Ecclesiastical Buildings

Pages 6-36

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the Town of Stamford. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1977.

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Fig. 18 (28) Church of All Saints.

(28) Parish Church of All Saints (Fig. 18; Frontispiece and Plate 13) stands in a small churchyard on the N. side of Red Lion Square. It consists of a Chancel with S. Chapel, Nave with N. and S. Aisles, N. W. Tower, N. and S. Porches and a Vestry. The walls are of coursed limestone, either squared or rubble, and the roofs are covered with lead. The plan, an irregular parallelogram, may have been influenced by an earlier, probably 12th-century, church of which the N.E. angle of the nave survives. With the exception of the tower and the vestry, the main fabric is entirely of the 13th century. The chancel, S. chapel, nave and S. aisle date from c. 1230, but the N. aisle is slightly later. Access to the church in the 13th century appears to have been through an internal porch in the W. bay of the S. aisle. The porch had an upper floor and rose above the aisle roof as a turret. Considerable rebuilding was undertaken in the late 15th century at the expense of the wool-merchant family of Browne, as attested by the merchant's mark carved on the tower. No document survives to show which member was responsible but John (d. 1475) and William Browne (d. 1489) are usually credited with the work (see (48) Browne's Hospital for family tree). With the exception of the pilaster buttresses at the corners of the building the walls above the 13th-century blind arcading were rebuilt, and the tower and spire constructed. This 15th-century work included new windows throughout, a larger chancel arch, a nave clearstorey, a vestry and the introduction of an arch at the W. end of the S. arcade. This last alteration involved the removal of an upper room in the W. bay of the aisle. Access to this room had in the 13th century been gained by a stair in the thickness of the aisle wall; in the 15th century the stair was lengthened to reach the aisle roof.

In 1857, a subterranean compartment, 9 ft. 6 ins. wide and 12 ft. high, with a quadripartite vault, and passages on S. and W., 6 ft. wide and 7 ft. high, was found within the churchyard on the N. side of the church, but the precise location is not known (Burton, 10).

Galleries, since removed, were inserted in the 18th century. There were restorations in 1856 when the vestry was rebuilt and new oak pews were made to the design of E. Browning, in 1871 when T. G. Jackson rebuilt the W. wall of the S. chapel and added two buttresses to the W. wall of the nave, and in 1878 when the present reredos and low chancel screen were designed by T. Treadway Hanson (Associated Architectural Societies' Reports iv, 1856–7; LRO. Faculty Books 14/5, 71/521, 8/41).

The church is noteworthy for the extent and elaboration of the early 13th-century architecture and for the sophistication of the 15th-century alterations and additions.

Fig. 19 (28) Church of All Saints

S. arcade showing 15th-century adaptation of 13th-century W. respond.

Architectural Description (arranged chronologically) — Several quoins existing at a high level at the N.E. corner of the nave survive of an early, possibly 12th-century, nave. Externally the walls of the 13th-century fabric are marked by blind arcading consisting of detached shafts with moulded arches and continuous moulded labels; the capitals are alternately bell-shaped or carved with stiff-leaf foliage (Plate 11). This arcading survives unaltered on the S. and E. sides, but on the W. the heads of the arches were rebuilt in the 15th century with four-centred cinque-foiled heads. The walls are strengthened by pilaster buttresses: those on the E., at the W. end of the N. arcade and under the W. window have chamfered angles, but those at the W. end of the S. aisle are distinguished by angle shafts, capitals and bases, in two stages.

Internally the principal 13th-century features are the arcades, the northern of which is plainer and later than that on the S. The S. arcade, originally of three bays only, consists of piers composed of clustered shafts with water-holding bases, annulets, stiff-leaf capitals and deeply moulded arches (Plates 8, 13). The responds and the first pier have keel-moulded shafts on the diagonals, but on the second they are set axially; the E. arch has nail-head ornament on the soffit. In the narrower W. bay a 15th-century arch (Fig. 19) with battlemented capitals was set into the wall which was presumably pierced only by a doorway in the 13th century. On the S. side of the third pier are indications of a former wall enclosing the W. bay of the aisle. A shaft in the S.W. angle of the aisle with 13th-century detail comparable to the N. arcade probably implies a vault over the ground floor of this area. The N. arcade consists of round columns with water-holding bases, coved capitals and arches of two chamfered orders. The arcade of two bays separating chancel from S. chapel is transitional in character between the two nave arcades, the outer order of the arches being moulded while the inner is chamfered. Four human heads, much restored, are incorporated in the stiff-leaf foliage with which the capital of the round column is decorated.

The 15th-century additions and alterations are characterised by considerable architectural elaboration and by some degree of fantasy. Battlements are freely used as decoration on capitals, on wall surfaces of the tower, and as cresting to the arcading on the west front, as well as more conventionally on all the external parapets. The windows have graduated lights of predominantly vertical tracery in four-centred, two-centred or triangular heads. The porch on the N. side of the tower is conceived as a miniature fortified gateway complete with cruciform arrow slits (Plate 17); one of its two pinnacles is set diagonally while the other is square. The S. porch (Plate 17), replacing the earlier internal porch the entrance to which is traceable over the porch roof, has an archway with panelled jambs within a tall ogee framework, flanked by linked pairs of crocketed and panelled buttresses, the outer set diagonally; inside, the porch had a barrel-vault with decorative cusped panels. Panelling on jambs is also a distinctive feature of the vestry doorway. The arrangement for down-pipes on the exterior of the N. and S. aisles is unusual; vertical channels for pipes, cut in the face of the N. buttresses, lead to gargoyles on the swept-up weathering (Plate 17), or to corbels above the earlier arcading on the S. (Plate 11).

The tower (Frontispiece and Plate 19) is of four external stages; the third is enriched with cusped panelling, band of quatrefoils and battlemented cornice, the remainder are in plainer ashlar. The clasping buttresses are subordinated to the decorative treatment but terminate in prominent turrets, diagonally placed and projecting back to the spire. On the second stage, facing E., is a two-light window having a moulded surround integral with the adjacent string courses, deep casement-moulded jambs and a large circular stone clock face interrupting the mullion; on the rim of the dial are twelve embossed discs and in the centre are radiations; all late 15th-century (Plate 19). On the N. a lozenge-shaped panel contains a shield suspended by a hand and flanked by birds, charged with the merchant's mark of the Browne family: a sub-divided heart with letter B in base, surmounted by a cross, all within a border; the lozenge had a moulded surrounded with elaboration at the corners, now all cut back. The octagonal spire with broaches has crockets on each arris and three tiers of lucarnes with finialled gables. Inside, the ground stage has a stone vault with broad panelled ribs and a large aperture for bell-raising; some of the shaft capitals are carved with grotesque male figures in contorted attitudes, apparently blocking their ears (Plate 18).

The vestry, entered by a 15th-century doorway with panelled reveals (Plate 19), was rebuilt in 1856. It stands on medieval basement walls below ground; an area window on the N. has splayed jambs and a blocked opening in the S. has a pointed head. The stone steps are perhaps medieval.

The following Roofs are low-pitched and 15th-century. Those over the chancel, nave, and S.E. chapel have cambered tie beams, intermediate principals, purlins, wall posts supported on carved stone corbels, and gilded bosses; the chancel and chapel roofs have three-quarter winged angels at the ends of the principals, and the chapel roof is further enriched by a boarded soffit with diagonal mouldings, bosses and radiating foliage (Plate 23). Decoration on bosses in chancel include an unidentified crest (lion's head collared between two spears erect), two with storks and ' + me spede' on label, swans or pelicans and mitred heads. The S. aisle roof of single pitch but ridged internally has moulded rafters and purlins.

Fittings — Bells: six, of which four are inscribed in Roman capitals, three being signed by R. Taylor of St. Neots and dated 1808; the previous ring was recast in 1808 by Taylor and a new bell added, at a cost of £230 (Burton, 8).

Brasses and Indents. Brasses: in S. chapel — (1), (Plate 32), in Purbeck slab, male civilian in cloak, feet on two woolsacks, female figure with horned head-dress, small dog at foot, canopy partly recessed for inlay, spandrelroundel with stork on nest, separate labels inscribed '+ me spede' and 'oer lady help at nede', four indents for shields, and rectangular plate with two Latin verses in black-letter, between which are engraved two storks on woolsacks; the brasses have been ascribed to William and Margaret Browne (both died 1489) (M-S. II); (2), to Margaret, daughter of John Elmes, 1471, in slab possibly of Alwalton marble, small figure with horned head-dress, plate with Latin black-letter inscription (M-S. III); (3), (Plate 53), in same slab as (2), to John Saunders, 1693, rectangular plate with inscription in capitals and with shields of arms and crest of Saunders of Sapperton (M-S. VIII). On S. wall — (4), priest in cope, head missing, c. 1500 (M-S. VII); (5), to HenryWykys, vicar, 1508, plate with black-letter inscription, probably belonging to (4) (M-S. VII); (6), to Alice Bredmeydew (Browne), February 1491, plate with Latin black-letter inscription (M-S. V). In N. aisle — (7), male civilian and female figure with horned head-dress, late 15th-century (M-S. VI); (8), (Plate 30), male civilian in cloak over tunic, with belt recessed for inlay, and purse, feet on twin woolsacks, and female figure with horned head-dress, dog at feet, mid 15th-century, in reused slab with indent for shield; figures possibly belonging to (10) (M-S. I); (9), (Plate 31), male civilian in cloak, 1475/6, the lining recessed for inlay, and female figure with veil head-dress, tall pleated collar, and plate with Latin verse in black-letter, with indent for shield below; inscription (. . est m(ih)i nome(n) idem q(ue) p(at)ri, labor un(us) ut(r)iq(ue) . .) suggests that this brass commemorates John Browne the younger, and Agnes his wife (M-S. IV). On N. wall (10), to John Browne (the elder), woolmerchant of Calais, 1442, and Margery his wife, 1460, rectangular plate inscribed in raised black-letter against a hatched background with flanking merchant's marks of Browne, on reused Purbeck slab in moulded stone frame cut down at top, possibly 17th-century; perhaps belonging to (8) (M-S. I); (11), to Catherine Wilson, 1836, plate with black inlay. Indent: in S. chapel, for small figure and inscription plate, 15th or early 16th-century.

Fig. 20 (28) Church of All Saints

Monument (2) to George Denshire, 1743.

Chest: oak, with shaped bracket feet, 18th-century. Clock face: see Tower. Coffin: in churchyard, tapered stone coffin, perhaps 13th-century. Font: Purbeck marble, octagonal, buttressed stem with cinquefoil-headed panels, buttresses on the arrises, moulded plinth, bowl with blank shields in shallow cusps and sub-cusps, 15th-century (Plate 40). Glass: in S. chapel, E. window, in tracery, yellow-stain, 15th-century. Hour-glass stand: on S.E. nave respond, wrought-iron with scrolled ends to holder, and bracket of twisted bars, 17th-century (Plate 55). Ironwork: four gates in churchyard wall, with delicate uprights and scroll-work, c.1800. Masons' marks: in tower, 15th-century (Fig. 6).

Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: in S. chapel — (1), of Elizabeth Truesdale, January 1683, black tablet with limestone frame and broken pediment; (2), of George Denshire, January 1743, and Mary his wife, 1741, coloured marble, central urn in broken curved pediment, shaped apron with shield of arms with escutcheon and crest, signed 'E. Bingham Peterbro' Fe' (Fig. 20); (3), of George Denshire, 1782, Sarah his wife, 1779, Langton their son, captain in the 34 Regiment who died at the siege of Havannah, 1762, and Sarah their daughter, 1782, marble, shaped apron, pilasters with urns, shield of arms as (2), and central urn and swag against obelisk background; (4), of Cornwall Tathwell, February 1773, coloured marble enriched with cherubs' heads, books and shield of arms; (5), of Francis Butler, February 1726, white marble classical design with broken pediment and shield of arms of Butler; (6), of Thomas Truesdale, 1700, cartouche with elaborate surround of swags incorporating two shields of arms of Truesdale, one impaled and one quartered. In nave — on W. wall (7), of Jane Warren, 1827; (8), of Edward Brown, 1838, by T. Denman, 83 Quadrant, Regent's Street; (9), of Margaret Scott, 1835, by Smith; (10), of William Scott, 1826, by Gilbert; (11), of Mary Holmes, 1834, by Smith; (12), of Emma Thompson, 1845, by Fearn. In N. aisle (13), of Emma Rode, 1826. In S. aisle — (14), of John Wyche, 1820, and Sarah Clarke his daughter, 1836; (15), of Frances Gilchrist, 1806, neoGreek design with scroll-work top; (16), of Ann Barker, 1829, lozenge-wise tablet with cusped decoration, by Woolston; (17), of Thomas Haynes, 1834, and Elizabeth his wife, 1837, by Smith; (18), of David Watson, 1818, and Mary his wife, 1843; (19), of George White, 1790, Phoebe his wife, 1799, and Woods their son, 1832. Monuments listed above without full description are of white marble with black backgrounds, and of simple design. Tablets attached externally — on N. aisle wall, (20), of Ann Edgson, 1806, and Frances Edgson, 1807, by Gilbert; (21), of Charlotte Edgson, 1815; (22), of David Edgson, 1817; (23), of Ann Edgson, 1788; on S. aisle wall, (24), of Bridget Webb, Jan. 1715, oval cartouche with scroll surround and cherubs' heads; (25), of William Baker, 1796, and wife, open book beneath obelisk. In churchyard — 18th-century tomb chest with baluster-shaped terminals; approximately 20 embellished headstones of the 18th century. Floor slabs: in S. chapel — two slabs with bitumen inlay, one coffin-shaped, the other possibly dated 1764. In tower — eleven slabs include (1) of Eliza Lafargue, 1780, signed 'J. Hames', two others, mostly illegible, with bitumen-filled lettering and scroll flourishes, signed 'Harrison', and another with bitumen-filled scroll-work surround.

