An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
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8 BARTON (with Barton Fell) (C.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)VII, N.W., (b)VII, N.E., (c)VII, S.W., (d)VII, S.E., (e)XIII, N.W.)
Barton is a parish on the E. side of Ullswater and the river Eamont. The church, Barton Church Farm and the prehistoric monuments on Barton Fell are the principal monuments.
b(1). Parish Church of St. Michael (Plate 75) stands in the N. part of the parish. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings and ashlar of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The Central Tower and Nave were built in the 12th century. The Chancel was re-built in the 13th century, and rather after the middle of the same century the S. arcade was built and the South Aisle added; c. 1280–1300 the N. arcade was built and the North Aisle added. About 1300 the South Chapel was added, overlapping the tower, and early in the 14th century the chancel was largely re-built and extended to the E.; probably at the same period the tower-arches were re-built and widened and the tower probably reduced in height. In the 17th century the South Porch and Stabling, N. of the tower, were added and the chancel heightened. The church was restored in 1904 and the S. wall of the chancel has been largely re-built, probably in the 17th century.
The church is of considerable architectural interest and among the fittings the inscribed coffin-lid and the communion-rails are noteworthy.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (38 ft. by 18½ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of three pointed lights in a two-centred head with a moulded label. In the S. wall is a 14th-century segmental arch of two chamfered orders; the E. respond has an attached shaft with a moulded capital, a shield of the arms of Lancaster and two carved heads; the W. respond has a corbel carved with a crude bust holding a shield of Lancaster; E. of the arch is the W. jamb and part of the arch of a destroyed 13th-century doorway; above it is the E. jamb and part of the head of a window or opening, perhaps of the 13th century.
The South Chapel (38½ ft. by 10¼ ft.) has an E. window of c. 1300 and of two pointed lights. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern of the 16th century and of two elliptical-headed lights; the second window is similar but modern except for the splays; between them is a doorway of c. 1300, with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label. There was formerly a wall between the chapel and the S. aisle, removed some time after 1879.
The Central Tower (12¼ ft. by 13¾ ft.) is of two stages with a plain parapet; it is of the 12th century, reduced in height in the 14th century. The E. and W. walls (Plate 76) have each a 12th-century round arch of two orders on the W. face, the inner moulded and the outer chamfered; the responds have chamfered imposts; the lower parts of the responds of both arches have been removed for the insertion of a broader 14th-century arch of segmental form and of one moulded order continued down the jambs. On the E. wall are the marks of a lower roof of the chancel. In the S. wall of the ground stage is a round-headed 12th-century window; the stage has a rubble barrel-vault running N. and S. The second stage has a set-back at the base of the 14th-century heightening; the E., S. and W. walls have each a 14th-century window of two pointed lights; the window in the N. wall is blocked.
The Nave (40¾ ft. by 21 ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1280– 1300 and of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the piers have each four grouped and filleted shafts with moulded capitals and bases, and the responds have moulded corbels, the eastern with a carved head. The mid to late 13th-century S. arcade is of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the columns are octagonal with moulded capitals and bases and the responds have attached half-columns. In the W. wall is an early 16th-century window of three pointed lights in a segmental head with a moulded label; on the soffit of the rear-arch is a panel with the monogram L.L. and a shield-of-arms of Lancaster.
The North Aisle (8½ ft. wide) has an E. wall probably of the 17th century. In the N. wall, the lower part of which is probably of the 13th century, are two much restored 16th-century windows, each of two round-headed lights; the re-set 12th-century N. doorway has moulded jambs and round head, it is now blocked.
The South Aisle (8½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, two modern windows; the mid to late 13th-century S. doorway has a round arch of three orders, the outer plain, the middle chamfered and the inner moulded; the jambs have each two shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the outer shafts are modern.
The South Porch is of early 17th-century date and has a moulded elliptical outer archway with a key-stone; above it is a panel with a shield of the arms of Lowther, quartering Lancaster, Beetham and Hartsop.
