An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Middlesex. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1937.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
18 HAMPTON (B.e.)
(O.S. 6 in. XXV, N.E.)
Hampton is a parish on the N. bank of the Thames 4 m. S. of Hounslow. The Palace and the Royal Mews are the principal monuments.
(1) Parish Church of St. Mary stands on the N. side of Thames Street and was entirely re-built in 1829–31, but retains from the older building the following:—
Fittings—Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In Chancel —(1) to Robert Tyrwhytt, Master of the Buckhounds, 1651–2, and Jane his sister, 1656, inscription only, in incised panel on slab. In Nave—(2) to James Darell, Clerk of the Spicery, 1638, inscription and achievement-of-arms. Indent: in churchyard by W. doorway, of figures of man and wife, inscription, scrolls and shield, early 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on E. wall, (1) to Robert Terwhit, 1651–2, slate and stone tablet with moulded frame, entablature and pediment with figure of a woodman, apron and shield-of-arms; on W. wall, (2) to Jane, wife of John Cooper, 1702–3, also Elizabeth Cooper, 1702, marble cartouche with palm-leaves, etc. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (3) to Edmond Pigeon, and Nickolas his son, 1619, erected by Alice Mason, his daughter, alabaster and slate wall-monument with Corinthian side-columns supporting broken pediment with achievement-of-arms and putti, cartouche-of-arms on apron; (4) to Richard Pluckington, 1712, wooden panel with scrolled head and foot and painted cherubs; (5) to Huntington Shaw, 1710, smith employed at Hampton Court, carved stone cartouche; on W. wall, (6) to Henry Cooper, 1687, and Margarett his wife, 1700–01, marble panel; in gallery—on S. wall, (7) to James Marriott, 1711, and Ann (Haughton) his wife, 1714, also to Henry, Richard and Thomas, their sons, marble tablet with scrolled side-pilasters, cornice and achievement-of-arms. In S.W. lobby—(8) to [Sybil (Hampden), wife of David Penn], 1562, altar-tomb, effigy and canopy in freestone (Plate 13); altar-tomb with moulded cornice and five cartouches-of-arms on front and ends; effigy of woman in costume of the period, and the date 1562 on the cushion; two enriched Corinthian columns and corresponding pilasters supporting flat canopy with entablature and soffit carved with large strapwork cartouche; on wall at back inscription-tablet with scrolls and pediment; on W. wall, (9) to Frances (Watts), wife of (Edward?) Ball, 1704, and to Edward Ball, 1702, veined marble wall-monument, signed T. Hill, with Corinthian side-pilasters supporting an entablature, broken scrolled pediment with cherubs, two cartouches-of-arms. In churchyard—on wall at N.E. end, (10) to John Coope, 1690, headstone with shaped head; on E. wall, (11) to John Silvester, 1714, scrolled stone panel; S.E. of church, (12) to George Webster, 1707, flat slab with a shield-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In Nave—(1) to Edward Proger, 1713, also to Elizabeth his wife, Henrietta, Philip, Edward and Ann, their children, Mary, wife of John Edwards, their daughter and Philip her son; under tower-arch, (2) to William Houblon, 1705 (?) and William his infant son, 1707, with defaced achievement-of-arms. In tower—(3) to Matthew Banckes, 1714, also Henry his brother, 1716, with achievement-of-arms; (4) to . . ., Banckes, 1700 (?), with defaced achievement-of-arms; (5) to . . ., 1706, (6) to the Reverend Robert Jones, 1709, with defaced achievement-of-arms. In N.W. lobby—(7) to John Sturmy, 1654–5, two clasped hands below, labelled John and Elizabeth, and shield-of-arms above. Plate: includes a cup and paten of 1704 with hexagonal bases and an alms-dish of 1707, given by William Ireland.
(2) Hampton Court (Plate 72), palace, outbuildings and gardens, stands in the S.E. corner of the parish and extends into the parish of Hampton Wick. The walls generally are of red brick with freestone (Reigate, Caen, Portland, etc.) dressings and the roofs are covered with lead, tiles and slates. The site was acquired on a lease from the Order of St. John of Jerusalem by Cardinal Wolsey in 1514. The building was begun immediately after and nothing appears to have been left in situ of any previous building. The original design appears to have been confined to the quadrangle now represented by Clock Court together with the chapel and cloister to the E. of the court and the kitchen (now the Privy Kitchen) to the N.E. Remains of this building survive in all four ranges of the Clock Court. The Great Hall, on the N. side, was re-built and enlarged by Henry VIII, but remains of Wolsey's work survive in the cellar below the Watching Chamber to the E. of it. The original range, on the E. of the court, had short ranges projecting to the E. Wolsey's later work included the Base Court with its great W. Gate house and the subsidiary buildings surrounding the Master Carpenter's Court; this work was perhaps nearly completed when tapestries were bought for the Great Gatehouse in 1522–3. The building was probably surrounded by a moat, but except for the surviving portion on the W. front its position is largely conjectural. Shortly before the fall of Wolsey the building passed to Henry VIII, who acquired the freehold from the Order of St. John in 1531. The king made extensive alterations and additions from 1529 to 1540 and many of the building-accounts are preserved at the P.R.O. The Great Hall was re-built (from 1530 onwards) and widened towards the S., the W. range of Clock Court was remodelled and heightened, the E. range altered, the Watching Chamber block largely re-built and enlarged (in 1535) and the Chapel remodelled (in 1535–6). A new quadrangle containing the royal lodgings, was added on the site of the existing Fountain Court; the buildings N. and E. of Chapel Court were also erected, together with a narrow range still further to the E. called the Queen's Long Gallery (finished 1537), now destroyed. The king also enlarged the Great Kitchens. The two ranges on the W. front and projecting across the moat, were probably additions of Henry VIII, as the brickwork indicates that they are not of one build with Wolsey's Base Court; the Bridge over the moat was also added by the king. Little alteration seems to have been made to the main structure of the palace, for the next century and a half, except the erection of three stair-turrets in the Base Court under Queen Elizabeth c. 1566 and a small wing to the S. of the S. range of the Clock Court.
Very shortly after the Revolution in April, 1689, work was begun on the new building, designed by Sir Christopher Wren. Designs are in existence showing that it was proposed to rebuild the whole palace, except the Great Hall, but the work actually executed consisted only of the Fountain Court, the colonnade in Clock Court and minor alterations; after a pause, following the death of Queen Mary in 1694, the work was continued till the death of William III in 1702. Accounts of this work survive in some detail. Some work was done to the S. wing of the W. front under Queen Anne and the small building to the S. of this wing was probably added at the same period. The decorations of the state apartments, N. and E. of Fountain Court, were completed probably by Kent, who in 1732 remodelled the Tudor buildings between the Clock and Fountain Courts. The palace was not occupied by the king after the death of George II, and about 1765 the building began to be allotted for the use of residents nominated by the Crown. This led to various minor alterations, necessary to form separate suites in the building; these now number 45. In the first half of the 18th century the W. part of the front to Tennis Court Lane was heightened. The front of the Great W. Gatehouse was partly taken down in 1771–3 and re-built, the gatehouse itself being reduced in height by two storeys. Various minor alterations were made in the 19th century, including much restoration; in 1882 the front of the Great Gatehouse was again partly re-built and about the same time the vault of Anne Boleyn's Gatehouse was renewed. A fire in 1882 did some damage in the E. range of Fountain Court and a more serious fire in 1886 destroyed the range on the W. of Chapel Court; it was re-built in the following year. In 1910 the W. moat was cleared and the stone bridge, long buried, was again uncovered and the parapets restored. The Great Hall with its cellars was restored in 1925.
The Palace is the most extensive and in many ways the most important example of early Tudor architecture in the country and retains many of its original fittings. Wren's rebuilding of the Fountain Court is likewise an outstanding example of its period.
The Base or West Court (168 ft. by 166 ft.) is entered by the Great West Gatehouse on the W. side. This structure consists of the gatehouse itself, now of two storeys only and side wings, with flanking turrets, of three storeys. The W. front of the gatehouse is a reconstruction of 1882, but the gateway and the oriel-window above it probably reproduce the Tudor design; on the oriel, below the window, is a much restored panel with the royal arms of Henry VIII with the Garter, motto and lion and dragon supporters; the background is carved with a rose tree and ribands and the frame with an acanthus and running rose design; this was no doubt one of the three made by Edmund More, mason, of Kingston. The gateway is fitted with early 16th-century nail-studded oak doors in two folds with trellis framing at the back and moulded and linen-fold panels in front in three tiers; the doors have been repaired at the base and elsewhere. The flanking bays and turrets are mostly faced with 18th and 19th-century brickwork but in each turret is set a round terra-cotta plaque with enriched borders and busts (Plate 76) of the Emperors Tiberius and Nero; these are probably the two plaques brought from Windsor c. 1845. The E. front of the gatehouse (Plate 74) is of early 16th-century brickwork with some diapering in black headers; the restored archway and oriel-window are similar to those on the W. front, but the panel (probably a second by More) with the royal arms is less restored and has a dragon and a greyhound as supporters; the side bays have restored windows of Tudor form with four-centred lights in square heads; the flanking stair-turrets are additions or reconstructions of the time of Elizabeth; on the E. face of the N. turret is a panel carved with a rose and crown and the initials E.R.; the corresponding panel on the S. turret has a crowned cartouche with the initials and date E.R. 1566. The gate-hall has a modern stone vault. The interior of the gatehouse, with its wings, has few ancient features; the stair-turrets retain their Elizabethan solid oak treads and there are some early 18th-century bolection-moulded fireplaces and some mid 18th-century panelling. The rest of the W. range, flanking the gatehouse, is of two storeys with attics and is of Tudor brickwork with diapering, and an embattled parapet; the parapet on the W. is divided into bays by restored stone pinnacles rising from carved beast-corbels on the line of the parapet string-course. The gabled end-bays project and have carved beasts as crockets on the parapet. The windows on this side are of two and three lights and of Tudor form, restored; the upper ones are transomed; the windows on the E. face are similar to those in the lower range on the W. but of three lights; flanking the gatehouse-block are restored doorways with four-centred heads. All the chimney-stacks here and elsewhere in the palace are modern restorations. This range has a corridor running along the courtyard side on both floors; on the upper floor N. of the gatehouse, the original timber-framed inner wall of this corridor has the framing exposed. A number of rooms retain 18th-century bolection-moulded fireplaces and some are lined with panelling of the same period. The N. range of the Base Court is generally similar to the W. range, on the courtyard side; the ground-floor has three restored Tudor doorways. On the N. side the range retains some Tudor work in the windows but the upper range of transomed windows is mostly modern restoration; near the middle is a modern stair-turret. The interior of this range had corridors on both floors similar to those in the W. range, but the partitions forming them have mostly been removed and the space thrown into rooms. Some 18th-century fireplaces and panelling survive. The S. range of the Base Court is generally similar to the N. range on the courtyard side; it has an added stair-turret probably of Elizabethan date; E. of this turret the parapet has been re-built and the roof raised probably late in the 17th century and the transomed windows below are probably an alteration of the same date; there is one doorway near the E. end. The S. face of this range has been much altered and many of the windows are of 18th-century date; the original windows, which survive, have been much restored. Inside the range the lower corridor survives along the whole length, the upper corridor also survives in part and terminates at the added stair-turret; beyond this, to the E., the upper floor formed one large room, but has now been divided; it retains, however, the plaster cornice and cove of its ceiling and parts of an early 18th-century panelled dado; some later 18th-century panelling and a fireplace also survive. The roofs of all three ranges of the Base Court are partly original, that over the N. range being practically complete; it is of braced collar-beam type with wind-braces. The two projecting wings flanking the main W. front were added by Henry VIII, c. 1536. They continue the design of the W. front in the general arrangement of windows and parapet. The N.W. wing has two high segmental-pointed arches formerly spanning the moat but now blocked; the side walls of the wing have each a pinnacled gable at the W. end, that on the S. having carved beasts as crockets; the angles of the W. end have octagonal turrets (that on the N.W. refaced) and in the middle is an archway, partly original, with double hollow-chamfered jambs, four-centred head and label; above it is a restored six-light transomed window. The middle of this wing forms the Lord Chamberlain's Court; the fronts facing on to it were much altered in the 18th and 19th centuries and have been partly re-built in the upper parts and heightened on the N. side; the inner archway on the W. side is similar to the outer archway already described but is largely original; some of the Tudor windows also survive. Inside the wing can be seen part of the brick barrel-vault formerly spanning the moat, and some of the rooms retain 18th-century fittings. The S.W. wing of the W. Front is smaller than the N.W. wing and has no courtyard and no provision for the moat. Otherwise the treatment is similar with octagonal turrets at the western angles. Originally the wing was L-shaped but late 17th and early 18th-century additions have been made partly filling up the angle between the wings and projecting to the S. The windows are mostly modern or restored and the wing has three rain-water heads with the initials and date A.R. 1711; this is probably the date of some of the alterations and also of the later additions on the S. side; the earlier additions on this side include a late 17th-century wing S. of the E. part of the original wing and retaining three tall windows of that date, each with solid frame, mullion and transom. The early 18th-century addition, to the S. of it, has a wooden eaves-cornice, hipped dormer-windows and lower windows with rubbed brick arches and casement-frames. The stable-wing, further S., has been re-built, and adjoining it is the Vine House of c. 1769. There are other modern additions. Inside the original wing, one of the turrets retains the solid oak treads of its staircase; a room on the ground floor has a black and white marble pavement made up from materials from the chapel and of c. 1700; there are also two 18th-century fireplaces. In the later additions is a staircase with late 17th-century turned balusters.