Niches: in N. and S. aisles, W. wall, two small recesses with miniature vaulting in the head, 15th-century. Painting (Fig. 21): in tower, high on N. wall, with pilasters, curved pediment, and verse: 'If you that do pretend to ring; you under take a dangerous thing; if that a bell you over throw; two pence must pay before you go. 1694'. The ringing gallery at the level of this painting was removed in 1856 (LAO, Faculty Book, 14/5). Piscinae: in S. chapel — (1), in E. wall, double recess with central shaft and engaged side-shafts, water-holding bases, bell-shaped capitals carrying round-headed arches, and two fluted drain sinkings, 13th-century (Plate 9); (2), in S. wall, recess with cinquefoil head, mutilated shelf on rear wall, 15th-century. Plate: cup (ht. 8 ins.), tapered stem with knop, inscribed 'gift of Richard Cumberland vicar . . .', and cover paten, by Anthony Nelme 1691; flagon (ht. 10 ins.), flat domed lid, inscribed as gift of Edward Curtis on 25 December 1709, by John Wisdom 1709; funnel with detachable strainer by Samuel Godbehere 1811; plate or paten (diam. 8¼ ins.), inscribed beneath as gift of Anna Lawson in 1707, London 1706; stand paten, inscribed as bequest of John Palmer in 1706, by William Looker 1706. Recess: in W. wall of vestry, plain jambs and pointed head, with brick repairs, medieval. Sundial: on parapet of S. aisle, pedimented stone panel, early 18th-century. Table: oak, with turned baluster legs and shaped rails, repaired, 17th-century. Miscellaneous: over chancel arch, stone shield with merchant's mark of Browne, possibly brass, date unknown.

Fig. 21 (28) Church of All Saints

Wall painting in tower, 1694.

(29) Parish Church of St. George (Fig. 22; Plate 27) stands at the E. end of St. George's Square within a small churchyard. The walls are of limestone, some being 'Barnack' with diagonal tooling, and the roofs are lead-covered. The church consists of a Chancel, Nave with Aisles, Transepts and W. Tower. The church received a gift of timber from Henry III in 1229 (10 copulas . . . ad operationem ecclesie Sancti Georgii', Cal. Close, 1227–31, 273). A later gift, in 1244, was specifically for an aisle ('iiij quercus ad maeremium ad constructionem unius ale, que de novo construitur in predicta ecclesia', ibid., 1242–7, 208). The surviving nave pier bases are in accord with this latter date. Also of the mid 13th century is the E. part of the tower and the reset tower arch.

Early in the 14th century the nave arcades were remodelled and heightened, re-using the pier bases and ashlar from the earlier shafts. Later in the 14th century the chancel arch was rebuilt, and the wall between it and the N.E. respond pierced with an archway. During the mid 15th century the chancel was rebuilt, the completion of the work being made possible by the bequest of Sir William Bruges, first Garter King-of-Arms, who died in March 1450 (Lambeth Palace, Register of Archbishop Stafford, ff. 186v–187v); at the same time an archway was inserted in the long E. respond of the S. arcade, perhaps in connection with one of the chapels referred to in Bruges' will. In the second half of the 15th century the nave was re-roofed and the aisles were rebuilt. The markedly oblong plan of the W. tower appears to be the result of the rebuilding of the western half and the upper two stages, possibly in the 17th century. The addition of the clearstorey, perhaps also in the 17th century, necessitated the resetting of the 15th-century roof at a higher level. A number of alterations were made in the late 19th century : a 'new vestry' referred to in 1862 may relate to the present N. vestry (church documents); an organ chamber and porch, S. of the chancel, were added at a cost of £164 by E. Browning in 1878; the N. and S. transepts were built, the aisles lengthened to the W., and the organ chamber and vestry altered at a total cost of £800 by J. C. Traylen in 1887 (LAO, Faculty Books 8/97, 9/423). The church is notable for the documented date of the chancel, and its association with the order of St. George.

Fig. 22 (29) Church of St. George.

Architectural Description — The Chancel has a battlemented parapet with large beast-head gargoyles. The E. window has a four-centred head with vertical tracery and transom over the central light. The side walls have windows of four graduated lights in four-centred heads; the third on the N. has been reset in the E. wall of the vestry, and the third on the S. in the E. wall of the S. transept. The 15th-century S. doorway, replaced by a modern one, has been reset in the E. wall of the organ chamber (engraving of 1727 in Peck, XIV, opp. p. 23). The late 14th-century chancel arch with two-centred head has two orders, the outer continuous, the inner rising from semi-octagonal shafts with plain bases and moulded capitals. The Nave (Plate 14) has uniform N. and S. arcades with long E. responds. The central bay is wider than those on the E. and W. The 13th-century water-holding bases to piers and responds are circular, and the piers are in three sections : the central is circular, and the octagonal form of the lower and upper sections is continued in the coved capitals. The circular elements are 13th-century, the octagonal 14th-century. The arches are double-chamfered, the first and the third bays being two-centred and the wider central bays depressed. In the long E. respond on the N. is an inserted late 14th-century opening with continuous moulded jambs and head of three orders, symmetrical on the N. and S., the two outer wave-moulded and the inner hollow-chamfered, all stopped on a plain chamfered plinth. On the S. the corresponding 15th-century opening has a four-centred head, moulded jambs and head of three orders, the outer two being continuous and hollow-chamfered, the inner having wave-moulded head with moulded caps and bases; the mouldings stop on a high chamfered plinth, much renewed. High up at the E. end of the N. wall is a blocked two-centred doorway to the former rood loft; across the N.E. angle is a 19th-century blocking, until 1887 pierced with an opening to the pulpit. The embattled clearstorey, perhaps of the early 17th century, has windows of two lights with two-centred heads within rectangular openings. The N. and S. Aisles are uniform and were rebuilt, apparently totally, in the mid 15th century. The embattled parapets have beast-head gargoyles. Windows which survived the 19th-century alterations have triangular heads and three cinque-foiled lights; others have been reset in the N. wall of the vestry, the S. wall of the organ chamber, the transepts and the aisle-extensions. The rear arch of the E. window of the N. aisle remains, but the jambs have been cut straight. Four rounded corbels in the aisle related to an earlier aisle roof.

The N. and S. Transepts incorporate some reused medieval masonry in the lower courses of the wall. A gargoyle with fabulous beast's head has been reset in the N. transept wall.

The W. Tower is of four stages without buttresses (Plate 27). The plan is oblong as a result of the W. part being rebuilt, and a straight joint in the S. wall indicates the limit of this rebuilding in the 17th century. The entirely rebuilt upper two stages have battered sides and the parapet is battlemented. The 13th-century tower arch has been reset at a higher level; it has two quadrant-shaped shafts on the E., a double-chamfered arch and bell capitals with abaci enriched with nail-head. The 14th-century W. window with flowing tracery forming a pattern of intersecting ogee curves has been reset (cf. similar window at Canford church, Northamptonshire); other windows at belfry level, with pointed heads, transoms and wooden rear lintels are 17th-century. On the E. an area of masonry with a small two-centred opening, at nave roof level, is a survival of the 13th-century tower. On the N. and S. are rough projections being the remains of the former W. walls of the aisles. The shallow projecting W. porch, built in 1848 to a design by E. Browning (vestry book), has a trefoil-headed doorway of 13th-century character and a 17th-century rear arch.

The mid 15th-century Roof over the chancel is low-pitched, in three bays with cambered tie beams, moulded purlins, ridge piece with square foliated bosses at the intersections, battlemented cornice, and intermediate principal rafters at the feet of which are winged demiangels holding shields carved with (a) cross of St. George, (b) hands and feet, (c) a heart, all painted in modern times. The E. and W. end trusses have moulded arch braces and battlemented wall posts. The central bay and the two unmoulded tie beams are renewals. The reset nave roof follows the design of that in the chancel, but is in four bays; the tie beams are arch-braced, and mortices in the intermediate principal rafters indicate former demi-angels which were removed when the roof was reset, to avoid the clearstorey windows. One boss is carved with a swan, the remainder are foliated. The N. and S. aisle roofs, originally of four bays, are single-pitch versions of the foregoing but much renewed; some square foliated bosses and the mortices for demi-angels survive. The N. roof is at a higher level than the S.

Fig. 23 (29) Church of St. George

Clock, 1792.

Fittings — Bells: 1st by Thomas Eayre, 1761; 2nd, 1777; 3rd by Arnold, 1797; 4th, attributed to Toby Norris III, 1697. Bell frame: possibly medieval but reset and altered with addition of upper tier to take bell of 1697. Clock (Fig. 23): iron frame with round standards, ball finials, and circular plate inscribed '1792 Thos. Rayment, Stamford'; it cost £24 (Churchwardens' Accounts). Clock dial: on W. face of tower, wood, octagonal, 18th-century. Font: limestone, lead-lined, octagonal bowl cut with vertical and tapering sides, moulded stem and base, probably medieval. Glass: in chancel (1) in first window on N., 130 complete quarries and 60 half-quarries, many being copies, depicting the Garter with black-letter motto (Fig. 25), yellow-stain, reset remnants from backgrounds of portraits of the Knights of St. George, second half 15th century (W. A. Rees-Jones, The Order of St. George; H. Stanford London, 'The Life of William Bruges . . . ', Harleian Soc. CXI, CXII (1970); copies by Dugdale, 1641, Earl of Winchelsea collection); (2) in S. window (Plate 38), crowned figure of St. Catherine with emblems of martyrdom, under architectural canopy, against modern background, fragments of black-letter inscription (recorded fully by Peck (1727) XIV, 24); roundel with head of mitred prelate (Plate 39); figure of St. Anne, heavily restored, teaching the Virgin to read, under architectural canopy, and with modern background; roundel with head of man, probably a Garter portrait; all 15th-century. In N. aisle (3) in W. window, assembly of fragments including Garter quarry, lion's head, angel, architectural decoration and black-letter inscriptions, all 15th-century. In S. aisle (4) three Garter quarries, head of the 14th century, architectural decoration, 15th-century, made up with head of man, c. 1500. Much of the medieval glass remained until the 18th century; Stukeley records that 'walking by Exton the glaziers door I saw a cart load of painted glass just taken from St. George's Church' (Surtees Society 76 (1883), 328).

Monuments: in chancel — on N. wall (1), of John Wyldbore, 1674, on sill of first window, dark stone inscription tablet set in limestone surround with jewelled pilasters and scrolled cresting enclosing painted shield for Wyldbore (Fig. 24); (2), of Rev. Richard Atlay, 1832, white marble tablet with scrolled cresting, signed 'Smith'; (3), of Savile Cockayne Cust, 1772, marble, circular inscription panel between fluted pilasters supporting cornice and urn of coloured scagliola, within a draped niche, surmounted by oval shield of arms of Cust, Cockayne and Savile, signed 'W. Tyler' (Plate 52); (4), of Ursulah Cust, daughter of Edward Woodcocke, 'Jan. 1683/4', marble cartouche with floral and drapery swags at top and sides, crest and shield of arms of Cust impaling Woodcocke, six oval plaques, applied later to swags, to Sir Pury Cust, 'Feb. 1798/9', Sir Richard Cust, 1700, Samuel Cust, 1662, Mary Woodcocke, 'Feb. 1682/3', Sir Richard Cust, 1734, and Mary Thompson, 1718, together with Ursulah Newton, 1757 (Plate 52); (5), of Sir Richard Cust, 1734, and Anne (Brownlow) his wife, 1779, white marble statuary with veined marble obelisk background, set against rusticated ashlar blocking of second window, with plinth bearing inscription flanked by low relief panels depicting a lion with staff, and hand mirror with snakes, and supporting statuary consisting of female figure and pillar carved with arms of Cust quarterly impaling Brownlow, and carrying a male portrait-bust, signed on plinth 'J. Bacon R.A. Sculptor London 1797' (Plate 51); on S. wall (6), of Rev. Thomas Darke, 1839, repeating design of (2), signed 'Smith'; (7), of Dr. James Oldershaw, 1796, white marble inscription panel with enriched classical surround including emblems of Aesculapius, surmounted by veined marble obelisk, urn, and shield of arms of Oldershaw with escutcheon for Roe, signed 'Sparrow'; below, added triangular apron to Anne (Roe) his wife, 1801; on W. wall (8), of Rev. R. L. Carr, 1811, plain marble tablet with obelisk, signed 'Spencer'; (9), of Francis Butt, 1840, and daughters Mary, 1838, Leonora, 1839, and Selina (Welby), shaped white marble tablet signed 'Smith'; (10), of Henry Smith, 1833, white marble tablet signed 'Smith'. In nave — on N. wall (11), of Margaret Thompson (Northon), 1805, white marble tablet surmounted by urn, signed 'Sparrow'; (12), of Rev. John Northon, 1781, Elizabeth his wife, 1796, and two sons, white marble tablet with fluted pilasters, moulded cornice, terminal urns and stunted obelisk; (13), of Martha Merveilleux, 1824, and daughter Caroline Aird, 1825, by Gilbert; on S. wall (14), of Caroline May, 1837, and brother, Henry, 1837; (15), of Sarah Clay, 1830, Samuel and Arthur, 1842, and five infants, with later apron; (16), of John Butt, 1831. Monuments listed above without full description arc of white marble and simple design. In N. aisle (17), of Tobie Norris, inscribed bellmetal panel composed of bell-founders' dies, 'Here lieth the body of Tobie Norris Belfoun: who decea: the 2 of No 1626' (Plate 53); indent for panel is in limestone slab in the N. aisle. Attached externally — on N. transept (18), of John Cole, 1797, mason, tablet with floral frame surmounted by obelisk carved with cherub's head, possibly executed by Cole family; on S. side, five oval or shaped tablets, dated between 1789 and 1823. In churchyard — approximately 25 headstones, the earliest dated 1699, the remainder 18th-century, many enriched with scroll-work and emblems of mortality; also four in slate, the earliest dated 1777, and a large number of later headstones.

Fig. 24 (29) Church of St. George

Wall monument (1) to John Wyldbore, 1674.

