An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 4, the City. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1929.
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13. CORDWAINER WARD.
Cordwainer Ward consists of the parishes of St. Mary Aldermary and St. Antholin and parts of the parishes of Allhallows Bread Street, St. Benet Sherehog, St. John the Baptist, St. Mary le Bow, St. Pancras Soper Lane, and St. Thomas the Apostle. The principal monuments are the churches of St. Mary le Bow and St. Mary Aldermary.
(1) Parish Church of St. Mary le Bow stands on the S. side of Cheapside between Bow Lane and Bow Churchyard. The walls are of red brick with dressings of Portland stone; the tower and spire are entirely of stone. The roofs are covered with slates and lead. The crypt dates from the latter part of the 11th century, being possibly part of the church mentioned by Stow as having been built in the time of William the Conqueror. The remainder of the church was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666 and was re-built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1670–80, at a cost of £8,071 18s. 1d.; the tower was built 1671–83 at an additional cost of £7,388 8s. 7¾d. Repairs to the tower were carried out in 1760, when the dragon vane was removed. In 1818–20 a further restoration of the steeple was carried out by Gwilt, when the stone columns and other parts of the lantern were replaced by others of granite, the dragon vane was restored and the crypt was partly cleared. Other slight alterations to the interior of the church were made in 1867 and 1878–9.
The crypt is an excellent example of an unusual feature in a parish church; the steeple is one of the finest of those erected by Wren.
Architectural Description—The church, although of Renaissance character, perhaps follows the former Gothic plan. It is rectangular with nave and chancel in one (72¼ ft. by 42¼ ft.), North aisle (9½ ft. wide) and South aisle (9¼ ft. wide in the middle bay and 6¾ ft. wide in the side bays). N. of the church is the Vestry and W. of the Vestry is a vestibule with the N.W. Tower N. of it.
Elevations. The E. end is in three bays and contains three round-headed windows, the middle window being wider and with a higher sill than that on either side; all have moulded architraves and sills. Above the side windows are circular windows with architraves. The wall, of brick, has a moulded ashlar plinth; the middle bay projects slightly and has rusticated stone quoins, as also have the side bays or ends of the aisles. The middle bay is finished with a cornice and pediment having an oval window in the tympanum, and the side bays by a cornice and parapets curved upwards from the outer edges to meet the middle bay. In the plinth are three round-headed windows to the middle bay and one to the N. bay with plain flat architraves. The southernmost in the middle bay which lighted the S. aisle of the crypt and the northernmost which lighted the middle aisle of the nave of the crypt are blocked with masonry, coursing with that of the plinth; the second in the middle bay and that to the N. bay have the upper parts of the heads pierced for lighting the crypt.
The N. Vestry has an E. window of three lights, the middle light is round-headed, the side lights square; the lights are divided and flanked by square stone pilasters with bases and capitals. In the plinth is a round-headed window; the upper part of it, like the others, is pierced to light the N. aisle of the crypt. The N. wall of the vestry is concealed by adjacent buildings. In it, in the W. half of the wall, are three square-headed windows with wood mullions and transoms. In the N. wall of the church is a round window above the roof of the vestry, of which the upper half is glazed.
S. Elevation. This is in three bays, the middle one projecting considerably beyond the others. It contains a circular window with an archivolt and below it is a round-headed doorway with an eared architrave flanked by panelled pilasters, above which are consoles which carry an independent cornice to each pilaster. The arch has a plain key-block and above it is a moulded pediment. The doorway retains in position its original oak-panelled doors, but the opening is now blocked and the former steps up to it have been removed. The side bays have round-headed windows like those on the E. face, but with eared architraves. The elevation has a horizontal moulded cornice and a plain stone parapet; the angles have rusti cated quoins.
W. Elevation. This resembles the E. elevation, but below the middle window is a round-headed doorway similar to that in the S. wall, but with a console-keystone and curved pediment. The W. wall of the vestibule has a round-headed window with a moulded architrave.
