 1825; this no doubt contained the original N. staircase, the present staircase being modern. The E. elevation is of red brick with projecting bands between the storeys. The ground-floor has an arcade of eight open arches in Portland stone. They are semi-circular with plain keystones and rest on square piers with plain imposts and bases. Each of the three upper floors has a range of eight square-headed windows with flush frames and sashes which have generally been renewed. The W. elevation to Pump Court is similar but of five bays only, the remaining three southernmost bays being covered by the S. range of Pump Court. An inserted panel above the arcade reads "Vetustissima Templariorum Porticu Igne consumpta An° 1679. Nova haec sumptibus medii Templi exstructa An° 1681. Guilelmo Whitelocke Arm. Thesaur°." A similar inscription is repeated on the E. and N. fronts. The N. elevation was originally in two bays with semi-elliptical arches on the ground-floor and square-headed windows above; the E. bay is now concealed by the 19th-century annexe. Inside the building the ground-floor forms an open loggia or ambulatory two bays wide and stone flagged. Along the middle runs a colonnade of seven columns of the Doric order supporting a plain beam. On each of the upper floors are three sets of chambers, two entered off the S. staircase and one off the N. staircase. Some of the rooms have been altered and modernised. Others are lined with old panelling, plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings. Several of the old panelled doors remain and some retain their old brass rim-locks, finger-plates, etc. A few of the rooms retain old fireplaces with stone or marble surrounds. On the second floor, to the middle set of chambers, across the inner hall, is a semi-elliptical arch, with moulded archivolt, panelled soffit, carved cherub-head key and carved foliated spandrels; one respond has been removed and the other is panelled and has a moulded cap. The staircase at the S. end of the building has turned balusters, moulded string and handrail and square newels. The lower part of the flight from the ground-floor to the first floor has been altered.
Pump Court (Plate 198) lies between Tanfield Court on the E. and Middle Temple Lane on the W. Chambers Nos. 1, 2 and 3 stand on the S. side of the Court, Nos. 4 and 5 stand at the W. end, and the return end of No. 5 and No. 6 stands on the W. end of the N. side. Adjoining No. 6 on the E. with the back elevation to Pump Court is No. 1 Hare Court and across the E. end of the Court are the Cloisters. The buildings are of four storeys with basements. The walls are of red brick; the roofs are tiled. The buildings were erected c. 1680 after the fire which occurred in the Temple in 1678–9. Later alterations include the replacing of the former eaves-cornice by a brick parapet to most of the buildings, and internally some of the rooms have had their original partitions removed or later partitions inserted and others have been considerably modernised. The N. elevation of Nos. 1, 2 and 3 to Pump Court is continuous. It has a plinth and brick bands between the storeys, those below the two topmost floors being moulded on the underside. The windows are square-headed and have flush frames and sashes except the window on the top floor above the entrance to No. 2, which has a solid frame with transom and mullion; most of the frames and sashes have been renewed. The three entrances are of painted stone, each has a moulded architrave, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice supported on consolebrackets and surmounted by a broken curved pediment. The S. elevation to Elm Court follows the general design of the front elevation, but No. 3 retains its wooden modillioned cornice. The E. elevation of Nos. 4 and 5 to Pump Court is generally similar to the N. front of Nos. 1, 2 and 3, but retains its original modillioned cornice. Placed centrally between the ground-floor windows is a brick archway to a passage communicating with Middle Temple Lane; it is semi-circular with plain imposts and key-block. The W. elevation of Nos. 4 and 5 to Middle Temple Lane has a chamfered plinth and plain brick bands between the storeys and below the later parapet. The archway to the passage from Middle Temple Lane to Pump Court is uniform with that on the front to the Court. The S. elevation of No. 6, the return front of No. 5 and the back elevation of No. 1 Hare Court to Pump Court are continuous and generally similar to the buildings on the opposite side of the Court. The modillioned cornice from the W. range is continued over the return end of No. 5, beyond which the wall is carried up in a re-built parapet. The entrances to Nos. 5 and 6 are uniform with the entrances already described. On the top floor between the seventh and eighth windows from the E. is a sundial. It is placed on a painted wood panel with a moulded cornice and broken pediment, and below is an apron with an ovolo-moulded shelf. Painted on the middle of the panel are the letters " T H C", for Henry Chauncy, and the date "1686" and on the apron is the following inscription, "Shadows we are and like shadows depart." The panel has been repainted at various times. The N. elevation of this range to Hare Court has a cement plinth and brick bands between the storeys; the bands at the second and third-floor levels are moulded. No. 1 Hare Court retains the modillioned eaves-cornice, but the rest of the front has been replaced by a parapet. The front to No. 1 Hare Court is symmetrically designed and has an entrance-doorway with a round arch of rubbed brick flanked by plain pilasters with scroll-tops and acanthus-leaves below the scrolls, which support a moulded brick cornice and curved pediment. The middle window on each of the upper floors has a solid frame with mullion and transom, but the remaining windows have flush frames and sashes most of which have been renewed. Inside the buildings, the chambers follow a more or less common plan varied slightly in the W. range of the Court. Opposite each entrance is a staircase, on either side of which is one set of chambers, entered off the staircase-landing, on the upper floors, and off the entrance-hall on the ground-floors. Many of the rooms retain their old panelling, which is either plain or bolection-moulded and in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings. Some of the old panelled doors remain and several retain their old brass rimlocks. Some of the rooms have late 17th or early 18th-century fireplaces with stone or marble surrounds of varying design. In some of the chambers, across the passage out of which the various rooms are entered, is a semi-circular or semi-elliptical moulded arch, panelled on the soffit, and carried on panelled responds with moulded caps and bases. In No. 2 the arch across one of the passages on the top floor has a carved cherub-head key and carved cherubs' heads in the spandrels, and in No. 3 the arch across the passage to the corresponding set of chambers has curved scroll-leaves in the spandrels. The entrance to one of the rooms on the ground-floor of No. 2 has a somewhat similar arch, with panelled pilasters at the sides and carved scroll-spandrels. The chambers on the W. side of the first floor of No. 3 are very complete and the large room facing the S. is lined with oak panelling, bolection-moulded and in two heights with an original skirting, moulded dado-rail and coved cornice carved with acanthus-leaf enrichment. The fireplace has a bolection-moulded marble surround with an oak frieze carved with foliated scrolls and a moulded and enriched shelf; the overmantel has a central rectangular panel with enriched mouldings flanked by panelled pilasters enriched with carved swags of leaves and flowers with moulded bases and caps framed by the return of the main cornice. One room on the second floor of No. 6 has an enriched cornice and an original built-in book-case. The staircase to each block of chambers, including No. 1 Hare Court, is original and rises from the ground to the top floor. Each has turned balusters with moulded strings and handrails and square newels, some of which have turned pendants. In No. 6 only the first flight of the staircase is original. There are two doors at the entrance to each set of chambers from the respective landings or entrance-halls. The outer doors are mostly original and are generally in two leaves, hinged in the middle and hung on heavy strap-hinges; towards the landings the doors are panelled, but on the inside they are flush.
Elm Court is situated on the S. side of Pump Court. No. 1 Elm Court stands at the W. end of the N. side of the court in the angle formed by the meeting of the S. and W. ranges of Pump Court. It is of four storeys with cellars. The walls are of red brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built in the latter part of the 17th century, at the same time as the old buildings in Pump Court. The upper parts of the external walls appear to have been re-built at a later date and inside the building some of the rooms have been modernised. The S. Elevation to Elm Court is similar to and a continuation of the back elevation of the S. range of the buildings in Pump Court; the string-courses between the storeys, however, are at a slightly lower level than those to the adjoining building and the walling, above the string-course at the third-floor level, with the parapet, appears to have been re-built. The doorway at the W. end of the front is similar to those in Pump Court, but has, above it, a later elliptical window. The W. front to Middle Temple Lane is a continuation of the W. front of the W. range of the buildings in Pump Court; the upper part of the wall may have been re-built. Inside, the building is generally similar to the interiors of the buildings round Pump Court.
