An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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10. CASTLE BAYNARD WARD.
Castle Baynard Ward includes the parishes of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, St. Benet Paul's Wharf and St. Gregory by St. Paul's and parts of the parishes of St. Mary Magdalen Old Fish Street, St. Peter Paul's Wharf and St. Faith under St. Paul's. The principal monuments are St. Paul's Cathedral, the churches of St. Benet Paul's Wharf and St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, the College of Arms and St. Paul's Deanery.
(1) St. Paul's Cathedral stands at the top of Ludgate Hill. The walls are of Portland stone and the roofs are covered with lead. Old St. Paul's Cathedral was burnt out and the structure seriously damaged in the Great Fire of 1666; it was eventually decided to remove the ruins and erect an entirely new building, from the design of Sir Christopher Wren. The foundation-stone was laid in 1675 and the quire opened for divine service on Dec. 2nd, 1697. The Morning Chapel (now called St. Dunstan's) was opened on Feb. 1st, 1698–9, and the stonework of the lantern was completed in 1710.
The cathedral is the masterpiece of Sir Christopher Wren and one of the finest Renaissance buildings in the world. Among the fittings, the quire-stalls, organ-case, wrought-iron gates and wooden screens to the western chapels are noteworthy.
Exterior—The Exterior of the cathedral consists generally of two storeys, divided by an entablature; it stands on a high plinth, pierced by segmental-headed windows lighting the crypt; the wall is finished with a second entablature, with a modillioned cornice and surmounted by a balustraded parapet. The wall-surfaces, generally, are rusticated and the bays are divided by pilasters, generally coupled, and of the Corinthian order in the lower and the Composite order in the upper storey. The upper storey of the aisle-walls in each part of the building is a screen-wall only, hiding the buttresses of the high roofs.
The East End has a central semi-circular apse with columns instead of pilasters dividing the three bays of the upper storey. The windows of the lower storey are round-headed, with enriched architraves, cherub-head keystones, carved aprons and carved swags in the spandrels above the heads. The windows of the upper range are set in recesses with moulded imposts and archivolts, carved keystones and a band carved with swags below the main entablature; the windows themselves are round-headed and much lower than the recesses, the imposts of which are carried across above the window-heads; the tympanum and spandrels are carved. The parapet has a centre-piece with pilasters and a round carved panel in the middle and scrolled supports at the sides. The ends of the aisles have each a lower window, generally similar to those of the apse, and in place of an upper window a round-headed niche enclosed in a square head with flanking attached columns and an entablature and pediment. A segmental-headed window is introduced between the pedestals of the columns; the carved keystone bears the arms of the Deanery.
The N. and S. Walls of the Quire (Plate 88) are uniform. Each bay except the easternmost has a lower window and a niche and window in the upper storey similar to those in the E. wall of the aisles. The easternmost bay has in the lower storey a round-headed niche with a 'shell' head and carving above and below it. In the upper storey is a simpler niche, with a plain round head, surmounted by a plain cornice; below the main entablature is a carved swag.
The Transepts are uniform, the E. and W. sides and the side bays of the fronts being treated similarly to the main N. and S. bays of the quire. The fronts (Plate 90) have each a semi-circular projecting porch in the middle, one storey high with a plain entablature supported on four free and two attached Corinthian columns. The doorway, within each porch, is square-headed with a moulded architrave and a cornice supported by scrolled brackets; flanking the architrave are attached Corinthian columns and above the cornice is a panelled centre-piece surmounted by a vase and two carved scrolls. The S. porch stands on a semi-circular platform, approached by two gates with square stone piers surmounted by round carved pedestals and vases. The upper storey of the middle bay of each front has a central window with a segmental head, eared architrave and cherub-head keystone; it is flanked by panelled and enriched pilasters, between which and the coupled pilasters at the angles of the bay are round-headed niches. Below the main entablature, at the head of each division of the front, is a carved swag. The middle bay is finished with a pediment, having on the N. transept a carving, by Grinling Gibbons, of the royal Stuart Arms with cherubs as supporters and on the S. transept a carved phœnix, with the word Resurgam, in the tympanum. The pediments and parapet are capped by a series of carved stone figures:—on the N., St. Stephen, St. John the Baptist and three apostles, and on the S. five apostles.
The Nave has each bay uniform with the main bays of the side walls of the quire. At the W. end of the nave, on both sides, is a projecting chapel with a room over; these projecting wings are treated, generally, like the main elevations of the nave. The N. and S. fronts, however, are each divided into three bays by pilasters; the lower storey has a central window similar to those of the nave and the side bays have each a round-headed niche with a carved panel below; below the window on the N. side are the arms of Dean Sherlock and below that on the S. the arms of Bishop Compton. The upper storey has a central square-headed window, treated like the niches in the upper storey of the nave and quire but having, below it, a panel with a carved swag instead of a window; the side bays have each a round-headed window with a similar panel beneath.
The West Front (Plate 89) has a central portico flanked by square towers. The portico is of two storeys, the lower overlapping the towers and consisting of five bays divided and flanked by coupled and fluted columns of the Corinthian order, supporting an entablature. The upper storey extends only over the three middle bays of the storey below; it is divided and flanked by coupled Composite columns supporting a modillioned entablature and a pediment carved with a representation (Plate 95) of the Conversion of St. Paul, by Francis Bird; crowning the pediment are colossal statues of St. Paul (Plate 95) in the middle flanked by St. Peter (Plate 95) and St. James (?) by the same sculptor. The interior of the portico, on the ground-floor, is divided into bays by fluted Corinthian pilasters; the middle bay of the inner wall is occupied by the main W. doorway of the cathedral; it has an enriched architrave, square head and a cornice supported on scrolled brackets; the side doorways are also square-headed, with Composite side-columns and a carved entablature; they are set in the two outer bays of the portico; above each is a round-headed window and a square panel with figure-sculpture; the other bays of the portico have each a round-headed niche and a similar sculptured panel; the sculptures represent incidents in the life of St. Paul as follows:— (a) the stoning of St. Stephen; (b) the conversion of the jailor of Philippi; (c) Paul before Felix or Festus; over the main doorway, (d) Paul preaching at Berea; (e) Paul before Agrippa; (f) Paul bitten by the viper; (g) Paul converting a Roman. The upper storey of the portico is divided into bays by Composite pilasters; the middle bay encloses the large W. window of the cathedral; it has a segmental head, carved keystone and a cornice on scrolled brackets. This storey has a panelled segmental ceiling. The narrow bays between the portico and the towers have each a round-headed window and above the window a square panel with figure-sculpture.
The West Towers are each of two main stages with a capping (Plate 93) of three stages above. The main stages range with the rest of the cathedral; the lower stage has on each of the free faces a round-headed window set in a recess with concave reveals and surmounted by carved swags and trophies. Below these windows on the N. and S. faces, respectively, of the two towers is a doorway with a round head, carved with cherub-heads, fruit and foliage; the doorway is flanked by pilasters, finished with scrolled and carved brackets supporting a pedimental hood. The upper main stage has in each free face of each tower a window similar to those in the adjoining projecting wings of the nave. The lowest stage of the capping of each tower has in each face a round opening for a clock with an enriched surround and a cornice curved over it; at the angles are pedestals supporting vases; at the base of this stage, on the W. front, are carved seated figures (Plate 95) of the four evangelists ranging with those on the main W. pediment of the church. The second stage of the capping is circular on plan with rectangular projections over the angles of the stage below; both these and the main structure have open colonnades of the Corinthian order supporting a continuous entablature with two vases over each projection. The top stage is also circular and has two ranges of round-headed openings and a series of segmental-headed panels in the 'attic' above the entablature, pairs of curved supports rise from the projections of the stage below. The stage has a lead-covered capping finished with a pineapple-ornament.
