An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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2. ALDGATE WARD.
Aldgate Ward consists of the parishes of St. Katharine Cree, St. James Duke's Place, St. Katharine Coleman and parts of the parishes of St. Andrew Undershaft, All Hallows London Wall, All Hallows Staining and St. Olave, Hart Street. The principal monuments are the churches of St. Andrew Undershaft and St. Katharine Cree and the Synagogue. A portion of the Roman wall of the city is preserved in Nos. 18–20 Jewry Street (see London, Vol. III, p. 85).
(1) Parish Church of St. Andrew Undershaft stands on the E. side of St. Mary Axe. The walls are of rag-stone rubble partly cemented, with limestone dressings and the roofs are covered with lead. The lower part of the Tower was built in the 15th century, but the rest of the church, consisting of Chancel, Nave, North and South Aisles, was re-built between the years 1520 and 1532. The North Vestry was added in the 17th century. The tower was largely re-built in 1830 and the church has been much restored in more recent times.
Among the fittings the monuments and glass are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (102½ ft. by 21½ ft.) are structurally undivided (Plate 51), the chancel occupying the three E. bays and projecting one bay beyond the aisles. The E. window has been completely restored and is of five trefoiled and transomed lights with tracery in a four-centred head. The N. and S. arcades are each of six bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders divided by a casement; the columns have each four attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The clearstorey has on each side six windows each of three cinque-foiled lights in a segmental-pointed head with moulded reveals, apparently all restored. The W. window is uniform with the E. window and has been completely restored.
The North Aisle (14 ft. wide) has in the E. wall a window of four cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and external label. In the N. wall are five similar windows; the sills, excepting the westernmost, have been raised about a yard; below the easternmost is a 17th-century square-headed doorway opening into the Vestry; between the second and third windows is an early 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head opening into the rood-loft staircase, which is enclosed in a semi-octagonal turret of cemented brick; the upper doorway is blocked; below the westernmost window is a partly restored doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a moulded label; the spandrels are carved with foliage. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the E. wall.
The South Aisle (average width 14 ft.) has in the E. wall one window, and in the S. wall five windows, all similar to those in the N. aisle; all the sills have been raised to a higher level as in the N. aisle.
The North Vestry is a late 17th-century addition; the walls are of brick covered with cement. The N. and W. walls have each a square-headed window, and in the E. wall is a square-headed doorway.
The South-west Tower (12 ft. square) is of four stages (Plate 50), of which the top stage is entirely modern and the others much restored. It stands partly within the area of the S. aisle, and the projecting plinth along the whole of the E. wall, together with a blocked window in the same wall, show that this face was external before the rebuilding of the church in 1532. The ground-stage has in the E. wall a blocked window of one light with an elliptical head; in the W. wall is a similar window, but open and with a cinque-foiled head. In the N. wall is a 15th-century arch, moulded and four-centred and resting on moulded responds, each with an attached shaft with moulded capital and base; the latter probably re-set when the floor-level was raised. In the S. wall is a restored doorway with a pointed arch in a square head. The second stage has in the S. wall a restored window of two cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head with a moulded label. The third stage has in the N. wall a modern doorway, and in the S. and W. walls a restored window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head with a moulded label. At the N.W. angle of the Tower is a projecting stair-turret; it is entered from the aisle by a four-centred doorway with its threshold below the present floor-level.
The Roof of the body of the church is flat and boarded on the soffit and coved at the sides; the boarding is divided into six and a half bays by moulded principals springing from moulded corbel-capitals on the side walls; each bay is divided by moulded ribs into sixteen square panels; at the intersections of the ribs are carved bosses mostly flowers or foliage, but with a Paschal Lamb carved on the centre bosses, excepting the westernmost bay, and a number with repainted shields-of-arms of St. George, St. Andrew, the City of London and the See of London. The roof of the N. aisle is flat and is divided into square bays by moulded principals, middle purlin and wall-plates; each bay is divided into four square panels by moulded ribs; at the intersections of both the principals and ribs are angels with blank shields. The roof of the S. aisle is a low-pitched gable with heavy principals and purlin, and open rafters, apparently all modern.