Brick Court is situated on the W. side of Middle Temple Lane, immediately E. of Essex Court. Nos. 2 and 3 stand on the W. side of the court. They form a rectangular block of buildings of four storeys with basements. The walls are of red brick and the roofs are tiled. They were erected c. 1679 after the fire which occurred in the Temple in 1678–9. A fire in 1704 caused a certain amount of damage which necessitated the rebuilding of the staircase of No. 2, and later alterations include the re-arrangement of some of the internal partitions and the modernisation of some of the rooms. Owing to the rise of the ground from the river towards the Strand, No. 3, which stands to the N. of No. 2, has the floor-levels at a slightly higher level than those of the more southern building, and there is a corresponding difference in the levels of the respective string-courses and windows; otherwise the elevations are continuous. The elevations have a chamfered plinth, projecting brick bands between the storeys and below the parapet to the southern half of this building; this parapet replaces a former eaves-cornice which still remains on the E. and W. fronts of No. 3. The windows are square-headed and have flush frames and sashes which have mostly been renewed. The E. elevation has two doorways of stone and each square-headed with a moulded architrave and moulded cornice supported on console-brackets and surmounted by a broken segmental pediment with a ball on a pedestal in the middle. Above the doorway to No. 2 is a plain stone panel inscribed " Phoenicis instar revivisco Martino Ryder Arm. Thesaurario Anō. Dom. 1704"; the inscription appears to have been re-cut. Inside the building opposite each of the entrances is a staircase which rises the whole height of the building; on each floor, on either side of the staircase, entered from the respective landings is a set of chambers. These follow a common plan and have one large room on the W., overlooking Brick Court, a smaller front room overlooking Essex Court and a small chamber between them. The rooms open off a passage which has an entrance-door on to the landing, and on the same side is a cupboard behind the staircase. The entrances to the chambers each have two sets of doors; the outer doors are generally original and are each in two leaves hinged together in the middle and hung on heavy strap-hinges; the doors are flush on the inside and panelled towards the staircase. Many of the rooms are lined with old panelling; some of the panelling is plain, some is ovolo-moulded and that to the principal rooms is generally bolection-moulded; the panelling is in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings. Some of the old panelled doors remain and several retain their old brass rim-locks and old hinges. Some of the rooms have old fireplaces with stone or marble surrounds, but with few exceptions have later grates. In No. 2, the passage to the ground-floor chambers on the S. side of the entrance is lined on one side with re-used late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. On the second floor the chambers on the N. side of the staircase, known as Oliver Goldsmith's chambers, are very complete and more elaborate than any in the building. The passage and both the E. and W. rooms are lined with bolection-moulded panelling. The W. room (Plate 201) has a coved cornice, enriched on the E. and along part of the N. wall; there are three doors in the E. wall, of which the southernmost is a sham; all have the architraves enriched with carved acanthus-leaf, and the middle one has panelled pilasters at the sides flanked by swags of carved leaves and flowers dropping from lions' masks over which the main cornice is returned. The E. room has the cornice enrichedover the fireplace and the bolection-moulded architrave to the door carved with acanthus-leaf enrichment. The middle room, which is lined with plain panelling with a moulded cornice, has double doors to both the E. and W. rooms, the door to the former being glazed in the upper panels. In the passage the doorways to the E. and W. rooms have bolection-moulded architraves with the panels above flanked by small carved swags. In No. 3, across the passage, some of the chambers have a semi-elliptical or semi-segmental panelled arch with a moulded archivolt and carried on panelled pilasters with moulded caps and bases.
Essex Court stands on the N. side of Fountain Court between Brick Court on the E. and New Court on the W. Chambers No. 1 stand on the S. side and Chambers Nos. 2 and 3 stand on the W. side of the Court. These buildings are of four storeys with basements; the walls are of red brick, with Portland-stone dressings to Nos. 2 and 3; the roofs are tiled. Chambers Nos. 2 and 3 were built for the Society by Dr. Barbon in 1677, and Chambers No. 1 were built shortly after the fire of 1678–9. Each block of chambers is rectangular on plan, Nos. 2 and 3 are divided on the ground-floor by a central passage-way connecting Essex Court with New Court, and there is a small rectangular extension on the N.W. angle of No. 1 connecting it with No. 2, which was apparently added in 1784.
The N. elevation of No. 1 has brick bands between the storeys and a modillioned eaves-cornice. The windows are square-headed with flush frames and sashes which have mostly been renewed. The doorway is square-headed with stone architrave and a moulded cornice supported by console-brackets and surmounted by a broken segmental pediment. The S. elevation of No. 1 to Fountain Court (Plate 198) is similar in character to the N. elevation, but only retains the E. half of its wooden eaves-cornice. At the top is a sundial inscribed "Discite Justitiam Moniti"; it was erected in 1685 and last repainted in 1914. The W. elevation is similar, but has a modern parapet. Inside the building is a central staircase with one set of chambers opening off either side of the landing on each floor. Many of the rooms are lined with original panelling, either plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings and bolection-moulded architraves to the doorway; some of the rooms have old doors with bolection-moulded panels and some retain their old fireplaces with marble surrounds; some of the doors have old brass rim-locks. The chambers (Plate 200) on the S. side of the second floor are of a more elaborate character than the others in the building. The S.E. room has a plaster moulding running round the ceiling above the wood cornice, which here is enriched with egg-and-dart and conventional leaf-ornament. The entrance-doorway to this room has a flat surround enriched with guilloche-ornament, around which is the bolection-moulded architrave. The bolection-moulded panel over the fireplace is surrounded with richly carved work of water-fowl and fishes, including a crab and lobster, with swags of leaves and flowers, etc. The S.W. room has an enriched cornice and an original fireplace with a bolection-moulded marble surround, plain frieze with small scroll-brackets at either end and a moulded cornice enriched with carved acanthus-leaves; the overmantel has a plain projecting panel with well-carved swags, on either side and above, of fruit and flowers. The middle room on the S. side of these chambers has an original fireplace with a black-marble bolection-moulded surround, and over the panel above are carved two cherub-heads with festoons at the sides of draped curtains with tassels. The small room in the annexe has a bolection-moulded surround to the fireplace; opening off the room by the side of the chimney-breast is a powder-closet. The staircase from the ground to the top floor is original and has turned balusters, moulded strings and handrails and square newel-posts. Each of the entrances to the chambers off either side of the staircase-landings have two sets of doors; the outer doors are mainly original; they are panelled on the outside and flush on the inside and hung on heavy strap-hinges.