The Dome (Plate 91) rests on a drum of two stages, the lower having a range of concealed buttresses (Plate 93) at the base and higher up a continuous colonnade of the Corinthian order supporting an entablature and a balustraded parapet; eight intercolumniations, at regular intervals, are filled in solid with masonry having a round-headed niche, with a shell-head on the outer face with a rectangular panel above. Between the colonnade and the main wall is a corridor crossed by a series of round arches springing from each column to the main wall and supported on Corinthian pilasters; above each arch is a round opening; each free bay of the main wall has a square-headed window and above it is a rectangular panel. The main wall is carried up to form the second stage of the drum, the gallery on the top of the corridor below being known as the Stone Gallery. This second stage is divided into bays by plain pilasters with a continuous dentilled cornice, at the base of the dome; each bay has a square-headed window with an eared architrave. The dome is panelled and lead-covered, with a deep moulding round the base; the stone capping, which rises from the middle rests on a circular base forming the Golden Gallery. The capping itself is of two stages, the lower with rectangular projections towards the cardinal points; each projection has two pairs of coupled columns supporting a continuous entablature with pairs of vases; in the face of each projection is a square-headed window. The upper stage is octagonal on plan, with a round opening in the four main faces; it has a lead-covered cupola supporting the ball and cross at the summit of the structure.
The Clearstorey of the main structure is concealed by the screen-walls (Plate 94) of the aisles. It has in each bay a segmental-headed window, above which, lighting the roof-space, are small rectangular openings. Between the bays, generally, are pilaster-buttresses with moulded tabling at the top and flying-buttresses with stepped cappings.
Interior:—The Quire (167½ ft. by 42¾ ft.) is of three main bays, two narrow bays and an apse. The apse is of two stages and of three bays, divided by fluted Corinthian pilasters of marble supporting an enriched entablature which is carried round the building. The windows of the lower stage have panelled reveals, moulded imposts and coffered soffits; below the sills runs an enriched band and above the head are cartouches and modelled swags. The windows of the upper range have moulded architraves and panelled pilasters or pedestals between the windows; from these pilasters spring the carved bands dividing up the semidomical vault. The narrow bay, W. of the apse, has on each side a square-headed opening with coffered soffit and an entablature on each face resting on pairs of Composite pilasters. Above the main cornice is a panelled 'attic storey' continued along the side walls of the quire; the roof of this bay is a broad coffered and enriched arch, flanked by bands of guilloche-ornament. The three main bays of the quire are divided by fluted Corinthian pilasters as in the apse, set against the square main piers and each with a separate architrave and frieze; the piers have each two pairs of Composite pilasters supporting the main arcade the arches of which have moulded archivolts, cherub-head keystones and coffered soffits. The roof is divided into bays by enriched guilloche-bands; each bay has a saucer-dome with an enriched surround and modelled cartouches towards the cardinal points; the pendentives are groined back over the clearstorey windows, which have eared architraves and enriched scrolls at the base. The narrow westernmost bay (Plate 98) is similar to the corresponding bay on the E. but has no opening in the ground stage.
The North and South Aisles (19 ft. wide) are uniform and each of three main bays divided by arches with soffits similar to those of the main arcade; these arches spring from the pilasters of the main piers and from similar pilasters, set in pairs against the outer walls. Each bay has a saucer-dome with an enriched surround and panelled spandrels and cartouches above the cross-arches of the aisles. The windows in the outer walls are set in semi-circular recesses with coffered semi-domes. The band of ornament, mentioned in the main apse, is carried along below the window-sills but is interrupted by the pilasters. The narrow bay at the E. end has a broad arched vault with a panelled soffit, and the soffit of the window-recess in the E. wall is coffered. The outer wall of this bay has a doorway with an eared architrave and segmental pediment; above it is a round-headed opening set in a rectangular panel; a broad frieze is carried along the wall at the level of the pilaster-capitals; it is enriched with swags and a cartouche with the arms of the Deanery; above the entablature is a segmental-headed window flanked by carved pendants. The narrow western bay has a panelled vault with coffered bands on the E. and W. and groined back against the N. and S. walls; these walls have bands of carving similar to those in the narrow eastern bay and with cartouches of the arms of the Deanery. The lower part of the inner wall of each bay has a round-headed niche with carved swags in the spandrels and a cornice resting on scrolled brackets. The outer walls have each a square-headed doorway with similar cornice and brackets.
The Dome (111 ft., average, across). The drum rests on eight round arches (Plate 100) and as many piers surrounding a central space of octagonal plan. The main piers have coupled and fluted pilasters of the Corinthian order supporting an entablature and a panelled 'attic' continued from that in the quire. From the attic spring the eight main semi-circular arches with enriched archivolts and keystones carved with figures of St. Paul, the crossed swords of St. Paul, foliage, cherubs, etc.; the four arches opening into the main divisions of the church are open to their full height, but the other four arches enclose segmental sub-arches over which are continued the cornices of the entablatures and the 'attic.' At the base of the drum of the dome is a deep entablature with heavy brackets below the cornice; it forms the gallery known as the Whispering Gallery. The walls of the drum have an inward batter and at the height of about 20 ft. above the gallery is an enriched cornice on which stands a series of Composite pilasters supporting the modillioned entablature at the base of the internal dome; the bays over the main piers are blank, but the other bays have each a square-headed window. The blank bays have each a niche containing a modern statue. The dome itself is decorated only with paintings and has a round opening at the apex. Above the internal dome is a cone-shaped erection with several ranges of oval openings and a rounded top, supporting the cupola; on the outer face of this cone is built up the timber-framing which supports the lead-covered dome, visible from the outside.
Projecting from the internal angles of the central space, under the dome, are half-round apsidal areas (Plate 98) having each two arches opening into the aisles of the quire, transept and nave as the case may be; between the arches are carved panels with foliage and modern painted cartouches-of-arms. The spaces are each roofed with a half-dome. Above each on a level with the clearstorey is a gallery opening on to the central space and roofed with a half-dome of saucer type, with an enriched cornice and central panel; the windows, of which each gallery has two, have recesses similar to those in the quire-aisles and cartouches on the keystones of the rear-arches.
The Transept (227½ ft. by 43 ft.) has side walls similar, in every way, to those of the quire, with a narrow blank bay next to the crossing. The ends (Plate 99) are divided into three bays by Corinthian pilasters ranging with those on the side walls and supporting a continuous entablature; between them are Composite pilasters, ranging with those of the arches in the side walls and supporting a subsidiary entablature. The wall spaces between the entablatures are enriched with panels of carved foliage, etc., and a band of swags. Above the main entablature the main divisions are carried up by panelled and carved pilasters, with acanthus-leaves at the base and scrolled brackets at the top, under the curve of the vault. The vault of the two bays in each arm of the transept is similar to that of the corresponding bays of the quire.
The Nave (188 ft. by 43 ft.) consists of five bays (Plates 97, 102), of which the narrow easternmost bay and the three adjoining on the W. are similar in every way to the corresponding bays of the quire. The broad westernmost bay is flanked by grouped pilasters on the E. and W. ranging with the main pilasters of the nave; the arch is generally similar to the other arches, but the responds have each two free Composite columns placed in advance of the pilasters corresponding to those of the other responds in the nave; flanking the arch are recesses each containing an enriched obelisk and having a foliated cartouche above and a pair of palm-branches below. The W. doorway (Plate 101) has a round rear-arch with a cherub-head keystone and a panelled and coffered soffit; the internal tympanum of the door-head has carved foliage, cherub-heads and a book; the rear-arch springs from pilasters similar to those of the main arcades. Flanking the doorway are coupled Corinthian pilasters, of the main order of the building, and above them the main entablature is continued across the wall. The upper storey has pilasters and a window similar to the corresponding features in the ends of the transepts. The vault of the westernmost bay is a saucer-dome of wider span than the rest and having a round enriched panel in each pendentive; against the N., S. and W. walls are guilloche-bands or arches similar to the cross-arches between the main bays of the vault; between the western arch and the W. wall is a band of coffered panels.