The Clock Court (134 ft. by 95 ft.) formed the nucleus of Wolsey's original palace. It has a range with Anne Boleyn's Gateway on the W., the Great Hall on the N., a much altered double range on the E. and a range with a colonnade on the S. Anne Boleyn's Gateway is an early 16th-century structure altered by Henry VIII, of three storeys with embattled turrets at the angles. The restored gateway on the W. side has moulded jambs, four-centred arch and label; above it is a restored oriel-window of three transomed lights on the face and one on each return; it has moulded corbelling and a panelled parapet and below the front window is a carved panel (largely modern but probably representing the third panel of More's work) of the arms of Henry VIII with lion and dragon supporters; the third storey has a restored window of three transomed lights and above it is a modern clock-face and a round panel with the initials of William IV; on the face of the side turrets are two terra-cotta plaques (Plate 76) with busts of the Emperors Trajan and Hadrian; these formed part of a set of eight, made for Wolsey by Giovanni da Maiano in 1521 at a cost of £2 6s. each. The E. face of the gatehouse (Frontispiece) has an archway generally similar to that on the W.; above it is an early 16th-century terra-cotta panel (Plate 78) with the arms, hat and staff of Cardinal Wolsey, two putti as supporters and flanked by Corinthian columns supporting an enriched entablature; the staff, hat and arms have been repaired in cement and it seems probable that they were removed by Henry VIII and his own arms substituted and have been restored in comparatively modern times; below the panel is Wolsey's motto "Dominus michi Adjutor"; the first floor has a restored Tudor window of four transomed lights and the floor above has a window of three lights; immediately above this is the great astronomical clock (Plate 78) of 1540, set in a restored square stone frame with traceried spandrels bearing Tudor badges and the initials H.R.; the hour numerals are painted on the stonework; the face has three moving copper dials with the earth in the centre; these dials record the phases of the moon, the days of the month and the months with the signs of the zodiac; on the works are said to be the initials and date N.O. 1540; in the side-turrets are two more terra-cotta plaques (Plate 76) of the Emperors Vitellius and Augustus, the latter coloured; near the base of the N. turret is a cross in brick diaperwork. On the top of the gatehouse is an 18th-century cupola of wood, with an arched opening in each face and a lead-covered dome; it contains two clock-bells, the larger by Thomas Harrys of London, c. 1480, inscribed "Stella Maria Maris Succurre Piissima Nobis"; the smaller bell is by William Culverden, early 16th century. The gate-hall has a modern stone vault reproducing the Tudor one and having the initials H.A. and the falcon-badge of Anne Boleyn, and in the N. wall is a Tudor archway similar to that on the E. and largely original; it opens on a flight of steps leading up to the great hall. Most of the rest of the W. range, flanking the gatehouse, is of three storeys with embattled parapets and semi-octagonal turrets; the two lower storeys, S. of the hall-range, have diapered brickwork, while the top storey is mainly of plain brickwork; this may indicate that the lower part is Wolsey's work and the upper part an addition of Henry VIII; the windows generally are of Tudor character but have been mostly restored; those on the first floor are of transomed lights; some windows on the second floor, with plain square heads, are probably 17th-century insertions. Immediately N. of the gatehouse-turret on the E. side is a recess with a four-centred head to allow access to the turret-doorway, and adjoining it are the jamb-dressings of a destroyed window. Inside the range, S. of the gatehouse, are some Tudor doorways with four-centred heads; on the ground floor the N. section of the range seems to have formed one room and has chamfered ceiling-beams; the existing N. room is lined with late 16th and early 17th-century panelling; a room on the floor above has three walls lined with Tudor linen-fold panelling; the panelling on the fourth wall is of late 17th-century date; the plaster ceiling is divided into square panels by moulded wooden ribs of Tudor character; an adjacent closet has similar linen-fold panelling and ceiling; the next room has a Tudor fireplace. The top floor has two 16th-century fireplaces with flat four-centred heads. It is evident from the windows recently uncovered in the N. and S. walls of the gatehouse and from traces of the earlier roofs, that the ranges flanking the gate-house have been heightened, no doubt under Henry VIII.
The Great Hall (97 ft. by 40 ft.) forms the N. side of Clock Court (Plate 73) and is the work of Henry VIII. It occupies the first floor of the range and is of seven bays with a restored embattled parapet; the buttresses are of three stages and terminate in restored pinnacles crowned with the King's beasts. The basement is lit by a two-light Tudor window in each free bay of the main wall, and the hall above has also one window in each bay, all, except the oriel, of four four-centred and transomed lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label; the transoms are embattled; the oriel forms a rectangular projection from the E. bay on the S. and has slender buttresses at the angles and dividing the two S. windows; these are each of three lights with five transoms and uncusped tracery in a four-centred head; in the W. return is a similar window of two lights with the main head butting on to the wall of the hall. The E. and W. walls of the hall have each a gable truncated to a lower pitch at the top; the main gable has carved beasts as crockets and the low-pitched portion has a pierced and traceried parapet and a central pinnacle supporting one of the King's beasts; the W. end has octagonal turrets at the angles; both ends have a large window of seven trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label; in both gables are two small windows each of two four-centred lights in a four-centred head; these windows and parapets are mostly modern restoration. The hall itself (Plate 80) is entered by a staircase and a much restored doorway within the W. range of Clock Court; it has moulded and shafted jambs and an old four-centred arch in a square head; the spandrels are carved with the royal arms with lion and dragon and dragon and greyhound supporters; the doors are of the 18th century; there is a similar doorway and door opposite in the N. wall, but the greyhound does not appear; a third doorway of the same design is at the E. end of the N. wall. In the W. wall is a doorway, now blocked, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with blank shields, roses and pomegranates in the spandrels. The arch opening into the oriel has moulded and triple-shafted jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels each enclosing a rose. The oriel is covered with a fan-vault of stone in two bays, with panelled traceried cones and enriched pendants. The roof of the hall (Plate 85) is of elaborate hammer-beam type and of seven bays; the main trusses rest on brattished corbels (at least three are modern) carved with the arms, initials or badges (Plate 79) of Henry VIII; the trusses themselves have each a single hammer-beam and collar and moulded timbers; the hammer-beams are supported by curved braces (Plate 79), the spandrels of which are carved on both sides with the royal arms and Renaissance foliage; some of the arms impale those of Anne Boleyn, whose initials also appear; the side-posts are continued below the hammer-beams as pendants and are elaborately enriched with Renaissance ornament and crowned Tudor badges; from the hammer-beams spring four-centred arches under the collars; the spandrels have blind tracery and there is blind tracery with the Tudor badges above the hammer-beams and continued along the side-walls above the lower wall-plate as a frieze; above the collar-beams is open window-tracery in two main bays; below the main purlins in each bay is a small hammer-beam truss with enriched pendants (with the Tudor and Boleyn badges) and traceried spandrels; below the other purlins and ridge is a series of four-centred arches, the upper ones with pendants carved with cherub-heads; the soffit of the roof itself is panelled and traceried with differing types of window-tracery; the soffit above the collar forms a four-centred arch and two coves. The former central louvre of the roof has been removed, but in the middle of the floor towards the E. end, is the square stone hearth (renewed) for the central fire. The original oak screen (Plate 83), at the W. end of the hall, is of five bays, two of which form entrances; the blind bays have two ranges of moulded panelling, the upper with traceried heads enriched with Tudor badges and the initials H.R. and H.A.; flanking the doorways are round posts with moulded bases and capitals, the mouldings being continued above and below the panelling; the gallery-front is modern. The N., S. and E. walls of the hall are hung with seven of a set of ten large tapestries, representing scenes from the life of Abraham, the work of Wilhelm Pannemaker, the Brussels weaver, c. 1540, from designs ascribed to Bernard van Orley; the subjects are as follows—(a) The departure of Abraham (Gen. xii, 1); (b) The return of Sarah (Gen. xii, 19); (c) The separation of Abraham and Lot (Gen. xiii, 8); (d) Abraham and Melchizedek (Gen. xiv, 18); (e) The birth and circumcision of Isaac (Gen. xxi); (f) The sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. xxii, 2); (g) The buying of the field of Ephron (Gen. xxiii, 13); (h) Oath and departure of Eliezer (Gen. xxiv, 9); (i) Eliezer and Rebekah (Gen. xxiv, 15); (j) now at South Kensington, Abraham and the three angels (Gen. xviii, 2); the panels have ornamental borders with allegorical figures. Fixed on the gallery-front of the screen are five strips of early 16th-century tapestry, with heraldic designs including the royal Tudor arms, crowned fleurs-de-lis and portcullis, arms of Wolsey with cross, hat and motto, the old see of York impaling the later arms and the old see of York impaling Wolsey. The basement or cellar (Plate 113), under the great hall, has two rows of octagonal oak posts supporting the floor above; there is an original cross-wall of brick towards the E. end, and under the central hearth of the hall is a pair of responds on this wall from each of which spring six radiating ribs supporting the square hearth; in the N. wall, towards the E. end, is a doorway (Plate 112), probably not in situ, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the carved spandrels have shields, one with a pall and one with Wolsey's arms. The W. end of the hall-block forms a three-storey building fronting on to the Base Court. It has two partly restored early 16th-century archways with jambs and four-centred heads of two hollow-chamfered orders; the windows are of Tudor form, mostly modern restorations. In this building is the entrance to the great cellar under the hall; it has moulded jambs and four-centred head and is fitted with a battened door hung on strap-hinges; another doorway has one stone of the splay scratched with a drawing of two fishes. On the second floor is a Tudor fireplace with a four-centred head. The block, adjoining the Hall on the E., is of two storeys and contains the Wine Cellar below and the Great Watching Chamber above; it is