The E. elevation of Nos. 2 and 3 to Essex Court has stone rustications at the angles, a moulded stone capping to the plinth, stone bands between the storeys and a modillioned wood eaves-cornice. The two doorways have square heads, stone architraves and cornices resting on consoles. Near the middle of the block is a wide archway and passage to New Square. The arch is round-headed with moulded stone architrave and plain impost-blocks and keystone; above it is an enriched stone panel inscribed "T A C 1677" for Anthony Collins, Treasurer. The windows are similar to those of No. 1 but have stone key-blocks; most of the frames are old and many of the sashes appear to be original. The S. and W. elevations follow the design of the E. front. The archway in the W. front is uniform with the one on the E. front and has a similar panel above it. One old fluted rainwater head remains on this side. Inside the building, opposite each of the entrances, is a staircase which rises from the ground to the top floor and has turned balusters, moulded strings and handrails and square newels. There is a set of chambers on either side of each of the staircases, each opening off the respective landings or entrance lobbies through two sets of doors. The outer doors are each of two leaves, hinged down the midde, each leaf being of two moulded panels externally and flush in the inside; the doors are hung on massive strap-hinges. Many of the rooms are lined with old panelling, either plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with moulded cornices and dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings. Some of the rooms have old panelled doors, several of which retain their old brass rim-locks. Some of the old marble surrounds remain to the fireplaces. In No. 2, one room on the first floor, since divided into two by the insertion of a later partition, has an enriched cornice and ornamental fireplace. The fireplace has a plain marble surround, eared and with an enriched outer moulding flanked by scroll brackets; above is a long rectangular panel with an oval sinking in the middle with a scroll-key and carved swags of leaves and flowers on either side. In No. 3, one room on the first floor has a fireplace with a marble surround and an outer wood moulding, an enriched frieze and moulded shelf; above the panel to the overmantel is carved an eagle with festoons of leaves and flowers, and there are similarly carved swags on either side. The main cornice, where carried round the projecting chimney-breast, is enriched. In some of the chambers some of the adjoining rooms open out of each other through half-round or semi-elliptical panelled arches with moulded archivolts and panelled responds with moulded caps and bases.
New Court (Plate 199) stands on the N. side of Fountain Court and W. of Essex Court, the buildings of which form the E. side. The chambers stand on the W. side of the court and consist of a rectangular block of buildings of four storeys and a basement. The walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. They were built by Dr. Barbon, who conveyed them to the Society in 1676, shortly after their erection. The E. elevation, which faces the court, is symmetrically designed. It has a slightly projecting base with a moulded stone capping, rusticated stone angles, brick bands between the storeys and a modern brick parapet. The doorway in the middle of the ground-floor has a round-headed arch with plain impost-blocks and rusticated stone surround supporting an entablature with pulvinated frieze and segmental pediment. The windows are square-headed and have flush frames and sashes, which have mostly been renewed. The N. and S. elevations are of similar character to the E. front, but the stone capping is omitted from the plinth and there are no stone rustications to the western angles; the W. window of the top floor has solid frame, mullions and transom. Inside the building a central entrance-passage on the ground-floor leads to the staircase on the W. side of the building and is lined for two-thirds its height with plain panelling with a moulded dado-rail and cornice. There are two sets of chambers on each floor, one on either side of the staircase. Each set of chambers is entered through two doors; all the outer doors are original and of heavy construction; they are flush on the inside and panelled externally and are hung on heavy strap-hinges. Many of the rooms retain their old panelling and some have old doors and fireplaces. The panelling is in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and plain or moulded skirtings and is either plain or bolection-moulded. Some of the doors have old brass rim-locks. The original fireplaces have marble surrounds.
Nos. 3 to 6 Plowden Buildings, block of chambers on W. side of Middle Temple Lane, is of five storeys with attics. The walls are of brick; the roofs are covered with slate. The building is a rectangular block, detached on all sides above the first-floor level and was erected for the Society by Dr. Barbon in 1687–8. The E. elevation to the Lane has since been refronted or re-built and the interiors of many of the chambers have been altered. The W. front overlooking the gardens has brick bands between the storeys and a later parapet; the roof has been altered. On each floor is a range of eight square-headed windows with flush frames and hung sashes, practically all of which have been renewed. Built against the E. end of the N. front is a flight of stone steps to the main entrance-doorway, which is on the first floor. This doorway is square-headed with a moulded stone architrave, pulvinated frieze and moulded cornice supported on console-brackets and surmounted by a broken segmental pediment. Otherwise the elevation is similarly treated to the W. front. There is an old lead rainwater-pipe with a shaped head ornamented with an 'Agnus Dei.' A somewhat similar pipe has been refixed on the E. front. The S. front is of similar character to the N. front, but has no doorway. Inside the building a corridor on the first floor leads from the main entrance doorway to the staircase, which is situated in the middle of the E. side of the building. Each floor, above the ground-floor, is divided into four sets of chambers which open off the staircase-landings. The outer door to each set of chambers is original and each is of two moulded panels; they are each hung on two heavy strap-hinges and some retain their old bolts and bars; some of the doors are divided into two and the main hinges are again hinged in the middle. Some of the rooms have old panelling, plain or bolection-moulded, in two heights with plain skirtings and moulded dado-rails and cornices. Many have their original bolection-moulded doors and architraves. A few of the rooms retain old fireplaces, including one room on the third floor which has an architrave enriched with egg-and-tongue ornament, a pulvinated frieze carved with oak-leaves and ribbons with a plain projecting panel in the middle and an enriched cornice. The staircase from the first to the fifth floor is original and has moulded strings and handrail, square newels and turned balusters.
No. 2 Middle Temple Lane, known as the Old Post House, block of chambers on the E. side of the Lane, immediately S. of the Gatehouse, is of five storeys with a basement. The walls are of plastered timber-framing with some brick and some weather-boarding; the roofs are tiled. It was re-built c. 1693; the ground-storey of the N. end of the building was altered in the 19th century, when iron stanchions were inserted to carry the N. part of the front wall and the interior was adapted to be used as a modern shop. The interiors of many of the chambers have also been altered. The W. front to the Lane has, at the S. end, a brick wall to the ground-floor with a plinth. The upper storeys, except over the entrance-doorway, which is a little S. of the middle of the front, projects some way over the stanchions and wall to the ground-floor. Above the windows to each of the upper floors is a continuous moulded cornice and at the eaves-level is a modillioned cornice of deeper projection. At the S. end of the building the cornice is omitted above the third-floor windows and the two upper storeys are weather-boarded. All the windows are square-headed and have hung sashes, most of which have been renewed. The back of the building is plastered and has a moulded eaves-cornice. Inside the building some of the rooms are lined with plain or bolection-moulded panelling with cornices, dado-rails and skirtings, and a few of the old fireplaces remain. Most of the panelled outer entrance-doors to the chambers are original.
No. 3 Middle Temple Lane (Plate 199), block of chambers, adjoining No. 2 on the S., is of four storeys and a basement. The walls to the level of the first floor are of brick, above which they are timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled. It was re-built c. 1693, but has been altered internally. The W. front to the Lane has a projecting plinth. The front above the first-floor level projects, the soffit of the projection being slightly curved; at the eaves-level is a modillioned cornice. The entrance doorway is square-headed and has a moulded frame enclosing two square-headed lights above the doorway. The basement windows have segmental heads, but the remaining windows are square-headed. Two on the first floor and one on the second floor have solid frames with mullions and transoms; the others have hung sashes, most of which have been renewed. Inside the building is an original staircase with moulded strings and handrail, turned balusters and square newels. The chambers are generally similar to those in No. 2 Middle Temple Lane. The outer doors are mostly original, flush on the inside and of two bolection-moulded panels towards the staircaselandings; they are each hung on two heavy strap-hinges.
The Gatehouse (Plate 202), fronting Fleet Street at the N. end of Middle Temple Lane, is of four storeys; the walls are of red brick and Portland stone and the roofs are tiled. It was built in 1684 and designed by Sir Christopher Wren. The N. Elevation to Fleet Street is designed to form a tetrastyle Ionic facade standing on a tall stylobate and finished with a pediment. The four Ionic pilasters are of stone and the angles are rusticated, as is also the ground-floor or stylobate. The wall has rubbed brick facings. Between the first and second-floor windows runs a stone band inscribed in Roman letters SVRREXIT . IMPENS . SOC . M . TEMPLI MDCLXXXIV. The ground-floor has a square-headed rusticated archway in the centre, on the keystone of which is the Agnus Dei and the date 1684. Flanking it on either side are two round-headed openings, that on the E. being a foot-way and that on the W. a window to a chamber of the Porter's Lodge. The three upper storeys have each three windows with stone architraves and square heads; the sills of the side windows to the first floor are carried down to the stylobate. In the tympanum of the pediment is a round-headed window with a stone architrave. The S. Elevation to Middle Temple Lane has plain bands between the storeys, a plain parapet and a square-headed arch to the roadway. Above it are three square-headed windows, one to each storey.