The Stabling, N. of the tower, was used for its original purpose until comparatively recent years. In the N. wall is a square-headed 17th-century window.
Fittings—Bells: two, 2nd dated 1672 with the inscription "Saint Mickhaell for Barton." Bracket: In S. chapel—on E. wall, moulded semi-octagonal bracket, 15th-century. Brass and Indents: Brass: In chancel—on E. wall, to Frances (Fletcher) wife of Lancelot Dawes, 1673–4, inscription set in stone frame with the name Phineas Briggs of York on the brass. Indents: In chancel—(1–4) of inscription-plates. By door of stable—(5) of inscription-plate. Chair: In chancel—with turned legs, shaped arms, enriched panelled back and cresting, mid 17th-century. Coffin-lids: In chancel—(1) with ornamental cross in high relief, inscription in Lombardic capitals to Cris[top]her de La[ncaster], sword and shield-of-arms of Lancaster, early 14th-century; (2) with ornamental cross and sword, c. 1300. In S. chapel—re-used as lintel to E. window, (3) slab with remains of cross and sword, probably early 13th-century. In S. aisle—incorporated in second S. window, (4) stone with crude incised crosshead, mediæval. Incorporated in E. wall of porch: (5) fragment with ornamental cross, late 13th-century. Communion Rails: with turned balusters and moulded top-rail, late 17th-century. Font: octagonal bowl (Plate 43), splayed underside and moulded angles, moulded necking, short stem and moulded base splayed out of square, 13th or early 14th-century. Monument and Floor-slabs. Monument: In S. chapel—on S. wall, to W.D., 1674 (William Davyes), tablet with oval cartouche in broken pediment on brackets. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) with initials .. H., G.W., 17th-century partly covered; (2) to M.L., W.L., 1640. In S. porch—(3) to M.S., late 17th-century. Panelling: In chancel—round E. end, panelled dado, late 17th-century. Incorporated in screen to vestry, late 17th-century panelling. Piscina: In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled ogee head of re-used window-tracery, 14th-century, drain cut in late 12th-century capital with water-leaf foliage. Plate: Includes cup of 1632 and an early 18th-century flagon. Stoup: In S. chapel—next doorway, recess with round head and broken bowl, probably early 16th-century. Miscellanea: In S. chapel—below E. window, slab 5¾ ft. long carved with conventional ornament, rosette, fleur-de-lis, two birds, trees, etc., 16th-century. Incorporated in N. wall of chancel, 14th-century panel with two quatrefoils; in S. wall, fragments of 12th-century detail. In N. aisle wall—in blocking of N. doorway, 12th-century voussoir with cheveron-ornament. In E. wall of porch—panel with shield-of-arms of three stags' heads in low relief, 15th or 16th-century, and fragment with 12th-century cheveron-ornament.
b(2). Barton Church Farm, house and outbuildings, 250 yards W. of the church. The House is of two storeys with attics; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. The building is L-shaped with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The S. wing dates from the 16th century; the E. wing was added in 1628 by the then vicar of Barton, Lancelot Dawes. The porch was added in 1693, probably by Thomas Dawes.
The house contains some interesting remains of plaster-work.
The 16th-century S. wing retains many of its original stone-mullioned windows with moulded labels; one on the W. side is of four transomed lights; the doorway below it has chamfered jambs and square head. On the E. side is an original staircase-projection with a square-headed window. The E. wing retains some 17th-century windows, including one of five lights with a moulded label, E. of the porch. The porch is ashlar-faced and has a doorway with a triangular arch in a square head; above it is a panel with a moulded label, carved stops and the inscription "L. and A.D. Non est haec requies 1628. T. and E.D. 1693." The inner doorway has moulded jambs and a triangular arch in a square head; the nail-studded door has strap-hinges. Inside the building, the former Hall, in the S. wing, has exposed ceiling-beams and a fireplace with a wide segmental arch. The two staircases retain their original stone steps and newel, in whole or in part. In the E. wall of the E. wing is a fireplace with moulded jambs and square head. The first floor room in the S. wing retains parts of a late 16th or early 17th-century plaster ceiling, of two bays and formerly completely covered with elaborate ribbed panelling enclosing vine-sprays, rosettes, thistles and conventional scrolls; part of the plasterwork formerly on the soffit of a beam has been re-set above the fireplace; it has scrolled arabesques, masks and birds and below ten grotesque human faces from the ceiling; the date 1628 is modern. The roof of the S. wing has tie-beams, struts and curved collars.
