An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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8. BROAD STREET WARD.
Broad Street Ward includes the parishes of All Hallows London Wall, St. Peter le Poor, St. Benet Fink, St. Bartholomew Exchange, and parts of the parishes of St. Martin Outwich, St. Christopher le Stocks, and St. Margaret Lothbury. The principal monuments are the Dutch Church Austin Friars and the Merchant Taylors' Hall. The N. walls of All Hallows church and churchyard incorporate parts of the Roman town-wall and a bastion (see London, Vol. III, pp. 86 and 103).
(1) Parish Church of All Hallows, on the N. side of London Wall, was re-built in 1765–67, on the site of the original church. The N. wall and vestry stand on the base of the Roman city wall and a bastion. There is some rubble walling in the S.W. angle of the crypt, which may be earlier than the existing building. The church contains, from the former building, the following:—
Fittings—Chest: In vestry—of iron with bands, lock, two hasps and staples, handles at ends, early 17th-century. Font (Plate 9): octagonal white marble bowl, with flutings, foliage, cherub-heads and cartouches, one with a shield-of-arms—a cross ermine between four stags, shaft modern, said to have come from St. Paul's Cathedral, late 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In nave—on N. wall, (1) to Joan (Cotton) widow of John Wood and wife of John Bence, 1684, marble cartouche with scrolls, cherub-heads, winged skull and shield-of arms; on S. wall, (2) to Edmund Hammond, 1642, marble tablet with enriched border and cartouche-of-arms. In passage leading down from apse—(3) to Stephen Monilace, 1687, curved tablet with pediment. A monument to Dominic van Heila, 1608, formerly in this church, is now in the church of Castle Hedingham, Essex. Floor-slab: In crypt—to John Webb, 1702.
(2) Dutch Church or Jesus Temple, formerly the preaching nave of the conventual church of the Austin Friars, stands on the E. side of Austin Friars, Old Broad Street. It is built of rag-stone and chalk, with dressings of Reigate stone, and the roof is slated. The Priory of Austin Friars was founded by Humphrey Bohun in 1253, but the church was entirely re-built a century later (1354), which is the date of the existing Nave and Aisles. In 1362 the steeple was ruined by a storm and shortly after re-built, the operations probably including the reconstruction of the existing arch at the E. end. The priory was dissolved in 1538, and in 1550 the existing portion of the building was granted to the Protestant refugees from the Low Countries; the quire, and "cross-aisle" and steeple were then secularised and were gradually demolished, the domestic buildings, which lay to the N., being also pulled down. The church was gutted by fire in 1862 and completely restored in 1863–5. Various remains of the destroyed portions of the church and buildings have been uncovered in recent years, but not preserved.
The building is the largest example of a Preaching Nave of the Mendicant Orders now remaining in this country.
Architectural Description—The Nave (main span 153 ft. by 31¼ ft.) has, in the E. wall, an acutely pointed arch, probably of the late 14th century, now blocked but formerly opening into the "cross-aisle" or space under the steeple; above the arch the masonry is laid radially. The N. and S. arcades (Plate 51) are uniform and of nine bays each; the piers consist of four circular engaged shafts separated by hollow-chamfers and having moulded capitals and bases, they support moulded two-centred arches; the responds are half sections of piers; both arcades are much restored, and the eighth pier on the N. is entirely modern. In the W. wall (Plate 217) is a modern doorway, representing an ancient feature, and above it a large sevenlight window with a traceried, two-centred head all restored on 14th-century lines. Externally the wall is ornamented with bands of knapped flints. The N. Aisle (21 ft. wide) has a blocked 14th-century arch in the E. wall, two-centred and having responds similar to the nave-arcades. In the N. wall are six windows, the first a modern four-light window in the E. bay, placed high in the wall and probably representing an ancient opening; the other five windows are uniform and occupy the five western bays, they are each of four lights with a traceried two-centred head, moulded external label and chamfered internal jambs carried down and stop-chamfered above the pavement; all are modern restorations on 14th-century lines, and under the fourth window is a modern doorway. In the N.W. angle of the aisle is a much-restored doorway, giving access to a circular stairway carried up, within an octagonal turret, to the leads. In the W. wall is a four-light window uniform with those in the N. wall, and below it are traces of a rough blocked archway. The S. Aisle (21 ft. wide) has a blocked archway in the E. wall uniform with that in the N. aisle, and in the S. wall are nine windows uniform with the last five in the N. wall except that those in the first, third and fourth bays are cut short; below the second window is a modern doorway; below the third window is an early 16th-century moulded segmental arch, now blocked but formerly opening into a chapel, the foundations of the S. wall of which have been discovered; on its inner face are traces of the mortices of an iron grate; below the fourth window is a modern doorway, formerly opening into a S. porch now destroyed. The S. wall has external bands of knapped flints, but these are now concealed; the wall of the three last bays stands on rough chalk foundation-arches, exposed to view in 1910 but not now visible. In the W. wall is a four-light window uniform with those on the S.