The N.W. Tower (13½ ft. square internally) is of four stages (Plate 1), surmounted by a stone spire. The ground-stage has in the N. and W. walls a doorway set in a large rusticated stone recess with concave jambs and semi-circular arch. The doorway is round-headed, with a scrolled key-block, and is flanked by Doric columns supporting moulded entablature enriched with triglyphs, and metopes carved with cherub-heads. Above the doorway within the recess is an oval window surmounted by swags of fruit or flowers and flanked by a pair of cherubs seated on the door-head. The cherubs to the N. doorway are grasping the swags, the two to the W. door are holding a lute and an open book respectively. The second stage has a square-headed window in the N., S. and W. walls with architrave, pulvinated frieze and cornice. The N. window has a projecting balcony resting on three consoles and having an iron balustrade. Flanking this window are two round-headed half-round recesses. The W. window is blocked. The short third stage is marked above and below by moulded string-courses or cornices, the latter with modillions. The fourth stage or bell-chamber has a round-headed opening in each wall divided into three lights by louvered frames, the openings have moulded imposts, archivolts and curved key-blocks. On each side at the angles of the tower are coupled Ionic pilasters supporting a continuous entablature above which is the parapet. This has a balustrade and at each angle is a group of four pedestals or solid pilasters supporting pinnacles made up of four ogee scrolls meeting at the top and capped by small vases. One of these pinnacles (the south-eastern) is a restoration of 1827, and is dated.
The spire is in four stages. The lowest is a circular drum surrounded by twelve columns of composite character with carved acanthus-capitals supporting a cornice with modillion-enrichments. Above this is a parapet with an open balustrade divided by solid piers above the twelve columns. From these rise large scrolls acting as flying buttresses against the middle drum, and forming the second stage. It has a moulded cornice on which stands the base of the third stage. The third stage is square in plan and has a modern composite column of granite at each angle, and on a projection in the middle of each face are coupled columns of the same type. The columns support a moulded entablature above which are eight scrolled supports or consoles against the square base of the topmost stage. This is a tall square tapering pinnacle with panelled sides and is surmounted by a ball and vane in the form of a winged dragon.
Interior (Plate 141). The E. wall of the Nave is divided into three bays internally by Corinthian half-columns, with quarter-columns in the angles supporting individual entablatures with a modillioned cornice; the lower members of the cornice breaking back are continued across the side bays between the columns. Above the half-columnsare panelled pilasters supporting a continuous cornice and crowned with vases. The oval window above this cornice has an enriched border and festoons of fruit and flowers. The W. wall is similarly treated with the addition of the doorway described under Elevations.
The Nave is divided from the aisles on each side by an arcade of three bays springing from square piers with moulded and enriched imposts. The middle bay has an elliptical arch and is of greater span than the others, which have semi-circular arches. All have moulded architraves and cherub-head key-blocks. On the face of each pier towards the nave is an engaged Corinthian half-column supporting an individual architrave and frieze and a cornice, moulded and enriched with modillions, which breaking back to the wall between the columns is continued across the bays to meet at the same level those of the E. and W. walls. From it springs the elliptical barrel-vaulted ceiling of three bays with wide ribs, enriched with coffers and roses, dividing the bays. Longitudinally two wide enriched ribs divide each bay into three divisions. The wide middle division has a square or rectangular panel formed by a narrow enriched rib. The narrower side divisions have groins to the segmental-headed windows of the clearstorey, which are flanked by narrow panels formed by similar narrow enriched ribs. The bays of the aisles are separated by narrow transverse semi-circular arches springing from plain pilasters on the walls and against the piers of the arcade, and there are similar recesses at the E. and W. ends; they have plain imposts. Each bay is ceiled by a round vault con-centric with the arcade-arch.
In the N. wall of the middle bay of the N. aisle is a modern square-headed doorway into the Vestry, and in the western bay is a wide round arch to the vestibule with moulded and enriched imposts. This is filled with an oak partition, and lobby with doorway erected in 1716. Above the vestry doorway is a circular window, the lower half of which is blocked. In the S. wall are the round-headed and circular windows described under external Elevations, but no trace of the S. doorway.