Fittings—Bells: six and clock-bell; 1st by Anthony Bartlett, 1669; 2nd, 3rd and 6th by Robert Mot, 1597; 4th by the same founder, 1600, and 5th by Brian Eldridge, 1650. Books: In vestry—including Foxe's Acts and Monuments, Raleigh's History of the World, Erasmus' Paraphrase, etc. Brasses and Indent: Brasses. In N. aisle—on E. wall, (1) to Nycolas Leveson, sheriff, 1539, and Denys (Bodley) his wife, 1560, kneeling figures of man and woman, eight sons and ten daughters, two labels and three shields-of-arms (a) azure a fesse wavy argent between three leaves or, for Leveson quartering argent a cheveron gules between three cinqfoils sable, for Prestwood; (b) (a) impaling argent five martlets saltirewise sable a chief azure with three crowns or therein for Bodley; (c) Bodley; indent of the Trinity; the whole set in a round-headed panel; see also monument (3). Indent. In churchyard —at E. end, of two figures and inscription-plate and two shields, slab broken. Clock: over lobby of N. doorway, but formerly on front of organ, square case with cornice and gilt scroll-work in spandrels, etc., late 17th-century. Doors and Door-cases: To N. doorway—lobby with two-fold panelled doors flanked by fluted Corinthian half-columns supporting entablature and segmental pediment, late 17th-century, outer door, of two panelled leaves studded with nails, early 17th-century. To S. doorway of tower—lobby with two panelled doors under an elliptical head and flanked by fluted Corinthian half-columns supporting an entablature, front continued across to walls of tower and enclosing two cupboards; outer doors of two panelled leaves with strap-hinges and moulded ribs studded with nails; on meetingstyle of W. leaf, panelled buttress with crocketed finals, 15th or early 16th-century, iron ringknocker with lion's head and ornamental keyhole plate, 15th-century. Doorway to vestry with moulded and panelled architrave, moulded cornice and panelled door, late 17th-century; to stair-turret of tower, plain battened door, 15th-century. Font: by Nicholas Stone (Plate 11), octagonal bowl of white veined marble, octagonal stem of black marble with square moulded base. Cover, of oak, octagonal with moulded and panelled sides and cherub-heads at angles, upper stages with concave faces and moulded angle-ribs, cornice and small cupola with finial and vase 17th-century. Font-enclosure with moulded upper and lower rails, panelled standards and turned and twisted balusters, late 17th-century, probably old communion rails re-used. Glass: In the windows of the aisles a series of shields-of-arms of contributors to the rebuilding of 1532, and evidently part of the original glazing except those in the E. window of the N. aisle, which are modern. Many of the shields are incomplete. In easternmost window of the N. aisle, four shields—(a) Leveson quartering Prestwood, (b) the Merchant Taylors' Company, ancient arms (Plate 15), (c) apparently gules a fesse engrailed between three boars' heads argent, lower half of shield white glass, quartering azure three lions argent, (d) azure a fesse quarterly sable and argent between three ragged staves (?) quartering argent a cheveron gules between three water-bougets sable, a molet for difference. In the second window four shields—(a) the Mercers' Company, (b) azure a cheveron or between two eagles or in chief and a lion passant or in base, on the cheveron three roundels gules, the middle one charged with a leopard's head argent and the others with a scallop argent for ? Nicholls, above it a shield as first half of (c) in second window in S. wall, (c) the Staple of Calais, and above it a shield as in the last item, (d) France and England quarterly quartering 2 and 3 de Burgh and 4 Mortimer. In fourth window four shields—(a) quarterly fessewise indented argent and gules, a bend azure with three crosslets fitchy or thereon in chief a ring counter-coloured, for Acton, (b) the Merchant Venturers' Company, (c) Leveson, (d) the Bakers' Company, ancient arms. In W. window of N. aisle, recently removed from the third window of N. wall, four shields— (a) the same as (d) in third window of S. wall, very incomplete, (b) ermine a cheveron azure between three wheat-sheaves or for Masterson impaling quarterly 1 and 4 azure, a fesse [quarterly] argent [and sable] between three leaves or, 2 and 3 argent a cheveron between three wolves' heads razed sable, (c) argent a cheveron gules [between three plummets sable] for Jennings impaling quarterly 1 and 4 argent a fesse and in chief a cheveron gules for Kirton, 2 and 3 argent a fesse between three charges (hawks' hoods?) gules now reversed, (d) the quartered shield of Leveson impaling a fragmentary coat party fessewise azure and gules in lower half three martlets or a chief or with three crowns (gules?) therein. In E. window of S. aisle—four shields (a) the Staple of Calais but dexter half of the field replaced by part of another shield gules three martlets argent a chief or, (b) the Mercers' Company, (c) Henry VIII, (d) City of London. In second window of S. wall, four shields—(a) merchants' mark probably for Jennings (Plate 15), (b) Jennings impaling the quarterly coat of Kirton and another (see (c) in W. window of N. aisle), (c) azure a lion argent billety sable a chief or, for Goldwell, impaling argent a lion gules over all a bend sable with three crosslets fitchy argent thereon, for Watton (Plate 15), (d) the Merchant Taylors' Company. In third window, four shields— (a) the impaled coat of (d) incomplete, (b) the Merchant Taylors' Company, ancient arms, (c) Jennings (Plate 15), (d) argent a fesse between three rings gules with three covered cups or on the fesse for Draper impaling argent a leopard's head gules between two flowers or trees vert all between five choughs sable. In fourth window four shields—(a) the City of London, (b) Jennings, (c) argent a cheveron sable between three moors' heads with three crosslets argent on the cheveron impaling argent a cheveron sable between three covered cups or, (d) a quarterly coat made up of fragments. In fifth window (formerly in the first window) four shields—(a) Jennings, (b) the Merchant Taylors' Company, (c) the Staple of Calais, (d) Jennings. In W. window of nave (Plate 53)—in the upper lights five large figures of Edward VI, Elizabeth, James I, Charles I and William III, with the names and dates of the deaths of the first four in late 17th-century characters, and the name and date Charles II, 1660, erroneously, under the last, in later characters. Figures represented standing in niches with elaborate canopies, clad in their appropriate costumes, and all crowned except Edward whose crown lies beside him. Under the figures, quarries with initials, ER, ER, JR, CR and W.R. In the three middle lower lights a large achievement of the Stuart royal arms with lion and unicorn supporters holding banners with the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew respectively. In the two outer lights Garters enclosing shields (S.) of France and England quarterly and (N.) arms of William III. In lower parts of lights from S. to N. (a) arms of See of London under a mitre, (b) Star of the Order of the Garter, (c) the Jewel of the Order of the Thistle (with figure of St. Andrew), (d) the Star of the Order of the Thistle and (e) a shield-of-arms of Antrobus, crest a unicorn's head. In heads of lights, badges of rose, fleur-de lis, harp, etc. Remainder of lights filled in with sloping bands containing mottoes—"Dieu et mon droit" under Edward and Elizabeth, "Pacifici" under James, "In defence" under Charles, and "Je maintiendrai" under William —and quarries with initials as in the upper lights. In tracery, Symbols of the Evangelists, figures of the Virgin and St. Andrew, roses, etc. All of the 17th-century and formerly in the E. window. Monuments and Floor-slabs: In chancel—against N. wall (1) of Sir Thomas Ofley, 1582, Lord Mayor, and Joan his wife, 1578 (Plate 23), painted marble, wall-monument, by Gerard Johnson, with balustraded base, two round-headed niches with kneeling figures of man and wife, panel in the middle with figures of three sons, Corinthian columns at sides supporting entablature with two reclining cherubs holding skulls, achievement and five shields-of-arms. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) of John Stow, 1605, antiquary (Plate 55), marble wall-monument, by Nicholas Johnson, consisting of square-headed recess with figure of man seated at a table writing, niche, with a book attached, to each reveal and flanked by enriched pilasters supporting entablature and cartouche-of-arms; (3) of Simon Burton, 1593, stone tablet with enriched border, cornice and cartouche-of-arms, on panel brass plate with figure of man, two wives, one son and three daughters; (4) of Alice (Burton) wife successively of Richard Waterson, Francis Coldocke and Isaac Bynge, 1616, small marble wall-monument with kneeling figure of woman at prayer-desk, in round-headed recess flanked by pilasters supporting cornice, pediment and shield-of-arms; (5) of Sir Hugh Hamersley, 1636, Lord Mayor, large wall-monument (Plate 23) with kneeling figures of man in armour and wife in recess with draped canopy. Composite side columns flanked by standing figures of men and supporting entablature, on which are seated figures of women with helms and shields, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (6) to Sir Christopher Clitherow, 1642, Lord Mayor and Katherine (Rowland) and Mary (Campbell), 1645, his wives, also to Mary (Gregory) wife of James Clitherow, 1662, and her daughter, square freestone tablet with scrolls, cherub-heads, fruit and shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (7) of Dorothy (Greswold) wife successively to John Weld and Hugh Offley, 1610, wall-monument with figure and three shields-of-arms; (8) to Edward Warner, 1628, marble wall-monument with Corinthian side columns, entablature, broken pediment, achievement and eight shields-of-arms; (9) to Peter Vansittart, 1705, marble tablet with scrolls, drapery, skulls, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms; (10) to Margery, wife successively to Isaack Sutton and Humfry Turner, 1607, and to her first husband, 1589 (Plate 27), marble tablet with enriched side pilasters, reeded upper and lower frieze, achievement and three shields-of-arms; (11) to Charles Thorold, 1691, also Sir Charles Thorold his son, 1709, marble tablet with drapery, cherubs, segmental cornice, cartouche and shield-of-arms; on W. wall, (12) to John Jeffreys, 1688, marble cartouche with drapery, palms and shield-of-arms; (13) to Geoffrey Jeffreys, 1709, marble draped tablet with cartouche-of-arms; on N. wall of tower, (14) to Henry Sykes, 1710, and Margery (Paynel) his wife, 1694, draped marble tablet with cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms; (15) to Humphrey Brooke, M.D., 1693, and John his son, 1687, marble cartouche with drapery, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms. In tower, on W. wall, (16) to Bridget, daughter of Sir Christopher Clitherow, 1681, marble tablet with scrolls, entablature and segmental pediment, cartouche-of-arms; (17) to Anthony Abdy  and Abigail his wife, marble tablet with scrolls, cornice, segmental pediment, cherub-heads and two cartouches-of-arms, monument signed "Henry Boughton fecit." Floor-slabs: In churchyard—against E. enclosing wall, (1) to William Wight, 1672, also four children; (2) to Humphrey Brooke, 1693, Elizabeth his widow, 1711, and John his son, 1687, and other children; (3) to Peter Vansittart, 1705, with achievement-of-arms; (4) to Abraham Sutton, 1675; (5) to Charles Thorold, 1691, and Anne his wife, 1702; (6) to M. Datcheler, 1699. Organ (Plates 54 and 28): In S. aisle—of two bays with three towers of pipes, each bay has oval panel with pierced carving and an enriched segmental cornice with a reclining figure of an angel on the top, towers with pierced carving below cornices and standing on brackets carved with acanthus and cherub-heads, wainscotted lower part with entablature and richly carved frieze, said to have been built by Renatus Harris, 1696, but re-built and added to. Paintings: In spandrels of arcades—said to be painted scenes from the life of Christ, 1726, now very black and indistinguishable. Panelling: In vestry—bolection moulded panelled wainscoting with dado-rail, late 17th-century. Paving: In N. lobby and round font, of black and white marble squares late 17th-century. Plate: includes flagon of 1636, two flagons of the same date given 1637; cup of 1609, given the same year and with shield-of-arms, cup of 1609, paten of 1609, paten of 1627, alms-dish of 1636 (?) with date 1672, spoon of 1685, and beadle's staff with silver head of figure of St. Andrew, 1713. Pulpit (Plate 35): hexagonal with enriched rail and cornice, carved and inlaid round panel in each face, one with IHS and Cross in rays, with spandrels richly carved with flowers, cherub-head at each angle with pendant of foliage and fruit, stairs with carved and twisted balusters, on top two double candlesticks of brass with figures of St. Andrew, late 17th-century. Seating: pews made up of old material cut down and altered, churchwardens' pews at W. end with high backs and carved pierced frieze-panels, carved scrolls at ends, late 17th-century.
(2) Parish Church of St. Katharine Cree stands on the N. side of Leadenhall Street at the eastern angle of Cree Lane. The walls are of roughly squared rag-stone with free-stone dressings. The main roof is slated and the aisles are lead-covered. The western respond of the 15th-century S. nave-arcade remains with the western part of the N. wall. The Tower was probably re-built in 1504, and the rest of the church was pulled down in 1628 and re-built on a rather larger scale. At the close of the 17th century (probably 1693) the Vestry was added or re-built. The parapet, cupola and bell-chamber windows of the tower date from the late 18th century, and the modern alterations include the removal of the pierced cresting to the main nave-walls and a considerable amount of refacing.
The church is of peculiar interest as an example of Laudian work and the design, a mixture of Gothic and Renaissance detail, is traditionally attributed to Inigo Jones.
Architectural Description—On plan the building is an irregular oblong consisting of a body (93 ft. average by 21 ft.) and side aisles (13 ft. and 14 ft. wide respectively), with a tower occupying part of the W. bay of the S. aisle.