The Roofs are all modern.
The domestic buildings of the priory are completely destroyed, but the lines of the cloister are preserved in Austin Friars Square, and in 1896 a 14th-century arch, part of the W. alley, was discovered under No. 10 Austin Friars and then destroyed.
Fittings—Altar: In N. aisle—portion of slab with two consecration-crosses. Brass and Indents. Brass: In S. aisle—to John van Rooyen, 1686–7, square plate with inscription, coffin and wreath. Indents: In nave—on second N. pier, (1) kneeling figure, foot and scroll-inscription and four shields and a Trinity, late 15th-century; (2) lower part of figure, inscription and shield; (3) marginal inscription; (4) civilian with foot-inscription; (5) slab turned, floriated cross and marginal inscription; (6) slab turned, civilian with foot-inscription and roundels; (7) square plate; (8) civilian with two shields, marginal inscription and roundels at angles; (9) shield and inscription; (10) fragment only with two shields; (11) fragment only with figure and two shields, slab re-used and inscribed I.P. 1698; (12) upper part only, civilian and wife with scrolls, two shields, marginal inscription and roundels, late 15th-century; (13) half-figure and inscription, late 15th-century. In N. aisle— (14) plate, two shields, skull and cross-bones, 17th-century; (15) man and wife, foot-inscription and shield, 15th-century; (16) slab turned, civilian with foot-inscription. In S. aisle—(17) slab turned, shield and inscription; (18) two plates, shield in wreath and marginal inscription, 17th-century; (19) priest with Trinity over, foot-inscription and roundels; (20) two plates, two shields and marginal inscription; (21) upper part only, shield in wreath, Trinity, marginal inscription and roundels; (22) shield and inscription; (23) slab turned, shield and inscription; (24) civilian with two shields, foot and marginal inscriptions; (25) civilian with three wives in butterfly head-dress, under a four-arched canopy, 13 children, six shields hung in canopy, foot and marginal inscriptions, c. 1470–80; (26) large plate with canopy, two figures, four shields, foot and marginal inscriptions and roundels; (27) two shields in wreaths, inscription and marginal inscription with roundels; (28) three shields and inscription; (29) three shields and inscription; (30) two shields and inscription; (31) kneeling civilian and wife, with scrolls, two groups of children, Trinity, four shields and foot-inscription; (32) shield, plate and inscription; (33) priest with four shields and foot-inscription; (34) slab turned, bracket, much defaced; (35) upper part only, armed figure, lady and two shields, c. 1500; (36) two shields and inscription; (37) large figure of civilian, three shields and foot-inscription; (38) slab turned, two shields and inscription; (39) one shield and inscription; (40) shield and inscription, partly covered by steps. Chest: In N. aisle—iron bound, with two padlocks, late 17th-century. Cupboard: In vestry—made up with 17th-century panelling, etc. Glass: In N. aisle—E. window, N. wall, two ribbands inscribed " Temple of the (our) Lord Jesus" and six quarries inscribed IHS, 16th-century. In S. aisle—E. window, S. wall, two inscriptions " Jesus Teple" and cartouches, one dated 1550. Library: In strong room in N. aisle, printed and manuscript matter including 26 volumes of correspondence with letters from William the Silent, Albrecht Dürer, Hoefnagel and others. Monument and Floor-slabs —Monument: In N. aisle—on N. wall, to Margaret Laurencia (Huyssen) wife of Col. Henry Cornwall, 1692, large tablet (Plate 27) with Composite side columns, cornice, broken segmental pediment, achievement and ten small shields-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to Deborah Delme, 1706, and John Delme, 1711, and others of later date; (2) to Josyna Shapelinck, 1689–90, and Anna (Shapelinck) wife of John Ellsworth, 1700; (3) to Theodore Cock, 1697, and John Cock, 1706; (4) to P.B., 1692; (5) to I.P., 1698, see also Indent (11); (6) to William van den Berghe, 1704; (7) to Isaac Vinck, 1702, with shield-of-arms; (8) to Daniel Noortwych, 1704–5, Jean Noortwych, 1707, and Elizabeth Noortwych, 1714, with achievement-of-arms; (9) to Anna Rees, wife of Gerard Maes-acker, 1706–7, and her daughter Gertrude van Dene, 1699, with achievement-of-arms; (10) to Henry Bustyn, 1714, and Adriaen van Helsdingen, 1701; (11) to Thomas Viroot, 1704, and John Westhuys, 1710, with shield-of-arms; (12) to Albert Löning, 1709, with shield-of-arms. In N. aisle—(13) to Katherina, 1676, and