Ancient and Historical Monuments in the City of Salisbury. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1977.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. All rights reserved.
(3) The Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury (Plates 32–35) stands in a churchyard between the Market Place and the R. Avon. The walls are partly of ashlar and partly of flint and rubble with ashlar dressings; in places they are rendered; occasionally brickwork has been used for repairs. The roofs are lead-covered. (fn. 1)
There is no mention of St. Thomas's in Bishop Richard Poore's grant of 1228 and presumably it was at that time numbered among the churches and chapels to be built (ecclesias et capellas constructas et construendas) in Salisbury, but ten years later a chapel is spoken of and in 1248 'the church of St. Thomas of Sarum' is mentioned. (fn. 2) About 1448 the chancel collapsed; a document of that date records its length as 40 ft., 4 ins. (fn. 3) The present Chancel, rebuilt soon after 1448 to the original width, but extending further W. than the recorded length, retains at the E. end a weathered ashlar plinth, a stretch of flint walling and two small ashlar buttresses, all of 13th-century origin. Arcaded corbel-tables of 13th-century style now seen in the N. and S. chapels are at too low a level to be in situ. Their unworn condition shows that they have been protected from the weather since an early date, probably by the roofs of added aisles; after 1448 they were reused as internal corbels to support the chapel roofs. There is some reason to think that the 13th-century church was cruciform (plan, p. lii). The present chancel is just long enough to accommodate the original chancel together with a square crossing, suggesting that at the rebuilding of 1448 the former crossing was taken into the chancel. The respond, capital and springing of an early 14th-century arch, exposed by the removal of later masonry at the N.W. corner of the S. chapel, remain from an arch which spanned the presumed S. transept. Large archways at the W. ends of the N. and S. chapels have 14th-century responds. The arches have been rebuilt and the openings widened, but the 14th-century responds still remain, those on the outside re-sited to suit the width of the 15th-century chapels; originally it seems that these openings were in the W. walls of the transept. A 14th-century door jamb built into the S. wall of the S. chapel indicates the length of the former transept. The South Tower was being built in 1400; (fn. 4) its position suggests that plans had already been made for the widening of the nave. When the chancel was rebuilt after the disaster recorded in 1448 the roof of the North Chapel was provided by William Ludlow (fn. 5) and the South Chapel was rebuilt by William Swayne. (fn. 6) Also about the middle of the 15th century the Nave was rebuilt and lengthened westwards, perhaps extending over an area where there had formerly been a N.—S. thoroughfare, linking Castle Street and High Street. (fn. 7) Flanking the 15th-century nave are wide North and South Aisles, that on the S. extending to the tower so that the lowest storey of the tower forms a South Porch. On John Lyons's engraving dated 1745, (fn. 8) in which the ground plan of the church and two perspective views are presented, a N. doorway and porch are seen immediately opposite the S. tower; the porch is also seen in a drawing of 1805. (fn. 9) In 1835 the N. doorway was replaced by a window and the porch was demolished, leaving only the stair turret which had given access to a room over the porch. The three-storeyed Vestry wing was added early in the 16th century. Restorations in 1819 revealed a large 15th-century painting of the Last Judgement above the chancel arch. In 1865–70, under the direction of G.E. Street, the galleries were removed, the chancel was rearranged and new seating was provided. (fn. 10)
The nave and aisles afford a good example of medieval architecture at the beginning of its latest phase, with the masonry reduced as far as possible to tracery, whether glazed or blind. The highly enriched 15th-century timber roofs are noteworthy, and the contemporary 'Doom' painting is a rare survival.
Architectural Description — Below the 19th-century E. window the E. wall of the Chancel is faced with 13th century knapped flint interspersed with a few rough ashlar blocks. Most of the original ashlar plinth has a 15th-century moulded capping, but the steeply weathered 13th-century capping remains at each end. The corners of the chancel are defined by small 13th-century ashlar buttresses capped by 15th-century weathering. The E. window has five transomed lights with curvilinear tracery and is of the late 19th century. Benson & Hatcher (engraving opp. p. 588) show a four-light window with vertical tracery of 15th-century style, but John Buckler (1805) agrees with John Lyons in showing a five-light opening. (fn. 11) Above the window is a low 15th-century gable with a moulded string-course. The N. and S. sides of the chancel have uniform 15th-century arcades with moulded four-centred arches rising from piers and responds in which attached shafts with foliate capitals and moulded bases alternate with hollowchamfers. Some capitals have undercut carving with fruit, animals and birds as well as foliage; one on the S. has two shields charged with merchant's marks as illustrated: WL probably stands for William Lightfoot; (fn. 12) IW may be for John Wyot. Another capital has angels bearing a scroll inscribed 'Jhon Nichol John Nichol John the founder of this peler wt. a part of this arche & Jhne the wif of the seyde John' (Plates 35, 42). Above, each side of the chancel has six square-headed clearstorey windows, each with three trefoiled-headed lights; externally they have plain labels and between them are small weathered buttresses with diagonal pinnacles; Lyons's engraving of 1745 shows crocketed finials, but these have gone. The chancel arch is two-centred and of two orders, the inner order with ogee and roll-mouldings, the outer order with hollow-chamfers. The inner order springs from angel corbels. On the W. side the outer order continues on the responds; on the E. it dies into the N. and S. walls. Adjacent, in the S. wall of the chancel is the blocked square-headed upper doorway of a former rood-loft. A segmental-headed recess on the N., now blocked, may be associated with a former pulpit (Lyons's engraving).
The mid 15th-century roof of the chancel has seven stout moulded king-strut tie-beam trusses braced with moulded and traceried quadrant braces to oak wall-posts; these stand on carved stone corbels, two on the E. with crowned heads, two on the W. with shields, the others representing angels bearing musical instruments. The mouldings on the underside of the tie-beams continue on the braces. At the centre of each tie-beam is a carved wooden boss; one depicting a woman's head is probably 14th-century work and perhaps was salvaged from the earlier roof. The moulded principals support purlins and ridge-pieces and these carry hollow-chamfered rafters with run-out stops. Cusped tracery fills the spaces between the tie-beams and the principals.
The E. wall of the North Chapel is faced externally with ashlar chequered with knapped flint; the plinth has ogee-moulded capping; the flat roof has a low weathered parapet. The E. window has four trefoil-headed lights (the inner pair ogee-headed) with vertical tracery in a four-centred head under a hollow-chamfered label with plain stops. The doorway to the vestry has a moulded four-centred head with continuous jambs, stone panelled responds with a traceried intrados, and a moulded square label with bishop and king stops; the carved stone spandrels below the label have quatrefoils with leaf centres. In the upper part of the N. wall a small square-headed loop communicates with the room above the vestry. The N. windows of the chapel are each of three cinquefoil-headed lights under a two-centred outer head; vertical tracery fills the space over the centre light, and the side lights have quatrefoil tracery lights and mouchettes. Externally above each window is a hollow-chamfered label with defaced head-stops. The buttress between the windows is of three weathered stages. On the S. side of the chapel, the wall above the chancel arcade has a stone corbel-table in the style of the 13th century with chamfered two-centred archlets springing from ogee-moulded brackets and supporting a hollow-chamfered string-course. The origin of this feature is uncertain, but it probably capped the walls of the original church and was reset at its present level in the 15th century, when the chancel was rebuilt. The stonework is crisp and it cannot have been exposed for long externally. The corbel-table supports one side of the 15th-century chapel roof. At the W. end of the chapel is a wide two-centred arch of two chamfered orders springing from hollow-chamfered responds with moulded and enriched capitals and chamfered bases. The responds are of the 14th century, but that on the N. appears to have been moved in the 15th century from its original position, presumably to widen the archway; the arch voussoirs are larger than is normal in 14th-century work and the thin N. buttress is evidently a 15th-century feature. It thus appears that the 14th-century aisle was narrower than the present one.
The 15th-century roof of the N. chapel, of five bays, is almost flat and rests on four cambered main beams, heavily moulded and mitred to similarly moulded wall-plates. Moulded longitudinal beams divide each bay into four compartments; each compartment is sub-divided by a rafter into two square panels closed with boarding; moulded cross-fillets attached to the boarding further subdivide each panel into four parts. The intersections of each main beam with the central longitudinal beam and with the side wall-plates are masked by wooden shields borne by carved angels (in many cases the wings have gone); the intersections of the cross-fillets are masked by foliate bosses. The larger beams are enriched with colour in diagonal bands and many of the shields are painted heraldically: (fn. 13) from E. to W., i Stourton, ii France quartering gules a lion passant or, iii Audley, iv? Willoughby, v Bourchier, vi argent a fess gules impaling Ludlow, vii Hungerford; others blank, missing or inaccessible.
The South Chapel is nearly uniform with that on the north. The E. window has five gradated trefoil-headed lights and vertical tracery in a four-centred head; the lower part is blocked with brickwork. As on the S. side of the N. chapel, the N. side has a corbel-table of 13th century style above the 15th-century arcade. An opening in the masonry in the N.W. corner of the chapel reveals the remains of an earlier arch of two chamfered orders springing from a polygonal respond with a roll-moulded and hollow-chamfered capital; it appears to be of the late 13th or early 14th century and its impost lies 4 ft. below that of the 15th-century arcade. It has been suggested (p. lii) that this arch spanned the opening to a former S. transept. The S. wall has windows and buttresses generally similar to those of the N. chapel; externally the labels have carved head-stops. The second window from the E. has been blocked in the lower part to accomodate a late 19th-century S. doorway with a four-centred head and a stone hood. Beside the third buttress from the E. is the jamb of a 14th-century doorway with an ogee moulding ending at a broach stop; the opening is now blocked, but it is shown as a doorway on Lyons's engraving of 1745. If our conjectures about earlier plans are correct the opening will have been formed in the S. end of the original S. transept. The W. end of the S. chapel has an archway uniform with that of the N. chapel. In the arch, many small 14th-century voussoirs are seen together with larger ones which attest the 15th-century enlargement of the opening. The S. buttress is of the 15th century.
The S. chapel roof (Plate 47) closely resembles that of the N. chapel. Black-letter inscriptions painted on the sides of the main beams ask for prayers for the souls of William Swayne (mayor 1454, 1477), Chrystian his wife and James his father. Carved angel busts at the intersections of the main beams and the central longitudinal beams bear shields painted with-i Five Wounds, ii indecipherable, iii argent a cross gules, iv pelican vulning, v Swayne's merchant mark, vi and vii emblem of Trinity, viii-x azure a chevron between three pheons or (Swayne).