The Aisles of the Nave (19 ft. wide) are similar to the aisles of the quire except in the two western bays. The eastern of these has in the outer wall an arch uniform with the arch of the main arcade in the same bay; between the two arches is a barrel-vault crossing the aisle and having an enriched panel with a half-round projection at each end; the arches between the bays of the aisle-vault are groined into this barrel-vault. The westernmost bay of each aisle forms a vestibule and is roofed with a series of panelled and coffered bands. The N. and S. walls of the two vestibules, respectively, have a square-headed doorway with a moulded architrave and cornice supported on scrolled brackets.
The Chapels of St. Dunstan and St. Michael and St. George (56 ft. by 26 ft.) are uniform and have a half-round apse at each end. The walls are panelled and have the carved band continued from the aisles; the entablature over the columns of the entrance-archway is continued round the walls. The apses have each a coffered half-dome with a carved cherub and shell at the middle point of the springing line. In front of each apse is a broad panelled arch, and over the middle of each chapel is a groined and panelled vault enriched with carved foliage, etc.
The Music Room (Plate 109) and the Library (Plate 108), respectively over the two chapels last described, are uniform in arrangement and have a narrow arched recess at the W. end, pierced, in the Library only, by a window. The vault springs from piers in the angles of the chamber and has plain broad arches against the walls. The long sides are divided into five bays by panelled and carved pilasters with scrolled brackets under the curve of the wall-arch; three of these bays are pierced by windows, one round-headed and two square-headed.
The N.W. Tower is fitted up, on the ground-floor, as a modern chapel of All Souls. The S.W. Tower contains the geometrical staircase (see Fittings), and is round internally, with a stone dome having a carved cornice and a carved band round the bell-way.
The Lord Mayor's Vestry (Plate 109), W. of the N. transept, is octagonal with pilasters at the angles, from which spring the panelled and enriched bands of the dome: the dome is further enriched with cherub-heads, etc., and has a central octagonal opening with a carved surround and filled in with a wooden panel carved with a rosette and foliage. The corresponding bay on the S. side of the nave is occupied by a staircase.
The Crypt (Plates 92, 106, 107) extends under the whole building, its architecture being of the simplest possible character. The vaults are either of barrel-form or groined and the walls and piers have a heavy moulding or band carried round at the springing-level. Under the main divisions of the church the floor above is supported on a series of square piers, the main span of the vault being of elliptical form. The central space (Plate 105), under the dome, is of octagonal form and has an inner ring of Tuscan columns from which spring plain bands dividing the bays of the vault; the central vault has a large round opening in the middle. The general arrangement of the piers, columns and vaulting is shown on the accompanying plan.
Fittings—The fittings unless otherwise described are of late 17th or early 18th-century date. Bells: seventeen in all, service-bell by Philip Wightman, 1700, and two quarter bells by Richard Phelps, 1707. Chairs: In crypt—at E. end, seven with turned legs, carved backs flanked by turned balusters and with scrolled cresting, early 18th-century; stored in crypt, nine upholstered chairs with twisted front legs and rails, one chair with curved arms, early 18th-century. Cistern, lead (Plate 6): In triforium of S. aisle, with two shaped panels, mermaids, amorini and two cartouches with the initials L.S.D., dated 1682. Clock: In Lord Mayor's Vestry—grandfather clock with marquetrie-case, bought 1697 for £14. Communion Table: In crypt—at E. end of S. aisle, with framed and inlaid top, carved edges and richly carved supports on moulded rails. Cupboards: In room over Dean's vestry—three tall cupboards with panelled doors. In quire, behind stalls— similar cupboard. In Dean's vestry—dwarf cupboard, panelled. Doors: The main doors in the transept-ends and W. front are each of two leaves with moulded panels, and enriched rivet-heads at junctions of rails and styles; the transept-doors have iron scutcheon-plates (Plate 18) with the arms of the Deanery. There are panelled doorsto the entrances to the N. and S. aisles, the N.W. and S.W. towers, in the narrow E. bays of the aisles, just E. of the N.W. tower and in three of the four angles of the dome. Inside the building there are panelled doors in most of the minor doorways and in the screens to the various vestries. The doors of the lobby in the N. transept are modern, but the strips of carving at the sides are apparently original. The doors in the lobby in the S. transept are flanked by panelled pilasters supporting an entablature, also original. The doorways from the geometrical staircase, in the S.W. tower, to the library and triforium have enriched and eared architraves and enriched cornices on carved scroll-brackets; the two-fold doors are panelled. Fireplaces: The vestries of the minor Canons, the Dean and the Lord Mayor and the Library have each a fireplace with a moulded surround, the first of stone and the rest of marble. Galleries: In N. and S. transepts—covering main doorways and formed of portions of the original enclosure at the W. end of the quire, together with the old gallery supporting the organ. The front of the gallery in the N. transept has four marble Corinthian columns supporting an entablature with an inscribed panel, dated 1723, in the middle; the 'attic' above is modern. The sides have each a free Corinthian column of oak at the S. end and pilasters of the same order at the N. end, supporting an oak entablature with a carved frieze and surmounted by a balustrade with square moulded and enriched balusters. The soffit of the gallery is coffered, the beams being carved. The gallery in the S. transept (Plate 101) is supported by two square stair-enclosures, formerly at the two W. angles of the quire; the front of the gallery is now in three bays divided and flanked by Corinthian columns, the inner pair being of marble; the side bays are enclosed and have each two Corinthian pilasters in addition and having carved swags between the capitals; the main entablature has a frieze with carved foliage and cherub-heads. The sides of the gallery are each flanked by columns and contain a doorway with carved consoles and a cornice; the doors themselves have carved and pierced upper panels, and above the cornice are other pierced and carved panels flanked by wreaths of foliage. Two marble columns from the former organ-gallery are now in the crypt. Inscriptions and Scratchings: In triforium of N. aisle of quire —initials and date G.P. 1692; in passage, leading to upper part of library, the date 1706; in the lantern, initials and date I.W.L. 1710. In nave—in triforium, various masons' marks. Ironwork: The external ironwork includes ornamental iron grilles to two round and two round-headed openings flanking the W. doorway; similar grilles to openings flanking the N. and S. doorways of transepts; in narrow eastern bays of quireaisles, grille to small round opening. The gates to the S. transept-steps have wickets, scrolled panels and chevaux-de-frise. The windows of the crypt are filled with plain close grilles. The internal ironwork includes three elaborate scrolled panels above the lobby-doors in the N. transept. The balustrade of the Whispering Gallery has simple scrolls and standards and eight panels of more elaborate ornament, including the crossed swords of St. Paul. The railings of the galleries in the angles below the dome are of similar character. The railings of the W. gallery and adjoining bays are similar but have leaf-work in addition and panels with a large mitre and censer alternately. In the chapel of SS. Michael and George are twelve re-set panels (Plate 18) each with a grotesque human figure. The railings of other chapels have plain standards projecting above the rail and finished with open heads. Above the inner dome is a plain iron railing. See also Organ-Case, Screens and Staircase. In the crypt are various railings of simple character, some near the Duke of Wellington's tomb have simple scroll-work and spiral posts with vase-terminals; adjacent to the tomb are four refixed scrolls from windows. In the Lord Mayor's Vestry are two scrolled panels refixed in front of radiators. Stored in the S. triforium are portions of gates. The churchyard is enclosed by a heavy iron railing. Library (Plate 108): the walls are lined with two ranges of shelves for books, divided by a gallery and surmounted by a cornice. The gallery is supported on carved and scrolled brackets, carved by Jonathan Maine, projecting from narrow panelled pilasters; the gallery has a panelled soffit and moulded edge; the balustrade has panelled pilasters at wide intervals supporting moulded rails. Models: In the Library are models of (a) Wren's first design for the cathedral and (b) the upper stage of the portico. Over the Dean's vestry are two models for the baldachino over the high altar. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In S. aisle of quire —on S. wall, (1) of Dr. John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's, 1631, grey marble niche (Plate 110) containing white marble effigy in shroud, inscribed tablet above with scrolls and cartouche-of-arms, monument, by Nicholas Stone, re-set after Great Fire. In crypt—at E. end, fragments of five monuments preserved from the Great Fire and set on modern bases, as follows: (2) Sir William Cokain, 1626, mutilated marble effigy (Plate 111) of man in plate-armour with cloak, feet and hands missing; (3) of William Hewit, 1599, upper half of mutilated marble effigy (Plate 111) of man in civil costume with cloak; (4) of Sir John Wolley, 1595, mutilated seated effigy of man in plate-armour with cloak, part of head and left side missing; seated figure of one wife on his right, in ruff, cloak, etc.; on modern sub-base, three shields-of-arms; (5) of Sir Nicholas Bacon, 1579, mutilated marble effigy (Plate 111) of man in plate-armour on plaited mattress, legs and hands missing; (6) of Sir Thomas Heneage, 1594, and Anne his wife, 1592, mutilated marble effigies (Plate 111) of man and wife, man on plaited mattress with cushion, in plate-armour, legs and arms mostly missing, woman in ruff and long cloak. On E. wall of S.E. recess of ambulatory of St. Faith's chapel—(7) to Sir Simon Baskervile, 1641, white marble tablet (Plate 112) with scrolls, festoons, cherub-head and achievement-of-arms; on E. wall of first N. pier, W. of apse, (8) to Martha (Shelley) wife of Robert Coby 1707, plain oval tablet with moulded frame; in N. aisle, against E. wall of easternmost N. recess, (9) of John Martin, 1680, marble monument (Plate 110) with kneeling effigies of man and wife on panelled base, with desk and books between the figures, on middle bay of base, figures in relief of two swaddled infants and in each side-bay a bay-wreath, on wall at back, inscribed tablet with Ionic side-columns, pediment and cartouche-of-arms; in recess on W. side of S.W. pier of St. Faith's chapel, (10) to Mary (Musard) wife of Sir Christopher Wren, 1712, Philip Musard, her father, 1713, and Constance her mother, 1729, white marble tablet (Plate 112) with scrolls, fruit, flowers, cherubs and a cartouche-of-arms; S. of last, (11) to Edmund Wiseman, 1704, and Eliza his wife, 1694, white marble tablet (Plate 112) with oval panel surrounded with carved fruit, flowers, etc., entablature at top with broken segmental pediment; on S. wall of same pier, (12) of Jane, daughter of Sir Christopher Wren, 1702, white marble tablet, by Francis Bird (Plate 112), with moulded frame and figure of woman in relief playing an organ and surrounded by clouds, cherubs, etc.; on E. wall of first window-recess in S. aisle of crypt, (13) to William Holder, S.T.P., 1697, and Susanna (Wren) his wife, 1688, white marble wall-monument with carved swags, drapery, two cherubs and defaced shield-of-arms; on W. wall of third recess in S. wall of S. aisle, (14) to Thomas Bennet, 1706, white marble tablet, flanked by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature and segmental pediment with blank shield-of-arms; under middle of dome, (15) incorporated in monument (Plate 105) to Horatio Lord Nelson, 1805, marble sarcophagus and base prepared for the tomb of Cardinal Wolsey at Windsor; the moulded sarcophagus is of black marble with a heavy cornice and curved sides; it stands on a rectangular base of black marble with an enriched white marble cornice and plinth. Floor-slabs: In crypt—on W. wall of S.E. recess of ambulatory of St. Faith's chapel, (1) to Brian [Walton], Bishop of Chester, 1661, with shield-of-arms; W. of St. Faith's chapel, (2) to Thomas Felsted, 1711, and others later; (3) to Henry Awson, 1684; (4) to . . . Tillison, 1685; in S. aisle, (5) to Edward Roth, 1696; (6) to George Ludwich Dunt, 1706, now hidden; (7) to Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Wiseman, 1694, with shield-of-arms; (8) to John de la Fontaine, 1708, with shield-of-arms; (9) to Thomas Cooke, 1692; (10) to Thomas Bennet, 1706; (11) to John Howell, 1708; (12) to Charles Henry Boothe, 1713. The slab to Sir Christopher Wren, 1723, is in the second window-recess in the S. wall of the S. aisle. In N. aisle of crypt, (13) to Richard Turner, 1707, and Catherine, his wife; (14) to John Martyn, 1680; (15) to William Sibery, early 18th-century; (16) to Elizabeth, wife of Francis Walrond, 171–, with achievement-of-arms; (17) to Oliver Williams, 1693. Organ and Organ-Case (Plates 113–115): The order for the supply of the organ was given to Bernard Schmidt in 1694; it was originally placed on a screen at the W. end of quire, but in 1859 it was moved to the N. side and in 1871 it was divided and placed on either side of the W. end of the quire. The instrument has been enlarged and entirely reconstructed, but many of the original pipes remain. The old arrangement of the organ and case is shown in a print of 1706; when the division was made in 1871, the lower parts of the case and the whole of the sides were reconstructed with carved work from the stalls, a case similar to that of the 'quire organ' was made for the S. side to correspond to the old quire organcase refixed on the N. side. The lower part of each case has at the sides a base with carved swags, etc., and a stage with panels containing iron grilles (Plate 18) above; this supports the open stage containing the organ-pipes, which is flanked by panelled and carved Corinthian pilasters supporting the main entablature and an elaborate cresting with four figures of angels. The lower part of the middle bay of each case projects; that on the N. formed the quire-organ, but that on the S. is modern; both are flanked by terminal figures of angels and carved also with four cherubs supporting drapery. Above this projection, on each side, the middle bay is flanked by terminal figures of angels blowing trumpets and is finished with a curved and scrolled pediment on which rest two cherubs supporting a cartouche of the arms of William III. The carving of the organ-case is mainly the work of Grinling Gibbons. Paintings: In S. aisle of quire—on E. wall, painting on canvas of the Dead Christ by Romanelli (1610–62). In library—portrait of Bishop Compton (d. 1713); view of the cathedral looking E., possibly early 18th-century. The soffit of the inner dome is painted with a series of subjects from the life of St. Paul by Sir James Thornhill, 1715–21. Panelling: In Minor Canons' vestry —the walls on either side of the staircase have moulded panelling, the lines radiating from the inner to the outer door; the vestry itself is octagonal and has panelling in four ranges, returned on to the window-jambs and finished with an enriched cornice; over the fireplace is a large panel; there are five panelled doors with enriched architraves and cornices. The Dean's vestry has panelling similar to that in the Minor Canons' vestry. The Lord Mayor's vestry has panelling in the lobby, the lines of which radiate from the inner to the outer door; the vestry itself is octagonal and is panelled in five ranges and finished at the top with drapery-swags and laurel-wreaths; the panelled window-jambs are finished with swags and palm-branches; above the fireplace is a large panel with swags; there are five panelled doors with carved overdoors and plain cornices. In St. Dunstan's chapel—N. and W. walls have a range of large panels finished, against pilasters, with carved drapery; the reading-desk has one large panel with enriched mouldings. In crypt— at E. end of S. quire-aisle, panelling in three ranges, with dado-rail; at each side is a panelled door, the middle panel fitted with ironwork. Pavement: The paving generally is of black and white marble squares, laid diagonally. Beneath the dome is a round design of three con-centric zones, the inner one containing a star-shaped design with 32 points. The pavement of the apse is of geometric design in three divisions. The pavement in the S.W. tower is set in a star-pattern. The pavement of the Lord Mayor's vestry has a series of panels with eight-pointed stars. Plate: includes a gilt and enamel processional-cross, bought in 1902 and said to have come from Venice; at the ends of the arms are panels with figures of the evangelists, St. Mary, St. Veronica, a