The Little Gate stands at the N. end of No. 1 New Court and opens from New Court to Devereux Court. It is of Portland stone and was built about 1690. The two side pieces are square with moulded cornices and bases and each support a large fluted vase with scalloped base and top surmounted by conventional pine-apple ornaments. The Fountain, in the middle of Fountain Court, was placed there in 1681. It has a circular basin of about 21 ft. diameter and is surrounded by a moulded stone curb. It was originally enclosed by a wooden palisade of rectangular form which was replaced by a wrought-iron railing in 1715. This has since been removed.
(11) Clifford's Inn, Hall and blocks of offices on the N. side of Fleet Street are grouped round the E. and S. sides of a garden and two courts. The Hall stands on the S. side of the garden with chambers Nos. 8, 10 and 12 adjoining it at the E. end, while chambers Nos. 14, 15, 16 and 17 stand on the E. side of the garden and form an L-shaped block of buildings with the arms extending towards the N. and E., the former wing fronting the garden, the latter wing overlooking a court on the S., which is approached from Fetter Lane.
The Hall is of mediæval origin but was almost entirely re-built in 1767–8, though incorporating parts of the earlier walling. In the E. wall is a late 14th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred head of two orders, the outer chamfered and the inner moulded; in place of a rear-arch are oak lintels.
The Chambers Nos. 14 to 17 (Plate 207) are of three storeys with attics; the walls are of red brick and the roofs are tiled. The block is L-shaped on plan with the arms extending towards the N. and E. They date from c. 1663, but the E. wing was either repaired or re-built in 1669. They were again repaired in 1782, and have been much altered internally in more recent times. The W. Elevation has a moulded string-course at the first-floor level which has, however, been partly cut away, and a plain projecting band at the level of the second floor; the eaves have a wooden cornice of deep projection; the attics have a half-timbered front much repaired and altered and filled in with modern yellow bricks. The three doorways are round-headed. The windows are square-headed and all have hung sashes except four, which have each a transom and mullion and light the staircases of Nos. 15, 16 and 17. The sash-windows have been practically all removed and the openings enlarged or altered. The S. Elevation is generally similar to the W. front, but a modern parapet replaces the former eaves-cornice and there are five small dormers in the roof. Set in the walling are two square stones inscribed respectively "P R A 1669" and "P W M repaired 1782." There is one doorway and the windows are altered and some blocked. The other elevations have plain brick bands between the storeys. Inside the building, each set of chambers has a late 17th-century staircase with turned balusters, moulded strings and handrails and square newels; in No. 14 the newel is continuous, but in the other chambers the newels have moulded caps and turned pendants. The outer entrance-doors to each set of chambers, which are entered off either side of the staircase, are mostly original and are each of two moulded panels. Several of the rooms are lined with plain or 18th-century panelling and have old cornices. No. 14 has in each of the front ground-floor rooms a late 17th-century fireplace with a plain stone surround and a bolection-moulded panel above; both the surround and the overmantel are flanked by panelled pilasters. In one of these rooms is a small portion of re-used early 17th-century panelling. No. 15 has on the ground-floor one room with a late 17th-century stone surround to the fireplace with a bolection-moulded panel above; the room is lined with plain panelling and has a moulded cornice. On the second floor one room is partly lined with refixed late 16th or early 17th-century panelling and has one cross and one longitudinal stop-chamfered beam in the ceiling. Another room is lined with late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling in two heights with moulded cornice, dado-rail and skirting. No. 16 has, in one room on the ground-floor, a re-used late 16th or early 17th-century panelled door. One room on the first floor is lined with late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling as in the room above described; in the S. wall is a small semi-circular recess; it has two-panelled bolection-moulded doors with original moulded architraves. On the top floor, on the walls of the front room on the S. side of the staircase, are a number of ornamental monograms or devices which were exposed in recent years when a former ceiling was taken down and the room made open to the roof. Some appear to be in slight relief and all have been repainted; several of these devices incorporate the letters P. R. A. which appear on the inscribed stone on the S. front of the building. No. 17 has one room on the ground-floor partly lined with re-used late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. Another room on the ground-floor has a late 17th-century bolection-moulded surround of wood to the fireplace.
The Chambers Nos. 10–12 form an L-shaped block of offices adjoining the Hall at the E. end and with the arms extending towards the N. and E. They are of four storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. At the S. end of the N. wing the wall is timber-framed and covered with cement. The buildings are of late 17th-century date and are connected to the E. end of the Hall by an addition of 1719. The N. wing formerly extended further northwards, but was shortened and the present wall built in the last century. The elevations have been considerably altered, as has also the interior of the building. The E. Elevation of the N. wing has projecting bands between the storeys and is carried up with a modern parapet; the top storey is probably an addition or re-build. The windows have segmental heads and hung sashes; the sashes have been mostly renewed; some of the windows have been widened and others have been altered; those to the first floor have plain projecting keys. The N. Elevation of the E. wing has projecting bands between the storeys and is carried up with a modern parapet; the three lower storeys are covered with cement; the top storey is of brick and appears to be an addition or re-build. The doorway is plain, square-headed and in stone; the windows, except those to the staircase, have hung sashes, most of which have been renewed; the staircase-windows to the first and second floors have solid frames with moulded mullions and transoms. Inside the building the ground-floor has been converted into a restaurant and, with the exception of one old doorway with a bolection-moulded architrave and some old cornices in some of the rooms, retains little of interest. On the upper floor some of the rooms have plain panelling and moulded cornices. A few rooms retain late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling in two heights with moulded cornices, dado-rails and skirtings. Some bolection-moulded panelled doors remain with bolection-moulded architraves, and one room, on the first floor in the N. wing, has a late 17th-century fireplace with a bolection-moulded surround and moulded shelf with a panel above, flanked by panelled pilasters with moulded bases and caps formed by the projection of the bed-mould of the main cornice. On the second floor in the N. wing two rooms are lined with re-used late 16th or early 17th-century panelling. On the top floor is a re-used late 16th or early 17th-century panelled door and also an old door made up of three moulded planks.
(12) Serjeants' Inn (Chancery Lane) stood on the E. side of Chancery Lane, immediately W. of Clifford's Inn. It was pulled down in 1877, when the painted glass was removed to Moat Mount, Mill Hill. This glass has recently been presented to the Incorporated Law Society and is now preserved in the Hall of that body on the W. side of Chancery Lane, at the S. corner of Carey Street. The glass is disposed as follows—In the common-room staircase, (a) achievement of the Royal arms of Charles II; (b) achievement-of-arms of Francis North, Lord Guilford; panels with scroll-work and shields-of-arms of (c) Robert Higham, 1616; (d) Serjeants' Inn, Fleet Street; (e and f) scroll-work only. In common-room, E. window—oval panels with scroll-work and shields-of-arms of (a) Francis Wyndham; (b) Francis Bacon; (c) Edward Atkins; (d) Nathaniel Finch; (e) John Godbold; (f) Sir John Holt; (g) John Glanvill; (h) Arthur Turner; (i) Henry Clarke; (j) Sir Edmund Saunders; (k) George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, 1605; (l) Richard Cresheld; (m) arms of Barantine, dated 1684; (n) Sir William Gregory. In N. window—similar panels, (a) Richard Tayler; (b) Rowley Ward; (c) Richard Hutton, 1625; (d) Sir Thomas Mallet, 1641; (e) Sir John Puckering, 1593; (f) William Aylof; (g) John Wilde, 1640; (h) Sir George Vernon; (i) Sir Robert Wright, 1616; (j) Sir Richard Raynsford, 1677; (k) Robert Hide; (l) Sir Edmund Reve; (m) Sir John Shaw, 1683; (n) Sir John Archer; (o) Sir Thomas Richardson, 1631. All the above are of late 17th-century date.