The Nave (Plate 34) has uniform N. and S. arcades with two-centred arches of three orders; the moulded inner and outer orders rest on attached shafts with undercut foliate capitals and moulded polygonal bases; the wave-moulded intermediate orders continue on the piers. At the E. end the inner orders spring from head-corbels and the outer orders die into the wall; at the W. end there are shafted responds. Above the arches, internally, the N.and S. clearstorey walls are of panelled stonework, each bay having six transomed trefoil ogee-headed panels surmounted by vertical tracery within an elliptical-headed casement-moulded surround. Between the bays, attached wall-shafts with shield capitals support the woodwork of the roof. In each bay the four middle panels of the upper height are perforated and glazed, forming clearstorey windows with trefoil ogee-headed lights and vertical tracery. Externally the clearstory windows have elliptical labels; between the windows diagonally-set pinnacles resting on worn head-corbels continue upwards, passing through hollow-chamfered stringcourses to terminate in embattled parapets with continuous moulded coping. Lyons's engraving shows crocketed finials, but these have gone. At the E. and W. ends of the clearstorey wall, small two-stage buttresses rise above the end-walls of the aisles. At the W. end of the nave stout buttresses of four weathered stages retain the thrusts of the arcades. The W. doorway has a moulded two-centred head and continuous jambs in a square-headed surround with quatrefoils in the spandrels. Flanking the doorway, internally, are two heights of panelled stonework, the panels having cinquefoil two-centred heads and hollow-chamfered and roll-moulded tracery. The W. window is of seven transomed lights with cinquefoil heads in each height; above, vertical and curvilinear tracery fills the casementmoulded two-centred head. The two-centred head only appears externally and an elliptical transom divides the true lights of the window from false lights in the pointed upper part. Above the window, the embattled parapet forms a low gable with a cross finial.
The nave roof has six king-strut tie-beam trusses with moulded and cambered ties, enriched above and below with brattishing and on the sides with spaced bosses; inverted brattishing below each tie-beam continues on segmental braces which rise from wooden wall-shafts with moulded capitals. Other segmental timber braces springing from the same wall-shafts outline the surrounds of the clearstorey windows and support wall-plate cornices enriched in the same way as the tie-beams. The heavily moulded principal rafters are of equal size with the purlins, ridge-beams and intermediate rafters, forming eight large panels in each bay; moulded secondary rafters and purlins divide each panel into four parts. The triangles between the principals, the king-posts and the tie-beams contain cusped and crocketed wooden tracery. At the centre of each tie-beam, facing E. and W., and at the centre of the wall-plate cornice in each bay, the roof is embellished with a carved wooden angel bearing a shield or a scroll; many shields are charged with sacred emblems carved in relief. The intersections of the moulded timbers are covered by wooden bosses, foliate and heraldic. Centrally in the second bay from E. a shield is carved in relief with the arms of Courtenay quartering Redvers; nearby, on the N. wall-plate, is a carved shield-of-arms of Hungerford.
The windows of the North Aisle are approximately uniform with those described in the N. chapel, but taller and of four instead of three lights; the middle window replaces the former N. doorway, abolished in 1835. Each window has a moulded label with defaced stops; above is a hollow-chamfered string-course and a low parapet with roll-moulded capping. The stair turret between the second and third bays originally gave access to a chamber over the former porch; at the foot of the stair is a doorway with a chamfered 'Tudor' head. The square-set buttresses between the other bays are each of three weathered stages, as also is the diagonal buttress at the N.W. corner. Part of the E. side of the former N. porch has been formed into a buttress of two weathered stages; in it the doorway of the former porch chamber, a square-headed opening with a moulded label, now has ogee-headed tracery and is used as a window. The stair continues above this level in an octagonal turret to give access to the aisle roof; the W. side of the turret rests on a 19th-century squinch supported on a corbel carved to represent the head and shoulders of a bishop. The W. wall of the N. aisle, rendered externally, has a window uniform with those on the north. The nearly flat wooden roof of the aisle, extensively restored, is similar to that of the N. chapel and externally the lead covering is continuous. Inside, the roof has seven bays. Carved angel bosses at the intersections of the main members and at the centre of each bay of the N. and S. wall-plates bear shields with the following painted charges: from E. to W., i gules, two keys in saltire or; ii a page of writing; iii sable, a cross paty; iv gules, a harp or; v, vi and vii quarterly France and England; viii Bourchier; ix See of Salisbury; x gules, a cross argent; xi uncharged; xii gules, in a border azure semy of crosses paty, three lions passant or; xiii Five Wounds; xiv Beauchamp; xv Fitzalan quartering Matravers; xvi emblem of Trinity; xvii as v; xviii Stourton; xix argent, a chevron gules; xx Edward the Confessor; xxi Montacute quartering Monthermer; xxii Fitzalan; xxiii Audley; xxiv Bourchier; xxv Neville; xxvi argent a chevron sable; xxvii gules a chevron sable; xxviii argent a cross gules.
The South Aisle is similar to that on the N. In the middle bay the lower part of the S. tower forms the S. wall. Above the S. doorway a blocked window of three trefoil-headed lights in a chamfered square-headed surround formerly opened into a chamber over the porch. In the next bay, a blocked doorway to the tower vice has a hollow-chamfered two-centred head; above is a blocked window of two square-headed lights. The four large S. windows in the S. aisle are uniform with those of the N. aisle, as also is the W. window and the buttresses. The roof, uniform with that of the N. aisle, has painted shields charged as follows: from E. to W., i indecipherable; ii ?Fitzgerald; iii St. George; iv Gorges; v sable a chevron between three lilies argent, quartering ermine; vi gules a chevron between three catherine wheels or; vii argent a chevron between three roses gules; viii argent a fess between three moorhens; ix indecipherable; x argent a cross gules; xi perhaps Brereton; xii Audley; xiiiargent a chevron gules; xiv Ludlow; xv Clifford (checky, a fess); xvi Clifford (barry); xvii sable a chevron ermine between three hurdles argent; xviii Hungerford; xix Fitgerald; xx argent a chevron gules; xxi as xii; xxii argent a bend engrailed sable; xxiii ? Talbot; xxiv gules six drops argent; xxv gules a pallium azure impaling argent a chevron gules; xxvi argent a chevron gules; xxvii Stourton; xxviii Beauchamp.
The Vestry, of two storeys and a cellar, has ashlar walls and a lead-covered roof. The plinth of the E. wall is uniform with that of the N. chapel; the wall-head has a hollow-chamfered string-course and a low gabled coping. The ground storey has a window with three trefoil-headed lights in a casement-moulded square-headed surround; the upper storey has a similar window of two lights without casement moulding. The N. wall has modern upper windows of one and two lights; the N.W. corner is splayed in the upper part and contains a square-headed niche. The W. wall has a modern doorway near the N. end, a four-light window (as before) in the ground storey, and a similar three-light opening above. An external stair goes down to the cellar doorway, which has a four-centred head of three recessed orders under a hollow-chamfered label; beside it is a square-headed window with double-chamfered jambs. Inside, the ground-floor vestry is lined with oak wainscot with fielded panelling in two heights; it was installed in 1734. (fn. 14) The centre mullion of the W. window has a detached hollow-chamfered shaft which supports two four-centred rear-arches. The upper room has a fireplace surround with a hollow-chamfered four-centred head and continuous jambs with splay stops. The cellar is said to have contained a beam with an inscription naming William Swayne (cf. S. chapel roof), (fn. 15) but this was not necessarily in situ.
The South Tower, of four stages, has a moulded plinth, weathered string-courses between the stages, and an embattled parapet above a moulded string-course with gargoyles (Plate 32). The parapet is decorated with trefoil-headed stone panelling. The three lower stages have angle buttresses with weathered offsets, except that the lower parts of the northern buttresses are omitted or have been removed where they would otherwise obtrude into the S. aisle. The stair turret at the N.E. corner ends at the top of the third stage; its S.E. doorway, with a chamfered two-centred head, is of the 19th century. The lowest stage of the tower forms the South Porch and has a S. archway with a restored two-centred, double ogeemoulded, casement-moulded and hollow-chamfered head, and continuous jambs ending in run-out stops above hollow-chamfered plinths; the moulded label has square stops. Inside, the porch is vaulted, with hollow-chamfered wall, diagonal and ridge ribs rising from angle shafts with moulded caps and cylindrical bases. Foliate bosses cover the junctions between the wall and ridge ribs. The centre of the vault has a circular bell-way. On the N., an archway with a roll-moulded and hollow-chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs, perhaps of the 18th or early 19th century, opens into the S. aisle. The second stage has E. and W. windows, each of one trefoil-headed light with blind spandrels under a square label. On the S. a similar window of two cinquefoil-headed lights is flanked by cinquefoil-headed niches with shafted jambs, each shaft having a foliate corbel and a crocketed finial. The ashlar of the W. wall retains the outline of the steeply pitched roof of a house which formerly stood in the angle between the tower and the S. wall of the aisle; it appears in Buckler's S.W. view of the church. (fn. 16) The third stage has a single-light S. window uniform with those on E. and W. in the second stage. Each side of the top stage has a belfry window of two cinquefoil-headed lights with a cusped tracery light under a two-centred head, with a hollow-chamfered label with head stops. The lower part of each main light is closed by a stone slab pierced with quatrefoils; the upper part has wooden louvres, except on the E. where the upper part of the window is masked by a clockface (see fittings). The steep lead roof, in the form of a hexagonal pyramid, has a metal finial and wind-vane. Within the belfry each corner of the tower has a two-centred squinch of four chamfered orders, suggesting that a stone spire was originally intended.
Fittings - Bells: eight; 1st–4th by R. Wells of Aldbourne, 1771, M. Bailey, T. Ogden, churchwardens; 5th given by John Windham, 1683, recast by Wells 1771; 6th and 7th as 1st–4th; tenor by Abraham Rudhall of Gloucester, 1716, Nathl. Sturidg, Tho. Hales, churchwardens, Wm. Naish, mayor. Clock-bells: two, by I.W., 1581, Symon Nelle, Willym Yonge church wardens, Robart Ellyt mayor, with monogram SN.
Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel, in floor-slab on N., (1) of Elizabeth Eyre, 1612, plate with verses in Roman capitals (concealed by choir-stalls); (2) of Robert Eyre, 1638, similar to foregoing; on S., (3) of John Webbe, 1570 (Plate 48), with black-letter inscription on margin, male and female figures in attitude of prayer, two smaller brasses of children, three shields-of-arms (Webbe quartering Abarough, Webbe impaling Abarough, and Webbe quartering Abarough impaling Wylford) and indent for fourth shield. In N. chapel (4) inscription-plate of John and Catherine Baylye, 1600, with shield-of-arms of Merchant Adventurers of Hamburg impaling Baylye; (5) inscription-plate of Dorothea Ballard, 1709. In S. chapel, reset on N. screen, (6) of William Viner, 1680, inscription-plate and shield-of-arms of Viner. Indents: In chancel, on N., (1) for two rectangular plates, 26 ins. by 17 ins. overall. In N. aisle, on top slab of table-tomb (see monument (2)), indents (2) for two figures bearing scrolls, two groups of children, one shield, one rectangular panel, four corner roundels and continuous margin strip in moulded edge of slab, mid 15th century, all filled in and partly obliterated by later inscriptions; on floor-slab No. 10, indent (3) for plate, 2½ ins. by 13 ins., surmounted by figure 11½ ins. high. In S. aisle, near W. end, (4) for plate, 3 ins. by 8 ins.; adjacent (5) for plate, 4½ ins. by 20½ ins.; at S. doorway, (6) for plate 2¼ ins. by 11 ins., and shield 4½ ins. high.
Chests: In N. chapel, of oak, with iron straps and handles, 19th century. In S. aisle, of oak, heavily bound with ten strap-hinges, two hasps and staples, and end lifting-handles (Plate 53), early 16th century. In vestry, of oak with panelled sides, late 18th century.
Clocks: In tower (modern movement), with square wooden dial with moulded border, probably 18th century, with added churchwardens' inscriptions of 1843; below, two small wooden striking jacks representing men in late 16th-century armour, probably 1581 (cf. Bells). In vestry, oak longcase clock by Francis Shuttleworth, Salisbury, 18th century.
Glass: In N. chapel, in tracery of E. window, some original stained glass in situ, also reset fragments, 15th century; in N. windows, in mouchette openings of tracery, 15th-century leaf patterns; in heads of lateral lights and tracery quatrefoils, 15th-century foliage. In S. chapel, in cusped heads of E. window, fragments of canopy finials; in tracery lights, fragmentary shields with merchant marks, an irradiated figure and other fragments, 15th century. Reset in second S. window from E., formerly in vestry, St. Christopher, perhaps St. Francis, St. Thomas of Canterbury, fragmentary, 15th century.
Hatchments: Seven with shields-of-arms: Spooner impaling Burt; Long; Hawes impaling Hawkins; Long impaling Blackall (bis); Powell quartering Priaulx, with inescutcheon of Burrough; Hayter impaling Egerton; 18th and 19th century.
Images: In niches in S. elevation of tower, (1) Virgin and Child, emblem of the See of Salisbury, (2) St. Thomas of Canterbury, patron; 15th century. Reset in easternmost buttress of S. chapel, (3) ogee cinquefoil-headed recess enclosing relief of Crucifixion with St. Mary and St. John; late 14th or early 15th century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel, at W. end of N. wall, (1) of William Wroughton, 1770, and Dorothy (Musgrave) his wife, 1799, variegated marble tablet in shaped surround (Plate 50), with arms of Wroughton impaling Musgrave.
In N. aisle, reset at E. end (Lyons shows it centrally in W. part of N. chapel), (2) Purbeck marble table-tomb (illustrated on p. lvii) with moulded top, panelled sides. six blank shields and two with a merchant mark, plinth with quatrefoil enrichment; top originally with brasses (see Indents); mid 15th century. Inset in top slab of foregoing and partly masking indents, alabaster inscription-panels of (3) Thomas Chafin, 1679, and (4) Thomas Chafin Markes, 1727.
In N. chapel, on E. wall, (5) of Thomas Ray, 1670, and Margaret his wife, 1682, marble cartouche with baroque surround and arms of Ray impaling an unidentified coat; on N. wall (6) of John Gough, 1709/10, slate panel in marble surround representing draped archway in architectural surround (Plate 52), arms of Gough on tympanum; (7) of Sara Hersent, 1741, marble tablet in classical surround; (8) of Sir Alexander Powell, 1748, Catherine (Willes) his wife, 1772, and others of the same family, marble monument by R. Earlsman, with obeliskshaped finial, urns and cartouche-of-arms (obliterated) impaling Willes (Plate 50).
In S. chapel, reset in N.E. corner (Plate 49), (9) of Christopher Eyre , with two kneeling figures in double aedicule with three Corinthian columns under entablature and cresting with shield-of-arms of Eyre and of Eyre impaling Smithies; in S.E. corner, (10) of [Thomas Eyre] and Elizabeth (Rogers) his wife, 1612, painted monument erected c. 1624 resembling foregoing and formerly also in chancel, with kneeling figures in double aedicule between obelisks; above, shield-of-arms of Eyre flanked by urns; below, figures of eleven children and three infants.
Below the foregoing monuments and occupying the full width of S. chapel, monument (11) of Sir Robert Eyre (Plate 45), authorised by Vestry in 1724, (fn. 17) consisting of low platform (presumably containing burial vault) with ashlar front of fielded panels between panelled pilasters and with moulded capping surmounted by wrought-iron screen, richly worked with scrolls and leafwork, with shaped central gates, eight scrolled uprights, shields-of-arms of Eyre, and a central cresting with arms of Eyre quartering Lucy; top of vault patterned with slate and ashlar; behind, N., E. and S. walls of S. chapel lined with oak wainscot with round-headed panels between fluted pilasters supporting moulded cornices; large central panel with Corinthian pilasters and scrolled broken pediment enclosing carved swags and cartouche-of-arms of Eyre quartering Lucy; Ionic lateral pilasters with smaller pediments. Also in S. chapel, on S. wall, (12) of Thomas Harrington, 1828, marble tablet by Osmond.
In nave, on N. respond of chancel arch, (13) of Richard Earlsman, 1831, marble tablet by Cave; on S. respond, (14) of Joan Popple, 1572, marble tablet (1826) by Osmond. In S. aisle, reset on S. wall, (15) of Humphrey Beckham, 1671, oak panel with biblical scenes carved in high relief (Plate 47); on W. wall, (16) of members of the Long family, 1723–1824, marble tablet by Osmond with shield-of-arms of Long.
Floor-slabs: To the number of 133, few if any in situ, include the following: In chancel, (1) of John Webbe, 1570, see Brasses (3). In N. chapel, (2) of Mary (Ray) Barnaby, 1724, slate, with long inscription neatly carved; (3) of John Powell, 1737, and his daughter Catherine, 1757, Purbeck with bold lettering and sculptor's signature Mitcherd; (4) of Catherine Powell, 1772, also by Mitcherd. In S. chapel, near S. wall, (5) of Thomas Hawker, 1636, and his wife; (6) of John Conant, 1653, 'orthodox and faithfull minister of this parish'; (7) of Mary Viner, 1682, small slate slab. In nave, near W. doorway, (8) of Henry Long, 1727, Purbeck marble with shield-of-arms of Long. In N. aisle, (9) of Lieut. Francis le Breton, R.N., 1798, Purbeck marble with bold lettering; (10) of Margaret Hele, 1672, Purbeck marble, with indent for antecedent brass, also with inscription of Richard Eyre, 1725. In S. aisle, reset (1975) near E. end, (11) of Jane Eyre, 1695, and (12) of Elizabeth (Chester) Eyre, 1705, two similar black slate slabs with richly carved cartouches-of-arms and moulded margins; near S. doorway, (13) of Anne, 1683, and Richard Minifie, 1706, also Anne (Minifie) Knight, 1709, double slate slab with two shields-of-arms (Knight quartering Page, Minifie and Stoning).
Organ: In N. chapel, by Samuel Green, 1792, in panelled wood case with gothic enrichments, given by George III to Salisbury Cathedral and transferred, with some alteration, in 1877. Previously, a large organ by Thomas Swarbrick, 1739, had been at the W. end of the nave. (fn. 18)
Paintings: In nave, on E. wall, Last Judgement (Plate 35), late 15th century; whitewashed 1593, discovered 1819 and re-whitewashed; exposed and restored 1881; (fn. 19) at base, on N. of chancel arch, nimbed figure in canopied niche, perhaps St. James; on S., in plainer niche, mitred figure with crosier, perhaps St. Thomas of Canterbury or St. Osmund. In S. chapel, on N. wall, above arcade, three late 15th-century panels (Plate 43) depicting Annuncia tion, Visitation and Adoration; background painted to simulate red hangings powdered with garter badges and vases of lilies. In vestry, reset on E. wall above panelling, part of biblical scene on canvas, probably remains of a large 'Transfiguration' by Douglas Guest, 1809. (fn. 20)
Screens: In E. bay of chancel, on N. and S., of stone, each with four trefoil-headed panels with carved spandrels enclosing blank shields; above, coved cornice with four angel busts carrying scrolls and upper frieze of quatrefoils; late 15th-century. In S. chapel, in E. bay, see monument (11).
Sundial: On tower, near top of S. elevation, painted, with large wrought-iron gnomon, perhaps 1672. (fn. 21)
Miscellanea: Mace-rest, of wrought-iron painted and gilded, with central cresting repainted with arms and cypher of George III, and side plaques with civic emblems, 1643. (fn. 22) Textile (2ft. 10 ins. by 4 ft. 6 ins.), velvet with gold and silver embroidery (Plate 53); at centre, Annunciation, above (?) T E C with crosier, surround powdered with fleurs-de-lis, seraphim and double-headed eagles, 15th century.
At the Domesday Survey of 1086 the bishop's estate in Salisbury comprised the greater part of the Hundred of Underditch. Valued at £47 a year it included the site of the present cathedral, Stratford and Milford, and it nearly surrounded the king's holding which included the castle. (fn. 23) No church is mentioned in Domesday, but in 1091 when Bishop Osmund set aside part of the episcopal property for the endowment of the cathedral canons he included 'the church of Sarum with its tithes and other possessions'. (fn. 24) In the context this can only mean the church of the manor, identified as St. Martin's in an episcopal charter of 1228 which refers to 'the church of St. Martin of our manor of Salisbury'. (fn. 25)
The earliest structural remains yet identified are foundations, perhaps of a South Transept, excavated in 1956 just S. of the present S. aisle; they are dated c. 1100 by associated pottery. (fn. 26) Also of an early date is an obliquely-set flint and rubble wall at the W. end of the present nave and S. aisle. An inclined creasing course in this wall suggests a former roof (Plate 36), but its significance is not altogether certain and there is no proof that the wall was originally part of the church building. The obliquely-set wall is pierced by an early 13th-century doorway with a two-centred head under a roll moulded label; the rebates show that it was the entrance to a building on the site of the present tower and porch. (fn. 27)
The long Chancel is datable by style to the first half of the 13th century. Early in the 14th century the West Tower was built, the lower part of its E. side incorpor ating the oblique wall with its 13th-century doorway. A 14th-century doorway at the N. end of the oblique wall shows that this wall then served as the W. end of the nave.