The E. Elevation is largely obscured by modern buildings. In the centre bay is a rectangular window, divided by a transom into two portions, the upper filled with a rose of 16 radiating lights with a plain circle in the centre and sex-foiled circles in the spandrels. The lower portion has five upright lights with cinque-foiled heads. The windows at the E. end of the side aisles are alike and both blocked; each have three cinque-foiled, square-headed lights, that in the centre being higher than its fellows. Adjoining the S.E. angle of the church was an archway to the churchyard, now removed and re-erected against the east wall of the parish room, N. of the church. It is square-headed with an eared architrave and Ionic half-pilasters at the sides, supporting an entablature and pediment. In the tympanum is a carved skeleton and an inscription recording the date 1631 and donor, William Avenon. Adjoining the N.E. angle of the church is a Vestry, now enclosed by modern buildings. The old doorway in the E. wall (now a window) has side-pilasters and a moulded cornice externally.
N. Elevation. The four windows of the N. aisle are similar in form to the blocked windows at the E. end, the first window being cut short to avoid the vestry adjoining. The N. aisle is narrower in its two western bays (representing the original width of the church) and is built against, externally.
S. Elevation (Plate 56). The first five bays of the S. aisle have similar windows but with a Classic architrave above the side lights. The wall below each window-sill is brought forward and panelled. The parapet is modern, and below it runs a cornice and plain frieze. The clearstorey is finished with a wooden eaves-cornice and has five three-light windows, on each side, of the same character as the aislewindows. In the last bay on the N. is one of two equal lights, and the corresponding window on the south is blocked.
W. Elevation. In the middle is a large blocked square-headed window of five lights with a transom; the label rises above the head to form a pediment and is continued along the wall, at a lower level, in the form of a cornice; the W. doorway is round-headed with rusticated jambs and moulded cornice. At the end of the N. aisle is a tall window of two cinque-foiled lights. A fragment of the 17th-century parapet cresting remains between the tower and clearstorey walls.
The early 16th-century tower is three stages high (10 ft. by 9 ft.) with a staircase in the N.W. angle. In the S. wall of the ground-stage is an early 17th-century doorway forming the main entrance to the church; it is round-headed with moulded architrave and imposts and is flanked by Ionic columns, supporting an entablature and modern pediment. In the W. wall is a pointed window of two cinque-foiled lights. In the N. wall of the second stage is a 16th-century window of one trefoiled light, now blocked, and in the S. wall are two small round-headed windows of 17th-century date. A similar window, now blocked, pierces the W. wall. The parapet and quoins of the bell-chamber are of the 18th century, as is the timber bell-cote; the windows are of the same date externally, but the rear-arches and splays are mainly of the 16th century. One jamb of the 16th-century stairway-door remains at the N.W. angle.
Interior (Plate 57)—The internal jambs of the aisle and end windows have Gothic mouldings. In the first bay of the N. aisle-wall is an elliptical-headed doorway of 1693, to the Vestry. The arcades are of six bays with semi-circular arches, with carved key-stones, springing from Corinthian columns with half-columns as responds. The key-stones of the second arch of each arcade and the fifth arch on the north are dated 1630, and the soffits of all are coffered with a carved rose in each compartment. The last bay is narrower than the rest and the arches here are stilted. Above the arcades runs a moulded cornice projecting above the columns on carved stone brackets. The clearstorey above is divided into corresponding bays by Corinthian pilasters, the jambs and head of each window having an eared architrave carried round. The ribbed plaster vault (Plate 56) springs from the clearstorey-pilasters, the portion over the two E. bays having lierne ribs in addition. In the centre of each bay is a painted coat-of-arms beginning with the City of London and followed by the Fishmongers, Merchant Taylors, Ironmongers, Clothworkers and Leathersellers. The aisle-vaults are similar but simpler in character, each bay having the arms of a City Company in the centre, Mercers, Drapers, Skinners, Salters and Dyers in the N. aisle, and Grocers, Goldsmiths, Haberdashers, Vintners and Brewers in the S. aisle; the vaults spring from carved stone brackets. The tower opens into the church by two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders, with shafted responds, all of early 16th-century date, in the N. and E. walls. At the N.E. angle of the tower on its E. face are the moulded capital and the upper part of a semi-octagonal respond of the 15th century, the remainder of the shaft being now buried.