part of Henry VIII's building, but seems to occupy the site of an earlier building only extending as far N. as the hall; the jamb of a doorway in the W. wall of the cellar and a blocked window in its S. wall are evidence of this earlier building. The front to Round Kitchen Court (Plate 114) has a stair-turret at the S.E. angle and a semi-circular bay with a small altered window to the cellar and a large window to the Watching Chamber; this window is in three main bays each of three four-centred lights with three transoms; there is a similar window of two lights to the S. of the bay, and four windows of four lights, set high in the wall, to the N. of the bay. The Cellar (Plate 82) is entered by several original doorways, with four-centred heads; in the S. wall is part of the moulded jamb of a destroyed earlier doorway, perhaps part of Wolsey's work; in the W. wall is what appears to be the jamb of a doorway and the destroyed cross-wall marking the former extent of the building; further S. in the same wall is a wide relieving-arch of brick. The cellar is roofed with a plastered brick vault in ten bays with ridge, diagonal and wall ribs; they spring from moulded corbels and a range of four octagonal stone columns with moulded capitals and chamfered bases; the projecting bay on the E. has a ribbed vault with pointed wall-arches; the floor is paved with brick and has three low benches for barrels. In the S. wall is a Tudor doorway leading into a lower cellar largely the work of Kent. The Great Watching Chamber (Plate 83) was in course of erection in 1535; the ceiling has moulded ribs forming an elaborate geometrical design; the main star-form panels have enriched central pendants of Renaissance character; the intermediate hexagonal panels have each a wooden disk enriched with wreaths enclosing the Tudor arms and badges, the same arms impaling Seymour and the Seymour badge; the ceiling has been restored and most of the disks are modern; some of the old disks are in the great kitchen. The walls are hung with tapestries, four of them representing the Conflict of the Virtues and Vices, woven in Flanders c. 1500 and perhaps amongst those bought by Wolsey in 1522 from Richard Gresham; there are also three early 16th-century Flemish tapestries of the Triumphs of Petrarch —the triumph of Death over Chastity, the triumph of Fame over Death and the triumph of Time over Fame; there are also three tapestry-panels with the arms and badges of Henry VIII. In the angle between this room and the hall is the Horn Room; it is approached from the ground floor by a staircase with solid oak treads and contains two tapestries, one a duplicate of the triumph of Death and the second of early 16th-century Flemish work representing an allegory of Avarice riding upon a griffon; there is also a strip of tapestry with the arms of Henry VIII. In the E. wall is part of a Tudor doorway with the initial H. in the spandrel.
The range on the E. side of Clock Court forms a continuation southward of the Watching Chamber block. As originally built, presumably by Wolsey, this range had two wings, projecting towards the E.; these are now enveloped in the complex of buildings between the Clock and Fountain Courts; much of the main range, including the projecting tower, seems to have been re-built or remodelled by Henry VIII, and was again much altered and partly re-built c. 1732. The W. front to Clock Court is of three storeys with attics and is finished with an embattled parapet; except for the projecting tower and the king's staircase the whole front has been refaced in 18th-century brick and the gateway is entirely a feature of this period; the gateway is of pseudo-Gothic character and bears the initials of George II and the date 1732; re-set in its flanking turrets are four of Maiano's plaques (Plate 77) with the heads of the emperors Galba, Julius, Titus and Otho; the projecting tower is of 16th-century brickwork and has turrets at the outer angles and a staircase turret on the N. side; the windows are of three and four lights and of Tudor character, more or less restored. The exposed part of the E. wall of the range has been refaced in the 18th century. The two 16th-century wings projecting to the E. flank a small courtyard, now enclosed; they retain much of their original brickwork with diapering and are finished with semi-octagonal shafts at the former outer angles of the courtyard; some of the Tudor windows survive, including a large four-light transomed window in the E. end of the northern wing; the E. face of the southern wing formerly had two projecting bay windows the full height of the wing; they are now only represented by the 18th-century patching of the wall and by the lowest or ground-floor stage of the southern window; this has four transomed lights on the face and one on each return; immediately E. of it is a Tudor doorway surmounted by two small lights. Many of the rooms in this range and its wings have 18th-century panelling, carving and fireplaces. At the N. end of the E. wall of the range is a wide Tudor archway, now divided and giving entrance to 18th-century cellars; above it at the second-floor level is a large Tudor doorway with moulded panelled and shafted jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with blank shields in the spandrels; immediately to the N. are the moulded jambs and head of a small Tudor doorway; these doorways opened into a Tudor range on the S. side of the Round Kitchen Court, now mainly occupied by the Queen's Staircase. The northern of the two Tudor wings, described above, contains on the first floor what are known as Wolsey's rooms. Wolsey's Closet is entered by two lobbies with late 17th or 18th-century panelling; the Closet (Plate 84) is partly lined with linen-fold panelling, mostly modern but incorporating some old work; above the panelling are Italian 16th-century painted panels representing the Last Supper, the Scourging, the Bearing of the Cross and the Resurrection; there is a Tudor doorway in the S. wall with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; there is also a restored Tudor fireplace, with an iron fire-back bearing the Tudor arms; the elaborate early 16th-century ceiling (Plate 81) is panelled in squares and elongated hexagons with Tudor roses and Prince of Wales' feathers in the squares, and rosettes in the hexagons, all filled in with conventional Renaissance ornament; the panelled frieze (Plate 112) has similar enrichments, Tudor badges, mermen, mermaids, dolphins and vases, and below the frieze runs the repeated Wolsey motto "Dominus michi Adjutor"; the enrichments are of plaster on wood with lead leaves at the intersections. In the southern wing the room with the bay-window has also a blocked Tudor doorway, with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head.
The S. Range of Clock Court, masked on the N. by the Colonnade, is part of Wolsey's building and is of two storeys with an embattled parapet; the brickwork retains some original diapering. The N. front survives largely complete, behind the Colonnade; it is broken up by projections including a bay-window, a semi-octagonal turret and a stair-turret of similar form; several of the windows are original, including the bay-window and two on the upper floor with transoms; the bay-window has on the ground-floor a four-light window and one in each return; the corresponding window on the upper floor is transomed and the mullions are continued below the sill as blind panels; near the E. end of the wall is an original doorway with moulded jambs. The S. front of the range has an octagonal turret at the S.W. angle, finished with an embattled parapet, within which rises an original lead cupola (one of the two surviving) with crocketted pinnacles and enriched with Tudor badges; the lower range of windows is of restored Tudor form; the westernmost in the upper range is transomed and of Tudor form restored; the others in this range appear to be later as they do not bond with the brickwork. Adjoining this range on the S.E. is an added wing (Plate 75) probably of 1568; it is of three storeys with an embattled parapet, a turret with capping and finial at the N.W. angle and a re-built buttress at the S.W. angle; the windows have all been altered or restored except the three-storeyed bay-window on the S. side; this has been partly restored and has transomed windows on the second floor; set above and below the first floor window are two stones with the initials of Queen Elizabeth and the date 1568; one of these has a crowned rose in addition; the dates seem to have been partly re-cut or restored and one of the stones is probably not in situ. Inside the original range are a number of Tudor doorways with moulded jambs and four-centred heads; the ground-floor rooms have some 18th-century fittings. On the first floor the two E. rooms (Plate 87) were formerly one and are lined with original linen-fold panelling with a cornice of c. 1700; the partition between them is lined on both faces with linen-fold panelling of a different type, brought from elsewhere; the next room to the W. (Plate 86) has an original fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the ceiling (Plate 87) has flat enriched ribs forming an elaborate geometrical design with small bosses at the intersections; the main intersections have angle-enrichments of conventional Renaissance ornaments; this ceiling extends into the bay-window; the panelling is partly of late 16th or early 17th-century date. The westernmost room retains rather less than half of its original plaster ceiling (Plate 86); it is generally similar to that just described but differs in the geometrical design and in some of the angle-ornaments; these include the cross keys of York with the archbishop's staff, two pillars saltirewise with the cross-staff, a griffon holding a pillar, etc. The fireplace is original and has moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch in a square head; on the head is a scratched 16th-century inscription; there is a monogram cut on the doorway between this room and the last. The added block to the S.E. contains several 18th-century fireplaces; one room on the first floor is lined with mid 17th-century panelling.
The Colonnade (Plate 88) on the S. side of Clock Court was built by Sir Christopher Wren and seems to be slightly later than the King's Staircase to the E. of it, as the pilaster, at this end, has been cut into the brickwork of the staircase. The colonnade is of Portland stone and of seven bays divided by coupled Ionic columns with a single column and pilaster at each end; the columns support an entablature with a balustraded parapet broken by pedestals over the side bays and by a blind bay in the middle; this bay is flanked by panels finished with curved pediments and vases with the initials of William III; the panels are carved with trophies of arms and shields with faces. In the S. wall are three doorways of oak with panelled pilasters, console brackets, cornice and pediment; the doors are of fielded panels; the end walls have each a central pier and responds with moulded imposts supporting wall-arches with key-stones carved with satyrs' and other heads; the S. wall-arch at the E. end encloses the doorway to the king's staircase and is fitted with panelled doors and a glazed fanlight. The colonnade has a plastered ceiling divided into bays by wide trabeations with enriched plaster cornices. Between the colonnade and the Tudor block behind it is a late 17th-century inserted staircase with turned balusters and moulded handrails.