pelican in her piety, etc., 17th or 18th-century. Poor-boxes: In nave and transept—six, with square bases, octagonal balusterstems and panelled bosses. Rainwater-heads: On various parts of building—of lead, moulded, with arms of the Deanery. Royal Arms: In Lord Mayor's vestry—carved and painted wooden cartouche with arms of William III. Screens: In presbytery—in E. bay of N. and S. arcades, wrought-iron screen (Plate 120) and gates by Jean Tijou, each in three bays with elaborate scrolled and enriched filling, open scrolled frieze and elaborate cresting with candle-sockets. In next bay further W. on each side, modern screen in three bays (Plate 116) incorporating one double and one single wrought-iron gate, formerly at the entrance to the quire; the double gates are in the middle bay and the single gates in the E. bay; all are of elaborate scrolled and enriched ironwork; the double gates on the N. side have medallions of the four evangelists those on the S. side have figures of SS. Peter and Paul. In N. aisle of quire—of oak, modern but incorporating portions of Corinthian pilasters, architrave and cornice; in middle bay a doorway with a carved frieze above. At entrance to quire —low wrought-iron screen with scroll-work and human heads. At W. end of N. and S. aisles of quire—wrought-iron screens (Plate 120) and gates with Corinthian openwork-pilasters and elaborate scrolled cresting, with crossed swords of St. Paul, mask and three vases. In S. arch of St. Dunstan's chapel—of oak, carved by Jonathan Maine, and of nine bays, including central doorway (Plate 118); side bays formed of a colonnade of fluted Composite columns supporting an entablature with a carved frieze; between each pair of columns a panelled pedestal finished with cornice and plinth; doorway flanked by square Composite piers with columns standing in front of them, the two supporting a projection of the entablature and a curved pediment; on the pediment are two pairs of vases and an elaborately carved cartouche of the arms of the See; the soffit of the pediment is carved with crossed swords, mitre and crown; the gates of oak are two-fold and panelled and are finished with carving and a scrolled cornice with cherub-heads. In chapel of St. Michael and St. George— in N. arch, screen (Plate 119) uniform with that just described and by the same carver, but cartouche over doorway bearing on N. side the arms of Queen Anne and on S. side the See impaling Compton. Stalls (Plate 121): The stalls, with galleries, staircases and enclosures occupy the three western bays of the presbytery; they formerly stood one bay further E. but were moved to their present position in 1871, when the returned stalls were placed against the side walls under the organ-cases. The carving is the work of Grinling Gibbons. The four stalls beneath the organ-case on each side are divided (except the middle pair) by Corinthian columns and flanked by square piers of the same order, all supporting the organ-case above; between the two middle stalls is a pilaster with a cherub-head console; the stalls have panelled backs with richly carved cornice at half the height and carved arm-rests; between the columncapitals are carved swags; the remaining stalls, twenty-six on each side, are arranged in pairs, the bays being divided by pilasters and consoles similar to those under the organ; these and intermediate consoles support the main cornice, below which is a band carved with swags and above the cornice an elaborately carved 'attic' with scrolls and cherub-heads; above the enriched cornice on the back of the stalls the western half of the range has a series of richly carved panels; in the eastern half the corresponding areas are open to a series of pews at the back; midway along each range is a more elaborate stall, that of the Lord Mayor on the N. and that of the bishop on the S.; these are each in the form of a niche with a rounded shell-head with carved spandrels; above each stall the main cornice is broken and has a segmental pediment with a carved tympanum; above the pediment is a centre-piece with carved cherubs holding the civic and episcopal insignia respectively and finished with a pediment. At the E. end of the S. range is a bishop's throne; this is flanked by Corinthian columns with carved drums, supporting a canopy with a carved arch in front and a carved openwork capping of two receding stages, surmounted by a mitre; the throne itself (Plate 5) is a chair with turned back legs and rails, carved and shaped front legs, and carved and scrolled rails and carved arms; the back has turned and fluted balusters at the sides and scrolled top and bottom rails; on the top rail is a shield of the arms of Bishop Compton. The space behind the stalls contains low rooms with box-pews above and a gallery on the top also with seating; it is reached by staircases, one to each bay of the quire. The rooms and pews are simply panelled and the pews have panelled ceilings. The enclosures (Plate 117) at the back of the stalls and facing the aisles are each of three bays, the middle bay being flanked by coupled Corinthian columns supporting the entablature; each bay has a doorway surmounted by an over-door with a cornice and carved brackets; each door has one panel (Plate 18) of scrolled wrought-iron work and above each over-door is a similar panel of scrolled ironwork flanked by carved wreaths; above the main entablature is a balustrade with square carved balusters. The desks of the stalls and the pews in front have panels with enriched mouldings, narrow carved pilasters and doors with scrolled tops and pediments. Staircase: The 'geometrical' staircase (Plate 104) in the S.W. tower is carried round the circular internal space without central support, except to the first flight and landing which have an inner wall of stone; the wall of the landing has a round-headed niche surmounted by carved swags and a cherub-head and is finished with a cornice with carved and scrolled brackets; on the cornice is an elaborate wrought-iron cresting, including two architectural pedestals and pinnacles over the stone brackets of the wall. The staircase itself is of stone and has simple scrolled balusters of wrought iron; the soffits of the steps are panelled and the soffit of the top landing has large enriched panels. Tables: In room over Minor Canons' vestry—with turned deal legs. Behind stalls—plain with drawer. In Lord Mayor's vestry—round gate-legged table. In library—two, one with drawers, turned legs and cross-rails, the other with slender turned legs and plain rails. Miscellanea: In triforium of S. aisle—moulded and carved stones from old St. Paul's, mainly 14th and 15th-century, but some of 12th-century date. Woodwork—in N. triforium— enclosure of reading-desk like that in St. Dunstan's chapel. In S. triforium—carved and pierced panels from quire. In rooms above Dean's vestry—carved woodwork, including urns, trusses, etc., from the baldachino, of 1700, formerly in Eton College chapel, also double-hung sashes formerly enclosing organpipes in the Cathedral. In trophy-room—various carved details from quire, including stall-divisions, large pierced scroll, four cherubs and a pediment from the side of the organ-case. In chapel of St. Michael and St. George—two carved columns, cherub-brackets, front of pediment to canopy, carved arm-rest, etc., incorporated in modern woodwork. In crypt—lectern and credence-table, made up of old woodwork.
The remains of the Chapter House and Cloister of Old St. Paul's stand on the S. side of the present Cathedral to the W. of the S. transept. They consist of the base of the walls only and are of the first half of the 14th century, the Chapter House and Cloister having been built c. 1332, the mastermason being William Ramsey. The main structures were burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666, and the present remains were uncovered in 1878 and are now permanently exposed to view. The arcade-wall of the Cloister is built of Purbeck or Sussex marble, the remains of the Chapter House of freestone.
The Cloister (98 ft. square) stood in the angle between the nave and the S. transept of the old Cathedral; it was two storeys high with nine bays in each walk, excluding the angle-bays, and the remains consist of the base of the four southern bays of the arcade-wall on the E., most of the first bay on the S. Of the outer wall the S.E. angle still exists; the remains stand about 2 ft. above the pavement; the bays are divided externally by small flat buttresses and towards the walks by slender grouped shafts with moulded bases; each bay is sub-divided into three compartments or panels; the centre bay on the E. side formed the entrance to the Chapter House sub-vault. Portions of the Purbeck pavement of the E. walk remain in situ.