Plate: Stand paten (diam. 8 ins.), inscribed '1707 given to St. George's in Stamford for the service of ye Communion by E.G.', by Henry Greene, 1706; cup (ht. 7 ins.), beaker-shaped bowl with wide stem, inscribed 'given by the will of Dame Alice Cust to St. George's Church in Stamford 1715', by Michael Boult, 1715; flagons, a pair (ht. 11 ins.), tapered sides, domed lids, inscribed as on cup, by Boult, 1715. Rainwater heads: on chancel and transepts, half-round, lead, embossed with cherubs' heads, 18th-century. Screen: lower part reset in N. transept, in four bays with blind cusped tracery, foliage in spandrels, 15th-century. Sundial: on S. face of tower, limestone panel, 18th-century. Table: oak, with bulbous legs, early 17th-century, remodelled.

Fig. 25 (29) Church of St. George

Glass (1) depicting Garter.

(30) Parish Church of St. John Baptist (Fig. 26; Plate 26), has a churchyard on the S. and houses built close to it on the E. and N. It comprises a Chancel, N. and S. Chapels, Nave with Aisles, N. W. Tower and S. Porch. The walls are mostly of limestone ashlar and the roofs are lead-covered. The earliest survivals are some late 12th-century voussoirs said to have been found built into the chancel arch (see Miscellaneous); rough masonry N. of the chancel arch may be the remains of the E. aisle wall of the same date, subsequently cut back. Sloping weathercourses on the S. and E. sides of the tower relate to a continuous roof over a former nave and N. aisle; the low pitch of the weathercourse over the aisle, implying a late medieval date for its former roof, suggests that an earlier structure had been, or was intended to be, re-roofed. In either event these features show that the construction of the tower preceded the rebuilding of the nave and aisle. The present church is in appearance entirely of the 15th century. Peck in 1727 (Peck, XIV, 36–7) records that two windows, in the N. chapel and N. aisle, had glass inscribed 1451, a date which is also reasonable for the structure. Restorations in 1897 under J. C. Traylen, architect, included a new vestry, removal of the font from nave to S. aisle, and restoration of screens to their original positions (LAO, Faculty Book 11/9).

The church is noteworthy for its unified design resulting from its construction within a short span in the 15th century. It has been little altered. Notable fittings include 15th-century glass and screens, and an 18th-century English altar frontal and pulpit cloth.

Architectural Description — The Chancel has lateral buttresses of two stages with cusped gabled tops, and battlemented parapets. The E. window, of five cinquefoil lights and no tracery, has a low internal sill; the N. and S. windows repeat this design. The low sill of the N. window has a projecting chamfered slab. The S. doorway, now serving the vestry, has a four-centred inner and square outer head and foliated spandrels. The N. and S. arches are of two wave-moulded orders, the outer continuous with label and grotesque headstops, the inner carried on half-rounded responds with semi-octagonal bases and crenellated caps; the chancel arch is similar but has semi-octagonal responds. The N. and S. Chapels and the Aisles have windows of cinquefoil lights and vertical tracery. Arches between chapels and aisles die into the side walls. The rood loft stair, entered from the S. aisle, is part octagonal below the parapet and octagonal above, with a band of blind quatrefoils, false battlementing and stone octagonal top.

Fig. 26 (30) Church of St. John Baptist.

The Nave (Plate 21) has arcades with piers and responds having half-rounded shafts, semi-octagonal bases and caps, and arches of two moulded orders, the outer continuous but terminating on a lower base. The W. window, of five cinque-foiled ogee lights, has intersecting tracery over the centre and outer lights and vertical tracery over the remainder. The W. doorway, blocked internally, has continuous moulded jambs and four-centred head, and human head stops. The battlemented clearstorey has two-light cinque-foiled windows with triangular heads.

The N. W. Tower of five external stages has clasping and pilaster buttresses, battlemented parapets enriched with band of quatrefoils, crocketed pinnacles and diagonally-placed gargoyles carved as grotesques. The lowest stage, above a high weathered plinth, has a N. doorway with two-centred head and continuous waveand-hollow moulded jambs; the W. window of three cinque-foiled lights with simple tracery rises into the second stage. On N. and W. of the third stage are quatrefoil openings in a square surround. All four faces of the fifth stage have belfry windows each of four lights with a mullion rising to the apex. Inside, the tower arches repeat the design of the nave arcades but are lower, narrower and with mouldings of bolder profile. Engaged angle shafts rise to the ringing chamber and terminate with the moulded springing for intended vaulting. Weathercourses on the E. and S. faces relating to former nave and aisle roofs are referred to in the introduction; blocked recesses for rafters of the earlier nave roof are traceable below the weathercourse on the S.

The very shallow S. Porch has an archway with numerous engaged shafts with caps and bases supporting a multi-moulded two-centred arch with ogee crocketed label and demi-angel stops; the battlemented parapet has central and terminal pinnacles and side gargoyles carved as animals.

The Roofs are mid 15th-century; that over the chancel (Plate 21), of three bays, has cambered tie beams, short king posts, queen struts, pierced arcade infilling, braces to wall posts each with three-quarter angels holding shields, a book and other emblems; the central bosses are floriated. The angels are crudely carved and the wings are missing; in 1623 John Bassett was paid 18d. for cutting angels' wings (Vestry Book). The nave roof (Plate 22), of eight bays, rests directly on cambered tie beams and the wall posts are supported on stone demi-figures carved as human grotesques; the intermediate principals terminate as three-quarter angels either in prayer or holding emblems which include a crown, sceptre, musical instrument and a flask (?) (Plate 23). At the intersections of the main members are foliated bosses. The roofs over N. chapel and N. aisle are lean-to with moulded purlins and principals alternately archbraced to wall posts or terminating as three-quarter angels; the S. aisle roof repeats the design but the wall posts are longer and terminate as small demi-angels. At the junctions of the purlins and principals are foliated bosses.

Fittings — Bells: four; 1st, with floriated cross, shield and inscription in Lombardic capitals, 'Richard Snamdon Parson Anno 1561'; 2nd, recast in 1814 by Taylor of St. Neots and formerly dated 1516; 3rd, uninscribed, with three foundry marks, c. 1550–1650; 4th, as 1st, inscribed 'Robert Medoens Gent Tobe Lovadaie 1561' with some letters reversed. The number 6 on bells 1 and 4 is probably a reversed 9; Snowden was incumbent from 1572 to 1604. Bell frame: probably 1814. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: in S. chapel (1), on E. wall, of Phillip Johnson, January 1683, rectangular plate (Fig. 27; M–S. IV); (2), of Henry Sargeaunt, rector, died 1497, priest in vestments, indent below for inscription plate and in each corner quatrefoil indents (M–S. III); the slab (6 ft. 9 in. long) was reused in the 18th century and inscribed to Thomas Bright, 1774, and below brass is inscribed 'H.S. MCCCCLXXX . . .'. (Peck, XIV, 66–7, for inscription and evangelists' symbols). In Nave (3), of Nicholas Byldysdon and Kateryn his wife, 1489, male civilian in fur-lined gown, and female figure, plate with black-letter inscription in English, evangelists' symbols, two of which are modern, and two small plates for four male and five female children (M–S. II) (Plate 44); the brass was formerly in S. chapel and the present slab is only partly ancient (Peck, ibid). In N. aisle (4), of William Gregory and Agnes his wife, rectangular plate, black-letter inscription in Latin, 15th-century (M–S. I). In S. aisle (5), of Robert Ridlington, 1766, shaped plate. Indents: in S. chapel (1) and S. aisle (2), both rectangular. Chest: oak, 18th-century. Dial: scratched on first buttress of S. aisle, 15th-century. Font: limestone, octagonal with waisted stem, flared foot, roll-moulded arrises, and panels containing quatrefoils; 15th-century (Plate 40). Font-cover: oak, octagonal with scroll panelling, conical spire with debased crockets and leaf finial; 17th-century, repaired (Plate 54).

Glass: probably all installed in 1451 (see introduction). The glass was cleaned and partly rearranged in 1974 and some panels were reset in other windows. In chancel — (1), N. window, fragments in border. In N. aisle — (2), 1st window (reading from left to right): (a) and (b) saints; (c) 'Scs Augustin'; (d) 'Scs Ambro'; (e) and (f) mitred saints; demi-angels in tracery are in situ, remaining figures are new arrangements of old glass; canopy-work in heads of main lights. (3), 2nd window, six figures in tracery in situ (Plate 34); (a), (b), (e) and (f) show tonsured saints in blue habits with black-letter inscriptions below: (a) holding crozier and book, with hind at foot, inscribed 'S. Egidius' (Giles); (b) holding crozier and book, inscribed 'Scs Botulpus'; (c) mitred saint holding woolcomb, inscribed ' . . Blasius' (Blaise); (d) mitred saint; (e) holding fetters, crozier and book, inscribed 'Scs Leonardus'; (f) holding tall cross and book, with knife in chest, inscribed 'S. Petrus de Mille' (St. Peter Martyr). (4), 3rd window, mostly in situ, six figures under canopies with feathered angels in tracery; (a), (b), (e) and (f) represent Cardinal Virtues, each holding swords, and are inscribed 'Sca Spes', 'Sca Fides', 'Sca Caritas' and 'Sca Sapiencia'; (c) Virgin of the Mantle sheltering miniature figures; (d) God the Father holding souls in folds of garment (Plate 34); also canopy-work. In S. chapel — (5), E. window, in tracery, figures in situ including 'S. Elizabet'; in main lights, assemblage of fragments, formerly in S. window of chancel and elsewhere, including a large demi-figure of a mitred saint holding crozier and in act of blessing, with inscription 'S. Oswaldus'; also fragments of prophets, heads of donors, a phoenix with halo, angels and lions. In S. aisle — (6), 1st window, in tracery partly in situ, six figures: (a) female figure; (b) 'Scs Marcus'; (c) St. Christopher and Christ child; (d) St. George and dragon; (e) 'Scs Matheus'; (f) 'Scs Johes'; also canopy-work. (7), 4th window, six figures of female saints including (a) 'Sca Petronilla', (b) St. Mary Magdalene, (c) 'Sca Etheldreda', (d) St. Catherine, (e) and (f) saints. Masons' Marks: throughout building, 15th-century (Fig. 6).

Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: in Nave — on N. wall (1), of Susanna Allen, 1825; (2), of Chamberlin White, 1847, by Daniel Gilbert; (3), of James White, 1820, and Phillis his wife, 1834, by Gilbert. In N. aisle — (4), of Rev. Charles Stokes, 1776, limestone cartouche; (5), of Cassandra Whitley, 1769, and Elizabeth Carrighan her daughter, 1813, and children, marble tablet with scroll-work sides and overthrow enclosing shield of arms and crest of Whitley; (6), of Samuel Allen, 1796, and Mary his wife, 1812, twin limestone tablets, obelisk and urn; (7), of William Gardner, 1792; (8), of Mary Mills, 1822; (9), of John Mills, 1832, and Jane his wife, 1840. In S. aisle — (10), of Ann Howgrave, 1764, and sons, shaped limestone tablet; (11), of Thomas Smith, 1760, and Sarah his wife, 1782, and Thomas, 1798, and Elizabeth his wife, 1792, marble tablet with reeded surround, shaped apron surmounted by urn and shaped background, by Sparrow; (12), of Mary Digby, 1737, limestone cartouche; (13), of William Ashby, 1820, and Ann, 1842, by Gilbert; (14), of John Booth, 1810, and Mary his wife, 1813, by Gilbert; (15) of John Booth, 1799, Coade stone relief of female figure mourning over urn, obelisk top, with inscription altered by infilling and painting, signed 'Coade London 1800' (Plate 52); (16), of John Bushby, 1788, and Martha his mother, 1789, limestone cartouche, by J. Hames; (17), of Solomon Woodroffe, 1769. Monuments listed above without full description are in white marble and of simple design; (2), (3) and (13) are of some elaboration. Attached externally — (18) of Joseph Goodwin, 1825, Jane his wife, 1834, sarcophagusshaped tablet; three undeciphered tablets. In churchyard — approximately nine enriched headstones of the 18th century and about 50 of later date; slate headstones include (1) of Elizabeth Irving, 1833, signed 'Danl. Gilbert'. Floor slabs: in chancel (1), of Robert Ste . ., 18th-century. In S. chapel — (2), of George Searson, 1772; (3), of Ann Smith (Woodroffe), 1837, black marble, lozenge-shaped; (4), of Thomas Bright, 1774, reinscribed slab of brass (2). In N. aisle — (5), date only, 1793; (6), of Richard and Mary Jennings, 1766; (7), of Elizabeth Ridlington, 18th-century, reinscribed slab of brass (4). In S. aisle — (8), of M.M., 1822, and C.M., 1845; (9), of Robert Ridlington, 1766, inscribed slab with brass (5).

Piscinae: in chancel (1) in S. wall, square recess with miniature vaulting; in S. aisle (2) in S. wall, recess with cinque-foiled head; both 15th-century. Plate: paten (diam. 9 ins.) with foot, inscribed as gift of Eli Mergerum in 1733, engraved with emblem of St. John Baptist, London 1691. Screens (Plate 41): at E. ends of N. and S. aisles, oak, each with dado of cusped arcading, double doors beneath segmental lintel entwined with foliage; above, are cusped ogee heads within two-centred arches containing window forms; carved on rear face and with indications of a former coved cornice; the S. screen returns without doors on S. of chancel; 15th-century. Textiles: Altar frontal, dark blue serge with yellow embossed embroidery depicting sacred monogram, emblems of Passion within a sunburst, and on lower edge 'With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer. For I say unto you I will not any more eat there of until it be fulfilled in the Kingdom of God. 1718' (Plate 53). Pulpit cloth, of dark blue material with white embossed lettering, 'St. John 1701' within a garland (Plate 53). Miscellaneous: in S. aisle, roll-moulded voussoirs of late 12th century, extracted during repairs to chancel arch.

Fig. 27 (30) Church of St. John Baptist

Brass (1) to Phillip Johnson, 1683.

Fig. 28 (31) Church of St. Martin.