The Fountain Court (117 ft. by 101 ft.), with its surrounding ranges, was begun in 1689 from the designs of Sir Christopher Wren (Plate 89); the actual building was probably complete at the death of William III in 1702, but the internal fitting of the N. range was not completed and the Prince of Wales' Staircase was not perhaps part of the original design. Among the craftsmen and others employed on the building were John Oliver master mason, Mathew Brancker master carpenter, Nicholas Hawkesmoor surveyor clerk, Louis Laguerre painter, Jean Tijou smith, Grinling Gibbons carver, John Le Sage carver, Gabriel Cibber sculptor, John Nost sculptor, Joseph Key locksmith, Robert Streater painter and Garrett Johnson glassmaker. Work was continued under Queen Anne when Verrio was employed to paint the ceiling of the Queen's Bedroom in 1705. The unfinished decorations seem to have been completed early in the reign of George II and probably under the direction of Kent. The Fountain Court stands on the site of a quadrangle erected by Henry VIII and involved also the destruction of a range to the E. of the buildings of Chapel Court. The existing building is partly of three and partly of four storeys; the walls are faced with red brick and the dressings are mostly of Portland stone. The main E. Front (Plate 90) has a centre-piece entirely stone-faced and of seven bays, flanked by eight bays on each side. Architecturally the front is of four storeys with rusticated angles and a balustraded parapet. The centre-piece has high rusticated pedestals, between the bays, on which stand four Corinthian columns flanked by two Corinthian pilasters on each side, supporting a continuous entablature with a pediment over the three middle bays; these bays have each a square-headed archway on the ground floor, fitted with elaborate scrolled wrought-iron gates (Plate 95) and square-headed windows with moulded architraves and cornices on the floor above; above each archway is a flat marble hood the soffit of which is carved with vases, flowers and cherubs supporting a crown (Plate 95); below the entablature is a carved band with vases and swags, and over the middle window a larger composition with drapery, trumpets, sceptres and crown and the initials of William and Mary; the pediment has a figure-group of Hercules triumphing over Envy, by Cibber and carved between 1694 and 1696. The side bays of the centre-piece have each a square-headed window on the ground floor, a window with architrave and cornice on the first floor and a square window on the top-floor; the pilasters between the bays on this floor have carved enrichments. The remaining bays of the front have a cornice carried along at the level of the main cornice of the centrepiece; the windows on the ground-floor have segmental heads, eared architraves and keystones carved with female heads or the monogram of William and Mary; the first-floor windows are similar to those of the central feature and above them is a range of round windows with carved heads on the keystones; the windows of the top range are square with eared architraves; the rainwater heads have lion-masks and the two southernmost have the date 1691. The main S. front (Plate 91) continues the general lines of the E. front and the windows are generally similar to the corresponding ones on the side portions of that front. The S. front is broken by two slightly projecting wings, with rusticated angles at the ends, and by an ashlar-faced centre-piece. This centre-piece has three doorways divided and flanked by rusticated piers on which stand Corinthian columns supporting the main entablature; the doorways have rusticated heads and the keystones are carved with the royal arms of William and Mary and two Union flags; the doors are panelled and glazed in the upper part; in front of the outer piers stand large cast lead figures of Mars and Hercules (Plate 93); above the middle window on the first floor is a carved trophy of arms and on the frieze of the main entablature is the inscription "Gulielmus et Maria R.R.F." The statues, formerly on the parapet, have been removed to Windsor. The middle first-floor windows of the ranges flanking the centre-piece are surmounted by pediments and carved cartouches of the royal arms supported by cherubs and foliage and carved by Cibber; these compositions take the place of the round windows of the rest of the range and in the adjacent bays the windows are replaced by carved swags; below the middle windows of these ranges are doorways, the keystones of which are carved with the royal monogram and Garter jewel; the four rainwater heads on this front have lion masks and the date 1690. The return walls of both the E. and S. fronts are generally similar to the adjoining fronts, but some of the windows are replaced by panels. The internal fronts, to the Fountain Court (Plate 92), are of generally uniform design on the N., E. and S. sides; they are of four architectural storeys, with a band between the two lower and the two upper storeys and a balustraded parapet. The ground floor has an open arcade of round arches with carved heads (partly modern) on the key-stones; they spring from panelled piers with moulded imposts and have segmental sub-arches following the lines of the plaster vault of the alleys; the tympana, between the arches, are carved with festoons and ribbons, except in the central bay on the E., where they are carved with the royal monogram, cherubs, etc.; the tall first-floor windows have architraves, friezes and pediments and above each is a round window (Plate 95) with an ornamental surround carved to represent a lion's skin and foliage-wreaths; on the S. side these windows are replaced by blind panels painted in monochrome with the labours of Hercules, by Laguerre; the windows of the top floor are square with eared architraves. The arcade is carried along the W. side of the court (Plate 89) also, and above it is a range of tall windows but without pediments and immediately surmounted by a continuous cornice and a balustraded parapet with carved vases (Plate 110). In the middle of the court is a round basin with a marble kerb and in the angles are four stone pedestals; these are of quatre-foiled plan of grouped Doric columns with carved enrichments. The inner walls of the alleys surrounding the court are divided into bays by pilasters treated to correspond with the piers; each bay is covered by a groined plaster vault of depressed form. Projecting from the E. alley are two apsidal recesses divided into three bays by pilasters and having a segmental-headed opening in the middle bay and round-headed niches in the side bays. Opening on to the N. and S. alleys are a number of small lobbies with segmental arches; the windows opening on to the alleys have segmental heads and in the W. alley are seven stone doorways with architraves and segmental heads; the middle doorway has a keystone carved with the monogram C.W.; a doorway in the S.E. angle-bay has a square head with a frieze and cornice. The alleys are stone-paved, the slabs set diagonally or square, within borders.
The Ground Floor of the E. range of Fountain Court has the main entrance from the gardens in the middle; it is divided into three bays each way by four Doric columns of stone and these with corresponding wall-pilasters support corniced beams dividing the ceiling into panels; the side walls have square-headed doorways and niches; one doorway has a door of fielded panels. The private apartments, N. and S. of the entrance, contain some bolection-moulded panelling, panelled dados, cornices and fireplaces with moulded surrounds, all of the date of the building; several doors have locks bearing the W.R. monogram; three rooms, at the S. end of the range, are lined with panelling and have fireplaces (Plate 108) with marble surrounds and panelled overmantels; these differ in design but all have carved oak surrounds of drapery or foliage and the more westerly has cherub-heads, musical instruments and a crown; the staircase-hall, adjoining these rooms, has a paving of black and white marble and the staircase has a balustrade of ornamental wrought iron with an oak handrail. The small Chocolate Court, in this angle of the building, has a Doric colonnade of three bays, on the N. side, now built up. The middle part of the ground floor of the S. range is occupied by William III's Orangery; it is paved with stone set diagonally; the walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling and on each long side are six pilasters; the pilasters on the S. each have a console-bracket supporting a marble bust; in the middle of the N. wall are three doorways with panelled doors; they open into cellars with brick vaults, designed to form a grotto, but never completed. The rooms, W. of the Orangery, are lined with panelling, mostly bolection-moulded, and have fireplaces with moulded surrounds; the small Oak Room retains an original enriched mirror and there is a second mirror, of the same date, above the fireplace; the doorway opening from the Stone Hall to the King's Staircase has an elliptical head and a keystone carved with a woman's head. The Court in this angle of the building has an arcade, on the N. side, of three bays, with square piers, imposts and round arches. The King's Staircase occupies the site of a Tudor building which projected into Clock Court at the same point. The lower part of the stairs is supported on panelled stone walls, but the upper stairs have a panelled soffit; the wrought iron balustrade (Plate 107) is divided into bays by openwork standards and the bays have scrolled and enriched ironwork; the doorway at the top has console-brackets and a pediment with the marble bust of a woman; the walls, over the stairs, have a dado painted in monochrome panels with trophies and various devices; above the capping the walls and ceiling are painted with large compositions, by Verrio, represented in an architectural setting of Corinthian columns and entablature with trophies of arms in the angles; the ceiling (Plate 99) represents the Banquet of the Gods and the composition is continued down on to the E. wall with a medley of Roman history; this includes figures of Aeneas, Romulus and the wolf, and the twelve Cæsars; on the N. wall (Plate 100) is Ceres enthroned with subsidiary figures and, on clouds above, Apollo, Pan and the Muses; on the S. wall (Plate 100) is Mercury with a seated figure, said to be of Julian the Apostate. The rooms adjoining the W. alley of Fountain Court are mainly 18th-century additions, except the staircase, with a wrought iron balustrade, towards the S. end and the corresponding room at the N. end. The N. range of Fountain Court retains some fireplaces with moulded surrounds and panelled doors; the E. alley of the Court is continued through this range and communicates with the Prince of Wales' Staircase; it has a wrought iron balustrade and a landing supported on wrought iron brackets with a connecting swag. The Queen's Staircase, at the N.W. angle of Fountain Court, has a pavement of red and grey stone slabs, and the landings have a geometrical paving of marble; the balustrade (Plate 107), by Jean Tijou, is of wrought iron with standards and scrolled panels; the doorways have enriched architraves, cornices and pediments to those on the first floor; the doors have fielded panels; the doorways and the window-fittings are probably the work of Kent; the ceiling, of 1735, is painted to represent a dome and bears the initials of George II; on the W. wall is a large painting of earlier date representing the Arts and Sciences presented to Apollo and Diana.
