An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
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68 MORLAND (E.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. VIII, S.E.)
Morland is a parish and small village 5 m. N.W. of Appleby. The church is the principal monument.
(1). Parish Church of St. Lawrence stands in the village. The walls are of local sandstone rubble and ashlar with dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The West Tower was built in the 11th century, probably before the Conquest. Late in the 12th century the Nave was re-built and Aisles added. About 1220–30 the North and South Transepts were added, the S. aisle and the E. arcade responds re-built, and a chapel added E. of the N. transept; later in the same century the nave-arcades were re-built with some of the old material. Late in the 13th and early in the 14th century the Chancel was widened and probably re-built, together with the chancel-arch, the older responds being set back and partly re-used and a chapel was added E. of the S. transept. The chancel was again largely re-built early in the 16th century when the former S. chapel was pulled down; about the same time the top stage of the tower was added. The South Porch was re-built in 1679 and the North Aisle in 1758. In 1825 a vestry and hearse-house were built on the N. of the chancel but these were pulled down and replaced by the present Vestry in 1896 when the chancel-arch was reconstructed, the N. wall of the N. chapel (or Dalston's Porch) re-built and the church generally restored; parts of the N. transept and the W. walls of the aisles have also been re-built.
The W. tower is remarkable for its early date and the later architectural history of the church is of considerable interest.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (30 ft. by 18 ft.) has an early 16th-century E. window of four elliptical-headed lights in a segmental main head with a moulded label. In the N. wall is a window of the same date and of two similar lights; further W. is a late 13th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the inner springs from moulded corbels. In the adjoining W. wall is what appears to be the base of the W. respond of the earlier arch to the chapel, before the chancel was widened on this side. In the S. wall are two early 16th-century windows, each of four elliptical-headed lights in a square head with a moulded label; the doorway, of the same date, has moulded jambs and four-centred head. The early 14th-century chancel-arch, reconstructed in 1896, is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the re-set late 12th-century N. respond has two attached shafts with 'water-leaf' capitals; the S. respond, set back against the wall, has a late 12th-century shaft with an early 14th-century moulded capital.
The Nave (63 ft. by 18 ft.) has a late 13th-century N. arcade (Plate 145) of four bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders with a chamfered label on the S. face; the E. respond of c. 1230 has two round and one filleted shaft with moulded capitals and bases; the late 13th-century first and third piers are cylindrical with moulded capitals and bases; the lower part and the base of the first pier are of the 12th century; the re-set late 12th-century second pier is octagonal and has a moulded base and scalloped capital; the W. respond is of the same date and has two attached shafts with moulded bases and scalloped capitals. The S. arcade is similar to the N. and has a similar early 13th-century W. respond; the cylindrical columns are all of the 13th century and the late 12th-century W. respond has 'water-leaf' capitals. The bases of the first and third piers are of the 12th century and the first has foliated spur-ornaments.
The North Transept (18½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has in the E. wall an early 13th-century lancet-window; further S. is a 13th-century two-centred arch of two chamfered orders; the N. respond has a semi-octagonal shaft with a moulded capital; the S. half of the arch is incomplete and butts on to the respond, the outer order was completed on the E. face of the wall, but was filled in when the existing arch from the chancel was built. In the N. wall are two modern lancet-windows and in the W. wall one lancet-window similar to that in the E. wall; there is a modern window in the gable. The 13th-century W. arch is two-centred and of one chamfered order; it springs from shaped corbelling on the N.
The South Transept (22¾ ft. by 17 ft.) is generally similar to the N. and has corresponding lancet-windows in the E., S. and W. walls (Plate 144), all of the 13th-century. To the N. of the E. window is a blocked early 14th-century arch to the former S. chapel; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the inner resting on semi-octagonal shafts with moulded capitals; within it is a re-set 13th-century window of two lancetlights; the mullion is re-used 13th-century material, with a row of foliage-sprigs on one side. The S. windows have labels with dog-tooth ornament and there is a modern window in the gable. The W. arch has been re-built of 13th-century materials and formerly sprang from a solid wall built against the first pier of the arcade; it is now a half-arch of two chamfered orders.
The North Aisle (7½ ft. wide average) has a N. wall, with three windows and a doorway, re-built c. 1758. The W. wall and window are modern.
The South Aisle (8½ ft. wide average) was re-built at the same time as the transept. In the S. wall are two modern windows in 13th-century openings with shouldered rear-arches; the early 13th-century S. doorway has a two-centred arch of two moulded orders with a moulded label and mutilated stops; the inner order is continued on the jambs and the outer rests on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The W. wall and window are modern, but on the parapet is a stone with the date 1712. The parapet of the S. wall is dated 1759.