Early in the 15th century work began on the North and South Chapels and on the reconstruction of the Nave with North and South Aisles. The chapels opened off the chancel through archways with four-centred heads, but as work proceeded westwards the design was changed and loftier two-centred arches continued the same alignment in the arcades flanking the nave. The oblique wall at the W. end of the church with its 14th-century nave doorway was retained, but a new W. window was provided.
Before the middle of the 16th century a transverse arch was erected to mark the division between nave and chancel, its responds being set against the piers of the nave arcade at the point where the design of the arches changes. Below the chancel arch was a roof-loft, but this has gone (the present rood-screen is modern) and there only remains the turret stair inserted in the wall at the S.W. corner of the S. chapel. The West Porch and adjoining Parish Room are of the 16th century; the latter is sometimes called the Chapel of Corpus Christi.
In the 17th or 18th century the 13th-century chancel was given a lower ceiling and an elliptical arch was placed at its W. end, in line with the E. walls of the N. and S. chapels. In 1838 this elliptical arch was removed, a 'gothic' arch of plaster and lath was put in its place and the chancel ceiling was replaced by a timber and plaster wagon roof. The E. window of the chancel was inserted in 1849 (fn. 28) in place of one which appears to have been of the 15th century. (fn. 29) In 1886 the church was extensively restored and the plaster arch of 1838 was replaced by one of oak. (fn. 30)
Architectural Description — The gabled E. wall of the Chancel (Plate 31) is built of small flints mixed with some rubble and has original scaffolding holes outlined in rubble; at the base is a chamfered plinth. The window of 1849 has three gradated lancets; above is a circular loop with cusping. The original ashlar angle-buttresses on the N.E. are of one weathered stage; those on the S.E. have two weathered stages and are of the 14th century. The N. wall, of flint and rubble, has three chamfered and rebated lancet windows with moulded labels and stiff leaf stops. Ashlar at the W. extremity of the wall may suggest the re-entrant angle of a former N. chapel. Inside, the lancet windows have hollow-chamfered rear-arches with labels as on the outside; below the window sills is a restored roll-moulded string-course. The S. wall, similar in build to the E. and N. walls, has restored lancet windows of one and two lights, as described, and a two-stage 15th-century buttress. On the W. is an original doorway with a chamfered two-centred head, partly restored, chamfered jambs and a roll-moulded label; the roll moulding is repeated transversely on the E. label-stop; that on the W. is covered by the wall of the S. chapel. Inside, the S. chancel windows have rear-arches as on the N. and the sills have a roll-moulded string-course which also forms a label over the segmental-pointed rear-arch of the S. doorway.
The W. bay of the chancel has early 15th-century four-centred N. and S. arches, each with two ogeemoulded orders rising from hollow-chamfered and shafted responds with moulded caps and bases. The N.E. respond has small head-stops in the hollow-chamfers; the N.W. respond, originally a free-standing column, is masked by the N. respond of the chancel arch. The E. respond of the S. arch rests on a shafted bracket with a carved head-corbel; the S.W. respond is similar to that on the N.W. The 16th-century chancel arch is two-centred and of two ogee and roll-moulded orders separated by a casement-moulding; it springs from hollow-chamfered and shafted responds with polygonal caps and bases.
In the Nave (Plate 39), the W. face of each respond of the chancel arch, masking the shafting of the former nave columns, has two heights of ogee-headed stone panelling. The upper panel on the S. contains a bracket for an image. Plain ashlar above the panels suggests the level of the 16th-century rood-loft. The N. and S. arcades are nearly uniform, with two-centred arches of two ogee-moulded orders rising from hollow-chamfered and shafted piers similar to those in the W. part of the chancel. Polygonal shaft-caps and bases in the S. arcade suggest that that side was built after the N. side, where most but not all of these features are circular. The oblique W. wall, of flint and rubble with ashlar dressings, has a 14th-century doorway with a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs, and a double roll-moulded label with head-stops. The upper part of the W. wall contains a restored 15th-century window of five transomed cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head (Plate 36).
The nave has a 16th-century wagon roof of eight bays with moulded ribs springing from carved wooden corbels on moulded cornices; the corbels represent angels, demons etc. in various attitudes. Leaf-bosses cover the intersection of the ribs. The regular spacing of the E. bay suggests that the wagon roof is later than the inserted chancel arch.
The North Aisle (including the North Chapel) has two-stage buttresses of ashlar and flint. The E. window has four cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery and a cusped roundel in a two-centred head; the hollow-chamfered rear-arch springs from male and female head-corbels. The four N. windows are uniform, each having three cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head. The hollow-chamfered rear-arches spring from corbels carved to represent heads of monks, priests, ladies, a queen, a king and a pope (Plate 42). The N. doorway has a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs with rounded stops. In the W. wall, a window uniform with that on the E. opens above the roof of the adjoining building; its two-centred rear-arch has male and female head corbels. The richly decorated late 15th-century wagon roof has moulded ribs with leaf bosses at the intersections; the moulded wall-plate cornices have hollow-chamfers with spaced flowers and carved enrichment above (Plate 44). Alternate crossribs rest on polygonal oak wall-shafts with moulded caps and bases; these stand on stone brackets carved to represent male, female and grotesque heads, one with eye-glasses (Plate 42). The intervening cross-ribs spring from oak brackets.
The South Aisle (including the South Chapel) has ashlar buttresses of two weathered stages. The E. window has four cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label. The five S. windows are uniform, each having three cinquefoil-headed lights and tracery as described; the hollow-chamfered two-centred rear-arches die into the splayed jambs. The polygonal rood-vice turret, not integral with the adjacent buttress, has a weathered head and a chamfered plinth; on the W. side of the buttress the upper part of the turret rests on a grotesque corbel. The lower doorway of the vice has a four-centred rebated and roll-moulded head and mitred spandrels in a chamfered square surround; the upper doorway has a chamfered four-centred head. The W. end of the aisle (Plate 36) is formed mainly of the E. side of the 14th-century tower, itself incorporating the remains of the earlier oblique flint wall with its 13th-century doorway. In 1886, when the masonry was restored, several fragments of 12th-century carving were exposed and reset; their provenance is unknown. The 13th-century doorway has a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs, and a roll-moulded label with returned stops. In adapting the earlier flint wall to form the base of this side of the 14th-century tower the masonry was provided with inclined creasing, bonded to the ashlar of the tower. The inclination of the creasing stones suggests a roofline and has led to the hypothesis of a 14th-century aisle, but the evidence is inconclusive. The 16th-century wagon roof, similar to that of the nave, was extensively restored in 1886.
The West Tower (Plate 36) has diagonal N.W. and S.W. buttresses of three weathered stages and a similar square-set buttress on the S.E.; the windows are in three storeys, but the walls are without offsets. The base has a weathered plinth and the top has a plain parapet with a moulded string-course and coping. In the lower storey the N. side has an inserted doorway with a rounded head; the E. side comprises the antecedent wall with the 13th-century doorway already described; the S. and W. sides have small trefoil-headed loops with moulded labels. In the middle storey the N., S. and W. sides have taller loops. In the upper storey the same sides have each a belfry window of two trefoil-headed lights with a cusped tracery light in a two-centred head with a moulded label. Above the W. belfry window is a small loop. The octagonal spire, of ashlar 7½ ins. thick at the base, has weathered broaches, roll-moulded arrises and moulded stringcourses defining four stages. Unlike the cathedral spire (see Salisbury, II) it has no internal timber framework.
The West Porch and Parish Room (Plate 36) have ashlar walls with moulded stringcourses and modern parapets. The N.W. corner has a weathered single-stage buttress. The flat roof lies below the sills of the W. windows of the nave and N. aisle; old pictures show that the roof was formerly pitched and tiled. The room has N. and W. windows of three cinquefoil-headed lights with square labels continuous with the stringcourses. The W. doorway of the porch has a two-centred head of two hollow-chamfered orders and continuous jambs; a small ogee-headed niche beside the S. jamb was probably for a stoup. A narrow ogee-headed window immediately to the S. resembles those of the W. tower and has probably been reset. The wall which divides the porch from the parish room is of uncertain date; it contains a tomb recess with a moulded elliptical head probably of the early 16th century, but not in situ; reset within it is a 15th-century table-tomb. Recess and tomb were drawn in 1811 by J. Buckler. (fn. 31) The walls of the parish room are lined with modern woodwork. Below is a 19th-century heating chamber.
Fittings — Bells: eight; treble and 2nd modern; 3rd and 4th by Mears, 1842–3; 5th and 6th by Richard Flower or Florey of Salisbury, William Smith and Walter Pope churchwardens, 1675; 7th by John Wallis, 1582, 'Be mec and loly to heare the word of God'; tenor by John Wallis and John Danton, 1624, 'Call a solemne assemblie gather the people'.
Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In S. aisle, on S. wall, of John Sebastian Carpenter, 1632, plate (13½ ins. by 21 ins.) with inscriptions in Latin, Greek and English and representation of the commemorated, kneeling. In N. aisle, in paving slab near W. end, of M. Godwin, 1785. Indents: In S. aisle, near W. end, Purbeck marble floor-slab with indents for two rectangular plates. In W. porch, on top of table-tomb, indents for two figures and rectangular plate, 15th century.
Chairs: pair, mahogany, with plain legs, leather-covered seats, shaped arm-rests and serpentine 'ladder' backs, 18th century. Chests: two, one iron-bound and painted externally with rosettes, with complicated and highly enriched lock mechanism inside lid, probably late 16th century; another of cast iron with panelled sides, 1813 (old vestry book).
Doors: In W. doorway of W. porch, of oak planks with cover-fillets, iron ring-handle and scalloped scutcheon, early 16th-century. In N. doorway of N. aisle, doors as described, late 15th century. In parish room, to closet, two reused oak pew doors with shaped tops and fielded panels, 18th century.
Font: (Plate 41) of Purbeck marble, octagonal, with two trefoil-headed panels on each side, moulded central shaft, eight plain corner shafts, hollow-chamfered plinth, and chamfered base; mainly 13th century.