(13) Serjeants' Inn (Fleet Street) stands on the S. side of Fleet Street and was re-built about the middle of the 18th century. On the N. wall of No. 9 on the S. side of the courtyard is a painted stone tablet with the date 1669, the initials S.I. for Serjeants' Inn and a shield with the arms of the Inn hanging from an oak-tree.
(14) Barnard's Inn Hall (now Mercers' School) stands on the S. side of Holborn. The building is of one storey with walls of brick and timber-framing; the roofs are tiled. The Hall is the only remaining part of the house of John Mackworth, Dean of Lincoln (died 1451), and dates from late in the 14th century. Mackworth left the property to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln and they leased the premises first to Lionel Barnard. In his time it was occupied by law-students (becoming an Inn of Chancery attached to Gray's Inn), but it may have been so occupied in Dean Mackworth's lifetime. It was bought by the Mercers' Company in 1894.
The Hall (37 ft. by 22½ ft.) stands approximately E. and W. (Plate 203). The walls, which have been refaced with yellow brick, are carried up only to the sills of the windows on the S. and the greater part of the N. side. The windows are designed to be practically continuous on the side walls, being separated only by the vertical timbers supporting the roof. Each bay contained six plain square-headed lights, separated by wood mullions (now restored); of these, on the N. side, those in the western bay and one in the middle bay are blocked, while the two centre lights in the middle bay of the S. side now form one light. Under the eaves is a coved cornice of c. 1660, beneath which were apparently ranged pilasters with Roman Doric capitals, against the divisions of the roof-bays. One of these pilasters remains on the external N. wall between the eastern and middle bays. The E. and W. walls of the Hall are not visible on the outside, other structures being built against them. In the centre of the ridge of the roof rises an octagonal lantern or louvre of timber covered with lead, and of the same date as the Hall, but not now open to the roof. Each face has a small opening with trefoiled head, and is finished with a Gothic moulded cornice and an ogee-shaped roof carrying a ball and vane.
Internally the Hall (Plate 204) is divided into three bays, the present dais at the W. end probably marking the position of the original one. The passage at the E. end (now modern) marks an ancient feature. The timber roof is partly open, but has been much altered and repaired. The two trusses are, however, in the main original and date from c. 1400. A heavy hollow-chamfered tie-beam is supported by a pointed arch formed by two large curved struts which spring from modern wooden corbels below the sill-line of the windows. A king-post connects the tie-beam to the collar and curved struts connect the trusses between the posts. Between the tie-beam and the collar the roof is ceiled. The fireplace at the W. end may represent an original feature. The chimney is very massive, and although the stonework surrounding the fireplaceopening is of 18th-century or later date, it reproduces the general form of an early lintel and corbelsupports. The similar fireplace at the E. end is probably a later insertion made to match the western one. The walls are panelled to the height of about 5 ft. with oak linenfold-panelling, two panels high. Over the fireplaces are ten panels each, surmounted by a band of finely carved Renaissance ornament surrounding a cartouche bearing the initials R.B. The panelling and carving probably date from c. 1525.
The windows of the hall contain a series of shields-of-arms (Plate 205) as follows—first bay, on the N., an achievement-of-arms with the inscription Pieter van den Putte, 17th-century; second bay, (a) shield of the arms of Neville, 17th-century; (b) a fleur-de-lis, late 16th-century; (c) shield of the arms of Vere, 17th-century. S. side—first bay, panels with the arms of (a) William Harvy, Principal, 1545; (b) Gilbert Hide, Principal, 1558; (c) Thomas Wilcox, Principal, 1574; (d) George Coppuldike, Principal, 1594. In second bay (a) John Wickste[e]d, Principal, 1621; (b) George Dodson, Principal, 1683; (c) Sir John Holt, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, erected by Silvester Petyt, 1705; Robert Clarke, Principal, 1698. In third bay, (a) Edward Story, Principal, 1670; (b) Silvester Petyt, Principal, 1701; (c) William Betts, Principal, 1704; (d) William Manlove, Principal, 1710.
(15) St. Andrew's Court-house, on the N.E. side of St. Andrew's Street, 20 yards S. of the church, is a modern building but retains the early 17th-century oak chimney-piece which stood in the former Court Room. The fireplace itself is modern but is flanked by Jacobean terminal figures, one with a male, the other with a female bust surmounted by Ionic capitals; these with two intermediate and similar corbel-heads support an enriched ovolo-moulded shelf. The overmantel (Plate 76) is divided into three bays by enriched Corinthian columns standing on pierced pedestals and supporting an entablature with an enriched frieze; over the middle is an achievement of the City-arms. In the middle bay is a moulded rectangular panel enclosing an achievement of the royal (Stuart) arms carved in relief. The side bays are treated with an architectural background imitating rusticated masonry with a round-headed niche in the middle of each containing, respectively, carved figures of St. Peter and St. Andrew. Below the figure of St. Peter is a panel carved with the tower and steeple of a church surrounded by clouds with a ribbon below inscribed in Latin with the text Mat. xvi. 18; below the figure of St. Andrew is a carved panel of a small fishing-boat on the waters with a large fishing-net, and below is a ribbon inscribed in Latin with the text Mat. iv. 19. The overmantel is flanked on either side by a shaped bracket surmounted by an obelisk, one with a shield of the City arms, the others with a shield bearing a mill-rind cross. Re-set on the walls around the chimney-piece are portions of the old organ-case from the church. On either side are rectangular panels of carved and pierced woodwork surrounding modern marble tablets of oval form and set within modern framing. The outer posts of the framing finish with late 17th-century carved brackets, with a moulded and enriched cornice carried up on either side and over the chimney-piece in three arcs with a frieze of pierced carved woodwork below.
(16) St. Bartholomew's Hospital stands on the S.E. side of W. Smithfield. The earlier buildings of the hospital were all pulled down and re-built during the 18th century, beginning with the gatehouse in 1702; the main structure was re-built in 1730 and the succeeding years. The Gatehouse (Plate 206), towards Smithfield, is of four storeys with cellars; the side wings are of two storeys with cellars; the walls are faced with Portland stone and the roofs are lead-covered. The front elevation has a rusticated ground-storey finished with a cornice and pierced by a wide archway with an elliptical head. On the cornice is the inscription, "St. Bartholomew's Hospital founded by Rayhere Anno 1102 (should be 1123), refounded by K. Henry the 8 1546"; below the cornice is the inscription, "This front was re-built anno 1702 in first year of Queen Anne. Sr. Wm. Pritchard Kt. and Alder. President. John Nicoll Esq. Treasurer." The upper part of the main building is flanked by Ionic pilasters with festooned capitals, supporting an entablature with a modillioned cornice and pediment with the royal arms of Queen Anne in the tympanum; the first floor has a round-headed niche with a statue of Henry VIII, flanked by coupled Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature and broken pediment, on which recline two figures of cripples; flanking this central feature are round-headed windows with a cartouche on the keystone bearing the arms of the City and Hospital respectively. On the second floor are three segmental-headed windows; the middle window has carved crutches, etc., and is flanked by pilasters supporting an entablature; the side windows are surmounted by swags. On the third floor are two square-headed windows, with a clock-face in the middle, having an eared architrave and carved scrolls at the sides. The back elevation is generally similar to the front, but there are no carved embellishments and the middle bay of the upper floors has windows similar to the side bays and no central features. The gateway has Doric pilasters in the angles from which springs the groined vault; in the middle is a cartouche of the arms of the Hospital.