The First Floor of the Fountain Court block contains the state apartments, which will be described starting from the Queen's Staircase and proceeding clockwise. The first room in the N. range is the Queen's Guard Chamber which with the Queen's Presence Chamber has decorations of the period of Kent; the first of these rooms has a large fireplace with flanking terminal figures of Yeomen of the Guard; the doors of the second room have locks with the monogram of George II and there is a heavy marble fireplace; above this is a majolica plaque with the wreathed head of a woman, of a later type than the Maiano series and without a border. The E. range has the three Prince of Wales' rooms at the N. end; they all have panelling and fittings of the time of George II, but the Drawing Room contains three late 17th-century Mortlake tapestries by Francis Poyntz representing the battle of Sole Bay with borders of putti, dolphins, shells, etc.; the fittings of the Public Dining Room are also of the time of George II and his arms appear above the fire-place; the partition at the W. end is an 18th-century insertion. The series of Queen's apartments fronting the gardens were fitted up under Queen Anne; the Queen's Audience Chamber has bolection-moulded panelling and an enriched entablature; the doors have locks with the initials of Queen Anne (Plate 111) and William III and the fireplace has a veined marble surround; the iron fire-back (Plate 109) has a representation of the rape of Europa; on the S. wall is a canopy or tester of red damask with vases on the angles. The Queen's Drawing Room has a bolection-moulded dado and a veined marble fire-place with a cornice and a fire-back representing Neptune drawn by sea-horses; the walls and ceiling bear paintings by Verrio of c. 1705; the ceiling (Plate 96) is coved and has an oval panel of Queen Anne as Justice surrounded by attendant allegorical figures; the walls have three large paintings in an architectural setting; on the N. (Plate 102) is Prince George of Denmark, as Lord High Admiral, with the fleet in the background; on the S. (Plate 102) is Cupid drawn by sea-horses with sea-divinities and the fleet in the background and on the W. is the Queen receiving homage from the four quarters of the globe. The Queen's Bedroom has bolection-moulded panelling with an enriched entablature; one door has a lock with the initials of Queen Anne; the fireplace (Plate 104) is similar to that in the Audience Chamber and has a fire-back with a representation of the worship of the Brazen Serpent; the ceiling was painted by Thornhill in 1715; the subject is Aurora with Night and Sleep; on the cove are portraits of George I, the Prince of Wales, Princess Caroline and their son Frederick. The Queen's Gallery (Plate 94) is partly lined with bolection-moulded panelling, but the W. side and parts of the ends have a dado with tapestries above it; these are from designs of Le Brun, woven by Josse de Vos at Brussels early in the 18th century; they are seven in number and represent the history of Alexander—(a) the entry into Babylon, (b) the battle with Porus, (c) Alexander and Hephæstion with Bucephalus, (d) the visit to Diogenes, (e) the meeting with the Chaldean prophets, (f) the battle of the Granicus, (g) the visit to the tent of Darius' wife; the enrichments of the doorways were carved by Gibbons, and the grey marble fireplace with a scrolled pediment is the work of John Nost; the pediment (Plate 105) encloses an oval mirror with a metal frame and laurel-sprigs; above the mirror is a bust of Venus, doves, cupids and carved swags; the fire-back bears the arms and initials of James II and the date 1687. The W. side of the range is occupied by a series of small rooms all lined with bolection-moulded panelling with cornices; the northernmost room is the Queen's Private Chapel; the entablature is carried across the angles to form an octagon; on this is an octagonal plastered dome with enriched panels, scrolled acanthus and cherub-heads at the top; the glazed lantern or cupola of the same form has modelled swags in the blind lower panels; the fireplace has a grey marble surround and a panelled overmantel; the door-locks have the initials W.R. and W.M.R. The Closet has, in the N. wall, a recessed marble basin (Plate 95) with a round moulded head to the recess; the fireplace has a white marble surround and the E. door has a lock with the initials of William and Mary (Plate 111). The Private Dining Room has a similar lock on the E. door and the fire-place has a veined marble surround; the cornice is carved and the ceiling has a plain plaster cove. The Closet, to the S., has a white marble surround to the fireplace and the overmantel is stepped back in six stages. The Queen's Private Chamber has a recessed marble basin in the E. wall, similar to that described above, but with a bronze mask-tap; the fireplace has a white marble surround and the overmantel (Plate 104) is stepped back in three stages; two doors have the W.M.R. monogram on the locks. The King's Private Dressing Room is only partly panelled; the fireplace (Plate 103) has a veined marble surround and a panelled overmantel with a mirror, carved festoons and ribbons at the sides and shelf; above the overmantel is an oval panel surrounded by fruit, flowers and foliage and two cherub-heads, carved by Gibbons; the fire-back has the arms and initials of James II and the date 1687. George II's Private Chamber has a coloured marble surround to the fireplace and a panelled overmantel (Plate 104) stepped back in three stages; the fire-back has a diaper of fleurs-de-lis; the E. door has a lock with the initials of William and Mary. The Museum has a panelled dado and a white marble surround to the fireplace; the four doors have locks with monograms, one of William and Mary, one of William (Plate 111) and two of Anne. The Ante-room, next to the Cartoon Gallery, has some enriched panelling, a domed ceiling, a fireplace with a coloured marble surround and a fire-back with a figure of David and the date 1665. The two rooms at the extreme S. end of the range, called Queen Mary's Closet and the King's Writing Closet were fitted up under William and Mary; they are partly fitted with a bolection-moulded dado with enriched cornice, dado-rail and architraves; above the doors and fireplace are enriched panels; the carving is by Gibbons; the fireplaces have marble surrounds and the first room has two enriched mirrors, by Garrett Johnson; the firebacks have figure-subjects of Charity; the first room has a door-lock with the initials W.M.R. and over the doors and fireplace of the second room are paintings by Bogdani of flowers and birds. The Artist's Room and the adjoining room have some bolection-moulded panelling and the former has two door-locks and scutcheons with the monogram of William III. The rooms in the S. Range were fitted up under William III. The King's Dressing Room is partly lined with bolection-moulded panelling with an enriched cornice and architraves; the fireplace has a brown marble surround with a mirror in an oak frame above; the overmantel (Plate 104) is carried back into the angle with steps and a curve and is enriched with carving of foliage and flowers by Gibbons; the fire-back (Plate 109) has a representation of Neptune drawn by sea-horses; the coved ceiling (Plate 98) has a painting by Verrio of Mars and Venus with attendant amorini and a border of vases, flowers and shrubs. King William's State Bedroom has some bolection-moulded panelling with enriched architraves and an entablature with carving by Gibbons; between the windows is an ornate mirror with the W.R. monogram, by Garrett Johnson, and above the doors are painted flower-subjects by Bogdani; the fireplace (Plate 103) has a coloured marble surround with a mirror in three bays having a round head; on the wall above is a panel with a carved surround and swags by Gibbons; it contains a portrait by Lely of Anne Hyde, Duchess of York; the fire-back has a figure-subject, perhaps Venus and Adonis; the W. door has a lock with the initials A.G.R.; the coved ceiling (Plate 97), painted by Verrio, has a subject emblematic of Sleep with figures of Endymion, Morpheus, Selene, etc., in an elaborate border with landscape-panels. The King's Drawing Room is partly lined with bolection-moulded panelling and has an enriched cornice; between the windows are mirrors and above the doors are panels with flanking enrichment by Gibbons; one of these panels has a painting by Allori of Judith and Holofernes; the fireplace has a white marble surround and an overmantel (Plate 101) with elaborate festoons, wreath and cherub-heads by Gibbons; in the middle is a panel with a painting said to be of Isabella Archduchess of Austria; the fire-back (Plate 109) has the arms and initials of James II and the date 168; the ceiling is plain and coved. The King's Audience Chamber is generally similar to the room last described, with mirrors between the windows and pediments and panels over the doors; the fireplace has a red marble surround and an overmantel (Plate 103) with carving generally similar to that in the Drawing Room; it contains a portrait, by Honthorst, of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia; the fire-back (Plate 109) has representations of the life of Abraham; against the E. wall is a crimson damask tester or canopy with pinnacles at the angles. The Second Presence Chamber has panelling similar to that in the last two rooms and an enriched entablature and mirrors between the windows; over the doors are paintings by Rousseau of Roman architecture flanked by carved swags by Gibbons; the fireplace has a green marble surround; the overmantel (Plate 101) has swags, pendants and drapery carved by Gibbons and a painting, ascribed to Van Mander, of Christian IV of Denmark; the fire-back has the arms and initials of James II and the date 1687; the N. door has a lock with the W.M.R. monogram. The First Presence Chamber is generally similar to the room just described; above the door ways are architectural subjects by Rousseau flanked by carved swags by John Le Sage; the overmantel (Plate 103) has carved swags at the sides; the fireplace and fire-back are similar to those in the last room; on the E. wall is a rose-coloured damask and velvet tester with the crowned initials of William III and the royal arms and badges. The Guard Room is lined in its lower part by bolection-moulded panelling and in the upper with military accoutrements arranged in patterns and divided into bays by pilasters formed of grouped lances; the wooden centre-pieces are carved with various devices, that over the fireplace has the star and garter and the initial W. and is by Gibbons; the fireplace has a veined marble surround; the S. door has a lock with the W. and M. monogram; in the W. wall is a doorway cut through a Tudor window. The Cartoon Gallery (Plate 94) occupies the N. side of the range towards Fountain Court and was built between 1693 and 1699 to house Raphael's cartoons; these are now at the Victoria and Albert Museum and have been replaced by copies executed in 17th-century Brussels tapestry; the N. wall is divided into bays by Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature; the windows have enriched architraves; the S. wall is divided into bays by coupled Corinthian pilasters supporting entablatures but only the cornice is continued along the rest of the wall; the lower part has bolection-moulded panelling and there are two doorways (one sham) in this wall and two in the end walls, with enriched architraves and carved friezes; the E. door has a lock with the W.R. monogram; the fire-place has a surround of coloured marble with black marble side-pieces with metal brackets and masks supporting a black marble shelf; below the shelf is a white marble panel (Plate 105) carved by John Nost with a figure-subject of Venus with amorini; the fire-back (Plate 109) has a figure-subject, probably Charity; flanking the tapestry above the fireplace are two large carved pendants of fruit and flowers; the wood-carving in this room is by Gibbons. The two rooms to the W. have bolection-moulded panelling; the Ante-room has a groined plaster vault and the Warders' Mess Room has a fireplace with a stone surround and the door has a lock with the W.M.R. monogram. The Communication Gallery, over the W. alley of Fountain Court, is lined with bolection-moulded panelling with an enriched cornice and architraves; the doors have locks with the W.M.R. monogram; the fireplace, by John Nost, has a veined marble surround; the fire-back has the arms and initials of James II and the date 1687. The minor staircases in the Fountain Court block are nine in number; the majority of these have ornamental wrought-iron balustrades (Plate 107) with simple scrolls; the less important staircases have balustrades of plain bar type and W. of the Queen's staircase is one with turned wooden balusters of c. 1700. All the larger state apartments on the first floor are carried up into the mezzanine-floor above, but elsewhere this mezzanine contains rooms. These rooms and those on the top floor of the block form private apartments; most of them have fireplaces with bolection-moulded stone surrounds; a number of rooms are fitted with panelling, either plain or bolection-moulded and others have panelled dadoes; one room of the mezzanine, N.E. of Chocolate Court, has an iron fire-back with a representation of the Royal Oak and the initials C.R.
The Round Kitchen Court is flanked on the W. by the Watching Chamber, on the N. and E. by cloister walks and on the S. by the Queen's Staircase; the W. side has already been described; the S. side is mainly of Tudor brickwork much altered, heightened and partly re-built when the Queen's Staircase was built. The N. and E. sides with the galleries over are the work of Wolsey; they are of red brick with diapering and are finished with modern embattled parapets; the windows of the alleys and galleries above are of restored Tudor type with four-centred heads to the lights and transoms; one of those on the N. is built in the blocking of a larger Tudor window of which part of the W. splay remains; in the N.W. angle of the court is a small projecting wing of slightly later date than the rest and having restored Tudor windows. The S. side retains some original Tudor windows, some of them wholly or partly blocked, but the part of the walling to the E. is entirely of Wren's work. The N. alley of the cloister retains an original Tudor window in the N. wall; at the W. end of the S. wall is an original doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the adjoining wall of the wine-cellar is cut back to avoid the door-jamb, indicating that the doorway is earlier than Henry VIII's work; this cloister is continued under the N. end of the Watching Chamber, the side walls of which are carried on two four-centred arches of stone; in the N. wall of this continuation are an original Tudor doorway and window; high in the same wall is the six-light window of the Watching Chamber. In the added wing in the N.W. angle of the court is a partition of 16th-century panelling. The Gallery above the N. cloister is approached by a staircase on the N. with original windows and has a 17th or 18th-century opening in the W. wall and to the N. of it is part of the moulded jamb and head of a Tudor doorway; in the N. wall is an original Tudor window of four transomed lights; the Gallery and that on the E. of the court contain a series of early 16th-century Flemish tapestries representing the history of Dido and Aeneas; the subjects are—(a) the arrival of Aeneas reported to Dido; (b) Aeneas relating his adventures to Dido; (c) Aeneas meeting his mother Venus; (d) Aeneas leaving Carthage, and (e) Aeneas' fleet scattered by Neptune.