Elizabeth Otgher, 1686, also to Elizabeth, 1701, Alice, 1704–5, Justus, 1711, and Abraham Otgher, 1714; (14) to Johan, 1673–4, and Gerard van Heythuysen, 1692–3, Anna his widow, 1704, John their son, 1697, and Delme van Heythuysen, 1701; (15) to Marinus van Vryberge, 1711, with shield-of-arms; (16) to Catherine (Paus) wife of Dirck Decker, 1708; (17) to Janettie, wife of Otto van Kesteren, 1711; (18) to Peter Kesteren, 1686. Plate (Plate 32): includes large alms-dish of 1625 with merchant's mark in middle and Dutch inscription with date of gift 1639; two flagons of 1635, with spout, handle and foot, one given by Joas Godschalck, sen., 1635, with achievement-of-arms, the other by William Kint, 1613, with shield-of-arms; two large stand-patens of 1635, one with an achievement-of-arms, the other given by Cornelius Godfrey, 1635, with merchant's mark; four straight-sided cups with covers of 1669, given by Jan van Pieren in 1670; the plate kept in a 17th-century leather-bound chest with ornament in nail-heads and other metal-work. Stoup: Outside W. doorway—double, with plain pointed heads, 14th-century, but all restored. Sundial: On parapet of S. aisle wall—square, probably late 17th-century.
(3) The Royal Exchange (Parish of St. Bartholomew Exchange) stands between Threadneedle Street and Cornhill. It is a modern building, but contains a relaid pavement of Turkish Hone stone from the original building of Sir Thomas Gresham.
(4) Merchant Taylors' Hall (Parishes of St. Martin Outwich, St. Peter Cornhill and St. Benet Fink) stands on the S. side of Threadneedle Street between that street and Cornhill, is of one storey to the Hall and two to the 17th-century building. The walls of the hall, kitchen and crypt are of ragstone and chalk with Reigate and Portland-stone dressings, and the walls of the Great Parlour or Court Dining-room block are of brick; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The Hall was begun soon after the site was purchased in 1347, and the crypt was probably added c. 1375. There is documentary evidence of the existence of a chapel above the crypt, late in the 14th century. Early in the 15th century, probably c. 1425–35, the kitchen was partly or wholly re-built on the site of the former kitchen. About the middle of the 15th century the 'buffet' was added on the N. side of the hall. The buildings were considerably damaged but not destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666; the upper part of the hall-walls with the windows were repaired, the roof re-built, and the exterior was partly refaced in stone, this work being completed about 1673. The Great Parlour block was then added, being finished in 1683, and about the same time the staircase, picture-gallery and some buildings to the E. of the hall were erected and the kitchen repaired. In 1793 the E. wall and the roof of the Hall were entirely re-built and the double range of windows, in the N. and S. walls, replaced by the present openings. About the middle of the last century the two entrances from Threadneedle Street, with the modern offices adjoining and several other apartments, were added or altered. The present court room and the rooms adjoining were built in 1878–9 and other minor additions have since been made.
The hall is the largest of those belonging to the city companies, and is of particular interest as being the only one preserving any definite mediæval features. The unusually large kitchen is noteworthy, and the 'buffet' may be compared with that at the Tallow-Chandlers' Hall.
The hall is approached by two modern entrances in Threadneedle Street opposite the E. and W. ends of the Hall respectively. The Hall stands E. and W. with various apartments to the E., under part of which is the Crypt and with the Picture Gallery at the W. end on the first floor. To the S.E. of the hall is the Kitchen connected to it by a long passage, and to the S.W. of the hall is the Great Parlour and Drawing Room over it with the Great Staircase interposed. Between the Kitchen and great parlour is a small garden now surrounded on the E., N. and S. by modern buildings.
The N. Elevation of the Hall is divided in five bays by buttresses. The wall is cement-rendered in the upper part and rests on rough foundation-arches of chalk and rag-stone, exposed during 1910 and now again concealed. Similar foundation-arches have recently been exposed at the E. end. In the first four bays of the N. wall are modern Gothic windows, and in the fifth is a semi-octagonal projecting 'buffet' of the 15th century with the upper part restored.