In the 18th-century Great Hall of the hospital is a stained-glass window, of 17th-century date, representing Henry VIII presenting the charter to Sir Richard Gresham, various figures including Edward Prince of Wales are also represented; at the top of the window are the Tudor royal arms and at the base the arms of the Hospital.
(17) Bridewell Hospital, on the W. side of New Bridge Street, is a modern building but contains from the old building a fireplace, now in the Court Room; it has a moulded and enriched architrave of white marble and of late 17th-century date. The plate of the former chapel of Bridewell is now on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum and includes two cups of 1678, one made to replace that given by George Sperling in 1605 and with his shield-of-arms; two flagons of 1678, one made to replace earlier flagons, and a stand-paten of 1678 with the initials W.H.
(18) Cellar, under the S.W. angle of Britton's Court, Whitefriars Street, formed part of the Whitefriars' convent and lay to the E. of their cloister. The cellar, about 12½ ft. square, has been broken into at the S.E. angle to form the modern entrance. It is probably of 14th-century date and has a vault of chalk with eight chamfered ribs, springing from the same level and dying on to the side walls; at the intersection is a decayed boss with a figure-subject surrounded by foliage. In the W. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; it has recently been opened out and is approached on the outside by a curved staircase, altered or reconstructed in the 16th century.
(19) Statues of boy and girl, set in niches in modern facade of St. Bride's and Bridewell Precinct Schools, St. Bride's Lane, dressed in early 18th-century costumes and probably of date of original foundation of the Schools, 1711.
(20) House (Plate 202), No. 17, and Inner Temple Gateway on the S. side of Fleet Street, gateway, shop and offices, opposite the S. end of Chancery Lane, is of four storeys. The walls are of stone, plastered timber-framing and brick; the roofs are tiled. Facilities for rebuilding the gateway and the premises adjoining on the E. were granted by the Society of the Inner Temple to one John Bennett in 1609, and the work was carried out in the years 1610–11. The building consisted of two blocks connected by a central staircase; the front block with an elevation to Fleet Street, the back block with a front to Inner Temple Lane. In 1898 the buildings were about to be demolished and were bought by the London County Council for preservation. The back block had already been destroyed and new offices erected on the site. The front block was restored. Behind a comparatively modern screen-front which had been erected in front of the upper storeys fronting Fleet Street, much of the original front was discovered, mutilated and with its bay-windows missing. This screen-front was taken down, the old front was restored to as near its original design as possible, and the ground-floor front was set back about 5 feet as necessitated by the widening of Fleet Street. At the same time the interior was completely restored; the building was re-opened in 1906.
The front to Fleet Street is in two bays. The ground-floor is of stone, divided by rusticated pilasters with a modern shop front in the E. bay and a rusticated archway in the W. bay giving access to Inner Temple Lane; on the keystone, in lead, are the initials of the Treasurer and the date 1748, from which it would appear that the lower storey was reconstructed at that date. The first floor projects some distance over the foot-way; dividing the bays are oak posts carved with rusticated Doric pilasters standing on plinths and surmounted by carved brackets supporting the projecting second floor. The posts dividing the bays on the second floor are carved with fluted Ionic pilasters on arabesque plinths. The first floor has two oriel windows, the full width of each bay, and supporting similar windows on the second floor. They are modern, but below each of the two upper windows are four carved oak panels which are original and had been incorporated in the later screen-front. Three of these panels to each window are carved with Jacobean cartouches and the fourth with the feathers of the Prince of Wales. Below the first-floor window is restored halftimber and plaster-work. At the third-floor level is a projecting cornice, modern, but of early 17th-century character, and surmounted by a modern wood balustrade. The wall behind is carried up in two modern gables. The back or S. elevation above the gateway is gabled and covered with rough-cast. Inside the building, the front room (Plate 209) on the first floor, known as "Prince Henry's Room," is to a great extent original. The elaborate plaster ceiling was, during the restoration, taken down in sections, cleaned, straightened and strengthened and afterwards refixed. It is divided into numerous geometrical panels of various shapes by flat moulded bands enriched on the soffits with flowing ornament. In the panels are conventional designs, floral ornament, grotesque masks, cherub-heads, etc. In the star-shaped central panel are the feathers of the Prince of Wales with the motto "Ich dien" and the initials "P.H.," for Prince Henry. The ceiling is not quite complete at the E. end. In the E. wall is an early 18th-century fireplace with an eared marble surround with an enriched outer moulding of wood flanked by carved scrolls. The W. wall is lined with early 17th-century panelling in five heights and divided into three bays by Doric pilasters enriched with carved arabesque-work, with moulded bases and enriched caps; they stand on plinths, enriched with raised lozenge-shaped panels and support a modern frieze and cornice. The staircase from the first to the top floor is of mid to late 17th-century date, though repaired and restored; it has moulded strings and handrail, turned balusters and square newels; in the balustrade across the first-floor landing is a doggate.
Monuments 21 to 51.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th-century date and of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are of brick; the roofs are covered with slate, tiles or lead. Most of the buildings have been altered internally to meet with modern requirements.
(21) Houses, Nos. 44 and 45, on the S. side of Fleet Street, opposite S. end of Fetter Lane, are of four storeys with attics and cellars. The fronts to Fleet Street, of both houses, have been modernised. The back or S. elevation of No. 44 has been covered with plaster and modernised; the back of No. 45 has a modern extension on the ground-floor; the upper floors have brick bands between the storeys and a modern parapet. There is to both the second and third floors a blocked single-light, transomed window. Inside No. 44, the staircase between the second and third floors is Georgian, but above it is of late 17th-century date with moulded string and handrail, turned balusters and square newels.
(22) Cock Tavern, No. 22, on the S. side of Fleet Street, 80 yards W. of (21), is a modern building, but contains, on the first floor, an early 17th-century fireplace, removed from the original tavern on the opposite side of the street. It is of stone with a square head and rounded angles, supported on plain brackets; the oak overmantel is flanked by enriched terminal pilasters, with fluted pilasters beyond them; between the terminal pilasters is a central panel carved with a mask and surrounded by four L-shaped panels. Preserved in the house is a carved wooden cock, of late 17th-century date.
(23) Houses, Nos. 145, 146 and 147, on the N. side of Fleet Street, 160 yards E. of Fetter Lane, are of four storeys with cellars and attics. On the front to the street modern shops have been inserted on the ground-floor, above which the walls have been covered with plaster; between Nos. 145 and 146 is a passage-way. On the back some old walling and band-courses may be seen above the passage. Inside the buildings, Nos. 145 and 146 have original staircases with moulded strings and handrails, square newels with ball finials and turned pendants and turned balusters.
(24) The Cheshire Cheese, inn, on the E. side of Wine Office Court, adjoining No. 145 Fleet Street on the N., is of four storeys with attics and cellars. It has been much altered, but the basement and lower stages are original. Inside the building are some cased beams.
(25) House, No. 9, on W. side of Wine Office Court, 90 yards N. of Fleet Street, has later additions on the W. side and a one-storey extension on the E. side. The E. elevation has to both the first and second floors a range of five square-headed windows with flat rubbed-brick arches; they have flush frames and 18th-century sashes. Above the head of each of the first-floor windows and in the parapet over each of the second-floor windows is a sunk brick panel. The N. elevation has a projecting plinth and a gable; the N.E. angle of the walls is chamfered on the ground-floor and has a moulded brick corbel at the first-floor level. Inside the building is a late 17th-century staircase with straight moulded string and turned balusters.