The Chapel Royal (Plate 116) was built by Wolsey, but was considerably altered and enriched by Henry VIII in 1535–6; it was remodelled and redecorated by Wren for Queen Anne, and was restored in 1845–7; the windows were renewed on the Tudor lines in 1894. The building consists of the chapel proper (60 ft. by 34 ft.) and an ante-chapel of two storeys (52 ft. by 40 ft.); the walls are of red brick with diapering and stone dressings and are finished with an 18th-century embattled parapet. The chapel has four modern windows in the N. and two in the S. wall; the two E. bays on this side formerly had windows and one of these, now blocked, can be seen on the outward side; it is original and of four cinque-foiled and transomed lights in a four-centred head; the second bay now has an opening to the organ-chamber. The Tudor roof of the chapel (Plate 115) is in four bays and of hammer-beam type, ceiled below the main arches and coffered between them in the form of a fan-vault; each truss has a central pendant carved with four angels holding sceptres and palms and below the side-posts are pendants each carved with four angels leaning over an embattled parapet and playing pipes; in the middle of each bay, between the trusses, is a smaller pendant with four angels singing from scrolls of music; from each pendant spring moulded ribs dividing the whole ceiling into panelled fan-vaulting in wood; the wall-spandrels above the windows are carved with the Tudor royal arms and badges including the rose, portcullis and fleurs-de-lis; the trusses rest on stone corbels with cherub-heads carved by Grinling Gibbons and the upper part carved with original Renaissance scroll-work continued along the wall-face and over the windows. The E. wall is largely covered by the oak reredos (Plate 116) of Wren's design; the central feature has coupled and fluted Corinthian columns and pilasters supporting entablatures and a carved pediment with cherub-heads in the angles of the tympanum; at a lower level an enriched entablature is carried across the E. wall between the groups of columns and supports carved scrolls flanking the central feature; in the latter above this entablature is an oval panel with acanthus-enrichment, cherub-heads and festoons; in the side bays are niches with carved foliage above. The side walls have early 18th-century panelling, finished with an enriched entablature below the window-sills; in it are two doorways with enriched entablatures and pediments and panelled doors; the entablature of the panelling is continued across the W. end on Doric columns supporting the panelled front of the royal pew; this has three openings to the chapel; the side openings are square-headed, but the middle opening has an elliptical head surmounted by the royal arms of Queen Anne after the Union, and cornucopiæ. The walls of the chapel above the panelling have early 18th-century painted decoration; this consists of angels and a crown on the E. wall, the royal arms of Queen Anne, badges, crown, star and garter, initials and motto on the side walls and on the W. wall a painted canopy held up by angels and three angels holding a wreath with the monogram A.R.; the blocked window in the S. wall is painted to represent a window with an architectural landscape in the background. Besides those described above, the chapel contains the following fittings all of early 18th-century date. The Communion Table has twisted legs and moulded rails. The Communion Rails (Plate 106) have carved and twisted balusters, panelled standards and moulded rails; the early to mid 17th-century rails (Plate 106) are preserved in the cellar under the Hall; they have carved standards and elaborate pierced panels with vases of fruit, putti and the crowned initial C. The Organ was made by Christopher Schrider; it stands in a gallery in the second bay of the S. side; the gallery has a panelled front and the organ-case has three towers for pipes with entablatures and pierced carving at the top and brackets with cherub-heads below; between the towers are curved ramps and pierced carving; the lower part of the case is panelled. The Pavement is of black and white marble hexagons and triangles. The Plate (Plate 23) includes a cup and cover-paten of 1668, an alms-dish of the same date and two flagons of 1687; the paten bears the W. and M.R. monogram and the other pieces the same monogram and the royal arms. The two Rain-water Heads on the N. wall have the date 1711 and the initials of Queen Anne. The Seating includes seventeen benches with turned legs and two rows of panelled pews against the side walls and returned at the W. end.
The Ante-chapel has restored windows in the N., S. and E. walls; it is entered on the W. by a much restored Tudor doorway (Plate 122) with moulded, shafted and panelled jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head; flanking the head, outside, are two carved and painted stone panels (Plate 122) with shields of the royal arms of Henry VIII and the same arms impaling Seymour, the initials H. and I., the royal motto and two standing angels supporting the crown above each shield; it is possible that these panels formerly bore the arms of Wolsey as the arms are painted and not carved and the only reference to them in the accounts is to the crowns and the painting of the arms; the early 18th-century internal door-case is panelled and has Doric pilasters supporting an entablature with cherub-heads, cornucopia and crown. The ante-chapel is divided into three aisles by two rows of early 18th-century fluted Doric columns of oak with semi-columns against the walls as responds; these support panelled ceiling-beams; the walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling; in the S.W. angle is the early 18th-century staircase (Plate 106) to the royal pew; the two lower flights are enclosed below the stair by panelling and the upper flight has a panelled soffit; the balusters are symmetrically turned and the newels are panelled. The ceiling over the staircase and the room to the E. is Tudor and is divided into panels by moulded ribs with pendants at intervals; high up in the W. wall are two Tudor windows of four lights. The central entrance to the royal pew from the gallery has an 18th-century architrave and panelled doors; flanking it are two doorways with Tudor rear-arches; that on the S. is now blocked, but the other is fitted with an early 18th-century door, the lock of which has the monogram A.G.R. Henry VIII's Holy Day Closet occupies the N. part of the upper floor of the ante-chapel; the early 18th-century fireplace has a moulded surround and a fire-back with amorini; further W. is a blocked Tudor doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the walls have plain panelling and above it are two early 16th-century tapestries; one is a Romance subject of uncertain attribution and the second represents the death of Hercules; the first is Flemish and the second Franco-Flemish. The floor of this chamber has been lowered. The Royal Pew is lined with early 18th-century panelling and over the central compartment is a ceiling painted with cherubs, the quarters of the royal arms and swags.
The Chapel Court has the chapel on the S. and ranges of building on the other three sides. The E. range (Plate 114) is buttressed and of three storeys with a modern embattled parapet; the block is of early 16th-century date, but the top storey on the W. has been re-built in the 18th century; the windows are all of late 17th or 18th-century date, and on each side of the range is a 17th-century doorway with rusticated jambs and head surmounted by a small window with flanking scrolls and a cornice. The buttresses on the E. face are surmounted by semi-octagonal stone shafts perhaps once supporting carved beasts; the N.E. angle-turret is embattled and supports an original lead cupola (Plate 112), similar to that on the S. range of Clock Court. The rooms in this range have some early 18th-century fireplaces with stone surrounds, but most of the panelling and dados appear to be of later 18th-century date. The N. range of Chapel Court is of three storeys with a modern embattled parapet; it projects beyond the E. range; the lower part of the range is of Tudor brickwork, but the top storey is a rebuilding of the 18th century; the small projection in the N.E. angle of the court is built against one of the earlier buttresses of the E. range. The S. face of the range retains some original Tudor windows, but most of the windows have been renewed on the old lines; the projecting part, beyond the E. range, has an original Tudor bay-window; the N. face also retains some original Tudor windows, including those in the ground floor of the projecting bay and a transomed window on the first floor; E. of this bay is a late 17th or early 18th-century doorway with rusticated jambs and round head; it cuts into a Tudor window of which one light survives; the range terminates on the N.W. in an octagonal Tudor turret, re-built above the second floor level. The rooms in this range have some 18th-century panelling and fireplaces with stone or marble surrounds. The W. range of Chapel Court is of three storeys, the two lower of Tudor brickwork, and the top storey modern; the windows are of Tudor type and several are original.
The long range of building fronting on Tennis Court Lane between the N. range of Chapel Court and the N. range of the Lord Chamberlain's Court, was mainly devoted to kitchens and offices; it is flanked on the S. by the Great Hall Court and by the Master Carpenter's Court and encloses three small courts. The front to the N. consists of three main blocks or ranges; the easternmost of these adjoins the N. range of Chapel Court and contains the easternmost kitchen; this is of one tall storey with two projecting Tudor chimney-stacks; the E. stack has setbacks to the E. and W. and two embattled offsets on the N. face; the W. stack has been removed above the eaves-level. The front to the E. and W. of this kitchen has been re-built in modern times, the block to the N. having been largely destroyed by fire in 1886. On the S. side, the kitchen has three Tudor transomed windows, the middle one of four and the others of three lights; the building to the W. is modern. Inside the kitchen the N. wall has two large Tudor fireplaces (Plate 118) with chamfered jambs and four-centred arches; in the E. wall are two serving-hatches with oak frames and now blocked; further S. is a Tudor doorway with a four-centred head. The central block fronting Tennis Court Lane includes the three great Kitchens and the Serving Place; the last named, with the easternmost kitchen, were probably built by Henry VIII, but the other two kitchens are rather earlier and are probably Wolsey's work. The N. front is of Tudor brickwork, the kitchens being of one tall storey and the Serving Place of two with attics; the kitchens have three large projecting chimney-stacks (Plate 75) with a stepped and embattled offset at about half their height and modern ornamental shafts; the embattled offset is continued at a lower level along the blocking between the shafts; the windows are of restored Tudor form. The two E. kitchens are both open to the roof, but the westernmost has been cut up into rooms; they have a continuous roof of which portions only are of Tudor date; the surviving trusses have heavy tie-beams with curved braces and spring from moulded stone corbels. The E. kitchen has a large fire-place (Plate 119) in the N. wall with a joggled four-centred arch of stone and a segmental-pointed relieving arch of brick above; this fireplace has a smaller and later fireplace with a segmental head inserted in it; further W. is a recess or small fireplace with a four-centred head which has been later reduced in size, keeping the same form; adjoining it is a Tudor doorway opening into the small chamber between the stacks. In the S. wall are two Tudor fireplaces (Plate 119); the larger has a four-centred joggled arch of stone with the keystone carried up to form the key also of the brick relieving arch; the smaller fireplace to the E. has a plain four-centred arch of stone with a brick relieving arch. The E. wall is a Tudor insertion as it overlaps the four-centred entrance-archway (now blocked) in the N. wall; it has a Tudor doorway and two serving-hatches (Plate 112) with oak frames moulded on the outward side; the shutters are of horizontal battens and are hung at the top on strap-hinges. Between this kitchen and the next are two Tudor doorways and a blocked archway. The middle and western kitchens originally formed one room but are now divided by an 18th-century wall. The middle kitchen has a large N. fireplace (Plate 118) with a four-centred arch of stone and a relieving-arch; it has a smaller fireplace inserted in it with an oven; the oven has a flat dome of tiles. In the kitchen is a collection of stonework from various parts of the building and a series of carved bosses with Tudor badges from the ceiling of the Watching Chamber. The western kitchen has a N. fireplace generally similar to that in the middle kitchen but fitted with an 18th-century and modern range; there is a similar fireplace in the W. wall, now cut up by partitions; in the S. wall is a central opening, now blocked but possibly a former serving-hatch. In a room in the inserted upper floor of this kitchen is some early 16th-century linen-fold panelling and a ceiling (Plate 112) generally uniform with that in Wolsey's Closet and not in situ; the ribs of the ceiling are largely modern and the Tudor badges do not include the Prince of Wales' feathers. The Serving Place, E. of the kitchens, has a restored Tudor window of seven lights in the N. wall with old ironwork; in the E. wall are three Tudor doorways and a serving-hatch similar to those in the opposite wall; at the S. end are two restored Tudor arches opening into the cloister and with a relieving-arch above. The rooms, to the E. of the Serving Place, retain some Tudor windows towards the courtyard beyond and a Tudor turret projecting into Tennis Court Lane. Between the kitchens and the cloister are two small Tudor wings, of two storeys, divided by a court; the eastern has two Tudor doorways and two hatches opening into the Serving Place and towards the courtyard are two crow-stepped gables; the western wing retains some Tudor windows on the E. and W. sides and a Tudor doorway in the E. wall. The Cloister (Plate 113), on the S. of these wings, forms a continuation of the N. alley of the cloister of Round Kitchen Court; it is crossed by Tudor arches, mostly restored, opposite the staircases to the Great Hall, and in the S. wall are four Tudor windows, each of four lights, opening on to Great Hall Court; they retain some pierced lead ventilation panels which may be original; those found elsewhere in the palace are mostly modern copies; at the W. end of the cloister is a Tudor doorway and two Tudor windows, wholly or partly blocked. The Range of building, W. of the Great Kitchens, is of three storeys and is finished, towards Tennis Court Lane and the courts at the back, with a series of gables; this range seems to have formed part of Wolsey's first work and to have contained the Fish Kitchen, Bake House and other offices; the range at the back is probably a later Tudor addition. The windows and doorways are mostly modern restorations on Tudor lines; the brickwork of the N. wall has a large cross in black bricks. The two bays immediately W. of the great kitchens formed smaller kitchens, probably for fish; the dividing wall may, however, be a later insertion; the E. fireplace has a wide four-centred arch of stone and later filling; the W. fireplace is similar, but has an oven opening from the N. jamb; the fireplace now forms a cupboard. In the next bay but one the splays of the ground-floor windows have late 16th-century inscriptions. The adjoining bay to the W. seems to have had a pair of great fireplaces in the W. wall, now partly filled in; at the back of them was a series of large ovens, now removed. The range retains remains of its original roofs and the rooms have some 18th-century fittings. Projecting into Master Carpenter's Court is an L-shaped Tudor wing of brick with some diapering; the windows and doorways are mostly modern restorations; the lower wing to the E., and flanking Fish Court on the S., is also of Tudor date but was formerly only an outbuilding and has been fitted up as apartments only in recent times; the N. wall has been entirely refaced. The range between the Master Carpenter's Court and the Lord Chamberlain's Court formed part of Wolsey's first work and is of brick with some diapering. The gateway through it has restored Tudor arches; the windows also have been mostly renewed.