The S. Elevation of the Hall has the lower part of the wall concealed by modern buildings; the upper part with the buttresses has been refaced in Portland stone; it contains four modern windows similar to those on the N. At the W. end is a moulded and four-centred arch, now blocked but formerly opening into the 'oriel.'
The E. Elevation of the Great Parlour block is faced with red brick, the two storeys being divided by a Portland-stone string-course. Each storey has four windows with flush frames and square rubbed-brick heads. The E. side of the staircase-wing has rusticated stone angles and windows with flush frames at the first-floor level.
The outside of the Kitchen is largely obscured by modern buildings, but on the N. side are three segmental-headed, late 17th-century windows of two lights with solid frames and transoms and leaded glazing. In the S. and W. walls are blocked early 15th-century windows with four-centred heads, set high in the wall; the W. window has two pointed lights with a plain spandrel. The kitchen was evidently once covered with an octagonal pyramidal roof of timber, some of the moulded corbels supporting the principals still remaining on the inside of the walls. The angles of the octagon were supported by deep external buttresses, the bases of two of which were discovered in 1878 against the S. and W. walls. A continuous chamfered external plinth was found at the same time, but is not now visible.
Interior:—The Hall (93½ ft. by 43½ ft.) has a semi-octagonal 'buffet' for the display of plate, projecting to the N. of the Dais end; the outer walls are restored, but the splayed jambs are of mid 15th-century date with the moulded four-centred arch springing from restored corbels. It is roofed with a diminutive fan-vault with cusped cells, of which the outer half is modern restoration. The Screen (Plate 86) at the E. end is divided into three bays by coupled Ionic columns, fluted and raised on pedestals and supporting an enriched entablature with a frieze of bay-leaves and a cartouche of the arms of Sir Thomas White; in the centre bay is a keyed blank arch, and in the side bays are square-headed doorways surmounted by pediments and carved swags and pendants; on the N. over-door are the arms of John Foster, master, with his name and those of the four wardens for 1672–73; on the S. over-door are the arms of Sir Wm. Prichard, master, with his name and those of the wardens for 1673–74. At either end of the screen are niches with shell-heads containing carved oak figures of Justice and a woman bearing a palm and scroll; above them are panels with drapery. The old stone floor of the Hall remains, about 2½ ft. below the existing wooden floor. The Crypt (Plate 84) lies under some modern rooms to the E. of the Hall. It formerly consisted of three bays but, since 1853, only two and a portion of the third remain standing. The walls and vault are mainly of chalk with Reigate-stone dressings; the vault is quadripartite with deep hollow-chamfered ribs springing from moulded and sculptured corbels against the side walls; four of these are now exposed to view and bear on the W. a winged beast and a grotesque face, and on the E. the head and shoulders of a man and a bat. The S. springers of the third bay of the crypt still remain, and it is probable that the Merchant Taylors' Chapel stood immediately over it. At the S. end is part of a doorway with chamfered jamb and two-centred head.
The Kitchen (37½ ft. square) was built c. 1425–32 and is entered by three four-centred arches in the N. wall. They are moulded on the N. face in two orders with restored and double-chamfered jambs and piers and segmental-pointed rear arches. In the E. wall is a blocked doorway with chamfered jambs, two-centred head and a segmental-pointed rear arch; further S. is a recess in the wall with a pointed head, and in it is a stone-steyned well; a brick trough or cistern was found, under the floor, to the S. of it. A doorway of doubtful date was uncovered in the W. wall in 1873, but is not now visible. The two great brick fireplaces against the E. and W. walls are of late 17th-century date, and between them are two wood strainers with curved struts apparently of the same period. The Great Parlour had originally three windows in the W. wall and a fireplace in the S. wall, but these are now blocked. The door from the great staircase at the N. end has an enriched pediment above it with the inscription —"The wainscotting of this parlour and mantelpiece etc. is the gift of Mr. Edward Clarke and Mr. Michael Rolls two of the assistants of this Society Ano. 1683." A sham door with similar ornament and inscription is placed further W. in the same wall; the doors are bolection-moulded, of ten panels and two folds. The walls are panelled to the ceiling, two panels in the height, with a dado-rail and finished with an enriched cornice; near the middle of the W. and S. walls are panels ornamented with carved festoons. In the modern fireplace is a late 17th-century iron fire-back bearing the arms of the company. The Great Staircase (Plate 165) has a square