(31) Parish Church of St. Martin (Fig. 28; Plate 26) stands at the W. end of a rectangular churchyard part of which was removed in 1803 when the road was widened (NRO, C.C. Papers 19). It consists of a Chancel with N. and S. Chapels, Nave with Aisles, W. Tower and S. Porch. The walls are of limestone ashlar and the roofs are covered in cement tiles or lead. The church is entirely of the second half of the 15th century, but the steeplypitched weathercourse associated with an earlier nave roof survives on the E. face of the tower; this weathercourse returns on the N. and S. of the tower indicating that the former nave and tower-aisles were left standing while the present tower was under construction. No early medieval feature survives but small-sized masonry in the lower part of the tower may be reused material. The chancel was reported as ruinous in 1473 but rebuilding appears not to have started before 1482 (Stamford Report 2, 31; LAO, Visit Vj. 4, f. 80d). Heraldry displayed on corbels in the nave implies that the rebuilding of the main body of the church was not completed before c. 1485: the arms are those of Chedworth, Bishop of Lincoln 1452–71; Russell, Bishop of Lincoln 1480– 94; Rotherham (Scott), Archbishop of York 1480– 1500; and probably Shirwood, Bishop of Durham 1485–94. The corbels were apparently inserted after the arcade had been finished, perhaps to commemorate patronage on the completion of the rebuilding of the whole church; the inclusion of Chedworth's arms may indicate that the tower was built during his episcopacy. Although the arms here attributed to Shirwood are those normally given to Sherard, it is known that the names were interchangeable at least in the 17th century (J. Foster, Alumni Oxoniensis, 1500–1714); the appearance of the Bishop of Durham's arms is reasonable in view of the known association between that See and Stamford. The arms of Russell, Rotherham and Chedworth are repeated in the 15th-century glass where also the arms of Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln 1421– 31, are depicted.

The church has been little altered since the 15th century with the exception of the N. Chapel which was increased to double its area by additions on the N. in 1865. Fittings designed by E. Browning in 1845 included the Marquess of Exeter's pew, an altar screen, a pulpit and reading desk (Burghley Estate, Account books). The church is a notable example of late 15th-century architecture; the 15th-century glass and the Cecil monuments are the principal fittings.

Architectural Description — The Chancel has fourstage weathered buttresses and battlemented parapets. The five-light E. window has vertical tracery in a four-centred head. Arches on N. and S. have half-round respond shafts, semi-octagonal moulded bases and caps with arches of two wave-moulded orders, the outer continuous with labels; this design is repeated through the church. In the S. wall the three-light window has a battlemented transom and simple tracery; the aisle windows also follow this pattern. A doorway on the S., with wave-moulded jambs and four-centred head, is blocked internally. The N. Chapel, doubled in size to the N. in 1865, has an acutely pointed arch which divides the original chapel E. and W. The arch between aisle and chapel is 19th-century; the aisle roof formerly continued as far as the dividing arch in the chapel (Plate 46). The 19th-century arch partly masks the blocked doorway to a semi-octagonal stair turret with conical roof, serving the rood loft. The S. Chapel has no arch between it and the aisle. The E. window has a higher sill below which the face is recessed for a reredos.

The Nave has lofty arcades with labels which terminate on eight widely projecting corbels carved as demiangels holding shields (Plate 20); on the E. the labels pass below the rood-loft openings in the respond. The four E. shields are carved, on the N. with arms of Russell (two chevronells between three roses) and Shirwood or Sherard (a chevron between three roundels), and on the S. with arms of Archbishopric of York impaling Rotherham (Scott) (crozier in pale surmounted by pall charged with four crosses paty fitchy impaling three bucks trippant) and Chedworth (chevron between three foxes' heads erased). The four W. shields are blank. These corbels, evidently inserted soon after the completion of the arcade, may have served as bases for figures. The N. and S. Aisles continue the architectural treatment of the chancel. The S. doorway has wave-and-bracket moulded jambs and four-centred head.

The W. Tower, of four external stages with clasping buttresses, rises to ornate cusped and battlemented parapets with crocketed pinnacles (Plate 26). The W. doorway has continuous wave-and-casement mouldings; the W. window has three lights with vertical tracery and labels returning as string-courses. The belfry windows of four cinque-foiled lights each have a pronounced central mullion rising to the apex of the almost semicircular head. Above the E. tower arch is a hollow-moulded weathercourse, following the roof line of the former nave, which returns on N. and S. indicating a nave without clearstoreys, and aisle roofs of slightly lower pitch than that of the nave (Plate 20). Impinging upon the sloping weathercourse is a deeply weathered offset of external character which continues on N., S. and W.; above, on the E., is a blocked opening with cambered head. The N. and S. tower arches are lower than the E. arch but are continued within higher, plainly chamfered, arches on the tower sides. Engaged shafts with moulded caps and bases carry the springing of wall, diagonal and intermediate ribs of a vault completed in modern times. Squinches for an intended spire survive.

The S. Porch of two storeys has a pitched roof with battlemented parapets. Above the archway of many orders is a three-light window in a four-centred head. The upper floor is carried on a quadripartite vault of minimal pitch with intermediate ribs springing from four demi-angels holding shields carved with unidentified devices; the ribs meet at a central boss carved as a demi-angel holding a shield with arms of See of Lincoln (two lions passant facing sinister, on a chief the Virgin and Child throned) (Plate 18). The upper compartment is reached by an externally projecting stair turret with conical stone roof.

Fittings — Altar: stone slab with five crosses, on main altar, probably medieval but totally recut (Gent's Mag., Sept. 1861, 278). Bells: six by Meares dated 1850. Bell frame: 1850. Benefactors' table: large wooden panel with eared surround, open pediment, recording charities from 1592 by Cecil and other families; 18th-century. Bracket: in S. aisle, E. wall, battlemented, 15th-century. Brass: in nave, panel inscribed 'ID 1815, EKD 1828, EH 1839'. Chandelier: brass, inscribed 'Robt Phillpott Christ Burtoff Church-wardens 1732', doubtless by Joseph Willford, brass founder, who was paid £20 (churchwardens' accounts, 1732–3); now in Victoria and Albert Museum. Chests: four, three of oak, one of softwood with fielded panelled front; all 18th-century. Doors: to tower vice (1), oak, of two planks with strap hinges; to porch vice (2), oak, with strap hinges and original lock; to chamber over porch (3), oak, keelsection planks, some original furniture including escutcheon and ring, and bolt; all 15th-century. Font: octagonal limestone bowl, tapering sides decorated with window forms in shallow relief, early 14th-century (Plate 40).

Glass: Five windows contain an assemblage of glass of various dates and provenances; some has always been in St. Martin's although in 1737 it is recorded that all the painted glass was taken away (Surtees Soc. 76 (1883), 325). Much of the existing glass was removed from Tattershall church (see below) in February 1757 having been given by Lord Fortescue to the Earl of Exeter (Lincolnshire Notes and Queries (1889), 1–3). Other glass from Tattershall is in Burghley House. Two windows were assembled with ancient glass by Peckitt of York in 1759, and four in 1760, but only five windows are now traceable (York City Art Gallery, Peckitt MSS Box D3; VCH, Northamptonshire II, 528; Burton, 267; Gent's Mag. (1862), 336–41; A. E. Dixon, 'Shields in Ancient Glass . . .', Northants. and Oakham Arch. Soc. XXXVII (II) (1925), 316). The glass listed below is of the second half of the 15th century unless otherwise stated. In chancel — E. window (1) (Fig. 29), in tracery, shields (a) perhaps of Latimer (gules a cross flory within a border azure with eleven crosses potent argent), (b) St. Gilbert of Sempringham perhaps of the Gilbertine hall in Stamford (argent three bars gules overall a long cross in bend azure), (c) Archbishopric of York impaling Rotherham (Scott) (azure a crozier in pale surmounted by a pall argent charged with five crosses paty fitchy impaling vert three stags trippant argent), (d) Abbey of Peterborough (gules two keys in saltire between four crosses fitchy or), (e) Fleming, for Richard, Bishop of Lincoln 1421–31, (argent two bars azure on a chief three lozenges gules), (f) monastery of St. Cuthbert, Durham, or the abbey of Bardney, Lincs. (azure a cross flory or between four lions rampant argent), and late 16th-century shields of (g) Walcot, (h) Gylby, (i) unidentified (three birds or), (j) Ogell, (k) Ayscough and (l) Panell; in the two central lights (A) is an Annunciation scene (Plate 35) with scrolls inscribed ' . . . . gra plena' and 'ancilla dni'; in main lights, shields of (m) Chedworth, for John, Bishop of Lincoln 1452–71 (azure a chevron between three wolves'/foxes' heads or); (n) Russell (twice), for John, Bishop of Lincoln 1480–94 (azure two chevronells or between three roses argent); (o) St. George in Garter, crowned; (p) 16th-century shields with Royal Arms in Garter, (q) Sheffield (quarters: 1 Sheffield, 2 Gonston, 3 Beltoft, 4 Delves, 5 Rochford, 6 Ferriby, 7 Staunton); (r) Borough (quarterly: 1 and 4 Borough, 2 Cobham, 3 Percy quartering Athole), and late 16th-century shields of (s1) Holland, (s2) Bertie, (s3) Irby, (s4) Meeres, (t1) Bilsby, 1565, (t2) Copledyke, (t3) Baude, with date 1565, and (t4) Bushy; (u) shield of Cecil, possibly that supplied by Peckitt in 1759 for £1 11s. 6d. (York City Art Gallery, Peckitt MSS, 6); in upper parts of main lights, (B) four demi-angels (Plate 35); in centre part, (C) four mitred saints, one an Archbishop, three with croziers, and (D) figure of God enthroned; the window was completed by Peckitt with panels of chequer work and other patterns composed of ancient glass fragments, and a variety of miniature heads of the 15th and 16th centuries (Plate 39). The demiangels (B) and the saints (C) are certainly from Tattershall church; the shields (a) to (f) and (m) and (n) have always been at St. Martin's. S. window of chancel (2), in tracery, angels playing dulcimers; in part above transom, two demi-angels, angel holding raiment; in heads of main lights, canopy work; in centre, male heads, late 15th and 16th-century; below transom, three figures, one with halo, crown, sceptre and book, the second an amalgamation of two figures, the third with book; completed in brightly coloured glass by Peckitt. In S. chapel — E. window (3) in tracery, crowned saint's head and angel's head; above transom, two demiangels and 16th-century shield of Clinton quartering Say within Garter; in centre, shield of Lord Cromwell of Tattershall (argent a chief gules overall a bend azure, a label ermine); below transom, three hieratic saints, two with mitres, the centre holding cross staff (the head extraneous), apostle's head; completed with patterns of brightly coloured glass by Peckitt and incorporating four heads probably of the 16th century. S. window (4), in tracery, two heads; above transom, two demiangels and two figures from a Trinity (?), early 16th-century, and below, two 19th-century shields; below transom, two saints one with crozier and book (the heads modern or from elsewhere); and in centre fragmentary figure with extraneous crowned head; made up with miniature heads in cinquefoils, medieval from various sources, and patterns of garish glass by Peckitt. In S. aisle — first window (5), in tracery, heads; above transom, three Old Testament scenes, Moses striking the rock, Samson carrying gates of Gaza, and David slaying Goliath; below transom, three New Testament scenes, the Crucifixion, the three Maries at the Tomb (one head extraneous) and the Resurrection; the scenes include appropriate inscriptions in black-letter on scrolls; included are 15th-century shields of Goldsborough (azure a cross flory argent), possibly of Marmyon (vair a fess gules), of Grey of Rotherfield (argent three bars azure a bend azure), family of Russell (argent a chevron between three crosses crosslet fitchy sable), the See of Lincoln (gules three lions passant or, on a chief azure, the Virgin and Child enthroned) and Bishop Russell, all flanked by angels. The six scenic panels (Plate 35), based on illustrations in the Biblia Pauperum and representing type and antitype episodes, come from a large series originally in the chancel of Tattershall church. Stamford glaziers were paid for providing glass in the nave of Tattershall church in 1480–2 (H.M.C., 77, Lord De L'Isle and Dudley, I, 198–9), but the glass in the chancel was probably slightly earlier. The shields of Cromwell, Goldsborough, Marmyon and Grey also come from Tattershall (Holles' Church Notes, BM, Harl MS. 6829). The shield of Borough, and other 16th-century shields, probably came from Snape; Lord Borough married Katherine Parr later wife of Lord Latimer of Danby and Snape. The arms of sees, monastic houses and bishops, now mostly in the E. window, are likely to have been made for St. Martin's; vanished shields of Gray, Alnwick and Lumley, recorded by Peck in 1727, complete a sequence of arms of Lincoln bishops from Fleming (1420–31) to Russell (1480–94) (Peck, XIV, 68, Plate 68(1)). Besides the four demi-angels and the four mitred saints in window (1), the two demi-angels and three major figures in each of windows (2), (3) and (4) also came from Tattershall where fragments in the same style remain.

Fig. 29 (31) Church of St. Martin

Diagram showing arrangement of glass in E. window.

Hatchments: in Burghley chapel, one of 1st Marquess of Exeter, 1804 and three of late 19th century. Masons' Marks: in tower, 15th-century (Fig. 6).