The Chapter House (43 ft. across approximately) stood upon a sub-vault of which the bases of the two S. buttresses remain; the building was octagonal and in each face of the sub-vault was an open archway. Of the two remaining buttresses-bases that of the westernmost is the most complete; the bases of the two arch-jambs and of the vaulting shaft towards the centre are attached to the N. end: the second buttress has lost all these bases.
(2) Parish Church of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe stands on the N. side of Queen Victoria Street at the W. corner of Wardrobe Terrace. The walls are of brick with Portland-stone dressings and the low-pitched roof is covered with lead. The church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, and re-built from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren in 1685–95 at a cost of £7,060 16s. 11d. The S. front was considerably altered in the latter part of the 19th century.
Architectural Description.—The church, in the Renaissance style on the Gothic plan, forms a rectangular body (77 ft. by 29½ ft.) with side aisles (14½ ft. wide); the body of the church projects some 2 ft. at the E. end and 6 ft. at the W. end, beyond the aisles. The tower stands at the S.W. corner and projects to the W. of the church.
E. Elevation. The middle bay has a round-headed window with an eared architrave. The wall stands on a stone plinth and has a plain band below the window-sill; both plinth and band are continued round the church. The angles, with those of the side aisles, are rusticated and the wall is finished with a modillioned cornice and pediment, having a round opening in the tympanum. The side bays have each two windows, the upper round-headed with eared architrave and plain key, the lower part being filled with a red brick panel. The lower window is segmental-headed with eared architrave and plain key. The wall is finished with a modillioned cornice with a raking cornice above it, continuing the lines of the pediment of the middle bay.
N. Elevation. This elevation is of two storeys, five bays long, divided horizontally by a plain band. In the lower storey are four windows uniform with those at the E. end of the aisles. In the fifth bay is a square-headed doorway with architrave and cornice above. In the upper storey are five round-headed windows, also uniform with those at the E. end. The wall is finished with a fluted frieze and cornice and a modern parapet.
S. Elevation (Plate 124). This elevation was originally exactly similar to that on the N., but in the last century the balustraded parapet was added, the keystones of the upper range of windows enriched, a new cornice added, a band inserted between the upper windows and the south door altered and re-built.
The Tower stands at the W. end of this elevation and is four stages high. The three lower stages have rusticated angles and are divided by plain bands. The ground-stage has a segmental-headed window in the S. and W. walls uniform with the lower range in the S. wall. The second stage has a round-headed window in the S. and W. walls, also uniform with those in the S. wall but with a plain key; in the E. wall is a round-headed window, now blocked. The third stage has a modern clock-face on the S. and W. The bell-chamber has a two-light louvred opening in each face with architrave and modern cornice above. The angles of this stage have stone pilasters with modern panelling, and the two stone bands on each face are also modern. The tower is finished with a cornice and modern balustraded parapet.
W. Elevation. At this end of the N. aisle are two windows similar to those in the E. end and the wall is finished with two cornices in the same manner; the W. doorway has a moulded architrave and a segmental pediment resting on brackets.
Interior (Plate 122). The nave is divided from the side aisles by arcades of five bays on each side, having round arches groined into the ceiling and springing from square panelled piers each finished with an enriched capital. These stand on bases rising to the level of the side galleries, consisting of four panelled pilasters set back to back and finished with a cornice under the gallery. The responds are half piers. The main ceiling is semi-circular in form, the spandrels of the arcade having large cherub-heads. The centre portion has three panels to each bay, the middle one having half-round projections on the N. and S. and a circular wreath of foliage in the centre; the lower panels have half-round sinkings at top and bottom, with cherubs and cherub-heads. The ceiling of the projecting bay on the W. has three large rectangular panels. The ceiling of the aisles forms a groined vault over each bay, con-centric with the arcade, and resting against the outer walls on moulded brackets.
Fittings—All the fittings, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th-century date. Breadshelves: On W. wall—on screen below organgallery, in four long divisions, with moulded and enriched cornice and pierced scrolls at sides. Communion Rails: with twisted balusters, panelled standards and moulded top and lower rails. Communion Table: In S. chapel—with four turned legs and moulded top and lower rails. Doors: The N. and S. external doorways, inner S. lobby, vestry-doorway and gallery-doorways, have panelled doors, some with glazed upper panels; the vestry-doorway, the inner S. lobby and the side-gallery doorways have bolection-moulded architraves. Font: moulded round bowl of stone with cable-moulding and acanthus-enrichment below, wooden stem of diminishing pilaster form. Galleries: In side aisles—with panelled fronts, three raised panels to each bay, moulded fascia to bressummer and moulded capping. Panelling: On walls of aisles and W. wall, panelled wainscoting, in two heights, with raised panels and moulded cornice. Paving: In sanctuary—paving of dark grey and white marble squares. Plate: includes a flagon of 1618 given by T. A.; cup of 1602 with cover-paten of 1609 and cup and cover-paten of 1628, both cups belonging to St. Anne Blackfriars, with inscription and date 1602, both covers inscribed 1609; two cups and cover-patens of 1627 belonging to St. Anne Blackfriars, the covers inscribed 1628; two alms-dishes of 1700, one the gift of Richard Johnson, 1640, with the arms of the Woodmongers' Company, the other with inscription and date 1701; two patens of 1623, belonging to St. Anne Blackfriars, with inscription and date, 1624; spoon probably of the 17th century and given by W. Hill, clerk of St. Anne Blackfriars. Pulpit: hexagonal, with enriched panel on each face, enriched cornice and lower rail, modern stem and stair. Reredos: of wood, in three bays divided and flanked by Doric pilasters supporting an entablature and panelled attic, crowned with vases; middle bay projecting and flanked by fluted Doric pilasters supporting an entablature and curved pediment with painted name Jehovah in Hebrew in tympanum; behind altar three round-headed and enriched panels with cherub-heads in the spandrels. Royal Arms: On angles of easternmost pews—carved figures of lion and unicorn, holding plain shields. Seating: Ground-floor fitted with box-pews of panelled wainscot; churchwardens' pews, at W. end, with carved and pierced frieze-panels; panelled pews in galleries. Staircases: At W. end—to galleries, two, with moulded rails and twisted balusters.
(3) Church of St. Benet stands on the N. side of Upper Thames Street, at the W. corner of Bennet's Hill. It is built of brick with some dressings of Portland stone. The tower has a core of rubble faced with red brick and has dressings of Portland stone. The roof of the main church is hipped and tiled, with a lead flat in the middle; the aisle has three tiled and hipped roofs, one to each bay. The mediæval church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and was re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1677–85, at a cost of £3328 18s. 10d. The core of the tower-walls may be mediæval to the height of about 10 ft. above the floor. The church ceased to be parochial in 1879 and has since been used by the Welsh Church. A vestry formerly standing at the N.W. angle of the building was pulled down in the last century.