well; the heavy moulded rail is carried over the square newels and rests on turned and carved balusters; the continuous string is moulded and enriched. The walls are covered to the full height with 18th-century panelling, finished with an enriched cornice. At the ground-floor level are two doorways on the N. and S. leading to the W. Corridor and the Court Dining-room, surmounted by carved escutcheons bearing the arms of Clarke and Rolls and flanked by fluted Ionic pilasters. On the first landing are two 18th-century doorways opening to the Picture Gallery and Drawing-room and flanked by Corinthian fluted pilasters, but with no shields-of-arms. Preserved on the N. wall is a large piece of late 16th-century tapestry, by Francis Gembels of Brussels, representing a landscape with a large country house and grounds with figures after the manner of Hoefnagel, all within a rich border. The Drawing Room is panelled to the ceiling with Composite fluted pilasters at intervals dividing it into bays; it has been re-decorated and it is now difficult to determine the extent of the original work. The Picture Gallery has three arches to the Hall on the E. side, lined with modern work but perhaps of 17th-century origin. The walls are covered to the ceiling with 18th-century panelling in deal and finished with an enriched cornice. On either side the fireplace are fluted Composite pilasters. Preserved here are two funeral-palls, the first of 1490–1512 with a brocaded centre and embroidered flaps; the long sides bear the baptism of Our Lord and St. John the Baptist with the inscription "Ecce agnus Dei," twice repeated, angels bearing chargers with the Baptist's head and the inscription "capat (sic) johis bapteste i disco," the Agnus Dei and tailors' shears; at the ends are the decollation and entombment of St. John the Baptist. The second pall is of 1520–30 and has a brocaded centre and long embroidered flaps bearing the baptism of our Lord, the old arms of the company twice repeated and the inscription in large letters "Ecce agnus Dei"; at the ends are the decollation of the Baptist and two shields of the same arms.
(5) Carpenters' Hall (parish of All Hallows) stands on the S. side of London Wall, at the E. corner of Throgmorton Avenue, and is an entirely modern building. It contains the following fittings from the old Hall:—In the Court Room— surround and overmantel to fireplace (Plate 8); the surround enriched with carved festoon, cornice supported on two carved brackets; overmantel with carved panel and side brackets and flanked by pilasters, with arabesque panels, supporting enriched cornice and pediment, late 17th-century; three old wood panels (Plate 17), one dated 1579 with the name and mark of Thomas Harper, master, and a harp, the second with the arms of the company and the same date, with a strapwork cartouche, and the third with the names of the then wardens; they probably formed part of the wainscoting of the "New Parlour." In the Committee Room—overmantel and surround to fireplace, the former with large panel, bay-leaf border and enriched cornice, the surround with enriched architrave, central panel and enriched cornice, late 17th-century; in windows between this room and the vestibule, shield and panels of glass, made up with modern work as follows:— in window (a), achievement of royal Tudor arms, shield and garter modern; shield-of-arms of the company in strap-work frame; eighteen cartouches with the names of various masters and wardens between 1656 and 1673; in window (b), two large panels with scrolled borders and the arms of the company and city respectively; twenty cartouches with the names of masters and wardens between 1674 and 1684; in window (c), one cartouche with the name of a warden for 1682; all 17th-century except the Tudor royal arms. By the fireplace— two corbels carved with angels holding shields-of arms of the city and company, c. 1500. In the office —three tempera paintings (Plate 85) on plaster, from the old Hall, representing (1) King Josiah commanding money to be given to the carpenters for the repair of the temple; king on throne, two gentlemen in attendance; officer with staff and purse in front; man behind latter giving money to three workmen. The inscription (much defaced) runs, "King Josyas comandyd ye hye prest yt ye money wch was . . . hous of ye Lord should be delyvered to ye carpynters wtout any . . ."; (2) Christ in the carpenter's shop; Joseph working with adze; the boy Christ gathering chips into a basket; Mary seated spinning; figure on left in furred gown, ruff and cap, directing Joseph; with the inscription, "Chryst at ye age of xii yeres syttynge amonge the teachers in the temple, his father and his mother were come to seke him, he went wyth them to Nazarethe and was obedyent unto them Lueke ii chapter"; (3) Christ teaching in the synagogue; Christ seated with desk in front, group of men standing in front, one with a book; inscribed "Chryst teachynge in ye synag . . . wysdom is thys, is not thys that carpynters . . ."; mid 16th-century; a fourth painting was destroyed at the rebuilding.