Monuments, and Floor-slabs. Monuments: in chancel — beneath N. arch (1) (Plates 47, 48), of William Cecil, first Lord Burghley d. (1598), elaborate free standing composition of various coloured marbles, some painted, consisting of tomb chest on podium supporting Corinthian columns, canopy of twin arches with coffered soffits, and cresting comprising obelisks, strapwork and pilastered centre-piece with scroll finials and shaped pediment; the chest has inscribed panels and carries alabaster effigy on rolled mat, in Greenwich armour, mantle with Garter badge, wand of office in right hand and lion at feet; shields in cresting are of Cecil, Cecil impaling Cheek, and Cecil impaling Cooke, with crests of Cecil as central finials. (2), of Elizabeth Plumptre, 1806, by W. Harrison; (3) of Cyril Jackson, 1797, and Judith his wife, 1785, by Westmacott. In N. chapel—(4) (Plate 46), of Richard Cecil, 1552, and Jane his wife, 1587, ornate composition of various marbles comprising plinth with cypher-and-square decoration, podium with miniature kneeling children, Corinthian columns flanking arch within which are male and female kneeling figures, he in Greenwich armour, central inscription tablet with pediment as prayer desk; above, cresting consists of obelisks, strapwork and centre-piece incorporating arms of Cecil quartering Winston, Heckinton, Walcot, Caerleon. (5) (Plates 49, 50, 51), of John Cecil, fifth Earl of Exeter, 1700, and Anne (Cavendish) his wife, 1703, classical statuary group comprising male and female figures reclining in Roman attire on inscribed sarcophagus, flanked by figures of Victory and the Arts (Plate 51), against a grey marble background composed of urns and a pyramid topped by a putto holding snake, and enriched by scroll-cartouche with arms of Cecil impaling Cavendish; the plinths to the figures are crudely inscribed 'Petrus Stephanus Monnot Bisuntinus fecit Romae MDCCIV'. The monument was commissioned by Cecil but was not completed until the year after his widow's death. It was installed by William Palmer (Gunnis, 261–2, 287–8, on the evidence of Le Neve, Monumenta Anglicana) who may have also carved the architectural setting; the flanking figures, unfinished at the back, are not integrated into the design of the monument and the central group is placed directly, without a moulding, on the sarcophagus. Payment in 1706 of £208. 5.4. for 'Mr. Balle's bill freight and charges on a monument' and in the following year of £8.2.6. for 'charges of a monument lying in London' (Child's Bank ledgers) may refer to this monument. Monuments (4) and (5) were originally sited against the N. wall of the former N. chapel (engraving publ. by S. Sharp and Ackermann) (Plate 46). In S. chapel — (6), of John Truman, January 1788, and his wives Mary, February 1747, and Lettice, 1762, and the latter's sister Margaret Mawby, 1773, white and polychrome marble, circular tablet with cusped pilasters, urn and apron with arms of Truman, signed 'Bingham, Peterbro' '; and incorporated above, (7), of Thomas Truman, 1810, by Harrison; (8), of Martha Etough (Sanderson), 1833, and others, with arms, by Smith of Stamford; (9), of James Davie, 1785, Ann, 1797, and Catherine Bellaers, 1788, shaped tablet with apron incorporating circular plaque, swags and urn on cornice, signed 'Bingham, Peterbro' '. In N. aisle — (10), of Mary and Henrietta Mottram, 1814 and 1817, with heavy floral swag beneath lozenge of arms of Mottram, flanked by reversed torches; (11), of Edward Dethe, 1687, limestone, with impaled shield of arms in scroll pediment (Fig. 30); (12), of George Neunburg, 1822; (13), of William Mackenzie, 1770, Colonel in the Russian service, '. . . his private virtues are impressed on the souls of all connected with him in characters more legible and permanent than any of which marble is susceptible. . .', white and grey veined marble with shaped apron, crest of Mackenzie, and obelisk background (Plate 52); also of Mary Humberstone, 1813; (14), of John Lawson, 1828, and Frances his wife, 1834, by Gilbert; (15), of William Harper, 1803, and Catherine his sister, wife of Healy Chapman, 1797, in white, yellow and grey marbles, signed 'Bingham, Peterbro' ' (i.e. James Bingham); (16), of Bridget, daughter of Sir Arthur Hesilrige, 1813, and Hannah her sister, 1822, tablet, apron enriched with lozenge of arms of Heselrigg, and background obelisk and urn; (17), of Joseph Phillips, 1833, and Judith his wife, 1837, and others, by Gilbert; (18), of James Holman, 1831, and Mary his wife, 1838, by Smith; (19) of William Wissing, the artist, 1687, limestone, scroll pediment and emblems of mortality (Fig. 31). In S. aisle — (20), of Henry Fryer, 1789, and Ann his wife, 1793, with apron and obelisk background; (21), of Henry Fryer, 1823, and Martha his sister, 1801, Gothic design with arms of Fryer; (22), of Joseph Michael, 1838, and Amelia his wife, 1833, as (8); (23), of Kirby Freer, 1830; (24), of Samuel Judd, 1826, and children, with arms of Judd impaling; (25), of John Davies, 1815, and Elizabeth Hodson, his grandaughter, 1839, and Elizabeth Hodson his daughter, 1848, with arms of Davies; (26), of Henry Allin, 1850, and others, by Fearn; (27), of Samuel Judd, 1801, and Susanna his wife, 1818, and five children, with shaped apron, obelisk and side brackets; (28), of Elizabeth Judd (Strachan), 1802, and Louisa Judd (Woodlett), 1814, and children; (29), of George Betts, 1814; (30), of John Neale, 1797, oval; (31), of Noah Neale, 1769, and John Neale and Elizabeth his wife, 1782 and 1780, limestone tablet with apron and obelisk, and black marble rectangular and circular plaques; (32), of Rev. John Serocold, 1835, and Mary his wife, 1830, with arms of Serocold, by Smith; (33), of Richard Millington, 1811; (34), of Sophia Baker (Tathwell), 1803; (35), of George Betts, 1806, and Alice his wife, 1822; (36), of William Symonds, 1796, and others; (37), of Sarah Stafford (Newbold), 1811; (38), of William Bury, 1823, by Gilbert. Monuments listed without full description are of simple design; (3), (8), (34), are of some pretension or have high-quality lettering. Attached externally — on tower buttress (39), of . . . . . Pollard, 1760, shaped tablet with cherubs' heads; five 19th-century tablets. In churchyard — approximately 30 enriched headstones of the 18th century; also (1) of Harriet Stokes, 1840, by Goodwin. Floor slabs: in tower — (1), to Mary Boyden, 1807, with bitumen inlay; (2), Sarah Osborn, 178(6?), circle with bitumen inlay; (3), Nathaniel Popple, 18th-century; (4), Samuel Judd, 1826, with bitumen inlay. In porch — (5), to Capt. William Bury, 1823; (6), to Kirby Freer, 1830. Painting: on responds of chancel arch, red damask patterns, 15th-century. Panelling: in N. aisle, fielded panelling in two heights, 18th-century. Piscinae: in chancel (1) and S. chapel (2), both in S. walls with depressed heads and continuous moulded jambs, projecting slabs with drain sinkings, 15th-century. Plate: cup (ht. 6 ins.), foot with egg-and-dart decoration, modern inscription between original bands, with flat fish mark of Thomas Buttell, c. 1570; cup (ht. 10 ins.), stem with knop, inscribed as gift of Margaret Lamb, '1722' roughly inscribed beneath, by James Smith 1722; flagons (ht. 11 ins.), a pair, domed lids, straight sides, inscribed, and engraved with lozenges of arms, by Thomas Folkingham 1722; plates, a pair, inscribed beneath 'the gift of Margaret Lamb' with initials MW for Margaret Walburge (Lamb), London 1682; stand paten, the foot and attachment probably modern, inscribed on rim '1688', modern donation inscription, no marks, late 17th-century. Recess: W. of piscina (1), with four-centred head, renewed moulded jambs, perhaps an adaptation of former sedilia. Royal Arms: over chancel arch, canvas in moulded frame, repainted arms of 1801– 16, date 1808 over painting 1758. Seating: oak pews of Gothic design, installed by Browning in 1844 (Burton, 274). Stoup: W. of porch archway, four-centred head, front of bowl mutilated, 15th-century. Table: oak, turned legs, stretchers, 18th-century. Tiles: in chancel with Gothic and architectural decoration, perhaps Minton, mid 19th-century.

Fig. 30 (31) Church of St. Martin

Monument (11) of Edward Dethe, 1687.

Fig. 31 (31) Church of St. Martin

Monument (19) of William Wissing, the painter, 1687.

(32) Burial Ground, belonging to St. Martin's church, contains tombstones dating from the year of opening in 1796. Signed headstones include (1), of Daniel Lambert, 1809, by 'Pollard and Shenton, engravers, Lester'; (2), of Tho. Dobney, 1841, by J. Perkins; (3) of William Hornsby, 1844, by Daniel Gilbert. Historically the most noteworthy is that to Daniel Lambert who weighed 52 stone 11 lbs. at his death in 1809.

(33) Parish Church of St. Mary (Fig. 32; Plates 10, 12, 14, 15), consisting of a Chancel, N. and S. Chapels, Nave with N. and S. Aisles, W. Tower with spire, and S. Porch, has a small churchyard on the S. The walls are of rubble and limestone ashlar, the nave and aisles are lead-covered, and the chancel and N. chapel stone-slated. External plinths and string-courses on the E. buttresses of the tower and now visible in the aisles, and the weathercourse of a nave roof, indicate that an older nave was standing when the W. tower was built in c. 1220. At the same time a chancel, narrower but almost as long as the nave, was added to the E.; shortly after, the W. respond of a S. arcade was built against the angle of the tower, the face of which was cut back to receive the stones, but the work does not then seem to have proceeded further. In the late 13th century a N. aisle, extending the full length of nave and chancel, and a S. aisle, one bay shorter than that on the N., were added; arches were cut through the chancel walls to the new chapels. The responds of the N. arcade, the E. respond of the S. arcade, the base of the E. wall of the N. chapel, and the S.E. buttress of the S. chapel, survive of this building phase in the 13th century. At the same time the roof of the nave was raised; its weathercourse, of slightly steeper pitch than its predecessor, is visible on the E. face of the tower. In the early 14th century the N. chapel was widened on the N. and another arch cut through the chancel wall; also, a stone spire was added to the tower. During the second half of the 15th century the character of the church was transformed: the nave and aisles were rebuilt with a nave clearstorey and S. porch, an elaborate stone vault introduced into the tower, new windows added to the chancel and chapels, the chancel arch rebuilt and heightened, and a decorative ceiling installed in the N. chapel. In the nave, all four 13th-century arcade responds were allowed to remain. The following restorations have taken place: in 1788, strengthening of tower and spire with iron bands, to designs by C. Staveley (drawing in vestry) with John Hames as builder, for £300 (Burton, 279); in 1842 repair of tower by Robert Tinkler for £68 (Vestry Book); in 1852–3, repewing and other alterations to designs by Rev. T. James for £703. 16. 5; in 1859–60, repair of chancel roof, rebuilding of upper part of chancel wall and introduction of new E. window by Edward Browning (Associated Architectural Societies' Reports, V., pt. 1 (1859)); in 1890, under direction of J. D. Sedding, rebuilding of vestry, installation of screens, new altar with gilded metal panels by Sterling Lee, and painting of chancel ceiling by Farrell and Wilson, and E. Sedding (LAO, Faculty Book 10/130); in 1953, cleaning of N. chapel ceiling by E. Clive Rouse.

Guilds associated with the church were those of St. Mary, perhaps founded in 1310, and of Corpus Christi which is recorded in 1350 (PRO, CH/174, 172); the latter perhaps used the N. chapel.

The tower, impressively enriched with tiers of blind arcading, has long been recognised as an important example of 13th-century architecture; the N. chapel, with 14th-century tomb recess and a carved and painted ceiling of c. 1480, is particularly noteworthy. The chief fittings comprise a large 14th-century stone figure and the Phillips tomb of the early 16th century.

Architectural Description—The Chancel has at corners and centre of the E. wall early 13th-century pilaster buttresses with chamfered angles, pronounced weathering at base, and weathered tops. The lower part of the wall is early 13th-century and is capped by a moulded string course, perhaps medieval; the upper part was entirely rebuilt in 1860, the E. window replacing a late medieval one without tracery (drawing by Buckler; BM. Add MS. 36. 369, f. 134). The N. wall has two intruded arches; the eastern, of the 14th century, is the narrower and has a semi-octagonal E. respond, coved capital, and double-chamfered arch; the W. respond has been largely removed to accommodate the Phillips tomb and adjacent doorway (monument 1). The W. arch, of the late 13th century, has half-round responds, waterholding bases, deeply-coved capitals and double chamfered arch. Between the arches, on the chancel side, is a moulded string-course, perhaps an early 13th-century survival. The S. wall is of two periods: the E. half is early 13th-century and has a late 19th-century window in the position of an earlier one (Buckler's drawing) and a doorway, probably medieval, with chamfered jambs and modern square head. The W. half, of the late 13th century, has a slightly thinner wall, the transition being made by chamfered quoins which are capped by a moulded string-course. The W. bay is occupied by an arch corresponding with that on the N. of the chancel; above it is a projecting course aligning the wall with the thicker E. half. The chancel arch with late 13th-century details was rebuilt and heightened in the 15th century; it has triple half-round responds, modern bases, coved capitals, and an arch which is not set centrally on the capitals and has two chamfers on the W. and one on the E.

The N. Chapel was formed in the 14th century by widening the late 13th-century aisle; it was refenestrated in the 15th century. It has a steeply-pitched roof with parapeted gables. Between the buttresses are high protective plinths added in 1818 by the mason Gilbert at a cost of £90 (Vestry Book). The E. wall, built slightly E. of the chancel wall, consists partly of squared ashlar and partly of rubble, the former being a survival of the 13th-century aisle extension. The late 15th-century E. window has vertical tracery and mouchettes. Inside (Plate 15), the N. wall has three tomb recesses of the 14th century; the first (Plate 16) has a trefoil head at high level with crocketed and finialled ogee surround with paterae in the hollow moulding, slender side shafts carried on corbels, and now contains a tomb and effigy of c. 1380 (monument 2). In the rear wall is a four-centred window with three cinquefoil lights and cusped openings in the head. The other recesses form a pair and are plainer; each has an unornamented ogee head with cinquefoil cusping, the spandrels either pierced or blind, and renewed head stops. In the W. wall is the N. jamb and springing of a tall window opening, presumably 14th-century, which was blocked in the 15th century by the external stair turret within which the opening's external jamb is visible. Between aisle and chapel is a 14th-century arch with double chamfers which die into plain responds.

The S. Chapel has a low weathered buttress on the E. unbonded with the wall but perhaps a 13th-century survival. In the thin E. wall, probably rebuilt in the 15th century, is a blocked medieval window with later central mullion rising to apex. The tracery of the S. window varies slightly from that of the aisle windows. Inside, a water-holding base on a high plinth in the N.E. corner, and a similar plinth in the S.E. corner, are perhaps survivals of an unfulfilled intention to vault the chapel in the 13th century.