Hatchments: In N. aisle (1) of H.P. Baker, 1794; (2) of John Fuller, 1777; (3) of Mary Thomas, 1781. In S. Aisle, (4) of John Batt, 1723; (5) of ....... Gooding; (6) of Edward Baker, 1796; (7) of Jane (Phipps) Baker, 1800.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: In chancel, on E. respond of N. arch, 'Westbury', cursive, 15th century. In N. aisle, on 3rd pier of N. arcade, 'WS 1675'. On E. jamb of N. doorway, outside, 'TI MR 1631'. In tower, on 2nd-storey window jamb, '1535 TS'; 'IS 1627 September the 17'. On N. face of tower, below parapet, '....aird .... churchwardens'; on N.W. tower buttress, 'this spire .... the year of 1794'. (On p. 167 Baker records 'This spire was repaired in the year of our Lord 1791: T. Adams J. Young Churchwardens.)
Lectern: (Plate 53) of brass, with eagle and turned pedestal, feet gone, second half of 15th century. (fn. 32)
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel, on N. wall, (1) of Richard Earlsman, 1831, tablet by Cave; (2) of William Ludlow of Clarendon, and his daughter Anne, 1749, Purbeck marble tablet with enriched surround and shield-of-arms (Plate 51); (3) of Bennet Swayne, 1748, and Thomas Swayne, 1747, grey and white marble monument (Plate 50) with sarcophagus, urns, shield-of-arms, portrait medallion, cherubs and festoons; on S. wall, (4) of John Chester Pern Tinney, 1832, tablet by Osmond; (5) of Daniel and Edward Hales, 1645, small black marble tablet with emblems of mortality and shields-of-arms of Hales and Hales impaling Gantlet; (6) of Mary Thomas, 1781, marble tablet with scroll cresting (Plate 51). In N. aisle, (7) of Joseph and Jane Willis, 1772, 1777, slate tablet with marble surround (Plate 51); (8) of Edward Hinxman, 1807, and others of his family, marble tablet by Osmond; (9) of Henry Chester, 1786, and his wife Hetty, 1812, small tablet with arms; (10) of Henry Hinxman, 1829, and others of his family, sarcophagusshaped tablet with shield-of-arms and crest, by Osmond; (11) of James Bartlett, 1768, and others of his family, marble tablet with pediment (Plate 52). In S. aisle, (12) of Edward Baker, 1796, and his wife Jane (Phipps), 1800, marble wall monument with urn, and arms of Baker impaling Phipps, by King of Bath (Plate 51); (13) of Thomas Snow, 1776, and Elizabeth Tatum, 1798, marble tablet (Plate 51); (14) of Mary Edgar, 1770, slate tablet in marble surround (Plate 51); (15) of John, 1803, and Margaret Blake, 1812, marble tablet with shield-of-arms; (16) of Laetitia Lee, 1800, marble tablet with arms of Lee impaling another coat, by Reeves of Bath; (17) of Goldwyer family, 1748–1812, marble tablet with shield-of-arms and crest. In W. porch, reset in recess in N. wall, (18) Purbeck marble table-tomb with arcaded sides and hollow-chamfered capping, top with indents for brasses, 15th century. In churchyard on S., several headstones and table-tombs, 18th century; 40 paces S. of the tower, (19) stone coffin-lid with hollow-chamfered and roll-moulded sides and cross carved on top, defaced, probably 13th century; 40 paces S. of nave, (20) of William Garlick, 1796, and others, table-tomb with carved panels and moulded top.
Floor-slabs: In chancel, 10 reset slate and Purbeck marble slabs include: (1) of Catherine Egerton, 1743, and Elizabeth Grevile, 1745, with lozenges-of-arms of Egerton and Grevile (Plate 50); (2) of Ann (Goddard) Reaves, 1754, with lozenge-of-arms of Goddard; (3) of Sarah Slater, 1797, with lozenge-of-arms of Slater; (4) of Rev. Peter Terry, 1727, and his wife Mary, 1739, with arms of Terry impaling Prince; (5) of John Greenhill, 1674, with arms of Greenhill impaling another coat. In nave and aisles, 46 reset inscribed slabs of slate, marble and Purbeck marble, ranging from 1645 to 1839 include: (6) of Thomas Hancock, 1725, with arms and crest; (7) of William Wastfield, 1735, with arms and crest; (8) of John Rolfe, 1735, with arms and inescutcheon, impaling another coat; (9) of William Goldwyer, 1748, with arms; (10) of Edward Windover, 1645, with arms; (11) of Elizabeth Payne, 1734, with arms of Payne and inescutcheon. In N. aisle, at W. end, (12) of Purbeck marble with worn black-letter inscription, orate pro natu Johannis ..... Jacob ....., probably early 16th century.
Niches: In N. chapel, in E. wall, with square head and rebated jambs, containing hollow-chamfered shelf; probably 15th century. In S. aisle, in S. wall, with moulded stone surround and coupled cinquefoil head with miniature vaulting, containing Annunciation with two standing figures in alabaster, discovered and restored 1886. (fn. 33)
Piscinae: In chancel, in S. wall, with double roll-moulded trefoil head and continuous jambs, shelf, and plain sill with quatrefoil basin, 13th century (Plate 40). In S. chapel, in E. wall, with trefoil head in ogeemoulded square surround, with plain shelf and moulded corbelled sill with octagonal basin, late 15th century (Plate 40).
Plate: Elizabethan silver cup and cover-paten (Plate 54), without assay or maker's mark, but similar in design to 'Gillingham' series, (fn. 34) inscribed 'Ex dono Gulielmi Wickham episcopi Vintonia' (Wm. Wickham, 1595). Two patens, one inscribed 'Christopher Horte Thomas Chiffinch church wardins of St. Martins Anno Domini 1620'. Stand-paten by Gabriel Sleath, 1728. Silver flagon, 10 ins. high (Plate 55), with assay mark of 1669 and inscription 'This flagon belongeth to the Parish Church of St. Martins in Sarum, William Antrum, William Ginaway, Churchwardens 1670'. Silver-gilt dish, 18 ins. diam. (Plate 54), with repoussé border; assay mark of 1662 and maker's mark DR with pellets above and below (punch with serrated outline); central shield-of-arms of Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon, surrounded by donor's inscription of Alice Denham, 1686. (fn. 35)
Pulpit: Formerly in St. Martin's (fn. 36) now in modern church of St. Mark, of oak, much restored, with tapering panelled base and five panelled sides with cusped arcading and brattishing (Plate 46), late 15th century.
Royal Arms: Of Elizabeth I, painted on panel (Plate 56). Of James I, of carved and painted wood, with arms in garter, crowned, flanked by lion and unicorn carved in the round; probably 1605. (fn. 37)
Stoups: Externally on W. wall of porch, with hollow-chamfered ogee head under weathered hood and with continuous jambs ending in broach stops, bowl replaced by weathered ashlar, probably 14th century, reset. In nave, beside W. doorway, with chamfered four-centred head and continuous jambs, chamfered sill and quatrefoil bowl, early 16th century.
Miscellanea: Reset in S. aisle, in W. wall, two carved stones, probably 11th century; in S. wall, carved stone four-petalled flower, similar to examples in Cathedral Close wall reputed to be from Old Sarum; externally in the E. wall of S. aisle, carved mediaeval fragments.
(5) St. Edmund's Church, in the N.E. quarter of the mediaeval town, was the church of St. Edmund's College, founded by Bishop Walter de la Wyle in 1269 for a provost and thirteen priests whose duties included the service of a parish. (fn. 38) Of the 13th-century building nothing is seen. In the 15th century a large aisled chancel was built, the N. aisle containing a Chapel of St. John and the S. aisle a Lady Chapel. (fn. 39) The 15th-century aisled chancel still exists as the present nave; the will of Wm. Mercer (d. 1407) probably refers to it when it mentions the newly built church of St. Edmund. (fn. 40) As the 15th-century chancel is flanked by aisles the 13th century church may well have been cruciform, with a central tower and four aisleless arms; the main compartment of the 15th-century chancel would thus have replaced the original chancel while the chancel aisles would have extended E. from the transepts. John Speed's map of Salisbury (Plate 1) shows the church with a nave, a central tower, a S. arm and a wide chancel.
In 1653 the central tower collapsed and it was resolved 'that the E. end of the church now standing shall be repaired' while the W. end 'which is now likely to fall, be taken down in convenient time'. (fn. 41) It is probable that the walls then taken down included the remains of the 13th-century building. By 1656 the Tower had been rebuilt in the original position and the W. ends of the former N. and S. chapels had been closed with new walls; the 15th-century E. end thus became a Nave with North and South Aisles. There is no clearstorey. A chancel built in 1766 (fn. 42) is known from a drawing by J. Buckler, (fn. 43) and from the plan in Benson & Hatcher (opp. p. 592); it was demolished in 1865 to make way for the present Chancel with North and South Chapels. (fn. 44) The lower storey of the North Vestry dates from 1766 and the upper storey from 1809, (fn. 45) but the W. wall of the vestry incorporates mediaeval masonry. The Burial Chamber on the E. of the vestry was added before 1833 (Reform Act map); above it on the first floor is an additional vestry room. In 1973 the church became redundant and was converted to secular uses. Many of the movable fittings were transferred to St. Thomas's (3), but the present inventory records things as they were c. 1970.
The walls of the building are mainly of Chilmark ashlar. The nave and aisle roofs are tiled. The tower is a noteworthy example of the survival of the mediaeval style in the middle of the 17th century (Plate 33).
Architectural Description – Reset in the E. walls of the 19th-century N. and S. chapels are two 15th-century windows, probably transferred in 1865 from the E. ends of the aisles. Each window is of five transomed lights with cinquefoil two-centred heads in each height and with vertical tracery in a two-centred outer head. The chancel windows are of 1865.
The chancel arch of 1865 stands approximately in the same position as that of 1766. The 15th-century chancel, now the Nave, has N. and S. arcades with uniform two-centred arches, each of two hollow-chamfered orders resting on piers and responds in which attached shafts alternate with hollow-chamfers; the shafts have moulded capitals and bases. Narrow arches at the E. end of each arcade appear to be of 1865.
The North Aisle (formerly St. John's Chapel) has five uniform windows, each of four trefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery. The main tracery lights have upper and lower cusping; the four-centred outer heads have moulded labels with head-stops; the rear-arches are segmental-pointed. The easternmost window is masked externally by the vestry building, but it is seen inside; below is a doorway with a double ogee-moulded four-centred head and continuous jambs with broach stops. The N. wall has a plain weathered parapet with a chamfered string-course and two worn gargoyles. Each of the four 15th-century N. buttresses has a double plinth and three stages with weathered offsets. The N.W. angle buttresses are of 1656 and have three weathered stages somewhat taller than those of the N. buttresses; their hollow-chamfered plinths are continuous with those of the W. wall and the tower. The W. doorway of the N. aisle has a wave-moulded and hollow-chamfered two-centred head, continuous jambs and a moulded label with square stops; it opens in a plain ashlar projection with a moulded cornice. Above, the W. window has five cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred outer head; the tracery appears to be mediaeval and presumably is reset.