Fittings—Books: a common prayer-book of 1662 with a cover and silver clasps apparently given in 1630, a bible of 168–, given in 1693 Chairs: two, with carved and pierced backs, carved arms and turned legs, probably late 17th-century. Doors and door-cases: of two panelled leaves with enriched architrave with panel inscribed "Ex dono S.C. 1693," with shield-of-arms. The lobby-enclosure to the W. doorway, now encloses a staircase and cupboards; it is of three bays with Corinthian pilasters at the angles supporting an entablature which is continued eastward to form the base of the organ-gallery, the front of which is supported on two Corinthian columns; the E. face of the lobby-enclosure has a doorway with an elliptical head and panelled door of two folds, flanked by fluted Doric pilasters, late 17th-century. Font (Plate 11): octagonal marble bowl of ovolo section with three cartouches of the arms of Sir John Gayer (Lord Mayor in 1646), stem consisting of an elaborately scrolled pedestal with panels of grey marble and a square Ionic capital; cover of oak with panelled sides, enriched scrolls at the angles and dentilled cornice, ogee-shaped upper part with enriched ribs at the angles, octagonal capping and ball, c. 1630–40. Glass: In 'rose' of E. window—round middle compartment, sixteen radiating panels and small tracery-lights all with conventional designs of roundels, foliage, and strap-work, 17th-century. In N. aisle—in second window in E. wall, medallion with achievement of the Cordwainers' Company, 17th-century; in westernmost window, oval cartouche with quartered shield-of-arms, 17th-century; in W. window, ten medallions made up with fragments— (a) the Hebrew name Jehovah, (b) two arms holding a sheaf of arrows, (c and d) fragments only, (e) shield of the City of London, (f, g, and h) three shields-of-arms including two of Sir Edward Barkham, (i) a couched ram, (j) an architectural ornament; from St. James Duke's Place, erected there in 1622. In S. aisle—in second window in S. wall, medallion with achievement-of-arms of Chauncey (?) and date 1630; in fourth window, arms, etc., of the Clothworkers' Company, 17th-century. Lectern: made up of late 17th-century work, including carved scrolls and carved panels to desk. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) to Dr. John Tovey, early 17th-century, small tablet flanked by enriched pilasters, with entablature and cartouche; (2) to Samuel Marshall, M.A., organist 1713–14, draped marble tablet with shield-of-arms. In S. aisle on S. wall, (3) of Sir Nicholas Throkmorton, 1570, marble wall-monument (Plate 20) consisting of shelf supporting recumbent effigy in armour on rush-mattress, Doric columns at sides supporting entablature with achievement and two shields-of-arms, enriched back-piece against wall; (4) to Bartholomew Ellnor, 1636, and Alice (Cheney) his wife, marble tablet (Plate 25) flanked by allegorical figures and surmounted by segmental pediment, three shields-of-arms; (5) to Richard Spencer, 1667, black marble tablet (Plate 27) with round wreath-panel, flanked by Corinthian columns supporting entablature, broken pediment and shield-of-arms. Organ: built by Bernard Schmidt, 1683 or 1686, but subsequently altered, case with panelled lower part finished with enriched cornice, upper part with three towers of pipes resting on corbels carved with cherub-heads and with pierced carving at top surmounted by enriched entablatures, the pipes between the towers have carving at top and bottom and the pediments to the cornice support two cherubs. Paintings: In S. aisle—three wooden panels with painted figures of (a) woman with celestial crown and staff, (b and c) angels with trumpets, early 18th-century. Panelling: On E. and side walls, panelled wainscot with moulded capping. Plate (Plate 32): includes two flagons of 1630, given 1631, two cups of 1626, a cup of 1630 given the same year, two patens of 1626, a spoon dated 1631 and four pewter alms-dishes, with Tudor rose, royal Stuart arms and initials C.R., royal badges and initials C.R. and Prince of Wales' feathers with initials C.P. respectively, early 17th-century. Pulpit: hexagonal, enriched panelled sides with enriched capping and base, ogee-shaped base on hexagonal stem with moulded base; sounding-board of same form with enriched and dentilled cornice and inlaid soffit, early 18th-century. Rainwater-heads: two on S. wall, moulded and dated 1683. Royal Arms: In N. aisle—Stuart arms (Plate 16) of wood painted and gilt. Seating: pews made up of old material cut down and altered, early 18th-century; against N. and S. walls, continuous wooden bench with turned legs, also in various parts of the church eight forms or benches, with turned legs; stalls made up of old panelling with carved and pierced frieze-panels, carved scrolls at ends, late 17th or early 18th-century. Sundial: On S. wall, large incised dial, inscribed "Non sine lumine," erected 1706.
(3) Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews, stands in the W. angle between Bevis Marks and Heneage Lane. The walls are of brick with painted stone dressings and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. A synagogue was established in Creechurch Lane in 1657 and enlarged in 1674. The present site was bought in 1699 and the existing building erected in the years 1700 and 1701, some of the fittings of the older building being transferred to the new structure.
The building is of great interest as a synagogue of the beginning of the 18th century, practically unaltered and containing all its original fittings.