The Nave has N. and S. arcades of three bays (Plate 14). The N. arcade has E. and W. late 13th-century responds with half-round shafts, water-holding bases and coved capitals, the W. respond being set against the cut-back surface of the tower; the late 15th-century piers each have octagonal bases, four engaged shafts with fillets, and moulded capitals with battlemented tops. The S. arcade has an E. respond uniform in design with that on the N.; it was rebuilt in the 19th century. The S.W. respond is of the early 13th century, and has clustered shafts, alternately engaged and free-standing, all with water-holding bases, two tiers of annulets and stiff leaf capitals. The 15th-century arches on both arcades are uniform and of two chamfered orders. The late 15th-century clearstorey has battlemented parapet and triangular-headed windows, each of two cusped lights.

The N. aisle, entirely of the 15th century, has at the E. end a rood loft stair turret with steeply-weathered stone roof; inside, the stair is served by upper and lower doorways with four-centred heads. Between the aisle buttresses are weathered infillings at the base, continuing the treatment to the E. The side and W. windows have vertical tracery. Below the third window is a segmental-headed recess with chamfered jambs and head. The N. doorway has continuous hollow and wave-moulded jambs and head with paterae in the hollow. The S. Aisle has side buttresses the top stages of which have gabled tops and niches with nodding ogee heads and crocketed finials. The windows are uniform with those in the N. aisle but the third is cut short below the springing to allow for the S. porch. The S. doorway has four-centred continuous hollow and wave-moulded jambs and head; to the E. is a segmental pointed recess.

The W. Tower (Plate 10), of five main stages and three storeys, has wide, shallow, clasping buttresses against which are narrow chamfered pilasters rising to the top of the third stage. The 13th-century W. doorway has an inner plain round-headed opening of the 18th century below a blocked rear arch; the original doorway has stiff-leaf imposts (Plate 9), semicircular roll-moulded arch, and an outer surround comprising engaged nook shafts, stiff-leaf capitals, two-centred arch of three moulded orders, two with nail-head decoration, and a crescent-shaped typanum with central lozenge and roundels, one surviving with quatrefoil cusping. The lower three stages are enriched with blind arcading of varying forms, the lower two having plain capitals and the third stiff-leaf decoration; the latter also returns on the W. All four faces of the fourth stage have blind arcading with trefoil arches with cinquefoil spandrels, the wall being pierced with trefoil-headed lancets and roundels. Tall belfry windows in the fifth stage have clustered shafts, annulets, nail-head decoration, stiff-leaf caps and an arch of three moulded orders, the inner slightly trefoiled. Above, a corbel course has trefoil arches and mask stops. The 14th-century spire has broaches which terminate against crocketed tabernacles for statues, on the face of the spire; two statues are of nimbed figures blowing trumpets, a third probably of St. William of Norwich holding a tall cross and a hammer and nails, and the fourth is mutilated (Plate 16). The spire has three alternating tiers of gabled and crocketed lucarnes (Plate 12). Inside, the tower arch has triple half-round responds, stiff-leaf capitals, waterholding bases, and an arch of two chamfered orders separated by a keel moulding with label and mask stops. Above the arch are two blocked 13th-century windows with trefoil heads and above again two redundant weathercourses of slightly different pitch, the lower probably relating to the pre-13th-century nave roof, the upper to the 13th-century roof (Plate 14). Formerly external plinths, string-courses and weathering on the N.E. and S.E. pilaster buttresses, now appearing in the N. and S. aisles, do not return on the E. side, implying that the tower was built against the W. end of the pre-existing nave. Across the internal angles of the tower are 18th-century infillings which mask the springing of the 15th-century stone vault above the second stage; the diagonal vault ribs are cusped-panelled and meet at an aperture for bell-raising.

Fig. 32 (33) Church of St. Mary.

The single-storey S. Porch has a low-pitched roof. It is contemporary with the S. aisle and incorporates the penultimate buttress in its E. wall. The archway and the side windows have four-centred heads. The Vestry has an E. window reset from No. 17 St. George's Square (297) (Mercury, 29 April 1881); it has two lights and trefoil in the head, 13th-century but considerably renewed (Plate 62).

The late 15th-century nave Roof is low-pitched with cambered tie beams, arch-braced to wall posts carried on stone corbels carved as grotesque heads, short king posts, purlins, foliar bosses and intermediate principals with nimbed demi-angels at the ends of each. The lean-to N. aisle roof is ridged internally with 'false' rafters; 15th-century. The roof-space of the N. chapel is sealed but the steep pitch points to a 14th-century date. The 15th-century ceiling of waggon type, of five sides, is of plaster with a diapering of applied moulded oak ribs running diagonally with bosses of radiating leaves at the intersections (Plate 24). The plate-like bosses include carvings of a crowned Host, a stag, grotesque heads, crowned and mitred heads, Tudor rose, angel holding crown, and foliar and arboreal designs (Plate 25). The central boss and radiating leaves are carved with a falcon and fetterlock, the badge of the Dukes of York who held the manor of Stamford. The plaster panels, painted blue, have central stars containing letters W., and the ribs are mostly red and gilt; this decoration is in the main original. On the S. cornice is depicted a black-letter inscription in gilt: 'Orate specialiter pro a(n)i(m)ab(u)s Wille(l)m(i) Hikham et Alicie uxoris ejus q(uo)ru(m) a(n)i(m)ab(u)s p(ro)picietur deus amen'. A vanished brass showed that the ceiling was ordered by William Hikham, alderman, and his wife:'. . . testudinem fieri fecerunt', presumably implying a benefaction during their lifetime (Gervase Holles, B. M. Harley MS. 6829, compiled 1634–42, LRS, Lincolnshire Church Notes, I (1911), 201). The ceiling may be dated shortly before 1484, the year of Alice Hikham's death, as attested by the brass; the surviving painted inscription was added after 1486, the last year in which William Hikham was recorded as a member of the Guild of St. Katherine, Stamford (Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, MS. 266/670, 18V. and 20V.).

FittingsBells: eight; 1st, 2nd, 6th by T. Mears 1802; 3rd inscribed in capitals 'Sum Rosa Pulsata Munda Maria Vocata Tobie Norris Cast Me 1625' with coins set in rim (Plate 55); 4th by Henry Penn, 1727; 5th inscribed in capitals 'Omnia Fiant Ad Gloriam Dei Tobie Norris Cast Me 1625'; 7th inscribed in Lombardic capitals 'iesus spede us stamfordiensibus inserviens ipsa conteror tobie norris cast me 1626' with arms of King Charles I (Plate 55); 8th inscribed in Lombardic capitals 'feare god honour the king IB TT gardeani 1638', probably by Thomas Norris; the Corporation's gift of £5 in 1624 towards the casting of the old 5th bell may refer to one of those by Tobie Norris (Burton, 280). Bell frame: probably 17th-century. Brass: in S. aisle, to Richard Warwick, alderman and mayor, 1684, rectangular plate with italic script. Font: limestone, octagonal bowl and stem, the former enriched with cusped panels, on modern base and foot pace, 15th-century. Glass: in N. chapel, fragments in border; in N. aisle, fragments of yellow-stain including crowned M and a wheel-pattern roundel, all 15th-century. Inscription: on W. face of spire, incised, 'R. Goodwin helped to repair 1788 T.T.' (recorded Mercury, 4 Sept. 1885).

Library: now in tower, was initially formed by Richard Banister (c. 1570–1626), the eye surgeon; he bequeathed £10 for books for the library (LAO, Lincoln Consistory Court 1626, 496). Further books were added to the collection, some in 1636 from William Dugard, schoolmaster of the Grammar School, who had received them from Banister (notes on flyleaves), and others as a result of a committee formed in the 18th century to administer the library and to collect subscriptions. The books dating from the 16th century onwards are mostly theological and number about 162 volumes. They include some with early stamped bindings, notably one by Garrett Godfrey and another by Nicholas Spierinck both of the early 16th century (stamps classified as 503 and 502 by J. B. Oldham, English Blind-stamped Bindings).The library was originally housed in the 'South Quire'; in 1704 the area it occupied was granted to Joshua Blackwell (monument 28) for burials. At Blackwell's expense the library was 'repaired and made exceeding neat' (Churchwardens' Book 1831–94 and notes on flyleaves).

Monuments: in chancel, occupying first bay of N. arcade (1) (Plate 45), limestone and clunch tomb chest with canopy, effigies, and doorway on W., probably of Sir David Phillips (d. 1506) and Anne his wife; his will records a wish to be buried in St. Mary's (PRO, Prob. 11/15), but Anne was buried in Chenies church, Buckinghamshire (RCHM, Bucks.I, 89). The long sides of the chest are both enriched with crocketed ogee niches containing attached figures of the Apostles and a wider central bay with demi-angel holding blank shield. The canopy has four-centred arch with cusped and sub-cusped trefoils below, foliated spandrels, and jambs with carved paterae including a crest (head of animal erased and collared) and vertical feathers rising from a crown. The main spandrels have undercut carvings of Welsh dragons and greyhounds supporting crowned Tudor roses or lily issuing from crown, motto scroll, rose and foliage. The cornice on N., S. and W. has undercut carving including Evangelists' symbols, grapes, branch forms, central crown and shield with I.H.S. in blackletter; on the W. the underside of the cornice is slotted, demonstrating the method of securing the panels below it. The reveals of the canopy have on the E. three enriched ogee cusped niches against an overall background of shields in cusped quatrefoils. The soffit of the canopy is missing. The figures comprise a military effigy in plate armour over mail shirt, head on crested and mantled helm, feet on lion, and hands in prayer; the female figure has hands in prayer, head on cushion supported by angels, and feet on crouched animal. Both figures wear reversed SS collars. The doorway on the W. is integral with the monument. It has four-centred head, enriched and moulded plinth, double row of cusped quatrefoils on jambs, and spandrels decorated with fleurs-de-lis, Tudor roses, feathers issuing from crowns and portcullis.

In N. chapel — N. wall (2), within recess, tomb chest with cusped panelling on long side, partly with transoms, central blank shield in cusped surround, and military effigy of alabaster in mail and plate armour with basinet, aventail and jupon, head on diagonally placed cushion supported by angels now mutilated, and on jupon in low relief three lions' gambs erect and erased, perhaps for Brown or Usher; c.1380. (3), of Ann Wright, 1829; (4), of John Blackwell, 1770, Mary his wife, 1772, daughter of Williams Winder of Dufton, cartouche with scroll surround, painted arms in head of Blackwell impaling Winder; (5), of Ann Wright, 1798, as (3) by Gilbert; (6), of Mary Blackwell, 1699, tablet with side scrolls, console brackets, swags and central cherub's head, surmounted by broken curved pediment enclosing cartouche of arms of Blackwell impaling Rogers. In N. aisle — (7), of Mary McGuffog, 1840, by Gilbert; (8), of Thomas Althorp, 1834, by Smith; (9), of Mary Althorp and child, 1838, by Smith; (10), of Lady Georgina Ramsay, daughter of Earl of Dalhousie, 1794; (11), of James McGuffog, 1829, as (7); (12), of Caroline Rocher, 1840; (13), of James Althorp, 1828, and Elizabeth his wife, 1812, and child; (14), of James Yorke, 1824, signed 'Hampd. Road, London'; (15), of John Lumby, 1842, and Catherine his wife, 1842; (16), of Mary Broughton, 1802; (17), of William Whitby, 1837; (18), of William Allen, 1844; (19), of Rebecca Baker, 1848. In S. aisle — (20), of Mary Davis, 1842,' . . from an attack of apoplexy directly after bathing . . ', and Thomas her brother, 1843; (21), of William Davis, 1810, and Mary his wife, 1838; (22), of Thomasin Davison, 1805; (23), of Richard Askren, 1800, and Mary his wife, 1798; (24), of Elizabeth Bowker, 1843; (25), of Frederick Piercy, 1827, died at Burrhampoor, by Gilbert; (26), of Joseph Piercy, 1823, Jane his wife, 1835, and infant; (27), of Mary Roberts, 1824, as (22); (28), of Joshua Blackwell, 1727, and Lettice his wife and coheiress of William Williams, 1770, white marble epitaph tablet, fluted pilasters, entablature with triglyphs surmounted by painted cartouche of arms for Blackwell, and below, a shaped and carved apron, console brackets and rococo leaf corbel; (29) of William Allen, 1829, by Gilbert. Monuments listed above without full descriptions are generally of white marble with black backgrounds, and of simple design; (7), (8), (17) and (26) are sarcophagus-shaped and of some elaboration. In porch — (30), of Margaret Stevenson, 1813, tablet with emblems of mortality, by Harrison; (31), of Sarah Stevenson, 1796. In churchyard — (1), coped slab with inscription on sides, of Ann Barry, 1660; approximately 12 embellished headstones of the 18th century, and a number of later date. Slate headstones include (2), of Mary Charlesworth, 1767, signed 'T. Smith, Grantham'; (3), of Edward Atter, 1841; (4), of David Atter, 1847; (5), of Henry Atter, 1848; all three by John Hibbitt of Colsterworth; (6), of William Parker, 1836, by Smith; (7), of Jas. Boyfield, 1848, by H. Gilbert.

Piscinae: (1), in N. chapel, E. wall, with ogee head, chamfered jambs, modern corbelled drain, 15th-century; (2), in S. chapel, S. wall, with chamfered jambs, head invisible, medieval. Plate: cup (ht. 9 ins.), flagon (ht. 16 ins.), paten and pair of plates, all with foliage decoration and other scroll-work, engraved with sacred monogram, inscribed as gift of Mrs. Mary Yorke in 1825, by Emes and Barnard, 1825. Rainwater head: on S. aisle, lead, 1718. Statue: in N. chapel, three-quarter life size, probably of the Virgin, robed, veiled, right forearm raised with restored hand, mid 14th-century (Plate 33). Stoup: external, W. of N. doorway, blocked recess with four-centred head, 15th-century. Tables: three of oak including one with round tapered legs and spreading feet, 18th-century. Tomb recesses: see N. chapel.