The South Aisle (formerly the Lady Chapel) has windows, buttresses and parapet similar to those on the N. An angel is carved on the S.E. corner of the parapet and the string-course has three worn gargoyles. The doorway below the easternmost window has a moulded label and continuous jambs ending in run-out stops. The W. doorway has a double ogee-moulded, casement-moulded and hollow-chamfered two-centred head flanked by panelled and cusped spandrels, and continuous jambs with run-out stops; it is of the 15th century and reset. As in the N. aisle the doorway is set in an ashlar projection of 1656 with a moulded cornice. Above is a five-light window uniform with the W. window of the N. aisle.
The West Tower (Plate 33) has three stages defined by moulded stringcourses; at the base is a hollow-chamfered plinth; at the top is an embattled parapet above a string-course with classical mouldings and corner gargoyles; the corners have pinnacles with crocketed and foliate finials (one missing). The tower buttresses are similar to the N.W. and S.W. angle-buttresses of the aisles, but taller. The N.E. corner of the tower has a plain stair turret. The tower arch, two-centred and of three chamfered orders with continuous jambs, was 'raised' in 1865 and appears to be wholly of that date. (fn. 46) In the lower stages the N. and S. walls have square-headed windows of two trefoil-headed lights with cusped tracery lights under moulded labels with eroded stops. The W. doorway is similar to that of the S. aisle and must be reset 15th-century material; flanking the doorway are single-light windows with cusped tracery. Above is a W. window of four trefoil-headed lights with tracery similar to that of the N. and S. windows of the aisles; the two-centred head has a moulded label with head stops. The middle stage has no openings in the E., W. and S. sides; the N. side has a square-headed window of one light. In the top stage each face of the tower has a belfry window of two trefoil-headed lights with a quatrefoil tracery light in a two-centred head; above is a moulded label with head stops; the lower part of each window has a stone closure slab pierced with quatrefoils.
The lower storey of the W. part of the North Vestry was mainly built in 1766, but the southern part of the W. wall remains from the 15th century; above the head of the modern doorway is a weathered and hollow-chamfered string-course. John Buckler shows a singlestoreyed building in this place with a window of 15th-century form in the N. wall. The upper storey was added in 1809 and has two N. windows, each of three lights with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head. Nineteenth-century head-corbels flank each opening at springing level, but there are no labels. A straightjoint divides the N. wall of the vestry from that of the added burial chamber. In the lower storey the burial chamber has a doorway with a four-centred head; above are two windows uniform with those of the room over the vestry. Reset at the N.E. corner of the burial chamber is a stone carved to represent an angel; it is similar to the one in the parapet of the S. aisle and no doubt comes from a corresponding position in the N. aisle parapet. The S.E. corner of the burial chamber has another worn mediaeval carving.
Fittings – Bells: eight; 1st and 2nd 1884; 3rd, 5th, 7th and tenor by William Purdue and Nathanial Bolter, August 1656, with inscriptions of Richard Grafton, 'friend to the worke', John Percevall, churchwarden, John Stricland, minister, and William Stone, mayor; 4th by Wells, Aldbourne, 1773, 'Mr Wilkins churchwarden'; 6th be Mears, 1846. Bell-frame c. 1656.
Brass and Indents. Brass: In tower on N., plate (9 ins. by 6 ins.) of Henry Dove, 1616, mayor, with verses, city shield and dove crest. Indents In S. aisle, Purbeck marble floor-slab with indents for male and female figures, double canopy and four shields (Plate 48), probably 15th century. In churchyard, 3 paces N. of tower, Purbeck marble floor-slab with indents for figure with inscription and for four shields, probably 15th century.
Font: Purbeck marble, with octagonal bowl with two shallow trefoil-headed recesses in each face, 13th century; moulded central shaft with eight plain surrounding shafts, restored; chamfered octagonal base, modern.
Glass: Panel (8 ins. by 12½ ins.), loose, Swiss, 1617. (fn. 47)
Hatchments: nine, (1) Wyndham impaling Hearst, 1736; (2) Ivy? impaling Hearst, 18th century; (3) Wyndham impaling Penruddock, 1788; (4) unidentified impaling Eyre, c. 1780; (5) Whitchurch? impaling Francis, probably 1822; (6) Hawes, 1820; (7) Wyndham quartering Hearst, impaling Slade, 1844; (8) Wyndham quartering Campbell, 1845; (9) as (8), 1846.
Inscriptions etc.: On tower, below W. parapet, 'John Hilary, John Perceval, churchwardens'; on jamb of W. belfry window 'James Berber 1762'; on N. of central W. doorway, scratched dove; over W. doorway, on oval cartouche with segmental pediment, 'The Lord did marvelously preserve a great congregation of his people from the fall of the tower in this place upon the sabbath day being June 26th 1653' (Plate 20).
Mace-stand: Mahogany, with shaped legs with acanthus enrichment supporting Corinthian columns and segmental pediment; above, double-faced achievement of royal arms (1714–1801) carved in the round (unicorn on reverse of lion and vice versa), painted and gilded, mid 18th century (Plate 56).
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel on N., (1) of Herbert Hawes, 1837, tablet by Osmond. In nave on N., (2) of Wyndham family, 1668–1868, marble tablet, probably 19th century. In N. aisle, (3) of Sydenham Burrough, 1782, Francis Powell, 1746, Anna Powell, 1825, marble tablet by Croome; (4) of Robert Cooper, 1778, and others of his family, marble tablet by Osmond; (5) of Anne and John Baskerville, 1749, 1761, and Thomas and Mary Baskerville, 1781, 1768, pair of alabaster monuments with architectural surrounds; (6) of Elizabeth White, 1833, tablet by Osmond; (7) of John Wych, 1805, and others, oval plaque by Brown. In tower, (8) of Marshall Hill, 1707, marble wall-monument with architectural surround (Plate 52) and shield-of-arms of Hill. In churchyard, 30 paces N. of tower, (9) worn stone table-tomb inscribed 'Here lieth the body of Mr. Peter ....., 164 ..'; adjacent, (10) stone table-tomb with moulded top and panelled sides, inscription indecipherable, 1649. Floor-slabs: In nave, five slate slabs of members of Long family, 1724–1787, with shields-of-arms of Long and other coats. See also Indents, s.v. Brasses.
Niches: In N. and S. chapels, reset on E. walls, remains of eight, with vaulted and canopied recesses, mediaeval. In S. aisle, with imitation vaulting and moulded pedestal for image, hacked back to wall-face, 15th century.
Plate: includes silver gilt paten (Plate 55), 6 ins. diam., with date letter 1533 and maker's mark T.W., inscribed in black-letter on rim 'benedicamus patrem et filium cum sancto'; also large silver alms-dish with maker's mark G.S., assay mark 1734 and donor's inscription of Edith Naish, 1734 (Plate 55).
Woodwork: Incorporated with modern choir-stalls, carved oak bench-ends, 15th century; built into organ case, oak panels carved to represent window tracery etc. and two with linenfold decoration, 15th century.
(6) St. Lawrence's Church, Stratford-sub-Castle, has walls of flint, rubble and ashlar, and tiled roofs (Plate 38). Although patched and refaced, the N. and S. walls of the Chancel are of 13th-century origin and probably represent the Chapel of Stratford mentioned in 1228; (fn. 48) there is also a fragment of a 13th-century piscina. The 14th-century chancel arch predicates a nave of that date, and the record of consecration in 1326 (fn. 49) probably refers to this part of the building; nevertheless the Nave, Tower Arch and South Porch are of the 15th century. Three nave buttresses were rebuilt in 1583–4. (fn. 50) In 1711 the West Tower was rebuilt, using the 15th-century plinth and tower arch. Drawings by J. Buckler, c. 1808, in Devizes Museum (fn. 51) show the church very much as it is today. Restorations were undertaken in 1904 and further repairs date from 1926 and later. The church, very well maintained, is interesting for the many periods represented in its structure and especially for the continued use of a 'mediaeval' style in 1711. Many fittings are notable.
Architectural Description — The E. end of the Chancel was rebuilt during the first half of the 15th century and has masonry of banded flint and ashlar with ashlar dressings. The N.E. and S.E. buttresses are each of two weathered stages. The E. window has three cinquefoil-headed lights and vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. wall has a square-set buttress as described and a 15th-century window of three cinquefoil-headed lights. The original masonry is hidden by 15th-century refacing, but the 13th-century origin of the wall is attested internally by the widely splayed reveal of a former window. The S. wall has a window and a buttress unform with those on the N.; a tall square-headed window at the W. end retains the rebated E. jamb of a 13th-century lancet; its W. jamb and square head are of the 17th century. The 14th-century chancel arch, built with small voussoirs, is two-centred and of one lightly chamfered order springing from hollow-chamfered abaci on chamfered responds; in the N. respond the W. chamfer rises from a convex stop.
The N. wall of the Nave is reported to have been 'rebuilt' in 1656, (fn. 52) but the wall cannot have been wholly renewed as little more than £8 was spent and an earlier roof remains in situ. Externally the wall is of chequered flint and ashlar and the E. part has a chamfered plinth. All five buttresses are of ashlar and of two stages with weathered offsets; the 1st and 3rd are plain and probably of 1656; the 2nd and 4th have wave-moulded weathering and are of the 15th century; the 5th is of the 18th century. In the eastern bay is a 17th-century window of three square-headed lights; the adjacent 15th-century window has cinquefoil-headed lights in a square-headed surround; the blocked N. doorway has a lightly chamfered 'Tudor' head; the two western bays have 18th-century windows uniform with those of the tower. The S. wall of the nave has two original windows with cinquefoil-headed lights; the S. doorway, probably of the 16th century, has a chamfered segmental head and continuous jambs. All the S. buttresses are of two stages with moulded plinths and weathered offsets; the three which were rebuilt in 1583–4 are identified on the W. of the porch by their uniformity and superior masonry.