The West Tower (11 ft. square) is of three storeys (Plate 144), the two lower of the 11th century and the top storey of the 16th century with a corbelled parapet, incorporating 13th-century dog-tooth ornament, and a low lead-covered spire. The ground storey has a chamfered plinth on a high offset. In the E. wall is a doorway (Plate 12) with a round arch of one square order with the springing set back from the face of the responds; the jambs have draw-bar holes. The N., S. and W. walls have each a round-headed window, that on the W. enlarged externally. The second storey, forming the early bell-chamber, has in each wall an 11th-century window of two round-headed lights, with a central unmoulded baluster shaft having a simple splayed base and a square-sectioned cantilever-capital. The 16th century bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two square-headed lights with modern mullions.
The South Porch was re-built in 1679 and the side walls again in 1894. The outer archway, probably of 14th-century material, is two-centred and of two continuous chamfered orders.
The Roofs of the nave, transepts and aisles, incorporate some old timbers.
Fittings—Bells: three; 1st by Lancelot Smith of Penrith, 1687. Bell-frame, probably 17th-century. Brass and Indent. Brass: In N. transept—to John Blythe, vicar, 1562–3, inscription only, palimpsest on back, plate with part of armed figure, figure of son and part of inscription naming wife Sybille, early 16th-century. Indent: In chancel—of priest and inscription-plate, probably 15th-century. Chest: In vestry—plain of hutch-type, with iron straps, 17th-century or earlier. In tower—plain sides and panelled top, with strap-hinges, 17th-century. Coffin-lids: In S. transept— (1) tapering slab (Plate 32) with ornamental cross and foliated stem, late 13th-century; (2) fragment only with edging of leaves and top of foliated cross, 13th-century; (3) fragment with part of foliated head of cross, 13th-century. In E. wall of porch—(4) fragment with stepped base of cross, early 14th-century. Communion Rails: with turned balusters, moulded rails and square posts, late 17th-century. Doors: In N. doorway— battened door with older strap-hinges, the latter probably mediæval. In doorway of tower, battened door, probably early 18th-century, with modern facing. Font: octagonal bowl (Plate 44) with splayed underside and date 1662, on 13th-century cylindrical stem with moulded base and necking. Cover, of oak, and of pyramidal octagonal form with incised ornament on sides, arabesques on base and ball-finial; on base the text Mark I. 2., c. 1662. Lockers: In end walls of both transepts—recess with rebated reveals, 13th-century. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Mary (Whelpdale) wife, successively, of Lancelot Dawes and Thomas Fletcher, 1711, oval marble panel, erected 1713. In churchyard—S.E. of chancel, (2) altar-tomb (Plate 46) with chamfered slab and panelled sides, long sides with central recess, having crocketted head, and trefoil-headed panels, similar panels at ends, 15th-century. Panelling: At W. end of aisles, re-used early 17th-century panelling. Piscinae: In chancel—recess with three-centred head, part of round drain in re-used coffin-lid, early 16th-century. In N. chapel—in E. wall, recess with a trefoiled head, 14th-century. Plate: includes a cup of 1693 (Newcastle) given by William Atkinson in 1705, stand-paten of 1706, given by Mary Fletcher, 1707, tankard of 1712 and also two dishes and a flagon of pewter. Poor-box: In S. aisle—wooden post with top hollowed out and iron lid with straps and staples, probably 17th-century. Pulpit: four sides of octagon, with bolection-moulded panels and cornice; hexagonal sounding board with modillioned cornice and inlaid soffit, early 18th-century. Recess: In S. transept —in S. wall, with chamfered jambs, 13th-century, head modern. Screen: Between chancel and N. chapel—framing only with three posts and moulded head-beam carved with series of small heads; similar beam on S. side of chancel, late 14th-century. Miscellanea: In S. transept—in E. wall, ogee lintel with the words 'Ludus Grammaticus' and the name John Thompson, 1699; in recess below, carved fragments; nearby, hollowed stone with the letters I. and M. on two faces. In N. transept—in gable-window and in N. aisle—incorporated in W. window, 12th-century stones with cheveron-ornament. In E. wall of porch— anvil-shaped stone.
(2). Morland House, 80 yards S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built in the middle of the 16th century but was extensively added to and altered in the 19th century. The N.W. wing has two original windows of three elliptical-headed lights in square heads. There are remains of other original windows and inside the building, one room is lined with re-set panelling of various dates, including some linen-fold panels of early 16th-century date.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys. The walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
(3). Hall Farm, house, two tenements, 200 yards E.S.E. of the church, retains some original windows. Inside the building one room is lined with early 18th-century panelling with a moulded surround to the fireplace and a large panel above it. The early 18th-century staircase (Plate 57) has turned balusters, moulded strings and rails ramped over the square newels. Re-set in the farmyard is a stone with the initials and date E.M.B. 1709.
(4). Bridge End House, 120 yards S. of (3), has a twostage cupboard of the local type, with enriched upper panels and a carved fascia supported by balusters.
(5). House, on the E. side of the stream 60 yards E. of (4), was altered c. 1755. It retains one original window.
(6). Cottage, on the S. side of the road 360 yards S.E. of the church, was built perhaps early in the 16th century and retains some original windows and a truss of crutch-type.