The E. Elevation. In the middle of the E. wall is a square-headed panel and flanking it are two round-headed windows. Above each is a richly carved stone festoon let into the brickwork, that over the middle bay having a cherub-head in addition. At the end of the N. aisle is a blocked round-headed window with festoons above it similar to those described. At the angles of the main building and aisle are pilasters of slight projection, built of alternate courses of brick and stone. The walls are finished with a wood modillioned cornice with a stone architrave band beneath it. The N. Elevation. The three bays of the aisle have each a round-headed window uniform with those in the E. wall, and the wall otherwise has an exactly similar finish. The roof has three hipped gables. The S. Elevation (Plate 124) is uniform with the N. as to its three eastern bays. The W. bay or vestibule is set back slightly, and has a blocked square-headed light with festoons above and a square-headed door below with moulded architrave and a pediment supported on consoles. The main cornice is continued round the vestibule and the S.W. angle has a pilaster all as before described. The W. Elevation. At the W. end of the N. aisle is a round-headed, partly blocked window. The tower stands somewhat to the N. of the centre of the W. elevation. It is three stages high with a lead-covered cupola above. The base is faced with Portland stone to the height of 10 ft. and in the W. wall is a square-headed doorway, with a round-headed window above it, similar to those in the N. wall, the lower part with modern blocking. Between the first and second stages is a moulded stone band. The second stage has a round window in the W. wall, and between this stage and the third is a plain stone band. The third stage or bell-chamber has a two-light square-headed louvred opening in each face with a moulded stone architrave and cornice. The angles of the tower have stone and brick pilasters as the rest of the church, and the top is finished with a modillioned wood cornice and stone architrave supporting a lead-covered blocking-course. The lead-covered timber cupola consists of a domed base with eight oval lucarnelights. On it is an octagonal lantern with a square-headed opening in each face and pilasters set diagonally at the angles. It is finished with a continuous entablature supporting an octagonal capping with concave sides and a ball and vane. In the W. wall of the vestibule is a round-headed window at the gallery-level.
Interior (Plate 123). The E. wall is divided into three bays (of which the centre one is narrower than the sides) by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature, with enriched modillioned cornice, carried completely round the square body of the church. On the N. side two Corinthian columns, with square pilasters as responds, divide the body from the N. aisle. The columns stand upon tall octagonal wainscoted plinths. The S. wall is divided up as the E. wall, but the bays here are equal. The W. wall is made to correspond to the E. by having an engaged column at the S.E. angle of the tower and a free column on an octagonal wainscoted plinth between the body of the church and the vestibule. The body of the church has a flat plaster ceiling. The aisle-ceiling is also flat with an architrave-moulding carried round at the top of the walls and supported on brackets, modelled with cherub-heads, scallops and foliage. The vestibule has quarter-pilasters in the W. angles and a pilaster opposite the free column. The tower has a round-headed doorway in the E. wall masked on the church side by a wood door-case. Above it is a round-headed opening closed with wainscot. The ground-stage is circular on plan internally and faced with ashlar. A door in the S. wall at the gallery-level communicates with the W. gallery, and a segmental-headed door in the E. wall of the second stage opens into the roof. The circular stairway in the N.W. angle communicates by doorways with each stage.
Fittings—The fittings, unless otherwise described, are all of late 17th-century date. Bells: one by W. Wightman, 1683, and a small bell in the cupola inscribed "Thomas Pinfold Dr. at Laws, 1685." Communion Table and Rails. Table (Plate 43): with carved angels at angles, supporting pierced enriched cornice with swags and cherub-heads under front edge; carved and shaped rails forming pedestal in middle with figure of Charity; inlaid top with inscription on front edge, "All that look in love, sing prhises to the God above, that can increase your love." Retable, of two shelves, at back of communion-table, of similar inlaid work. Rails: with panelled standards, twisted balusters and moulded top and bottom rails. Doors: The W. and S. external doors are each of two panelled leaves; the inner door on the S. has bolectionmouldings and glazed upper panels; the door between the church and tower is of two panelled leaves, the upper panels glazed; it has an elliptical head with a carved surround and is flanked by panelled pilasters with carved scrolls, supporting a lofty segmental pediment with royal (Stuart) arms (Plate 16) on the tympanum; in the spandrels are cherub-heads; the cupboard-door under the gallery is of two panelled leaves. Font (Plate 10): of white marble, with moulded octagonal bowl, carved with four cherub-heads, drapery and foliage, baluster-shaped stem with Ionic cap, drapery-swags and acanthus-ornament on base. Cover of oak, ogee-shaped, with enriched base-moulding and with carved fruit and flowers on the angles, flaming urn as terminal. Galleries: The N. gallery has a panelled front resting on bressumers with a moulded and carved entablature between the columns of the church and a carved capping; each division of the front has three bays divided by carved and panelled standards; the middle bay of each division has a cartouche with the painted arms of (a) See of Canterbury (Plate 17); (b) Royal arms (after 1714); (c) an anchor for the Admiralty; the soffits of the bressumers are panelled and have carved pendants beneath the standards. The stairs have a continuous moulded string, heavy turned balusters, square newel with moulded cap and a panelled dado against the wall. The W. gallery is similar to the N. but has no cartouches; the former staircase has been removed. Monuments: On E. wall—(1) to Gregory King, Rouge Dragon, 1712, draped white marble cartouche (Plate 26) with cherub-head and shield-of-arms; in S.E. angle, (2) to Mark and Alice Cottle, black and white marble tablet with apron and pediment supporting a ball and obelisk and a pavilion with looped drapery above, probably early 18th-century; on second column of N. arcade, (3) to Stephen Brice, 1688, white marble scrolled cartouche with black marble oval panel and drapery, cherub-heads, flaming urn and, at the base, a small cartouche; on S. wall, (4) to Robert Wyseman, 1684, white marble wall-monument, consisting of pedestal with base and gadrooned capping, looped curtain above, with medallion in foliated frame and carved with bust in relief. Panelling: On E. and S. walls and forming partition to vestry (former vestibule)—in three ranges of panels with moulded capping. In opening between gallery and tower—panelling with radiating panels in head. Panelling over vestry-door finished with enriched cornice and cherub-head. Paving: round font, of black and white marble. Plate: includes two dishes (Plate 33) of c. 1712, probably of foreign workmanship, both given by Eleanor James. Poor-box: supported on a stand, made up of four twisted balusters from Communion rails, with moulded capping and base. Pulpit (Plate 35): of oak, hexagonal with panelled sides with enriched capping and base-moulding, panels flanked by carved festoons; pulpit, said to have been formerly dated 1683, perhaps on door, now missing; stairs, stem and base modern. The standard of former sounding-board now employed as front to reading-pew; it is panelled and flanked by elongated scrolls. Sounding-board, with inlaid soffit, now fixed in ceiling of ground-stage of tower, parts of enriched cornice re-set as lintel above vestry-doorway. Reredos: of oak, flanked by broad panelled projections or pilasters with carved frieze-panels above dado, and rectangular panels painted with the Creed and the Lord's Prayer; carved entablature continued across reredos with Hebrew name Jehovah painted on central panel; segmental pediment enclosing a carved dove and supporting two pedestals, each with two vases; middle bay of reredos with carved panels above dado and two large round-headed panels above painted with the ten commandments, carved cherub-heads in spandrels. Royal Arms: see Doors. Seating: former high pews, cut down and re-arranged and having panelled backs and ends; backs of westernmost pews, three panels high and finished with moulded capping. Stalls: formed of old panelling from pews, backs with carved frieze-panels and capping. Table: In vestry—with twisted legs, moulded rails and top. Table of Benefactions: On E. wall of tower, towards nave—two round-headed panels with carved and gilt frames. Miscellanea: On E. wall—above panelling, carved and painted achievement (Plate 17) of the arms of the College of Arms.
(4) The Deanery of St. Paul's stands on the W. side of Dean's Court. The building is of two storeys with basements and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built by Dean Sancroft in 1670 from designs by Sir Christopher Wren; a small W. wing was added in the 18th century, and later still an annexe was built at the S.W. corner.
The E. Front is plastered and painted; the wall has a plinth and two brick bands between the two main storeys; the wooden eaves-cornice has carved modillions. The entrance-doorway, in the middle of the front, has a large moulded hood with a panelled soffit and supported on carved trusses springing from lions' heads; flanking the doorway are panelled pilasters carved with fruit and flowers. The doorway is approached by a two-way flight of steps, resting on an open arch, admitting light to the basement. The windows are symmetrically disposed and have flush frames. The hipped roof has three dormer-windows. The W. Front has a single band between the main storeys and an eaves-cornice with plain modillions. The windows have rubbed brick heads and red facing-bricks as dressings. The S. Side is of similar character, but one window, lighting the staircase, has a solid frame with mullion and transom.