The subsidiary buildings of the palace include the Bridge, Tennis Court, Lower Orangery, Banqueting House, the tower in the Tilt Yard, the Wilderness House and the Barracks.
The Bridge (Plate 74) crosses the moat immediately in front of the W. gateway of the Base Court. It is a stone-faced structure of four spans with a modern parapet and pinnacles. It was built by Henry VIII and the masonry has numerous masons' marks. The arches are four-centred and of one chamfered order with soffit-ribs and spring from piers with cut-waters; the latter are sloped back at the springing-level and support semi-octagonal pilasters. The moat was filled in and the bridge buried until 1909–10, when the bridge was again uncovered and the parapet with carved beasts added. The retaining wall of the moat is of Tudor brickwork with a stair down to the moat-level near the S. end.
The Tennis Court was built by Henry VIII in 1529, but the upper part seems to have been re-built in the 18th century; the lower part is of Tudor brick and had buttresses on both sides, but those on the W. have been renewed; the upper part has 18th-century windows, replacing earlier windows of pointed oval form. The court itself (124 ft. by 39 ft.) has modern fittings; at the N. end is a much altered residence, formerly that of the Master of the Tennis Court; at the S. end is a two-storeyed annexe with a late 17th-century staircase; it has symmetrically turned balusters, moulded rails and square newels with ball-terminals. Connecting the Tennis Court with the N.E. angle of the palace is a long corridor or gallery of Tudor date; the upper storey is probably a 17th-century remodelling or addition altered in the reign of George III. The lower part of the E. wall is of Tudor brick up to a straight joint near the S. end which marks the site of a former octagonal turret removed in Wren's alterations. At the N. end of the gallery is a two-storeyed lodging of late 17th-century brickwork but representing an earlier feature; the lower porch on its E. side was removed in 1699.
The Lower Orangery, in front of the S. range of the Base Court, is said to have been built by Queen Anne. It is a one-storeyed building of brick with red brick dressings and has a slate-covered roof. In the S. front are twenty-one square-headed openings, of which three are doorways and the rest sash-windows with stone seats outside and wooden seats inside. The walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling with a plaster cornice below the flat ceiling; the windows have panelled shutters; the two rooms at the W. end have similar panelling. The Orangery now contains the Mantegna cartoons of the Triumph of Cæsar, formerly in the Communication Gallery.
The Banqueting House stands in the gardens to the S. of the Base Court. It is a two-storeyed building of brick erected c. 1700 by Sir Christopher Wren on the site of a Tudor building. It has red brick quoins and an embattled parapet. The N.E. front is of one storey only and in front of it is a paved terrace with stone walls and wrought-iron balustrade. The house has a central doorway of stone with an eared architrave, side-brackets, frieze, cornice and broken pediment enclosing a woman's bust in bronze; flanking the doorway are windows with flat heads. The other elevations have segmental-headed windows to the lower floor and flat-headed windows above. The main or upper floor contains the Banquet Room on the S.W. side; it has a low panelled dado and the windows and doorways have enriched architraves; the fireplace (Plate 117) has a white marble surround with an enriched mirror above. The ceiling (Plate 124) has a large oval painting, probably by Verrio, representing Minerva with the Arts and Sciences; at either end are cartouches with the monogram W.R. and in the spandrels is scroll-work; the walls have painted panels with mythological subjects including— (a) Jupiter and Juno; (b) Bacchus and Ariadne; (c) Diana and her nymphs; (d) Mercury and Maia (?); (e) Apollo and Daphne; (f) Io (?) and Mercury; (g) Pan; (h) Terpsichore (?); (i) Hebe (?); Venus (?); (j) Clytie; (k) Narcissus; (l) Alpheus and Arethusa (?); (m) Cupid and Psyche (?); and (n) Venus and Cupid (?). The passage-room has two walls lined with bolection-moulded panelling; the fireplace has a veined marble surround with a mirror and an enriched cornice and shelves above. The adjoining passage has similar panelling and two doors with shell scutcheons bearing the W.M. monogram. The other rooms originally formed one apartment, and have bolection-moulded panelling, a cornice and a coved ceiling; the fireplace has a veined marble surround and a panelled overmantel. The lower floor has been considerably altered; the room in the N. angle has a groined vault, and in the front wall is a Tudor doorway, part of an earlier building.
The Tower in the Tilt Yard, to the N. of the palace, is a building of three storeys with an embattled parapet; it was built probably by Henry VIII as one of the towers surrounding the Tilt Yard, of which all the others have been destroyed. It is a square structure with a projecting wing on the N. and indications of former projections or bays on the E. and S.; the walls are of red brick with cheverons and a cross in diapering. In the W. wall is a 17th-century stone doorway with an eared architrave and entablature.
The Wilderness House, at the N.W. corner of the Wilderness, is of two storeys with basement and attics; the walls are of brick with red brick dressings. It was built early in the 18th century and has sash-windows and an eaves-cornice. The doorways have flat hoods. The interior retains some early 18th-century panelling and the staircase has turned balusters and moulded strings and rails.
The Barracks flank the N. side of the approach to the W. front of the palace. The building is of two storeys, the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built under Charles II and extended to the W. under William III and is now fitted up as dwellings. The front has red brick dressings, an eaves-cornice and two ranges of windows, the lower with segmental and the upper with square heads; all have solid frames with mullion and transom; there were similar windows at the back but some are blocked and others altered; the later extension is generally similar but rather higher. The ground floor originally formed six great rooms divided by chimney-stacks with fireplaces in each face; two of these were uncovered in 1936 and have three-centred arches of brick, with later arches inserted below. The roof is of king-post type but of uncertain age.
The various Gardens surround the palace on all sides, with Bushy Park to the N. and the Home Park to the E. The gardens and enclosures to the N. and S. of the palace still bear some relationship to the lay-out of the Tudor gardens and in places retain Tudor walling. The canal in the Home Park was laid out under Charles II, but it was shortened at the W. end when the gardens in general were remodelled under William III and the Fountain Garden and the Broad Walk laid out.
The Broad Walk runs along the E. front of the palace and beyond the main building it is bounded on the W. by a garden-wall of Wren's design; this has piers of banded brick and stone at intervals and three gates; the gates have panelled stone piers with enriched cappings, consoles and vases; at the N. end of the Walk is the Flower Pot Gate; this gate has stone piers with shell-headed niches and the royal arms of William III; the cappings are enriched and support metal groups of putti carrying baskets of fruit and flowers; the carving is by John Nost and of 1699–1700. The garden-wall is continued to the E. along the Kingston Road; in it is an alcove with three niches flanked by a doorway and further E. two niches with shell-heads, opposite the end of the canal. This canal bounds the Fountain Garden on the E. and forms a large hemi-cycle in the middle with a fountain near its centre; the garden retains a number of ornaments including figures of Hercules and the Nemean lion (Plate 93) and a group of three boys (Plate 93), both in foreign stone, perhaps Italian breccia; to the E. is a bronze casting, probably modern, of the heart-memorial of Henry II of France, now in the Louvre, with figures of the three Graces; there are also various pedestals and urns (Plate 110). The canal is crossed by two modern bridges on the far side of which are wrought-iron gates (Plate 120); these form part of the late 17th-century ornamental iron enclosure or screen by Jean Tijou, the rest of which has been removed, reassembled and re-erected at the end of the Privy Garden; this ironwork cost £2,160; the gates consist of a central and two side openings with standards of scrolled ironwork and scrolled overthrows; the middle overthrow has or had the crowned initials W. and M.R. (replaced by the initials E.R. VII on the N.E. gate); the main gates themselves have scroll-work and plate-foliage; the side gates are comparatively plain. On the S. front of the Wren block of the palace is a terrace entered by one of the gates on the Broad Walk and having a similar gate at the W. end; on it are two lead vases (Plate 110) and a marble baluster-pedestal (Plate 110) with the initials W.R. and a sundial by Thomas Tompion. The Privy Garden terminates towards the S. in a series of curves, fenced with wrought iron (Plate 121); this fencing incorporates the twelve ornamental panels with their standards of Tijou's work, formerly by the semi-circular canal and erected here in 1902; the panels have elaborate scrolled work and foliage with the royal monogram and badges; the standards have scrolled filling and cresting; the ironwork has been partly restored. A late 17th-century wall divides the Privy Garden from the Tudor Gardens to the W. Of these the Sunk Garden, with a central oval fountain, is said to date from Tudor times but was remodelled by William III; some part of the terracewalling may date from the 16th century; in the garden is a lead statue of Venus and four small putti; in the garden S. of the Lower Orangery is a lead cistern with the initials M.M. and crowns and the date 1700. Dividing the Tudor gardens from those attached to the Banqueting House is a Tudor wall with the bases of former pinnacles on the coping; in it is a series of inserted windows of c. 1700, of former outbuildings. The ground and gardens to the N. of the palace include a number of enclosures. The Works Yard adjoins Tennis Court Lane on the N.; it was formerly the Melon Ground and towards the E. end was the bowlingalley, destroyed in the 18th century; the buildings round it are mostly modern except the Tennis Court, already described, and an 18th-century tower or pavilion incorporated in the workshops to the N.W. The Wilderness, to the N. of the Works Yard, was laid out geometrically late in the 17th century, but of this only the Maze remains; this forms a flattened triangle on the N. side of the enclosure and is formed of box-hedges. A plan of 1736 indicates that the moat of the palace then ran along the S. side of the Wilderness. The Lion Gates (Plate 120) on the N. side of the Wilderness, formed Wren's main entrance to the palace; the stone piers have a pair of fluted and enriched Doric columns on the N. and S. faces, with enriched entablatures; between the columns are panels with carved cartouches bearing the monogram A.R. and pendants; the piers are surmounted by carved pedestals supporting seated lions; the iron gates resemble the Tijou gates but bear the monogram G.R. Between the Wilderness and the Tilt Yard Gardens on the W. is a buttressed Tudor wall with the base-stones of former pinnacles on the coping; towards the S. end is a gateway of c. 1700 with brick piers. The dividing walls of the Tilt Yard Gardens are of 18th-century date. The Trophy Gates, forming the W. entrance to the palace, bear the arms of George II, but may, in part, be of earlier date.