(26) Houses, Nos. 1, 2 and 3, on E. side of Racquet Court on N. side of Fleet Street, 60 yards W. of Ludgate Circus, were built c. 1680. The ground-storey of the W. elevation to the Court is rusticated and plastered; to the upper floor of No. 3 the walling is also plastered, but to the rest of the front it is of brick with projecting bands between the storeys; at the eaves is a modillioned wood cornice with carved modillion-brackets. The windows to the upper floors have flat rubbed-brick arches and flush frames with hung sashes. Some modern windows have been inserted on the ground-floor. Inside the buildings, No. 3 has one room on the ground-floor lined with bolection-moulded panelling in two heights with moulded dado-rail and cornice. On the first floor are some bolection-moulded architraves and moulded cornices. The staircase from the first floor to the attics has moulded strings and handrail, square newels and twisted balusters.
(27) House, No. 5, on W. side of Racquet Court, is generally similar to (26). The front wall, however, has been carried up with a later parapet, and over the entrance-doorway is a flat moulded hood supported on two richly carved scrollbrackets. Inside the building is some bolection-moulded panelling, moulded cornices, etc., and the staircase is similar to that described in (24).
(28) House, No. 5, at S. end of Hind Court, 50 yards N. of Fleet Street and 150 yards E. of Fetter Lane, is of four storeys with attics and cellars. It was partly remodelled late in the 18th century, and in modern times buildings have been erected on all sides except the N. The N. elevation was largely altered in the 18th century; there is a projecting band-course at the level of the first floor. Inside the building the top flight of the staircase is original and has straight strings, turned balusters and square newels.
(29) House, No. 1, at W. end of N. side of Gough Square, is of early 18th-century date and was re-built on the N. side and extended late in the same century. The front to the square has a plinth, and bands between the storeys, of which the one at the level of the second floor is moulded, and a dentilled brick cornice surmounted by a modern parapet. The windows have light brick dressings, flat rubbed-brick arches and flush frames with hung sashes. On the ground-floor at the W. end is a carriage-way through to Pemberton Row.
(30) House, known as Dr. Johnson's house, No. 17, at the N. end of the W. side of Gough Square adjoining (29), has a plastered brick plinth and brick bands between the storeys. The wall to the attics is modern and on the S. front is a modern parapet. The windows have flat rubbed-brick arches and flush frames with hung sashes. The doorway is of the 18th century. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams. The staircase from the ground to the first floor is of late 18th-century date, but from the first to the third floor is original and has straight moulded strings, square newels with moulded tops and turned pendants and turned balusters, which from the first to the second floor are of 18th-century date inserted in the older staircase.
(31) Houses, Nos. 1 and 2, on the S. side of Pemberton Row and 20 yards W. of (30), were slightly remodelled in the 18th century and have been considerably altered in modern times, especially on the ground-floors which have been extended towards the N. The front to both houses has been stuccoed, but the window-openings and bands between the storeys are probably original. Inside the building, in a small wing projecting on the S. side of the ground-floor of No. 1, is a partially built-in oak Doric column supporting a sloping moulded beam and along the face of the wall is a moulded wall-plate. It was possibly at one time an open passage, as the wall is modern up to the first floor. On the first floor of No. 1 is some bolection-moulded panelling with moulded dado-rail and cornice, and the staircase from the first floor to the attics is original and has straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with moulded tops. In the S. wall of the cellar is a large brick oven. On the first floor of No. 2 is some plain panelling with moulded dado-rail and cornice, and the staircase is original and similar to that in No. 1.
(32) House, No. 4, on E. side of Crane Court, was built in 1671. It was slightly remodelled late in the 18th century, when it is probable the plastering of the front up to the level of the first floor was done. In modern times the attics have been altered. The front, with the exception of the altered attics, is symmetrically designed. It has a plinth and a central doorway flanked by panelled rusticated pilasters surmounted by shaped brackets supporting a flat, moulded, wooden hood. There are four square-headed windows to both the ground-floor and basement, the former having moulded architraves. At the first-floor level is a moulded plaster string-course. There are five square-headed windows to both the first and second floors with the middle window in both cases being wider than the others; they have flush moulded frames and later hung sashes; those on the first floor have rubbed-brick arches and the middle window has projecting flat brick architraves, eared and with a moulded keystone inscribed "No. 5" and supporting a carved stone cartouche inscribed with the monogram "TC" and the date 1671; below the window is a sunk stone panel, and at the level of the second floor is a cornice returned on itself at either end and in the middle to admit the cartouche over the central first-floor window. The main eaves-cornice is of wood and is enriched with carved leaf-ornament. Inside the building on the first floor the N. room has some plain panelling with a moulded dado-rail and cornice; across the ceiling is a moulded beam. The S. room is similar with bolection-moulded panelling. On the second floor one room has an exposed ceiling-beam and the fireplace has a moulded, eared architrave of wood. The staircase in the middle of the building is original; it has straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels; the lowest half flight is modern.
(33) Houses (Plate 207), Nos. 5 and 6, on the E. side of Crane Court, N. of (32), were built c. 1670 and form a rectangular block with a projecting wing on the N.E., extended or partly re-built late in the 18th century. The W. front of both houses has brick bands between the storeys and window-openings with flat heads of rubbed brick, except those on the second floor of No. 5 which have been reconstructed, with the parapets of both houses, in the 18th century. Both entrance-doorways are also of the 18th century. The rear or E. elevation of No. 5 has been plastered; it has three pilasters and an entablature; re-set in the entablature is a length of original wooden cornice with acanthusenrichment; the windows have sashes, except one on each floor which has solid frame and transom. The S. face of the wing has some timber-framing, filled in with modern brick. Inside the buildings, No. 5 has an original staircase from the first floor upwards, with straight strings, turned and twisted balusters and square newels; the S.W. room on the ground-floor has some bolection-moulded panelling, and both this and the S.E. room have exposed ceiling-beams. The S.W. room on the first floor has bolection-moulded panelling and a fireplace with a moulded marble surround and wooden cornice; the modelled plaster ceiling (Plate 211) is original and has a round central panel with a wreath of fruit and flowers; the spandrels have acanthus foliage and between them are rosettes or wreaths. The S.E. and N.W. rooms have similar panelling and ceilings, but here the central panels are of oval form and the spandrels are continuous at the ends of the rooms. On the second floor the rooms have original panelling and two fireplaces, one with a marble surround and wooden architrave and the other with a moulded wooden surround. No. 6 has an original staircase at the back, extending from the ground to the first floor and similar to that in No. 5. The back room on the first floor has an original modelled plaster ceiling with an oval panel of oak-leaf decoration enclosed in an octagonal wreath of bay-leaves; the spandrels have conventional leaf-ornament and between each triangular panel is a rosette.
(34) House, No. 10, on the S. side of Neville's Court, Fetter Lane, was built in the latter part of the 17th century, perhaps as a reconstruction of an earlier house. The N. front has brick bands between the storeys and a wooden eaves-cornice. Each floor has six or seven sash windows with square rubbed-brick heads and flush frames; on the ground-floor the entrance-doorway has a moulded frame and a panelled door hung on strap-hinges; the timber porch has a flat moulded hood with a central panel in the frieze; it rests on two columns with moulded capitals and square pedestals. There is one old lead rainwater-pipe. The rear elevations have bands between the storeys and an original panelled door; two of the windows have solid frames, mullion and transom. Inside the building, the ground-floor rooms have exposed ceiling-beams. The original staircase (Plate 41) has straight strings, turned balusters and square newels. On the first floor, the W. room and the room in the wing have plain panelling with moulded dado-rails, cornices and fireplace-surrounds. On the second floor the W. room has similar but simpler panelling. There are three panelled and battened doors in the attics.