The Vestibule has a square-headed oak doorway in the E. wall opening into the vestry; it has fluted Corinthian pilasters, supporting an entablature with cherub-heads carved in the middle, and a segmental pediment. Above the vestibule is a quadripartite plastered vault, the angles springing from the carved imposts of the arch in the N. wall and from similar carved corbels in the two S. angles.
The Vestry (45½ ft. by 17¼ ft.) has an E. window of three lights, already described, the side lights have architraves to the lintels, and the inner reveals are coved over the side lights to form half-arches with foliated spandrels and panelled soffits; the flat soffit between them is also panelled. The ceiling of the vestry is divided into four bays by plastered beams and has a moulded cornice.
The Tower is said to stand upon a Roman causeway, 18 ft. below the present ground-level. Below the ground-stage is a square basement chamber. The ground-stage has a round-headed doorway in the S. wall opening into the vestibule and having a concave reveal on the S. face. This stage, which is of ashlar, also has a segmental-headed recess in the E. wall and square projections in the angles. The oval windows in the N. and W. walls have circular reveals and there are recesses to match in the E. and S. walls. A cornice is carried round above the door-heads, and from it springs a domical vault groined back on all four sides to the windows and recesses. In the centre is an enriched framed circular bell-way, now closed by a domed plaster panel in which is a triangular frame.
The circular stairway is within the S.E. angle and rises to the parapet of the fourth stage. The spire is ascended by a spiral stair of oak in the central drum, from which doorways open into the various accessible stages. On the internal face of the lintel of one of the doorways is inscribed IC 22 IVNE 1677, deeply carved except the last two digits which are later slight scratchings.
The Crypt consists of a Nave (48½ ft. by 26½ ft.), a North Aisle of equal length and 14½ ft. wide, and a South Aisle, now sealed up, which is of the same width but extends further westward. The crypt lies below the vestry, and part of the vestibule, the N. aisle, and Nave of the present church; and probably preserves the plan of the late 11th-century church, the western extension of the S. aisle marking the site of the original tower. The Nave (Plate 142) is divided into twelve bays, four longitudinally and three laterally, by columns and arches, each compartment having a groined vault. The columns, of which only three are now visible, are circular, of stone with moulded bases, cushion-capitals and square moulded abaci; one capital is modern; the northern column of the middle range is either buried or displaced by a heavy square brick pier of the 17th century, the southern partly buried by a brick cross-wall, and those of the western range have disappeared. The responds are of three square orders with plain imposts. The north-western angle-pilaster and that next S. of it are buried behind later brickwork, and the south-western intermediate is also covered with brick. The vaulting is all of Wren's brickwork having wide square ribs or arches, semi-circular from N. to S. and three-centred E. to W., but above the northern responds are some of the springing-stones of the original stone vaults. The side walls are of ashlar with some diagonal tooling and wide joints. In the three E. bays the original stone arches or wall-ribs remain. In the bays of the wall are square recesses in rough ashlar, above which the wall has been hacked away to a greater depth and finished at the top in 17th-century brick to a half-round plan below the lights in the plinth of the E. wall. The middle recess is partly covered by a 17th-century brick respond and the light is blocked. In each bay of the N. and S. walls is a round-headed arch opening into the aisles; they are of ashlar of one order, but have relieving-arches in some cases of Roman bricks (Plate 144). The arches are all filled in except the two middle openings into the N. aisle, the filling of the eastern arch in the N. wall being of old masonry, the others of brick. The W. wall is of coursed rubble and in the southernmost bay, the only one wholly exposed to view, is the remains of a small narrow original light having splays of rubble with ashlar quoins and a half-round arch; the light is blocked.
The N. aisle (Plate 143) has in the E. wall a recess and window like those in the middle block. In the N. wall are the remains of four round-headed windows, the two western with the arches mostly destroyed and all filled in flush with the wall-face with old masonry. In the N.W. angle is a square projection containing a blocked stone doorway which may have been an original stair-turret. In the W. wall is a brick entrance from the later brick extension below the vestibule. The vaulting of the aisle is of original stonework the surfaces badly perished, with round arched wall-ribs and transverse ribs. The aisle is paved with gravestones and slabs. There is no access to the S. aisle, which contains burials.