The Tower is of two stages and has walls of flint and squared rubble with ashlar dressings. The ogee-moulded plinth survives from the 15th century. The ashlar N.W. and S.W. buttresses have two weathered stages and do not continue into the upper stage of the tower. The base of the upper stage is defined by a weathered and hollow-chamfered string-course. The embattled parapet has a moulded string-course, moulded coping and angle pinnacles with finials serrated to suggest crockets. A plain square turret adjoining the N. side of the tower was probably built for a staircase, but the lower part is now a vestry. The tower arch is two-centred and of two deeply chamfered orders dying into the responds. The W. doorway has a lightly chamfered 'Tudor' head upon which is carved in large Roman letters ERECTED ANNO 1711; above, in the lower stage, is a window with two chamfered round-headed lights in a square surround; above this and below the string-course is the inscription THO. PITT ESQ. BENEFACTOR. The upper stage of the tower has two storeys. The lower of these has a W. window uniform with that of the lower stage and, on the S. side, a square clock-face. On W. and S. the belfry storey has two-light openings as before, but with louvres; the N. and E. sides have louvred belfry windows of one light.
The South Porch is single-storeyed; its flint walls with ashlar dressings are continuous with the S. wall of the nave. The E. side has a small square-headed window. The S. doorway of the porch, with rebated jambs and a chamfered segmental head, is of the 18th century.
The Roof of the chancel has a wagon ceiling with moulded wooden ribs, probably of the first half of the 15th century; the wall-plates are masked by fascia boards with classical mouldings. Fifteenth-century wooden bosses cover the intersections of the ribs and the longitudinal members; two of them represent human heads and the others foliage. More elaborate bosses reset at the springing of the transverse ribs (Plate 47) include a mermaid, a king's head, birds, IHS, a collared bear, a man's head and a double eagle. The nave roof, also of wagon form, probably dates from later in the 15th century, but many members have recently been renewed. The wall-plate has double ogee mouldings. The rib intersections are masked by bosses, mostly foliate, but three have heads. At the springing of each transverse rib the wall-plate bosses (Plate 47 centre) are carved with grotesque or human busts, praying or carrying emblems, some of them heraldic.
Chests: Three; one of elm with a locking compartment at one end, mediaeval, with 17th-century oak lid; one of oak with panelled sides, early 17th century; one, in vestry, with drawers, oak, early 18th century.
Doors: In tower archway, oak, incorporating pierced panels with trefoil-headed openings; 15th century. In S. doorway, with fielded panels and round head; in porch doorway, with iron-spiked top; in W. doorway, similar to that in S. doorway; all of pine, c. 1711.
Font: Purbeck marble, originally square, but sawn into an octagon, with shallow arcading on two original faces and circles on a third; 12th century. Pedestal, cylindrical with moulded octagonal cap and base, probably 17th century.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: On jamb of S. doorway, initials and dates from 1619; on jambs of porch door way, from 1728; in tower on W. window, 'I. Borough, C. warden, 1711'; on jamb of N. doorway, 16. . .
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel, on N. wall, (1) of Anne (Halswell) Bowreman (sic), 1630, wall-monument with segmental broken pediment, emblems of mortality and cartouche-of-arms of Bowerman impaling Halswell; (2) of Anne, daughter of Andrew Bowerman, D.D., 1652, small marble tablet; on S. wall, (3) of Josiah Nisbet of Nevis, M.D., 1781, marble wall-monument by H. Hunter, with pediment and shield-of-arms of Nisbet; (4) of Joseph Webb of Nevis, 1779, monument similar to foregoing. In nave, (5) of Harriet Sarjeant, 1831, and others of same family, sarcophagusshaped tablet by Osmond. In churchyard, 10 paces E. of chancel, (6) of James Townsend, 1679?, table-tomb with panelled sides, scroll-work on pilasters, shields on ends, and moulded top and base (illustration below); one shield with arms of Townsend, another with arms of Davies. Floor-slabs: In chancel, (1) of Sara Young, 1652; (2) of Andrew Bowerman, 1655; (3) of John Duke, 1670, and Avis his wife, 1687; (4) of Elizabeth Duke, 1692; (5) of Bridget, wife of Bishop Earle, 1696, with lozenge-of-arms of Earle impaling another coat; (6) of Jane Arny, 1650. In nave, (7) of Elizabeth Bewde, 1662; (8) of Catherine Tompson and her son John, both 1702.
Paintings: In nave, over chancel arch, fragment of scroll border in red below illegible black-letter inscription; in porch, over S. doorway of nave, fragment of black-letter inscription and red border; both probably late 16th or early 17th century.
Piscinae: In chancel, two; one on N., presumably reset, with chamfered trefoil head grooved for shelf, 13th century, lower part restored; one on S., with chamfered two-centred head, jambs grooved for shelf, and round basin, probably 14th century, W. half restored.
Pulpit: Oak, octagonal (Plate 46), with panelled and arcaded sides in two heights, with chip-carving and other enrichment, also enriched sounding-board with turned pendants, early 17th century; stairs 19th century.
Reredos: Oak, with lower zone of fielded panelling in two heights between Corinthian pilasters, circular central panel with delicately carved and undercut foliate enrichment, and entablature with broken segmental pediment; above, E. window surrounded with moulded oak architrave flanked by fielded panels and round-headed tables of decalogue; at top, frieze of foliate scroll-work surmounted by cartouche flanked by foliate swags; early 18th century.
Screen: Below chancel arch, of oak (Plate 44), 18th-century assemblage of 15th-century pieces including stout, moulded and casement-moulded beam with foliate bosses, pierced cinquefoil-headed arcading with tracery, and lower panels with cusped and sub-cusped cinquefoil heads below frieze of fretted tracery. Central opening with panelled pilasters and semicircular arch, 18th century.
(7) St. Clement's Church, Fisherton Anger, was demolished in 1852, but some of its fittings were transferred to St. Paul's church, erected in the same year, 350 yds. to the north. Views of the former church are preserved in Salisbury Museum and in Devizes Museum. (fn. 53) There is a description of c. 1824 by Sir S. Glynne. (fn. 54) Part of the old churchyard remains as a garden. Ashlar angle-buttresses of three stages with weathered offsets in the S.W. tower of St. Paul's include masonry brought from St. Clement's. (fn. 55) Other masonry from the old church is said to be incorporated with the arches and piers at St. Paul's.
Fittings (in St. Paul's unless otherwise stated)-Bells: eight; 3rd by Robert Beconsall, inscribed 'Gev God the glory, R.B., 1616'; 4th and 6th by T. Mears, 1832; 5th by T. Mears, 1842; 7th by John Wallis, inscribed 'Prayse the Lord, I.W., 1609'; others modern.
Benefactors' Tables: Reset in tower, (1) of John Nowes of Lee, wooden panel with painted inscription and shield-of-arms of Nowes, 1819; (2) of General George Michell, plain wooden panel, 1831; (3) of John Woodward, 19th-century wooden panel with painted architectural border; (4) of Edmund Lambert, plain 19th-century wooden panel.
Monuments: In chancel, on N. respond of chancel arch, (1) of Richard Kent, rector, 1692, and his wife Margarett, 1711, small white marble cartouche with scrolled surround and acanthus enrichment. In nave, at W. end of S. wall, (2) of Martha, 1801, and William Moulton, 1803, marble tablet surmounted by sarcophagus and urn, with arms of Moulton impaling another coat; at W. end of N. wall, (3) of Sarah d'Oyly, 1800, and others later, marble tablet by Mitcherd, Fisherton. In N. aisle, on S. wall, (4) of Amelia Calder, 1830, marble tablet with lozenge-of-arms of Calder impaling Michell, by Osmond; on W. wall, (5) of Thomas Atkinson, 1838, and his wife Charlotte, 1845, marble tablet by Osmond. In S.W. tower, on S. wall, (6) of William Boucher, 1676, and others of his family, white marble tablet with broken pediment enclosing cartouche-of-arms of Boucher, erected late in the 18th century and subsequently inscribed 'Removed from old church. Osmond, Sarum'; on N. wall, (7) of John Woodward, 1828, marble tablet by Osmond. In St. Clement's churchyard, (8) of Joseph Turner, 1833, table-tomb with panelled sides; (9) of Robert, 1814, and Thomas Askew, 1831, table-tomb with reeded pilasters; (10) of Louisa Mitcherd, 1827, headstone 'carved by John and Mary Mitcherd, her parents'; (11) of Mary Keene, 1841, tomb-slab with lozenge-of-arms of Keene impaling another coat.
Plate: includes pewter flagon inscribed 'the pot of Fisharton Anger church: George Heely, John Marchant, churchwardens, 1660', also two pewter patens inscribed 'Fisherton Parish', with maker's stamp of John Ingles, 1672.
(8) St. Andrew's Church, Bemerton, about 1½ miles W. of the city, has flint and rubble walls with ashlar dressings, and tile-covered roofs. Consisting of a Nave, with a small South Porch and a wooden Bellcote, the building appears to have originated during the second half of the 14th century, but it has been extensively altered. It was restored c. 1630, (fn. 56) c. 1860 and in 1895. (fn. 57) Two drawings by J. Buckler, 1808, are in Devizes Museum. (fn. 58)
Architectural Description- The E. window is of three gradated lancet lights in 13th-century style, inserted c. 1860. The N. wall, rebuilt c. 1860, includes a blocked square-headed doorway with a round-headed rear-arch; it is of uncertain origin but probably of 1860. The S. wall has at the E. end a 14th-century window of two trefoil ogee-headed lights with a chamfered segmental rear-arch. Adjacent on the W. is a small rectangular opening with a chamfered and rebated ashlar surround, probably of the 17th century. Further W. is a well-proportioned 14th-century window of two trefoil ogee-headed lights with a quatrefoil tracery light in an ogee head; an oak beam serves as a rear-arch. The S. doorway has a chamfered two-centred head with continuous jambs; it may be partly original, but the large stones composing the head suggest 17th-century restoration. Near the W. end of the S. wall is a very worn window of one chamfered, square-headed light with an oak lintel internally. The S.W. angle of the nave is of ashlar. The W. window, probably of the late 14th century, has two trefoil-headed lights and a quatrefoil tracery light in a two-centred head under a hollow-chamfered label with head-stops.
The roof includes five pairs of trussed rafters, perhaps of the 17th century; other trusses were renewed c. 1860 and in 1895. The louvred Bell-cote over the W. gable is probably of c. 1800, (fn. 59) but it no longer retains its original form (cf. Buckler drawings); the sides are tile-hung.
Monuments: In nave, on N. wall, (1) of G[eorge] H[erbert], 1632, modern tablet; (2) of John Norris, 1711, slate tablet flanked by white marble Ionic pilasters and surmounted by cartouche-of-arms of Norris impaling Goddard; (3) of Anna Maria (Paulet) Piggot, 1851, marble tablet in form of paper scroll by T. Gaffi; (4) of John Hawes, 1787, and others of his family, oval tablet in architectural surround of variegated marbles with shield-of-arms of Hawes impaling Hawkins; (5) of Margaret, 1820, and Herbert Hawes, 1837, sarcophagusshaped tablet by Osmond. On S. wall, (6) of William Coxe, 1828, and his wife Eleanor, 1830, marble tablet in moulded frame by Osmond.