The wall bounding the Home Park on the N. is partly of Tudor date, with diapering including a cross. On the S.W. side of the Home Park, by the river, was the former Bowling Green. It was originally flanked by four pavilions, only one of which now remains, and is fitted up as a residence. It is a brick building of two storeys with cellars and attics and was erected c. 1700. The walls are of purple brick with stone quoins and an eaves-cornice with lead urns at the angles. Inside the building are some original doors fitted with scutcheons with the W.R. monogram; the panelling is mainly of later 18th-century date; there are two old firebacks, one with the Royal Oak and the initials C.R. and the other with a figure of Hope. The early 18th-century staircase has turned balusters and moulded rails.
The Diana Fountain (Plate 93) now forms the centrepiece of the round basin in the middle of the Chestnut Avenue in Bushy Park. It formerly stood in the Privy Garden, but was removed to its present site and repaired in 1712–3. The original fountain was probably erected by Charles I and is said by Evelyn to have been the work of F. Fanelli. It now stands on a rusticated stone base with scrolled brackets dating from 1712. The original structure is of marble and consists of a central pedestal with four carved and scrolled supports on each of which is a seated amorino holding a fish; between the supports are four subsidiary projections each supporting a bronze sea-nymph astride a dolphin. The top of the pedestal sets back in a concave curve, finished with a cornice and plinth, on which stands the large bronze figure generally called Diana but possibly intended for Arethusa.
Condition—Good, in charge of H.M. Office of Works.
(3) The Royal Mews, on the S.W. side of the Green ¼ m. N.W. of the Palace, form a courtyard block with a long barn to the N.W. The main building is of two storeys; the walls are of red brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built shortly before the middle of the 16th century, but the interior was altered late in the 17th century and there are modern modifications, including the formation of garages and the division of the upper floor into tenements. The external elevations retain a number of windows of Tudor form with four-centred heads to the lights, but these have all been restored except for one on the S.E. side; on the same side is a two-light window of c. 1700. A number of other windows are of late 17th-century date with solid frames. The N.E. front has a gable at each end and a partly restored central archway with double-chamfered jambs, four-centred arch and label. The back has two similar gables and a central gabled projection, but much of the walling is modern. In the courtyard (Plate 35) are a number of windows and doorways of Tudor form but almost all modern restoration. The inner archway on the N.E. has jambs and four-centred arch of two chamfered orders. In two angles of the courtyard are turret-staircases. On the N.W. side is a cross in black brick diapering. Inside the building, the N.W. range retains a late 17th-century timber arcade (Plate 35) opening into the former stalls; the posts are in the form of columns and support elliptical arches with key-blocks. On the first floor is some 18th-century panelling and the S. staircase has a late 17th century balustrade at the top, with heavy turned balusters.
The Barn (Plate 35) was built in 1570 and has now been partitioned off and divided into two storeys; it is of red brick with a tiled roof. It seems formerly to have been of fourteen bays, but the two southernmost bays were cut off at some period and the front wall of this portion was refaced in the 18th century. The N.E. front has a central brick archway with jambs and half-round arch of one chamfered and one moulded order; it is now blocked; above it is a stone panel with the inscription "Elizabethe Regina 1570." Most of the original round-headed loop-lights, in two tiers, remain both on this side and at the back. The roof is largely original and has trusses of king-post type with two subsidiary ties and vertical framing.
(4) Faraday House and outbuilding, 70 yards S.E. of (3). The House is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century but has been extensively altered and the W. corner seems to have been re-built late in the 18th century. The original windows are square-headed and there is an eaves-cornice to the front. Inside the building the original staircase (Plate 39) has turned balusters, square newels and close strings. The hall and staircase are panelled, as are some of the upper rooms. In the kitchen is an original dresser. The Outbuilding, S. of the house, is timber-framed and of late 16th or 17th-century date.
(5) Court Cottage, immediately S.E. of (4), is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1700, but the front has a later parapet and the back has been refaced. The front doorway has a flat hood on carved brackets. Inside the building is some original bolection-moulded panelling and the lower staircase is also original; it has turned balusters and close strings.
(6) The Old Court House (Plate 32), immediately S.E. of (5), is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century and was leased in 1708 to Sir Christopher Wren. A large bay-window and a rectangular projection have been added in front, the back refaced and the house otherwise altered. Most of the front has been covered by these additions but was finished with a modillioned eaves-cornice, continued along the later work. Inside the building, the Dining Room is lined with original panelling and has a fireplace with a moulded surround of white marble. Two other rooms have fireplaces with stone surrounds. In the back hall is a late 17th-century door-case, brought from a destroyed house on the site of the Port of London building on Tower Hill; there is also a balustrade of twisted balusters, brought from elsewhere. The 18th-century staircase has symmetrically turned balusters.
(7) The Green (Plate 32), house immediately S.E. of (6), is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century, but a large bay-window has been added in front. The front has a band between the storeys and an eaves-cornice; the pitch of the roof has been lowered. Inside the building is some original panelling also some doors and cornices. The secondary staircase is original and has twisted balusters and close strings; the main staircase incorporates old material.
(8) Palace Gate House (Plate 32), forming a continuation of (7), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built at the same time and is of similar character to (7).
(9) House, two tenements, 25 yards S. of (4), is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and timber-framing and the roofs are tiled. It forms an L-shaped block and some curved wind-braces in the N.E. wing may indicate that it was built in the 16th century; it was partly refaced c. 1700 and reconditioned later in the 18th century. Inside the building is some 18th-century panelling incorporating a little 17th-century work.
(10) Old Place, house on the N.E. side of the Green ¼ m. N. of the bridge, is of two storeys with cellars and attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century but has added side wings and a modern corridor along the front. Above this the front has square-headed windows and a modillioned eaves-cornice. The back wall incorporates part of the Tudor boundary-wall of the park. Inside the building is some 18th-century panelling and some of the plaster-work may be of the same date; the original staircase has turned balusters, square newels and close strings.
(11) Stables, at Upper Lodge in Bushy Park 1½ m. N.N.W. of the palace, are of two storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. The house, re-built early in the 19th century, seems to have been that re-built or enlarged by Lord Halifax early in the 18th century. The stables, W. of the house, are of this period and form a rectangular block with a hipped roof; the W. front has dormer-windows and a central feature with two round-headed archways, windows above and a pediment. The back elevation has been more altered but has a central pediment. The Garden, to the E., has late 17th or early 18th-century walls; the entrance on the N. has brick piers with moulded stone cappings.
(12) Old Malt or Brew House, 170 yards S.W. of (11), is of two storeys; the walls are of brick and the hipped roof is tiled. It was built c. 1700 and has segmental-headed windows with solid frames and a wooden eaves-cornice.
(13) St. Albans, house on the river-bank ¼ m. E.S.E. of the church, is of four storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are slate-covered. It is said to have been built for Nell Gwyn or for the first Duke of St. Albans and part of the W. end of the house may be of the later 17th century. It was extensively altered and added to in the 18th century and more recent times and all the decorative features are of these dates except the late 17th-century panelling in the Drawing Room and the linen-fold panelling with heads in the Dining Room; the former is said to have come from the city of London and the latter from Deene Park, Northants.
(14) Old Grange (Plate 26), house on the E. side of Church Street 70 yards N.E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics; the walls are brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 17th century but has been considerably altered. The W. front has two shaped gables. Inside the building are two fireplaces with early 18th-century stone surrounds and a staircase with turned balusters, of the same date. On the first floor is an early to mid 17th-century fireplace (Plate 36) and overmantel with fluted pilasters flanking the opening and similar pilasters dividing and flanking the two bays of the overmantel and supporting an enriched entablature; the bays have each an arched panel with enrichments.
(15) Orme House (Plate 34), immediately N. of (14), is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century and has recently been restored. The front is symmetrically designed, with bands between the storeys, a modillioned eaves-cornice and a central pediment, said to have come from Putney; the doorway has Doric side pilasters and a flat hood resting on carved brackets said to have come from Salisbury. Inside the building, much of the original panelling is retained and two rooms have original marble surrounds to the fireplaces; a third marble surround has been brought from elsewhere. The original staircase (Plate 39) has close strings and turned balusters but those to the lower flights are modern copies.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of late 17th or early 18th-century date and of two storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs and tiled.
Condition—Good or fairly good.
(16) The Grove, house 360 yards N.N.E. of (15), is of two storeys with attics. The doorway has flanking pilasters and a flat hood on scrolled brackets. Inside the building is a partition of moulded battens, and two fireplaces have original moulded surrounds.
(17) Feathers Cottage on the N. side of Thames Street, 60 yards E. of the church, was built probably late in the 16th or early in the 17th century and formed the middle block of a larger building. It is timber-framed and inside the building some of the heavy curved braces of the ceiling-beams are exposed. The roof is of queen-post type with wind-braces.
(18) Cottage (Plate 27), with shop No. 10 Thames Street, 50 yards W. of the church.
(19) House (Plate 27), two tenements and shops Nos. 14 and 16, W. of (18).
(20) House, No. 20, 70 yards W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. The front has a band between the storeys and an eaves-cornice.
(21) House with shop, No. 5 on the W. side of High Street 120 yards W. of the church, retains an original staircase with turned balusters and close strings.
(22) Thames Valley Cottage, 80 yards N.N.E. of (21), is partly timber-framed and was built in the 17th century.
(23) Castle House, 30 yards N.W. of (22), has an added front block and has been extensively altered.