Fittings—The fittings, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th-century date. Chest: In crypt— of iron with lock and two hasps, late 17th or 18th-century. Communion Table: of oak with four enriched baluster-legs, top rails carved with acanthus-foliage, plain moulded lower rails. Communion Rails: with carved and twisted balusters, posts with carved scrolls as supports, moulded lower rail and moulded and enriched top rail. Loose in ringing chamber of tower, four sections of rails with twisted and carved balusters, moulded capping and base, panelled pilasters, and several loose balusters. Doors: In N. aisle, in doorway to vestry, two pairs of double doors, each leaf with four moulded panels, moulded architrave to opening. In vestibule—in doorway to vestry, double doors, four panels to each leaf. In arch between vestibule and tower—of two leaves with round head, each leaf with four raised panels, plain strap-hinges; wicket cut in western leaf. In two outer arches of tower—double oak gates, each leaf with two raised panels, bolection-moulded, curved tops terminating next the jamb in a small scroll. In W. doorway of nave—two folds with round head, each leaf with five raised panels. In blocked S. doorway—similar doors. Fireplace: In vestry, in S. wall, with heavy bolection-moulded architrave, cornice as mantel-shelf, overmantel with plain raised panel and moulded cornice. Font: modern; original font now in church of St. Alban, Westcliff, near Southend-on-Sea. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: (1) In S. aisle at W. end, to Colonel Charles Bainton, 1712, and Elizabeth his wife, 1719, marble wall-monument with busts of man and woman in an oval panel set in a panelled centre-piece with cornice, seated cherubs and shield-of-arms, all on a half-octagonal pedestal with corbel carved with palm-leaves; on face of pedestal, two cherub-heads; on wall at back of monument, a canopy with drawn curtains, and surmounted by an urn. In vestibule, on E. wall (2) to Humphry Levins, 1682, and Humphry his son, 1677, marble tablet, by T. Davis, with cartouche of scroll-work, foliage and cherub-heads and surmounted by cartouche-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In crypt (1) to William Scrimshire, 1684, Katherine his wife, 1677–8, William his son, 1711, Hannah, wife of the latter, 1691, Hugh, son of the last pair, 1684, and Prudence his wife, 170–, also Hugh, another grandson of the first William, 1702–3; also to Mathew, son of William Scrimshire, 1713, and Elizabeth his wife, 1733; (2) to Mary Woolnough, 1673; (3) to John King, 1704, and others later; (4) to Richard Chase, 1708, with shield-of-arms; (5) to Richard Bagnall, 1702, Mary his wife, 1710, and Richard his son, 1704; (6) to Colonel Charles Bainton, 1712; (7) to Mrs. Julian Marshall, 1701–2; (8) to Jeremy Gough, 1692, Mary his wife, 1705, and others later, with shield-of arms; (9) to Arthur Baron, 1702, and Alexander his nephew, 1703, with shield-of-arms; (10) to James Cart, 1706; (11) to William Withers, 1700, with shield-of-arms; (12) to Adam Stoner, 1678, with shield-of-arms; (13) to James Tompkins, 1680; (14) to Sarah, widow of Theodore Flers, 1698; (15) to Christopher Rayner, 1692, with shield-of-arms; (16) to Sarah Howard, 1703; (17) to Hannah Howard, 1699; (18) to Matthew Howard, 1675, Samuel his son, 1698, and Sarah his wife, 1700; (19) to Sara Webb, 171–, and her daughter, 1708, defaced shield-of-arms. Painting: In S. aisle—on canvas, of St. Paul, ascribed to Salvator Rosa. Panelling: In church, round walls, panelled dado with moulded capping. In vestry—walls lined to more than half their height with oak panelling, in two tiers finished with a moulded cornice. Pavement: Loose, in crypt, marble and slate tiles from old pavement. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1559; cup and cover-paten of 1568, from All Hallows Honey Lane; cup and cover-paten of 1626; cup of 1623, given by Henry Hickford; two cups of 1698; paten with four ball-feet, 16th-century; two patens of 1623, given by Gilbert Harryson to All Hallows Honey Lane, with the arms of the Goldsmiths' Company; two patens of 1698; two flagons of 1630; two dishes of 1684 with shields-of-arms, and given to All Hallows Honey Lane by Maurice Walrond, 1660, and Mary, widow of Anthony Smith, 1635, respectively. Poor-box: In N. aisle—plain box on panelled pedestal. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal with enriched base-mould and cornice, each face with raised and enriched panel flanked by carved pendants of leaves and flowers and surmounted by a rough monogram of two C's with crown and lion-and-unicorn supporters; base modern. Reredos: of oak, large middle panel with border of foliage and flowers, now containing a picture of the Holy family, at sides coupled and fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting a continuous entablature with enriched frieze in middle part and two flaming urns; above middle panel a long frieze-panel between the capitals with carved festoons and cherub-head; panelled plinth and carved scrolls supporting sides of reredos; erected 1706, original upper part and pediment now removed. Incorporated in modern panels at E. end of each aisle, a narrow frieze-panel with carved foliage and cherub-head, of approximately the same period. Royal Arms: On screen between church and vestibule—of oak, painted, royal Stuart arms. Seating: In church, long form with turned legs and plain stretchers. In upper chamber of tower two forms with turned baluster legs. Statue: In vestry—on W. wall, bust of Charles II on stone bracket, inscribed "Car. II Rex." Table: In vestry—of oak with twisted legs and plain rails. Miscellanea: In S. aisle, two wooden candlesticks and in vestry one similar candlestick and two flaming urns probably all from the reredos. In vestry—large gilt mitre probably from organ-case. In N. aisle—over doorway to vestry, wooden tablet recording gift of £2,000 towards the rebuilding by Dame Dyonis Williamson, 1666, moulded cornice at top and cartouche-of-arms. In ringing chamber two panels in enriched frames flanked by carved consoles, cherub-heads, etc., and supporting a carved cornice and pediment enriched with egg-and-tongue, painted records of peals, probably early 18th-century.
(2) Parish Church of St. Mary Aldermary stands on the N. side of Queen Victoria Street on the island formed by the meeting of that thoroughfare with Watling Street and Bow Lane and is built in the Gothic style on a mediæval plan. The walls are of stone and the roofs are covered with lead. The church was re-built by Sir Henry Kebyll, Lord Mayor, in 1511–18, and to this date belong the ground-stage of the tower and perhaps the S. wall of the S. aisle; the tower was left unfinished but completed by William Rodoway, who died 1626, and Richard Pienon, and the second stage of the tower is probably of this period. The church was burnt out in the Great Fire and re-built by Sir Christopher Wren from a bequest of Henry Rogers conditional to its being a copy of the old building. It has undergone extensive modern restorations.
The church is the finest example of Wren's Gothic, the plaster fan-vaulting being exceptionally noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (99 ft. by 22¼ ft.) are undivided structurally and are seven bays in length (Plate 145); the E. wall is not at right angles to the axial line of the building and has a modern pierced parapet; it is flanked at either end by an octagonal buttress finished with a panelled pinnacle with finialled ogee cap, mostly modern restorations. The E. window is of two tiers of five lights, the lower cinque-foiled and the upper septfoiled with tracery under a four-centred arch with external label. The easternmost bay has in the N. wall a doorway, to the vestry, with moulded jambs and four-centred head with a moulded label; the six remaining bays are divided from the aisles by arcades with four-centred arches of two moulded orders carried on piers, and corresponding responds, of four attached shafts separated by hollows with moulded capitals and bases standing on high plinths chamfered off at the angles; above the arches, towards the chancel and nave, runs a moulded string-course, the spandrels below being filled with plaster foliage and cartouches-of-arms, all of Renaissance detail; those over the first pair of piers bear the See of Canterbury impaling Sancroft and the remainder the arms of Rogers. From the string-course above the piers rise vaulting-shafts, each of three small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases supporting the plaster vaulting. Above each arch, in the clearstorey, is a segmental-headed window of three cinque-foiled lights with deep hollows to the internal splays and moulded external label; they are much restored externally and the clearstorey-parapet is modern. In the W. wall is a similar window to that in the E. wall; the W. doorway, buttresses and parapet are modern.