Plate: includes two silver communion cups, one with cover-paten the other without, neither dated, probably late 16th century; silver paten with simple incised scroll-work on rim, no assay mark, maker IF, probably c. 1700; silver paten with pie-crust rim, Irish assay mark, no date, probably late 18th century.
(9) St. George's Church, Harnham, has walls mainly of flint with ashlar dressings, but partly of ashlar and partly of brick, and is roofed with tiles. The church of Harnham is mentioned in a document of c. 1115. (fn. 60) The Chancel and Nave are of the early 12th century and retain N. windows and a N. doorway of the period. The original chancel arch was narrower than at present and was flanked on N. and S. by side altars backed by round-headed recesses. The surviving portion of the S. recess shows that it was originally about 4 ft. wide. In the 13th century new windows were inserted in the S. wall of the chancel and in the nave. Early in the 14th century the chancel arch was rebuilt, larger than before, and the side altars were removed to make room for the wider opening. Also in the 14th century the South Chapel was built and the S. doorway was made; probably this is the chapel of Holy Trinity for which provision was made in 1349. (fn. 61) A porch outside the original N. doorway has angle buttresses of 14th-century form, albeit rebuilt; they suggest that the porch was intended from the outset to act as the base of a North Tower. In the 15th century the chancel roof was rebuilt and the tower was completed. The tower of this date no longer exists, but it appears in a view by J. Buckler (Plate 11). (fn. 62) Shortly before 1835 the 15th-century tower was rebuilt, partly in stone and partly in brick chequered with knapped flint. (fn. 63) In 1873 extensive restorations by William Butterfield included the rebuilding of the E. end of the chancel, the W. wall of the nave and the nave roof. The N. porch, at the base of the tower, was turned into a vestry and a new porch was provided on the S. of the nave.
Architectural Description — The modern E. window of the Chancel has two trefoil-headed lights under a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; that depicted by Buckler appears to have been of similar form. The N. wall, mainly of flint, has a narrow 12th-century window with a round head and wide splays. The re-entrant angle between the N. wall of the chancel and the E. wall of the nave is of ashlar, much of it original. The S. wall has two 13th-century lancets with chamfered surrounds, wide internal splays and segmental-pointed rear-arches; the E. window is set higher than that on the W. to accomodate a contemporary piscina below the sill.
The late 15th-century wagon roof has moulded wall-plates and ogee-moulded ribs with foliate or mask bosses at the intersections. At the springing of the major ribs, busts project horizontally from the wall-plates.
The 14th-century chancel arch (Plate 37) is two-centred and of two wave-moulded orders springing from triple-shafted responds with moulded caps and bases; the bases are set on high plinths. The N. respond has been extensively restored, but that on the S. is original; its base rests on the mensa of a 12th-century altar. Tooling on the W. face of the respond suggests the removal of a fourth shaft. Beside the respond, the S. part of a shallow recess for the original side altar is exposed, the N. part truncated by the 14th-century masonry. The corresponding N. recess has gone.
Externally, the E. wall of the Nave is of ashlar. The flint N. wall contains a late 13th-century window of one trefoil-headed light with plate tracery in a two-centred head; the tracery comprises a quatrefoil and pierced spandrels. Adjacent on the W. is a round-headed 12th-century window similar to that of the chancel, but wider. Further W. is a 12th-century doorway (Plate 38) with restored plain jambs and square head under an original round-headed recessed tympanum; the voussoirs of the round head rest on original capitals with hollow-chamfered abaci; the shafts and bases have been restored. The S. side of the nave has, at the E. end, a modern squint to the S. chapel; further W. is a 14th-century archway of two chamfered orders, the inner chamfer dying into the responds, the outer chamfer continuous and ending in broach stops. The S. doorway is of 14th-century origin, but restored; it has a chamfered two-centred head and chamfered jambs with broach stops. The W. wall has an ashlar plinth chequered with knapped flint-work above a single course of ashlar; the upper part of the wall is of brick. The plain ashlar at the base is perhaps of the 14th century; the rest of the W. wall is of 1873.
The North Tower has stout N.E. and N.W. buttresses of two stages with weathered offsets rising no higher than the ground storey. Similar buttresses drawn by Buckler in 1803 were probably of 14th-century origin, but the present buttresses, N. doorway and E. window are 19th-century work. Above the ground stage, the tower of c. 1835 has brick walls chequered with knapped flint-work.
The South Chapel is faced externally with ashlar. The E. wall has a window of three gradated trefoil-headed lights with a segmental-pointed rear-arch. The S. windows, each a pair of trefoil-headed lancets, differ from Buckler's drawing which shows square-headed openings. The W. wall contains a wide squint of uncertain origin, with chamfered jambs and lintel; the splayed reveals support a cambered and ovolo-moulded rear-arch.
Fittings (including items in late 19th-century Church of All Saints)- Altar: In nave, in recess on S. of chancel arch, chamfered mensa on ashlar pedestal, central and two S. consecration crosses preserved, N. part cut away, 12th century.
Chairs: Two, of oak, with moulded and carved framework and cane panels, late 17th century. One (in All Saints) of oak, with turned legs, chip-carved stretchers and highly enriched back panel with scroll cresting, early 17th century.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: Externally on N.E. quoin of chancel, fleur-de-lis and Here Lyeth . . . . .; on W. wall of S. chapel, dates and initials from 1810; on E. jamb of S. doorway, I H D and crosses, perhaps 17th century.
Monuments: In nave, on W. wall, (1) of Maria, 1791, and Ann Kirkman, 1799, marble tablet with architectural ornament; (2) of Maria Kirkman, 1805, tablet uniform with the foregoing. In churchyard, N. of chancel, (3) of Thomas Ingland, 1709, headstone; (4) of Mary, 1810, and James Precey, 1822, headstone with foliate enrichment; (5) of Sarah Precey, 1787, and William Precey . . . . ., headstone; (6) of Ann White, 1797, and (7) of John White, 1815, pair of shaped headstones with foliate enrichment.
Painting: In recess above side altar on S. of chancel arch, Resurrection with fragmentary kneeling figure with vase and (r) nimbed figure, in dark red outline, c. 1260 (Tristram, Eng. Med. Wall Painting, XIII cent., 552).
Piscinae: In chancel, on S., hollow-chamfered trefoil-headed recess (Plate 40) with shallow circular basin and roll-moulded corbel; 13th century. In S. chapel, restored ogee trefoil-headed recess with double ovolo-mouldings ending in broach stops, with scalloped bowl and octagonal stepped corbel; 14th century (Plate 40).
(10) St. Osmund's Church, designed by A.W.N. Pugin and built in 1847–8 has flint walls with ashlar dressings and roof coverings of slate and of tile (Plate 38). The original building comprised Chancel, Nave, South Aisle, South Chapel, S.W. Tower and Vestry. The N. aisle and the N. chapel were added in 1894.
Fittings include a carved stone Altar in the S. chapel, with a hollow-chamfered mensa enriched with foliate bosses, set on a square pedestal with a panelled front composed of quatrefoils enclosing fleurs-de-lis; 19th century.
(11) St. John's Chapel, Ayleswade Bridge, now a dwelling, has rendered rubble walls with ashlar dressings, and a slate-covered roof. The building dates from c. 1240 and was founded by Bishop Bingham at the same time as the Bridge (17) and adjacent Hospital (26). Benson & Hatcher (1843) refer to the conversion of this building into a house as 'recent' (p.49, note) but chimneystacks and walled-up windows depicted by Buckler show that changes had already been made c. 1808. (fn. 64) The dwelling is now three-storeyed, the steep mediaeval roof-pitch having been altered and the walls heightened since Buckler's time, but probably during the first half of the 19th century. Shortly before 1914 the lower part of the building, now containing cellars, was to some extent restored. (fn. 65)
Architectural Description -Of the three original gradated lancet windows in the E. wall, the middle one is blocked by a chimneybreast and its position is merely outlined externally. The two lateral windows, fitted with modern casements, have chamfered two-centred heads under roll-moulded labels with returned stops. Inside, they have widely splayed jambs and hollow-chamfered segmental-pointed rear-arches. A square-headed doorway inserted below the southern E. window has an 18th-century panelled door-case and acanthus consoles supporting a flat hood, but the woodwork does not appear in Buckler's drawing and presumably comes from elsewhere. The N. wall retains the greater part of four original lancets with sills at a lower level than those on the E.; two have been altered to receive modern casements and two are bricked up. They have wide splays, stepped sills and hollow-chamfered rear-arches as on the east. Below the sills, part of a roll-moulded interior string-course survives. The S. wall retains the sills and splays of four corresponding lancets and traces of a former string-course, hacked away. The most easterly window sill contains the plain circular bowls of an original double piscina. The W. wall, largely masked by 19th-century alterations, originally had three openings at ground level. The nothernmost, a doorway with a two-centred head of two chamfered orders under a roll-moulded label and with continuous jambs in which the outer order ends at broach stops, is well preserved; the threshold lies some 8 ft. below the level of the present road. The central and southern openings have been blocked, but the remains of chamfered surrounds indicate former windows with sills some 4 ft. above the doorway threshold; the window heads are obliterated.
Inside, the early 19th century house has simple joinery of the period, including two chimneypieces with neo-classical ornament. Reset in the lower storey is a well preserved 13th-century head corbel (Plate 42). Fragments of 13th-century glazed floor tiles with geometric patterns and of mediaeval window glass are also preserved. A fragment of 13th-century leaf carving is built into a modern wall near the W. doorway.
(12) Methodist Church, in Griffin Chequer, has brick walls and slate-covered roofs and was built in 1811. (fn. 66) The site had been leased by the congregation in 1758 and in the following year John Wesley preached in 'the new chapel in Church Street', (fn. 67) but of this building nothing remains. In 1835 the building of 1811 was extended westwards and vestries were added. In 1870 the W. front was rendered; further alterations to the facade were made early in the present century. Internally, the chapel has galleries on four sides and there are windows in two storeys; the lower ones are segmental-headed and those of the gallery have round heads. In the N. elevation the disposition of the original windows in three bays can be seen; one of them has been blocked and replaced by a smaller opening a little further W.; another is masked by an addition. Further W., upper and lower windows uniform with the original openings have been added to light the 1835 extension. The N. end of a cement plat-band which decorated the W. facade of 1811 remains in the N. elevation.