Interior. The Hall has two panelled archways, with round heads, opening on the N. and S. to the two staircases. The fireplace, in the N. wall, has a moulded wooden surround and cornice and the overmantel has a large bolection-moulded panel and a cornice at the ceiling-level. The walls are panelled for two-thirds of their height with a moulded capping and a cornice at the ceilinglevel; the doorways have moulded architraves. The Dining Room, W. of the Hall, has walls panelled to the ceiling, with cornice and dado-rail. The Library, S. of the Hall, has similar panelling much altered. The Smoking Room, in the N.W. angle of the house, has a panelled dado and a cornice at the ceiling-level. The main staircase (Plate 39) extends to the first floor only and has twisted balusters, moulded rails ramped to the square newels and straight moulded strings; the walls have a panelled dado. The back staircase (Plate 41) has turned balusters, square newels and straight strings. The rooms on the first floor have been modernised but retain some of the original panelling and dado-rails. The Kitchen, in the basement, has some exposed ceiling-beams and doors with bolection-moulded panels.
The Forecourt, to the E. of the house, is paved and has a front boundary-wall, with two gateways, of the same date as the house; the piers are square and finished with a cornice, two being surmounted by pineapple-ornaments and two supporting wrought-iron lamp-stands.
(5) The College of Arms stands on the N. side of Queen Victoria Street, 50 yards N.E. of St. Benet's church. It is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick with some stone dressings and the roofs are covered with slates. Derby House, which was given by Queen Mary to the College of Arms in 1555, was burnt in the Great Fire of 1666. The new building was apparently designed by Morris Emmott and was begun in 1670 or 71; it was not completed until about 1677, and consisted originally of ranges of building surrounding a courtyard, partly open on the S. to St. Benet's churchyard. On the layingout of Queen Victoria Street, about 1867, the southern portion was pulled down and the old entrance through the W. wing blocked up. A drawing of 1768 shows that the building then had an eaves-cornice with pediments in the middle of each front; these have now been replaced by parapets. The existing building consists of a main block on the N. with E. and W. wings projecting towards the S. The steps and balustrading in the courtyard are modern, as are two of the staircases and the Record Room.
The Elevations to the courtyard (Plate 125) are each of three bays, the side bays having a band between the ground and first floors and a cornice between the two upper floors. The middle bays of the side wings are flanked by Ionic pilasters standing on a cornice at the first-floor level and continued as rusticated projections on the face of the ground-floor; the pilasters have each an ornamental band. Near the base of this bay, on the E. side, are two panels with (a) a griffon's leg razed and (b) the conjoined legs of Man, for Derby. The same bay on the W. side was pierced at the base by an entrance-archway, now built up. The corresponding bay of the main N. block is generally similar to that of the side wings, but has four pilasters and a modern porch below; between the middle pilasters is a panel with the arms of Howard as Earl Marshal, probably modern; fixed on the wall of the basement is a stone with a decayed carving of a portcullis. The windows towards the courtyard are square-headed and have flush frames. The three ranges were formerly finished with cornices and pediments, but these have now been replaced by plain parapets.
The Outward Elevations of the two side wings have modern parapets and brick bands between the storeys. On the ground-floor on the W. side was the former entrance-archway, now filled in; the large keystone and the horizontal cornice above it still remain.
Interior. The Court Room, forming the western part of the main block, is carried up through two storeys and has a gallery at the E. end. Below the gallery the wall has bolection-moulded panelling and a doorway with moulded architrave and cornice with broken pediment and the arms of Howard as Earl Marshal. The N. wall is similarly panelled to nearly half its height and finished with a cornice; in the middle is a panelled projecting bay (Plate 48) flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature and segmental pediment; above the pilasters are cherubs holding a baton and a coronet respectively, and on the pediment are the royal arms of Queen Anne, after the union; there are also two cartouches of the arms of Howard as Earl Marshal; the face of the projecting bay is panelled with a carved panel at the top and two long carved pendants terminating on the carved arms of the seat which is set against the bay. The space in front is enclosed by a wooden rail with turned balusters. The W. wall has panelling, continued from the N. wall, and a doorway surmounted by a carved cartouche-of-arms of the College of Arms; above the blocked doorway, further N., is a carved cap of estate supporting a leopard; the doorway, to the S., has a similar cap supporting an eagle and child. The lower windows in the S. wall have panelled splays and internal heads. The Gallery-front has turned and twisted balusters, panelled standards and moulded rail. The original Library, E. of the Court Room, has in the E. wall a fireplace with a moulded surround flanked by cherub-heads and pendants and finished with a cornice; the overmantel has an enriched central panel, surmounted and flanked by festoons of flowers; above the middle of the panel is a carved cartouche of the Earl Marshal's arms. Flanking the fireplace the wall has enriched panelling finished with a cornice. In the W. wall is a doorway with moulded architrave, a festoon of drapery in the head, and a cornice supported by brackets. The Staircase, E. of the Library, has turned balusters, straight moulded strings and moulded hand-rails. The staircase in the W. wing (Plate 40) has heavy twisted balusters, square newels with moulded pendants and straight strings. A doorway in the W. wing, at the second-floor level, has an eared architrave surmounted by a cornice and pediment.
(6) Paul's Bakehouse Court, houses Nos. 1, 3 and 4, form a courtyard on the W. side of Godliman Street, 100 yards S. of the cathedral. House No. 1 is of three storeys with cellars and attics; No. 3 is of four storeys with cellars, and No. 4 of four storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick. The houses were built late in the 17th century, but were considerably altered in the 18th century; the two houses on the W. and N.E. of the courtyard are modern. The front of house No. 1, on the N. side of the courtyard, has square-headed windows, with flush frames and a brick cornice above the second storey; the doorway is of the 18th century. The internal features of this house are also of the 18th century. The front of houses Nos. 3 and 4, on the S. side of the courtyard, has square-headed windows with flush frames; the windows on the third floor are casements, those to No. 3, being original; there is one old lead rainwater-head and pipe. The front to Godliman Street has a central carriage-way. Inside No. 3 are some exposed ceiling-beams, and on the second floor is a fireplace with an eared architrave and a bolection-moulded panel above. The staircase (Plate 41) of No. 4 is original from the top floor to the attics and has turned balusters, straight moulded strings and rails and square newels, one with a ball-finial. On the third floor is a fireplace with a moulded surround and a bolection-moulded panel and cornice above.
(7) House, No. 16, on the W. side of Godliman Street, at the angle with Knightrider Street and immediately S. of (6), is of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been much altered internally. The E. front has timber-posts to the ground-floor, with yellow brick filling between them; the corner-post has a quarter column, worked on the angle, with a moulded cap. There is a wooden cornice between the ground and first floors and brick bands between the upper storeys. The windows have flush frames and over the middle window on the first floor is a segmental pediment. The S. front is similar in general arrangement, but many of the windows are blocked.
(8) House, No. 39, on the E. side of St. Andrew's Hill, 30 yards S. of Carter Lane, is of four storeys; the walls are of brick. It was built late in the 17th century, but has been extensively altered and refaced. Inside the building, between the first and third floors, is an original staircase, with turned balusters and straight moulded strings.
(9) Houses. Nos. 3, 4 and 5, on the W. side of Wardrobe Place and 30 yards N.E. of St. Andrew's church, are of three storeys with cellars and attics, except No. 5 which has an added storey; the walls are of brick. They were built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but have been much altered internally. The E. front has brick bands between the storeys and windows with segmental heads and flush frames. Inside No. 4 is an original staircase with turned balusters, moulded rails and straight strings. In No. 5 is a similar staircase, but only from the first to the second floor; there is also an original battened door re-used in a partition.