(34) Parish Church Of St. Michael (Fig. 33; Plates 27, 28) stands at the E. end of High Street on the site of the medieval church which partly collapsed during alterations in 1832. It consists of a Chancel, Nave with galleries, and West Tower. The walls are of ashlar and the roof is covered in Welsh slates. In April 1832 the former church was closed to allow for the introduction of new pews at a cost of £600. In June of that year attempts were made to improve the church under the supervision of John Boyfield (the third) by the removal of alternate pillars, with consequent loss of support to the tower; heavy rain caused the collapse of the roof, and the tower developed cracks and inclination (Vestry Book; Mercury, 13 April, 8 June 1832). Total replacement of the church was decided on, and in 1834 John Brown's design and estimated cost of £2,800 were accepted, the design to be 'in exact imitation of the architecture of Salisbury Cathedral' (Stamford News, 7 Oct. 1834). The foundation stone was laid on 12 May 1835, the contractors being Woolston and Collins, and the church was opened on 19 October 1836; the final cost was £4000 (Mercury, 13 Feb., 8 May, 21 Oct. 1836; Burton, 287). In a restoration in 1866 the pulpit and reading desk were removed from the centre of the nave (Mercury, 30 Nov. 1866).

The building has a pronounced 13th-century character, the details of that period being faithfully reproduced. The E. elevation is the most elaborate having two tiers of lancets beneath the central gable and single lancets with trefoils beneath the side gables; the side compartments are entered through twin porches with gables. Four tall buttresses terminate with gables at parapet level, the centre pair continuing as octagonal pinnacles. The side walls of the nave have pairs of lancets, only those facing the road being enriched with labels and shafts. Decoration to the tower (Plate 27) is concentrated at belfry stage, each face of which is pierced by three tall graduated lancets; the parapet is arcaded and the corner pinnacles are octagonal with attached shafts. The chancel has a plaster vaulted ceiling with wooden ribs. A stone gallery staircase in the N. compartment rises in three straight flights; the corresponding S. compartment is a vestry with register room above. The nave (Plate 28) has N., S. and W. galleries supported on quatrefoil cast-iron columns with capitals and bases. The ceiling, divided into rectangles, has painted cross-ribs terminating on carved corbels; the N. and S. sections of the ceiling are slightly pitched. The eastern of three circular and enriched ventilator grilles is inscribed 'John Brown architect, Norwich, 1836'. In the tower, a stone stair with cast-iron balusters and swept handrail has a central lower flight which divides on the N. and S. to reach the organ and gallery. Beneath the E. end of the church a narrow crypt running N. and S., and reached by the N.E. stair, has eight segmental vaults on the E. and three on the W., each constructed of stone and brick; the central opening on the W. has a modern blocking and may have led to a passage axial with the church. The vaults contain tombs, mostly from the former church (see Monuments). A crypt under the tower, contemporary with the church, has stone walls. On the E. a round-headed archway with circular responds and stiff-leaf capitals is blocked by a later brick apse. The capitals are possibly 13th-century, reset and recut; a similar respond-capital in the former church was drawn by William Twopeny in October 1834 (Twopeny, 290/d. 13, p. 59). The stone floor of the tower and the lower treads of the stone staircase are supported on brick barrel vaults introduced in 1876 by J. Woolston, builder, who signed the brickwork and one stiff-leafed capital. The crypt appears to have been designed as a catacomb for burials from the previous church (see wall monument (14)); it was then filled in with earth, but in 1876 was partly excavated in order that the brick vaults could be built beneath the tower.

Fig. 33 (34) Church of St. Michael.

Fittings—Bells: six (not accessible); all dated 1762 and bearing inscriptions mostly of a laudatory nature; 2nd and 4th signed by J. Eayre of St. Neots (North, Church Bells of Lincolnshire (1882), 681–2). Benefactor's Table: recording the rebuilding and enlarging of the church in 1836. Books: Bibles, one of 1825, another of 1842 and a third mid 19th-century; Common Prayer, two of 1730, two of 1743, one of 1809, one of 1825 and one of 1846; and others, early 19th-century. Brasses, coffin plates: in nave (1), to Catherine Austin, 1758; (2), to Elizabeth Wigmore, 1662 (M-S. I); (3), to children James and Joan Langton, 1686, Latin epitaph ending ' . . . Tho Cosin sculp' (Fig. 34) (M-S. II); (4), to Richard Nevison, 1759; (5), to Mary Potter, 1759. Chest: oak, rectangular, carved with date '1662'. Font: octagonal, buttressed shaft, bowl enriched with pointed quatrefoils arranged lozenge-wise, 15th-century (Plate 40). Recently moved to St. Nicholas' church, Leicester. Monuments: in N.E. stair hall — on E. wall (1), of Henry West, 1835, Mary his wife, and others; (2), of Rebecca Gouger, 1824, sarcophagus-tablet inscribed 'Near this spot is deposited until the archangel's trump shall summon from its resting place, the perishable part of Rebecca . . . '; (3), of Henry Ward, 1781, Sarah his first wife, 1776, and Hannah his second wife, 1780, Mary Harper, 1799, and others, tablet surmounted by urn; on S. wall (4), of Robert Hunt, 1846, sarcophagus-tablet, by Hibbins of Ketton; (5), of Sophia Wilson (Drakard), 1824, and child, by Gilbert; (6), of Elizabeth Robinson (Wells), 1773, Prudence Robinson (Ansell), 1780, Mary Robinson, 1815, tablet surmounted by draped urn, with addition to base by Gilbert inscribed to Joseph Robinson, 1823; (7), of William Johnson, 1819, by Gilbert; on W. wall (8), of Thomas Robinson, 1798, and Anne his wife, 1836, and child, tablet with shaped sides surmounted by urn against grey marble oval background; (9), of Elizabeth Hunt (Coddington), 1836, and daughter; (10), of Margaret Hunt, 1826, sarcophagus-tablet,; (11), of William Chamberlin, 1792, and Rebecca, his wife, 1797, tablet surmounted by draped urn; (12), of William Harper, 1814, and daughter, tablet surmounted by draped urn, by Gilbert; (13), of Sophia Hunt (Broughton), 1830, and William her husband, 1834; (14), of Alfred Harper, 1831, Charles his brother, April 1831, Anna his sister, 1836, 'in the fifth Catacomb beneath the chancel of this church'; (15), of Rev. Thomas Hurst, vicar of All Saints', 1802, and Margaret his wife, 1814, tablet with scroll cresting; (16), of Elizabeth Snow, 1808, and Thomas her husband, 1813; (17), of James Hurst, 1787, Phillipa his wife, 1793, and daughters, twin tablets with reeded pilasters and frieze, obelisk background with central and flanking urns, and apron with inscription added by Gilbert to Rev. Thomas Hurst, 1838; (18), of Clement Rubbing, 1838, by Gilbert. In nave (19), of Mary Betton, 1849, by Fearn. In tower — on N. wall (20), of William Baker, 1791, semicircular tablet against carved background with shaped apron, cresting and flanking urns; (21), of Jeremiah Belgrave, twice Mayor, 1818, and Jane his wife, 1796, and infants, tablet with brown marble classical surround surmounted by shield and crest of Belgrave, against shaped grey marble background, by Gilbert. A number of burials in the E. crypt, having inscribed tablets, are also commemorated on wall tablets listed above (nos. (1), (3), (4), (9), (12) and (14)); a tablet of 1822 on the second vault is signed 'Harrison'. In W. crypt, (22), of James Bowker, 1828. All monuments are in white marble unless otherwise stated, and those without descriptions are of plain design. Attached externally — (23), of Sam. Wilson 1838, circular cartouche with enriched top. In churchyard — tomb chest with mortality emblems, late 17th-century; approximately 30 headstones of the 18th century, some with rococo decoration; slate headstone (1), of Joseph and Elizabeth Coddington, 1791, signed 'Sparrow, Stamford'.

Plate: flagons (ht. 11 ins.), a pair, cylindrical, spreading bases, cap-shaped covers, inscribed, engraved with contemporary lozenges of arms of Scott (?) impaling Collins (?), plume-like mantlings, London 1693; plates (diam. 11 ins.), a pair, inscribed, engraved with lozenges of arms of Collins (?), 1725 by Thomas Tearle; plates (diam. 7 ins.), a pair, as larger pair; pewter dish for baptisms, inscribed '. . . 1820'. Pulpit: wooden, rectangular, in two stages, the lower pierced by arches, the upper enriched with arcading and floral decoration in 13th-century manner, resited, 1836. Reredos: plaster, cusped blind arcading beneath three crocketed gables, 1836. Seating: box pews in nave and galleries, 1836, those in nave cut down in 1866.

Fig. 34 (34) Church of St. Michael

Brass coffin plate (3) to James and Joan Langton, 1686.

For the former Church of St. Paul, see (54) Stamford School.

(35) The Church of Our Lady and St. Augustine (Plate 163), Roman Catholic, in Broad Street, was designed by George Goldie in 1862 and opened two years later. The Stamford Mercury of 26 December 1862 anticipated that it would be 'the prettiest modern Gothic building in town'. It consists of an apsidal-ended sanctuary, nave, side chapel, short N. aisle, and N. porch. The bell turret, enriched with Gothic arcading and having a steeply-pitched roof, is the external focus of the building.

(36) Congregational Church, Star Lane (Fig. 35; Plate 29), stands on land purchased in 1719 following the destruction by a mob in 1714 of an earlier chapel in St. Paul's Street. In 1739 considerable alterations were made to the building owing to its excessive roof span, but it remained until 1819 when it was demolished (Mercury, 5 Feb. 1819). The present building was started in March 1819 and opened in September. It cost £1800 and seated 800. In 1862 a new vestry was built and a section of the old corn market arcade, below Browne's Hospital, was transferred and adapted as an entrance (see Broad Street, street introduction). Further alterations in 1876 included new windows in the W. wall (church minutes, Jan. 1862; manuscript 'History' in church).

Fig. 35 (36) Congregational Church, Star Lane.

The church has red brick walls, ashlar plinth and hipped slated roof, and is entered on the narrower S. side from a small yard. The wide entrance has segmental head and double doors with reeded joinery; above is a stone panel inscribed 'MDCCCXIX'. The building was originally lit only at gallery level by round-headed sash windows, with marginal panes, but on the W. blind round-headed recesses at ground-floor level were opened as windows in 1876. On the E. there are blind lunettes below the main sash windows. Set in N. wall is a stone slab inscribed '1720', from the previous building. Doors have Gothic glazing bars. Around three sides of the interior is a gallery with curved corners and panelled front, supported on eight Doric cast-iron columns. The ceiling has a plaster cornice with beadand-reel ornament. Most of the early 19th-century box pews, and some benches with shaped ends in the gallery, remain. In entrance, small table with turned legs and moulded rails, early 18th-century.

(37) Former Trinity Methodist Chapel, Barn Hill, with ashlar walls and slated roof was built at the expense of Miss Frances Treen on land purchased in 1803; licence for worship was granted in December of that year (LAO, Faculty Book 3, f. 169). A gallery was added in 1838. The chapel was extended to the S. in 1863 (Mercury, 26 June) and the present S. front is a reconstruction from the original building probably without alteration except for the introduction of a doorway with Tuscan surround (Plate 29). It comprises round-headed windows and a central Venetian window with Gothic glazing bars, and arbitrarily placed oval panels carved in relief with emblematic representations of Faith, Hope and Charity (Plate 119). The interior now has an inserted upper floor.

(38) Former Baptist Chapel, now a pair of dwellings, No. 13 Bath Row, coursed rubble walls, hipped roof, was opened in October 1835 (Mercury, 9 Oct.). It was no longer in use by 1846 (Mercury, 18 Sept.), but the present conversion is probably late 19th-century. Originally with two tiers of windows, the openings have since been modified and augmented. A gallery probably existed at the S. end. The plaster ceiling has a cove, moulded frieze and roses for pendant lights.

(39) Chapel, Strict Baptist, North Street, was originally built by Dr. J. G. de Merveilleux in 1834 at his own cost (Mercury, 12 Aug. 1864). The chapel was enlarged in 1838 and a gallery added, but in 1901 it was dismantled except for the N. and W. walls which were incorporated in a new structure. The old walls, of coursed rubble, have tall round-headed windows, one blocked, and at a higher level are trefoiled openings (Chambers R. F., The Strict Baptist Chapels of England, IV, 116–17).

Sites Of Churches

(40) Church of St. Mary Bynnewerk, site of, probably located where All Saints' Tithe Yard stood; land to the N., known as Bonney's Paddock in the 18th century, was possibly named after the adjacent churchyard (LAO, Glebe terrier, 1800). In 1854 a coffin 'dated 1464' was dug up in the tithe yard (Mercury, 14 Sept.) and in 1895 a vault measuring 10 ft. by 8 ft. was discovered (Mercury, 21 June).

(41) Church of St. Peter, site of. The churchyard stands on ground W. of the castle, several feet higher than the road. In 1828 about 10 ft. was taken from the N. side of the yard for road widening (Mercury, 8 Aug.); later a gun captured from the Russians during the Crimean war was placed here (General Purposes Committee, Aug. 1859). The church remained standing in 1543 (LAO, LCC Wills, 1541–3) and in 1736 Stukeley recorded that fragments, believed to be from it, were built into several houses (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS. 619 f. 149). In 1858 the N. wall and part of the floor of the church were uncovered, and various fragments including a pier base, stained glass and a foliated capital were discovered (Mercury, 3 and 17 Sept., 8 Oct. 1858).

(42) Church of St. Michael the Less, site of, also known as the church of St. Michael, Cornstall, is recorded in the 12th century but in 1308 was amalgamated with St. George's church because of its poverty (LAO, Reg. 2, 24). The boundaries of the site which became known as St. George's Titheyard can still be traced, but no structure survives above ground.

Church of St. Stephen and Holy Trinity, site of, marked on the OS map on the N. side of St. Paul's Street (map in end pocket). This small extramural parish was united with that of St. Michael's in 1556, after which the church is not mentioned; there are no visible remains.