The North Aisle (88 ft. by 18 ft.) has the easternmost bay filled by the organ. In the E. wall is a window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label, and in the N. wall each of the five easternmost bays has a similar window, but the fifth is blocked and not visible externally, and the others are modern externally; below the fifth window is a modern doorway and in the E. wall opening into the vestry is a much restored doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred head with a moulded label. In the W. wall is an original window uniform with those in the N. wall.
The South Aisle (87½ ft. by 17½ ft.) has windows in the S., E. and W. walls uniform with those in the N. aisle; the tracery in the windows in the S. wall is said to be partially of Caen stone and of 16th-century date; the E. window is much restored externally; under the fifth window in the S. wall is a modern doorway and porch and the parapet and buttresses are also modern.
The Tower (12 ft. square) is of four stages (Plate 146) with semi-octagonal turrets or buttresses carried up the angles and finished with tall pinnacles with ogee finialled caps and a gablet on each face. The angles of the turrets are shafted and each face is panelled with traceried heads; between each three ranges of panels a string is carried round banding the angle-shafts and dividing the turrets into six stages; the parapet is pierced and modern. The ground-stage has in the N. wall a 16th-century tower arch, two-centred and of two moulded orders; the outer order is continued down and stopped on a moulded plinth except on the E. internal face where it dies on to the wall; the inner order is carried on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; in the W. wall is a window of four cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a two-centred head; it is probably Wren's work and has the splays continued down below the glass line and stopped on a sill about five feet above the floor-level. The second stage has in the E. and W. walls a window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery under a two-centred head with a moulded label. The third stage has in each wall a window of two cinque-foiled lights with a sexfoil under an acutely pointed head with a moulded label; the fourth stage or bell-chamber has in each wall a two-light louvered window with tracery under an acute two-centred head with a moulded label.
Over the easternmost bay of the chancel is a four-centred and panelled barrel-vault of plaster; each panel is trefoiled at either end and encloses a shield; in the middle of the vault is a saucer-shaped dome containing tracery of 15th-century character and a foliated border. The second bay with the bays of the nave have each a plaster fan-vault, with trefoiled panels on the cones and circular saucer-shaped domes in the middle of the vaulting between them; these have a central plaster ornament of Renaissance-design surrounded by two rings of sexfoil and quatrefoil-panels, and the spandrels between the cones and circles have trefoils and quatrefoils. Each bay of both the N. and S. aisles is roofed with plaster fan-vaulting; the cones are panelled in two tiers, the outer heads being cinque-foiled and the rest trefoiled; between them are oval saucer-shaped domes with a cusped centre and two con-centric rings of trefoil-headed panels and a rich foliage border round the edge, of Renaissance detail; between the domes are smaller octofoiled ovals with trefoiled spandrels.
Fittings—Unless otherwise described the fittings are of late 17th-century date. Communion Table: with turned and twisted legs, moulded stretchers and carved and moulded top rail, modern lengthening at each end; marble top slab with chamfered edges, inscribed "Edwardus Watts Merc. Lond." Doorcases and Doors. To W. doorway, internal door-case, of oak, with fluted Corinthian side-pilasters, standing on pedestals and supporting an enriched entablature with carved frieze, and segmental, broken pediment; between capitals, carved cartouche and carved swags on either side of doors; doors panelled and in two leaves with upper panel in each glazed, brought from St. Antholin, Budge Row. Side doors panelled and with bolection-moulded architrave and panel above. Font (Plate 9): of white marble with octagonal moulded and gadrooned bowl, baluster-shaped stone stem with carved drapery and moulded and enriched cap and moulded base, inscription on bowl recording gift by Dutton Seaman Esq. 1682. Font-cover: of oak, circular and of ogee form with narrow flutings and carvings in low relief and ball-finial. Monuments and slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall (1) to Anne, daughter of Charles Perkins, 1697, tablet with side-brackets and broken pediment; (2) to John Seale, 1714, draped wall-monument with figures and two cherubs below standing on moulded shelf; shaped apron below shelf and, above cornice, achievement-of-arms. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (3) to Elizabeth (Hanson), wife of Edward Jordan, 1690, convex tablet with flanking Ionic columns, urn and shield-of-arms; (4) to John, son of Thomas Watts, 1705, small tablet. Slabs: In churchyard—(1) to Ann, wife of Edmund Sawtel, 1694, and their children; (2) to William and John, sons of William Laxday, 1670; (3) to Sir John Smith, 1673; (4) to John Seale . Paving: under S.W. tower, of black and white marble squares. Plate: includes a cup and paten of 1680 (?) inscribed and dated 1677, two flagons of 1688, both inscribed and dated, an inscribed and dated alms-dish of 1694 and an inscribed spoon of probably late 17th or early 18th-century date. Also the following plate from St. Antholin and St. John: an inscribed cup and cover-paten of 1609, an inscribed paten of 1613, a cup and cover-paten of 1619 inscribed and dated 1620, a cup and conical cover-paten of 1622 inscribed and dated, a cup and conical cover-paten of 1631 inscribed and dated 1632, a flagon of 1637 inscribed and dated 1638, a flagon of 1645, an alms-dish of 1683 inscribed and dated 1685 and a paten of 1704. Poor-box: by fifth pier of S. arcade—of oak with massive twisted stem. Pulpit (Plate 34): of oak, hexagonal, with enriched moulded capping and base and panelled sides with carved festoons and cherub-heads; stem hexagonal with raised panels and moulded base. Rails: enclosing font, on black marble steps, former Communion rails, with moulded rail and plinth, panelled standards and turned and twisted balusters. Miscellanea: Sword-rest (Plate 44)—in nave, against second pier from E. of S. arcade, of oak, carved with date 1682, flanked by City arms and monogram V.S.R. and surmounted by royal arms of the Stuarts in Garter with lion's mask below, flying cherubs as supporters and crown above; at sides two carved festoons terminating in winged cherub-heads. Inscription—on E. pier of tower arch, recording pewing wainscoting and reopening of church in 1682. In vestry—moulded and carved rails, pierced and carved frieze and panelling, probably from old pews, re-used.
(3) House, No. 8, on the S. side of Bow Churchyard, is of four storeys with modern attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built late in the 17th or early in the 18th century, but has been considerably altered late in the 18th century and in modern times. The N. front has a brick band between the first and second floors; the windows on these floors are set in slight projections with eared heads, those to the second floor being finished with brick cornices; the windows themselves have square heads except on the first floor, where the heads are segmental. Inside the building some original panelling remains.
(4) Williamson's Hotel and adjoining house, on the W. and S. sides of New Court, Bow Lane, are of four storeys with cellars; the walls are of brick. They were built probably late in the 17th century, but have been much altered. The fronts of the houses have brick bands between the storeys; the hotel has a doorway with a flat hood supported on scrolled brackets. Inside the second house is an original staircase in the upper part of the building; it has turned balusters, square newels, straight strings and hand-rails cutting the strings of the flight above.
Across the court, in front of the hotel, is an early 18th-century wrought-iron railing with a double gateway; this gateway has scrolled standards and an ornamental overthrow.
Condition—Fairly good; hotel since demolished and iron gate removed.
(5) House, No. 29, on the S. side of Watling Street at the E. corner of Bow Lane, is of three storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick. It was built probably early in the 18th century. There are brick bands between the storeys and the windows have segmental heads.
(6) Remains of Undercroft (Plate 144), under pavement on the S. side of Watling Street, about 8 ft. E. of the vestry of St. Mary Aldemary. Only a portion of the W. wall, of rubble, remains exposed in the area; in it is the springer and wall-rib of a stone vault, with hollow-chamfered ribs, probably of 14th-century date. A plan of the complete undercroft is preserved in the Society of Antiquaries' Library.
(7) Sign on house No. 28, on the N.E. side of Budge Row. It is now fixed on the W. wall of the corridor in the ground-floor of the modern building and is a rectangular stone panel with a figure of a wild-cat in high relief; it represents the crest of the Skinners' Company and is of late 17th-century date.