Architectural Description—The synagogue is a rectangular building (80 ft. by 50 ft.) with galleries round three sides. The Elevations are in red brick with stone dressings, a plain plinth, moulded band between the storeys, a stone cornice, and a plain parapet. The W. front has a central doorway with square head, moulded architrave and panelled key-block inscribed A.M. 5461–1701; above the doorway is a cornice and segmental pediment resting on stone brackets and with the inscription in Hebrew, in the tympanum, "Sanctified to the Lord, Holy Congregation, Gate of Heaven, New Year 5462." Flanking the doorway are windows with moulded architraves, segmental heads and plain key-stones. In the upper storey are three windows, one with an elliptical head and the other two with round heads; all have architraves and plain key-blocks. The N. and S. elevations have each five windows in each storey similar to the corresponding windows in the W. front, those to the upper range being all round-headed. The E. wall has windows in the upper storey similar to those in the W. front; the lower storey is blank except for an opening to the heating-cellar.
Interior (Plate 58)—The plain plaster ceiling has a series of rosettes, from some of which hang the candelabra; against the walls a plaster cornice is carried round the building. The mouldings of the beams of the gallery fronts are carried along the E. wall as far as the Echal. The heads of the lower windows on the N. and S. are groined into the plaster soffits of the galleries.
Fittings—All of early 18th-century date, unless otherwise stated. Banco (pew for the Wardens): against N. wall, under gallery—raised on two steps and consisting of chest with panelled front, modern seats and backs for five persons; at each end, against wall, a panelled pilaster; front enclosure of moulded panelling with book-shelf and at two angles a fluted Doric column supporting an arcade of three elliptical arches with key-blocks and pendants, moulded cornice against ceiling of gallery; similar arch at each end of pew springing from pilaster against wall. Chairs: adjoining staircase to gallery—Beadle's seat, consisting of small chest with panelled sides, back posts carried up to form back, with rails and pierced splats, shaped and scrolled arms. Under fourth bay of N. gallery— similar chair, now incorporated in bench. Candelabra (Plate 4): large central candelabrum, brought from Amsterdam, of brass, with two tiers each of ten branches, moulded central shaft with large ball at base; two candelabra of similar type but slightly smaller; four candelabra also of similar type but with eight branches in each tier. Candlesticks (Plate 4): On railing of Echal—six large solid brass candlesticks, four of them inscribed, P.M. and R. Pereira D. Ks. and brought from Amsterdam. On railing of Tebah— four solid brass candlesticks, similar to above, but uninscribed. On book-rest, in front of seat of Chief Rabbi—pair of small brass candlesticks. Doors: In W. doorway—of two panelled folds with moulded framing. See also under Panelling. Echal (fitting enclosing the Ark): Against E. wall— in form of a reredos (Plate 59) of three bays, divided and flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters, the middle bay having a pair of columns of the same order, in addition; the columns and pilasters support a continuous entablature and stand on panelled pedestals; the middle bay, under a round arch with carved spandrels, has moulded panelling including the two panelled doors with brass hinges, to the Ark; the side bays each contain a panelled centre-piece with an enriched entablature, pedestal, above, flanked by swags and a band of carving under the main entablature, with a central shell, flanked by branches of bay; in the centre-piece is a panelled cupboard-door; above the main entablature, over the middle bay, is a centre-piece flanked by carved pilasters and richly carved scrolls, supporting an entablature and three carved vases; on the centre-piece within round-headed panels are painted (by Cordoueiro) the ten Commandments and the inscription "Know (thou) before whom thou standest," all in Hebrew; above the side pilasters of the Echal are vases similar to those on the centre-piece. The base of the Echal is painted to represent marble and the mouldings and enrichment of the upper part are picked out in gold. The three cupboards are lined with stamped leather. The enclosure in front of the Echal has wooden rails with quadrant-angles, turned and twisted balusters, moulded rails and eight panelled standards on which rest the candlesticks described above. Gallery and Staircase. Gallery: On N., S. and W. sides of building— supported by Doric columns and square piers under the N.W. and S.W. angles; continuous entablature under gallery-front, with pedestal over each column or pier, having conventional carving on its face; gallery-front, between the pedestals, filled with plain wooden trellis-work, and finished with a moulded rail. Staircase: with close moulded string, turned balusters and square newels. Mantles (Plate 60): four in all, (a) of brocade with a deep fringe and three long panels of red velvet richly embroidered with conventional designs in gold thread; one panel has a representation of an Echal with the scroll of the Law and surmounted by a crown; the second panel has a table with shew-bread, surmounted by a cartouche inscribed in Hebrew "Table of the Daily Bread" and a crown; the third panel has the tables of the Law surmounted by a