(35) Houses, Nos. 11 and 12 Neville's Court, adjoining (34) on the E., were built about the same period. Both front and back elevations have brick bands between the storeys, and windows with flat rubbed-brick heads. The doorway in front of No. 11 is flanked by panelled pilasters supporting carved brackets and a flat moulded hood. At the back of the same house is some exposed timber-framing at the ground-floor level. Inside the building, both houses have original staircases similar to that in (32), but the newels have ball-terminals. Some rooms have plain panelling with dado-rails and cornices, and both houses have exposed ceiling-beams and some battened doors.
(36) House, No. 2, on the E. side of Chapel Place, Neville's Court, immediately S.W. of (34). The W. front has brick bands between the storeys; on each floor is a four-light transomed window; the entrance-door is original and has two panels. Inside the building, the room on the ground-floor has bolection-moulded panelling, dado-rail, cornice and fireplace-surround. The staircase is original and has straight strings and twisted balusters.
(37) House, No. 5, on the N. side of Neville's Court, is of four storeys, of which the two upper have been largely re-built. There are brick bands between the storeys. Inside the building, the W. room on the ground-floor has some bolection-moulded panelling, dado-rail and cornice; the ceiling has exposed beams. On the first floor the W. room retains its cornice. The staircase is original and has straight strings, turned balusters and square newels.
(38) Houses, Nos. 39 to 42, on the E. side of Fetter Lane, N. of Neville's Court, have modern shop-fronts and brick bands between the upper storeys; No. 41 has been refaced. The back elevation, partly to Neville's Court, has a gable to each house and brick bands between the storeys; No. 42 has been refaced. Inside the buildings are original staircases similar to that in No. 10 Neville's Court.
(39) Houses, Nos. 2 and 4, on the S. side of Norwich Street, 70 yards W. of Fetter Lane, are of four storeys and were built c. 1700, but No. 2 has been re-fronted. No. 4 has brick bands between the storeys. Inside the building, both houses have original staircases with straight strings and turned balusters. A doorway in No. 4 has a bolection-moulded architrave.
(40) Bartlett Buildings, court with houses on the S.W. side of Holborn Circus, was laid out and the houses built in 1685. The original houses which survive are Nos. 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 15 on the W. side, Nos. 16 and 17 at the S. end, and Nos. 19 to 25 on the E. side. The fronts are generally of yellow brick with red brick bands between the storeys and red brick dressings. The end houses, Nos. 16 and 17, have a central bay with rusticated angles, brought slightly forward. The doorways to Nos. 8, 15, 20, 21 and 22 have moulded stone architraves and cornices resting on carved console-brackets and have a mask in the middle of the door-head. The doorways to Nos. 9, 11, 16 and 17 are similar, but have broken and scrolled segmental pediments in addition. The windows have flush frames. No. 19 has been much modernised. Fixed on the front of a modern house on the E. side of the court is a stone inscribed "Bartlet Buildings 1685." Inside the houses the halls and staircases generally are panelled; the staircases themselves have twisted balusters and square newels.
(41) Houses, Nos. 1 and 2, on the S. side of Hosier Lane, 25 yards W. of W. Smithfield, are of late 17th or early 18th-century date but have been much altered. In No. 1 is a newel-staircase and on the first floor is some 18th-century panelling.
(42) Houses, Nos. 55, 56 and 57, on the N.E. side of West Smithfield, are probably of early 17th-century date. The S.W. front of Nos. 55 and 56 is probably timber-framed, but is faced with tiles; there are modern shop-fronts to the ground-floor, but one small square window is perhaps original. The rear elevation is plastered. No. 57 (Plate 206) is built upon and incorporates the 13th-century doorway at the W. end of the destroyed S. aisle of St. Bartholomew's church. The upper part of the S.W. front is timber-framed, the second and third storeys projecting and having wooden cornices; the timbering of the front has been exposed and restored in recent years. Inside the building, which was perhaps originally one house, Nos. 56 and 57 have a common staircase with a central newel. On the first floor a front room has bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1700, with an arched alcove or cupboard against the S. wall. In an attic at the back of the second floor are some remains of early 17th-century panelling.
(43) Houses, Nos. 55 and 56, on the N.E. side of Little Britain, 5 yards S.E. of (42), are of four storeys. Both front and back elevations have brick bands between the storeys. The houses were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but have modern shop-fronts on the S.W. side.
(44) Houses (Plate 203), Nos. 41 and 42, on the N.W. side of Cloth Fair, 40 yards N.E. of W. Smithfield, are of four storeys with attics. They were built in the second half of the 17th century, but have been much altered. The building stands free on the S.E. and S.W. sides, and both elevations are of red brick with bands between the storeys and a deep modillioned eaves-cornice which is only continued half-way along the S.W. front. The hipped roof is cut back on the S.E. side with an upright weather-boarded face; the windows to the two middle floors on the same side are set in two square projecting timber bays, each finished with cornices and a pediment; one original rainwaterhead and pipe also remains. The two projecting bays on the S.W. side retain some of the original solid frames and casements, but have lost their pediments. Inside the building, the staircase at the back is original and has continuous square newels and turned balusters. The room at the S. angle, on the first floor, has original panelling, cornice and fireplace with an enriched eared architrave.
(45) House, No. 56, on the S. side of Long Lane, 60 yards E. of Smithfield, is of four storeys with attics; the walls are timber-framed and plastered. It was built in the 17th century, but has been much altered. On the N. front the ground and first floors have been modernised, but the second floor has a heavy projection.
(47) Houses, Nos. 74, 75 and 76 Long Lane, immediately E. of (46), are of late 17th-century date with the fronts re-built or much altered. The back elevations have brick bands between the storeys and No. 75 retains an original sash-window.
(48) Houses, Nos. 80 to 83 Long Lane, 15 yards E. of (47), were built c. 1700, but the fronts have been refaced or modernised. The back elevation of No. 80 has bands between the storeys and an original window with a solid frame. Inside No. 83 is an original staircase with straight strings, turned balusters and square newels with ballterminals.
(49) Houses, No. 10 Middle Street and Nos. 5 and 6 East Passage, 30 yards W. of Cloth Street, stand back to back but are of one build. They are of four storeys with cellars and were built in the 17th century. The fronts have bands between the storeys and small windows lighting the staircases.
(50) Houses, Nos. 14 and 15, on the S. side of Newbury Street, near its E. end, are of four storeys with cellars. They were built c. 1700, but No. 15 has been re-fronted and largely re-modelled. No. 14 has brick bands between the storeys. Both houses have original staircases with straight strings, turned balusters and square newels with ballterminals. No. 14 has also some original doors.
(51) Houses, Nos. 15, 16 and 17, at the S. end of Albion Buildings, S.E. of Bartholomew Close, were built late in the 17th-century, but No. 15 has been re-fronted and the others much altered. No. 16 has brick bands between the storeys, that at the first-floor level being raised in the middle probably over the original doorway.
(52) Carved Sign on Nos. 1–4 Giltspur Street, Cock Lane Corner, formerly called Pie Corner. The carved wooden figure of a naked boy is now fixed on the S.E. corner of the modern building. The figure was formerly winged and had the inscription on the breast and arms—"This boy is in memory put up for the late Fire of London occasioned by the Sin of Gluttony, 1666."
(53) Sculptured Sign now fixed above the doorway of Messrs. Cassell and Co.'s premises on the E. side of Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Hill. The sign is of late 17th-century date and represents an elephant with a castle on its back (the crest of the Cutlers' Company) with the initials I.A.