Monastic Buildings and Sites

(43) Site of Austin Friary (TF 025068; Fig. 36) lies on the W. of the town, opposite Rutland Terrace, on land sloping S. to the R. Welland. The site was first occupied by a house of the Friars of the Sack, though little is known of its history. It was a small community and only four friars were living there in 1300 (VCH Lincs., II, 230). This house was probably suppressed with the rest of the Order in 1317, and in 1341 the land was granted to the Austin Friars. In 1342 Robert de Wodehous had a licence to build and found a house for 12 friars, and at least part of the church there had been built by 1345 (VCH op. cit., 225–6). By 1538, when the friary was dissolved, there were only six friars, and the buildings were soon destroyed.

Fig. 36 (43) Site of Austin Friary.

The site was excavated in 1712 and a record of the plan then recovered was made (Peck, Forster's Letters, 10–11). The buildings appear to have been arranged around a central courtyard but no satisfactory reconstruction is possible. Forster recorded that during the excavations human bones and glazed tiles were discovered and that 'the stone pillars and windows, which have been dug up in the ruins, render the structure very magnificent'. A central vault-boss found on this site in 1712 is now in the garden of 14 Barn Hill (101) (Plate 44).

The area is at present grass land and those earthworks that remain are largely uninterpretable. The most prominent feature is a large rectangular depression up to 2 m. deep which appears to be a pond of relatively late date. Otherwise, only low uneven mounds, probably spoil heaps from the excavation, exist.

(44) Site of Benedictine Nunnery of St. Michael (TF 028064) lies on the S. side of the Welland and W. of the town. The nunnery was founded in 1155 as a cell of Peterborough Abbey, originally for both nuns and monks. The latter ceased to exist as a significant group in 1323. The house was always a small one, and was dissolved in 1536 (W. A. Sturman, 'The History of the Nunnery of St. Mary and St. Michael', unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of London, (1944)). By 1727 all the buildings on the site seem to have been destroyed. Stukeley (Designs, 46) records a female tomb effigy from the site. During the construction of the Stamford—Leicester railway in 1846 many finds were made including 'ancient foundations . . . broken mullions of windows and other carved stones, five stone coffins, a quantity of human bones, coloured glass' etc. One coffin lid with a long Latin inscription was discovered, as well as a small crucifix of jet (Gent's. Mag. (1846), 305).

Fig. 37 (44) Nunnery of St. Michael

Plan, elevation and section of reredorter.

Late in 1973 excavations for a new school building revealed part of a reredorter on the S. side of the nunnery site (Fig. 37; Plate 5). It was built on the N. edge of a large hole, presumably a quarry. The surviving 12th-century remains consisted of an arcade of four bays, entirely below ground level, with a parallel retaining wall about 2 ft. to the N., subsequently partly rebuilt. The arcade carried the S. wall of the reredorter, and the retaining wall supported the fronts of the seats. The arches are of two unchamfered orders springing from square piers against which are pilaster buttresses with chamfered plinths. Short lengths of wall bridge the space between the retaining wall and piers; a fragment of tomb slab supports the bridging wall at the E. end. Originally, drainage must have been towards the S., through the arches into the quarry, but later the level was raised and stone slabs were laid in the space behind the arcade; low walls were also added between the piers to form a water-channel running in a W. direction. In addition, the E. wall was reconstructed to incorporate a stone-lined conduit at channel level; the conduit continues E. for at least 6 ft. and may be associated with a retaining wall of coursed rubble which was added at right angles against the E. pier. The upper part of this retaining wall was in turn partly rebuilt at an unknown date. It contained a clay-lined reservoir at ground level, presumably for flushing the reredorter. In the later Middle Ages, the arches were almost completely blocked with small masonry thereby enclosing the waterchannel. The three W. arches were destroyed during recent building operations but the E. arch has been preserved.

(45) Site of Carmelite Friary (TF 035073; Fig. 38) is located immediately E. of the town walls on land sloping gently to the R. Welland. The situation of this friary has been frequently confused with that of the Grey Friars (see (46)). The house was founded sometime before 1268, at which date the church was apparently built. Records show that between 1285 and 1350 the friars were acquiring existing buildings and gardens to enlarge the site (Cal. Pat. (1281–92), 172; (1317–21), 54, 65; (1334– 8), 325; (1348–50), 512). The priory was dissolved in 1538 when seven brothers were in residence, and the site passed to the Cecils. By about 1600 all the friary buildings had been pulled down, and apart from one or two later buildings the site was probably left empty until the early 20th century when three houses were erected on the N. side.

The earthwork remains, now divided between three gardens, are in a fragmentary state and interpretation is difficult. Excavations ('a' on Fig. 38) in 1971 revealed a number of stone footings and a stone-lined drain or culvert. The surrounding stone wall is said to have once contained pieces of sculpture (Designs, 69) but these no longer exist; into the coping are built reused fragments of window dressings and chamfered stones of postmedieval date. On the S. side is part of a gateway which survived complete in 1735 when drawn by Stukeley (Designs, 67). He showed an opening with pointed head, flanked by two-stage buttresses. The E. jamb ('b' on Fig. 38), splayed and rebated internally, double-chamfered externally, remains together with some limestone blocks to the W., possibly representing the corresponding jamb.

Fig. 38 (45) Site of Carmelite Friary.

(46) Site of Franciscan Friary (TF 036075). The Friars Minor or Grey Friars were established in Stamford by 1230 when it is recorded that Henry III gave them fuel (Cal. Close (1227–31), 283). They were engaged in building by 1235 in which year the king gave them timber for making stalls (Cal. Close (1234–7), 138). By 1239 there were sufficient buildings to hold a provincial chapter (VCH Lincs. II, 228). After the suppression the site was given in 1541 to the Duke of Suffolk, by which time many of the buildings were demolished (Letters and Papers, Henry VIII, vol. XIII part ii 220, 236, 275, XVI 326) but enough remained standing for Sir William Cecil, who later bought the site, to entertain Queen Elizabeth there in 1566 (Harrod, 40). The site remained in the hands of the Cecils until 1826 when it was sold to provide a site for the infirmary (62).

Early historians confused this site with that of Whitefriars, and this error has persisted to the present day. In 1595 Greyfriars was described as being in St. Paul's parish (NRO, Fitzwilliam Misc. 433) and in 1714 and 1735 it was referred to as Far Friars whereas the adjacent area to the S.W. was called Little Friars (Ex. MS 33/27, 201/30). There can be little doubt therefore that the Grey Friars occupied the present site, further from the town, and hitherto called Whitefriars (see 45).

In 1881 excavations for a new building revealed a stone coffin 4½ ft. long, and plain glazed floor tiles said to be medieval (Mercury, 15 Apr.). In 1884 excavations for new buildings to the W. of the infirmary revealed two skeletons, and on the E. a deep pit was discovered, apparently a stone quarry (Mercury, 30 May).

At the W. extremity of the site the medieval Gateway of the friary survives (Plate 57). It belongs to the second quarter of the 14th century and is built of 'Barnack' limestone with repairs in similar stone. The approach elevation, on the W., consists of an archway of two chamfered orders with depressed head and label, flanked by two-stage buttresses, each upper stage bearing a niche with nodding trefoil head; pinnacles rising behind the niches vary in design. Over the arch is a niche uniform with the others, and flanking it are blank shields in square panels. The wall is weathered back to a parapet with crocketed pinnacles and a central merlon containing a blank shield.

Built against the back of the gateway is a Porter's Lodge. In 1848 Mrs. Hodson of St. Martins bequeathed £200 to Stamford Infirmary for the lodge to be built in the style of the 'ancient gate'; the contract was given to Thompson of Peterborough for £367 (Mercury, 28 Jan. 1848; 19 Feb. 1849). The designs were by one Cotton (Hospital Records). The lodge is generally similar in style to the friary gate. The entry has a two-centred vault and over the archway are two single-light trefoiled windows flanking a diapered panel with a shield of arms of Fryer.

(47) Priory of St. Leonard (TF 038073), remains of, stand on the E. side of the town and S. of Priory Road (Fig. 39; Plate 7). A 15th-century document states that the priory was built on the site of a monastery which was founded by St. Wilfrid in 658 and destroyed in the Danish invasion, but the association between St. Wilfrid's foundation and St. Leonard's priory is open to doubt (VCH Lincs. II, 127). A further statement in the document refers to the Stamford house being jointly refounded by the Conqueror and William Carileph, Bishop of Durham, in c. 1082, and becoming a cell of Durham. In the later Middle Ages the number of monks was much depleted and in 1440 was reduced to the prior and one monk. It remained a cell of Durham until its dissolution in 1538.

Excavations carried out under the supervision of Miss C. M. Mahany between 1967 and 1972 show that the Benedictine church comprised a long sanctuary with apse, a N. transept with apse, a nave of six bays which survives, and a N. aisle; excavated conventual buildings on the S. included a rectangular cloister with ranges on the S. and W. (Med. Arch., XII (1968), 167, 8). A reredorter at the S.W. corner perhaps implies that the dorter was in the W. range, an abnormal arrangement but also to be found at Durham, where the dorter was moved from the E. to the W. side of the cloister. The frater may have stood on an undercroft in the S. range. Of the standing remains, all but the W. three bays of the nave are of the early to mid 12th century, and presumably the destroyed parts of the church to the E. were also of this date. Very late in the 12th century, the nave was completed by the addition of three bays and a W. wall; the earliest identifiable features of the claustral buildings belong to this period. Excavations N.E. of the sanctuary revealed an L-shaped foundation probably implying a rebuilding of the sanctuary, on a wider, square-ended plan, perhaps in the 13th century.

The date of destruction of the priory is not recorded; five and a half bays of the nave, and the W. front, were allowed to remain but the E. and S. walls are Tudor, suggesting that dismantling followed soon after the dissolution. In 1747 stone coffins were found in the region of the choir (Surtees Soc. 76 (1883), 293), and in c. 1772 six coffins were found when one Ridlington, tenant of Priory House (276), 'levelled a hill before the N. front of the house' (Mercury, 24 May 1833). The Mercury of 24 May 1833 records that 'the West front fell down a few months ago and is now being rebuilt'. In c. 1844 William Fenton pulled down the walls filling the arches on the N. side, and glazed the W. windows (Burton, 265); it may be assumed that the long axial wall, with door and window openings in the Romanesque style, was built at this time.

The Nave has a 16th-century E. wall of coursed rubble and reused 'Barnack', built almost one bay W. of the crossing; at its N. end is a small doorway with triangular head. Also 16th-century are tall E. buttresses of two weathered stages in continuation of the side walls. The N. arcade is composed of five complete bays and the springing of an incomplete bay at the E. end. The round piers are substantial; the first three have chamfered bases, scalloped capitals and square abaci with reentrant angles (Plate 8). The incomplete arch has zig-zag ornament on N. and S. sides; the second and third arches have roll-moulded inner and square outer orders. 'Barnack' stone fills the spandrels, and above is a string-course, chamfered above and below; above again are two round-headed clearstorey windows, the W. complete, but the E. blocked externally and with one inner splay only. The W. three bays of the arcade are taller and wider than the foregoing. The piers have waterholding bases, capitals carved with stylized foliage on the S. but with plain coves or rudimentary leaf-forms on the N. (Plate 8); the arches have roll-moulded inner and chamfered outer orders. The W. respond has a small half-round pier flanked by nook shafts. The spandrels and wall above are in coursed rubble without string-course or openings.

The W. wall was rebuilt in 1833 except for parts of the clasping buttresses, and the plinth. The wall is in two stages; a blind vesica with roll-moulded and chamfered surround is in the gable. The lower stage has a blocked central doorway, blind side bays, all with round heads and nook shafts linked by annulets which continue as sills in the side bays. The shafts have stiff-leaf capitals and the door-head has four orders, the inner plain, the outer with different versions of zig-zag ornament; the flanking recesses have heads with nebuly and zig-zag ornament (Plate 9). The second stage has an arcade of seven bays, alternately blind and open, with shafts having simple foliage decoration on the capitals, and round heads enriched with zig-zag; the three open bays are slightly taller and have straight-splayed inner jambs and wooden lintels. Roll-moulded string-courses divide each stage, the lower string returning round the clasping buttresses. The N. buttress has some disturbed stones on the N. indicating the W. wall of the former aisle; Buckler's drawing of 1811–12 (BM Add. MS. 36369, f. 62) shows the stub wall more pronounced. Similarly, a drawing by Blore (BM Add. MS. 42000, f. 38) indicates a tall pilaster on the S. of the S. buttress, presumably a survival of the W. wall of the claustral buildings; there is now no trace of this feature.

Fig. 39 (47) Priory of St. Leonard

Plan showing standing building and excavated remains.

The S. wall has four tall buttresses and excavation has shown that it is not exactly on the line of the 12th-century wall; it is probably early 19th-century. Stukeley records in 1747 'narrow upper windows' which do not now exist (Surtees Soc. 80 (1887)).

Excavations in 1967–72 have revealed: (a) part of the apse of the sanctuary; (b) part of the apse of the N. transept; (c) an L-shaped wall N.E. of the sanctuary, perhaps 13th-century (see above); (d) cloister (garth, 34 ft. by 40 ft.); (e) W. range of cloister with central line of post holes, apparently replaced by stone piers, subsidiary post holes indicating cross partitions, and late medieval cross walls; (f) a masonry projection in the cloister, possibly related to a stair from the conjectured dorter in the W. range; (g) reredorter at S. end of W. range, with reinforcing arch in N. wall, round-headed splayed opening in S. wall, sloping footings on E., N. and W., but without indication of its upper floor (Plate 5); (h) S. range with a round pier-base to undercroft, perhaps late 12th-century, and later cross walls, two with chamfered door jambs; (i) some lengths of N. aisle of church, having buttresses of pilaster form.

Immediately W. of the standing buildings in a pasture field are traces of very low indeterminate Earthworks, nowhere more than I m. in height. These may represent other buildings. To the S. of the priory, on the flood-plain of the Welland (TF 039072) is a large rectangular pond lying parallel to the river, 60 m. long and 20 m. wide and 1 m. deep. It is connected at either end to a series of shallow drainage ditches which extend northwards of the pond. This pond does not appear to be of great antiquity but the drainage ditches may have originated as the fishpond of the priory.

For site of Dominican Friary see introduction to Blackfriars Estate (114–23).

Fig. 40 (48) Browne's Hospital

Shield of Elmes in Audit Room, window (4).