crown, perhaps Portuguese of c. 1600; (b) ground-work of golden silk embroidered in gold thread, three panels of red velvet with a conventional design of floral type with large crowns, perhaps French, 17th-century; (c) ground-work of silk brocade, panels of green velvet embroidered with a thistle-design each having an oval with the monogram M.D.C. (?) surmounted by a crown, late 17th or early 18th-century; (d) ground-work of silk brocade, panels of blue velvet embroidered in gold and silver thread with conventional designs and round panels with the monogram M.P.L.S. (?) and surmounted by a crown, c. 1700. Painting: In modern vestryroom—painting on canvas by Aaron de Chaves, 1674, representing the tables of the Law, in Hebrew and Portuguese, flanked by figures of Moses and Aaron. Panelling: Panelled dado round walls of ground-floor of building and round walls of gallery. Inside W. doorway—panelled enclosure forming porch, two panels high with moulded cornice; panelled doors in E., N. and S. sides; smaller panelled enclosure to N. and S. of porch, also with panelled doors and perhaps a slightly later addition. Poor-boxes: In various parts of building—four wooden boxes, two with original iron straps and two with modern lids; also two iron boxes with straps. Scroll of the Law: on skin, fixed to silver rollers with moulded handles and ball-finials, inscription on handle, "Given by Jacob Escudero in 5462." Seating: Most of the seats consist of a chest, divided into lockers, each with a brass lockscutcheon and supported by short turned or twisted legs; the backs have plain framing with shaped and pierced splats, a moulded capping and shaped arms at the end of each chest; other seats have plain splats. Other seats, probably of late 17th-century date, have no chests, but turned legs and square stretchers. Against walls of ground floor is a bench with panelled front and lockers. In gallery the seats are in the form of benches with shaped supports; the backs appear to have been added; at W. end in one row with a series of lockers, having panelled fronts. Tebah (dais or rostrum for the Readers): consists of a rectangular platform (Plate 92) with rounded angles approached by two short flights of stairs added c. 1730; platform enclosed by a balustrade with twisted balusters, moulded rails and square posts; four posts support the candlesticks above described, the remaining posts have solid brass acorn-shaped terminals; towards front of platform is the reading-desk, with panelled sides, moulded base and solid ball-terminals of brass at the four angles, on W. side of desk are double panelled doors with brass hinges and scutcheon-plates; on W. side of platform is a settle or bench with lockers and panelled front. On E. side of the Tebah rails is the Chief Rabbi's seat, consisting of a panelled settle, shaped arms and a panelled enclosure. Miscellanea: Eight Homer Boards (for indicating the date of the Homer) and consisting of parchment scrolls on rollers, in a wooden case. Four wooden Panels with moulded frames and Hebrew inscriptions indicating the various feasts.
(4) House, No. 7, on W. side of Jewry Street, 80 yards S. of Aldgate, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of timber-framing and brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century. The E. front is of brick with bands between the storeys; the back is gabled and weather-boarded. Inside the building, the original staircase has turned balusters and moulded strings. There are also some original doors and exposed timber-framing.
(5) House, No. 13, on the W. side of Jewry Street, 30 yards S. of (4), is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of timber-framing and brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been much altered. There is an old rainwater-head in front; the back has a weather-boarded gable.
(6) House, No. 42, on the N. side of Crutched Friars, 60 yards E.N.E. of St. Olave's church, is of four storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick with stone dressings and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century and has a carriage-way through the eastern part of the house. The S. front has a band between the first and second floors and a cornice between the second and third floors; the front is divided into bays by rusticated pilasters, and probably extended further to the E. than at present. The windows have square heads of rubbed brick with key-stones. The back elevation has brick bands between the storeys.
(7) House, No. 39, on N. side of Crutched Friars, 15 yards W. of (6), is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been refronted in the 18th century. The back elevation has a brick band between the upper storeys and a coved eaves-cornice of plaster; there is a small projecting wing on the W. side. Inside the building, the original staircase (Plate 40) has twisted balusters, square newels and straight strings. There are also some original panelled doors.
(8) House, No. 25, on the S. side of Crutched Friars, 25 yards S.E. of (6), is of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick with some stone dressings. It was built early in the 18th century. The N. front has stone string-courses between the storeys, but on the S. side is entirely of brick.
(9) House, No. 72, on the N. side of Leadenhall Street, 80 yards E. of St. Katharine Cree Church, is of four storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century. The S. front has brick bands between the storeys and a modern shop-front.