The Outbuildings form an L-shaped block adjoining the E. end of the house. The S. range is of c. 1628, but the roof was re-built c. 1754. There are some original doorways, loop-lights and windows. A doorway in the N. wall retains its original flanking and panelled pilasters. The E. range, extending N., was built early in the 18th century and retains several doorways of that period; one has a key-stone with the initials and date T. and E.D. Augt. 13th 1702, and another with the same initials and date Augt. 22. 1701; above this is an achievement of the arms of Dawes. The interior has some exposed ceiling-beams, and the stalls in the stabling are probably original.
b(3). Kirkbarrow, house (Plate 17) and outbuildings 350 yards S.E. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. The main block incorporates portions of crutch-construction probably of mediæval date. The house was largely re-built, probably by Cuthbert Sisson, late in the 16th century. There is a late 17th-century addition at the E. end of the N. side. The late 16th-century windows have mostly been altered or blocked. The two-storeyed S. porch has inner and outer doorways with triangular arches in square heads; the door in the outer doorway is of the 17th century with strap-hinges; the room above has a two-light window. Inside the building, some of the ceiling-beams are exposed. The E. part of the main block has three mediæval crutch-trusses with heavy collars. There is a stone newel-staircase and a large open fireplace with a segmental arch. The Outbuilding, N. of the house, is probably of late 17th-century date with later additions.
b(4). Winder Hall, nearly 1¼ m. S.S.E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. The main block is dated 1612 and the E. and W. wings were added shortly afterwards. The house retains a number of 17th-century stone-mullioned windows, some with moulded labels; the E. doorway of the main block has moulded jambs and triangular arch in a square head with a label and the date 1612; the nail-studded door is of the same date and has an ornamental scutcheon. The W. door is also of the 17th century and has strap-hinges. Next to it is a projection enclosing a newel-staircase. The E. wing has two 17th-century doorways and a bay-window of four lights with one light on each return; it rests on three shaped stone corbels. Inside the building, some of the ceiling-beams are exposed and in the main block is a large fireplace with a segmental arch. Several of the doorways are original.
The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. Some of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
b(5). Glebe Farm, house 150 yards W. of the church, was built by Lancelot Dawes in 1637. The outbuilding to the W. was added c. 1700 and an addition made W. of the porch. The two-storeyed porch on the N. front has an outer entrance with a triangular arch in a square head; above it is a panel with the inscription "L.D. Non mihi sed successoribus 1637"; the window on the first floor is of three lights with a label. Other windows on the same side are of similar type and there are four original windows on the S. side. The front doorway has a 17th-century door with strap-hinges. Inside the building the E. fireplace has corbelled jambs and a square head. Two of the doorways on the first floor have ogee heads. The barn, N.W. of the house, is of late 17th-century date.
b(6). Hatch Box, building 300 yards S.E. of the church, is partly a one-storeyed barn. The middle compartment (7 ft. square) has walls sloping outwards to the ceiling level; lying E. and W. are two wedge-shaped ceiling-beams and in the E. and W. walls are curved 'crutches' with collars; this chamber is entered by a low doorway on the W. with the mortices of a large cross-beam 1½ ft. above the floor. The purpose of this structure is uncertain.
b(7). Low Brow, house 1,050 yards S. of the church, has an early 18th-century addition on the E. It retains some original windows.
b(8). High Brow, house 340 yards E. of (7), was built early in the 18th century. The windows are mostly of this date and the doorway has an architrave, frieze with the initials and date C.S. 1708, and a cornice.
b(9). North Farm, Cellaron, house, now farmbuilding, 1,600 yards S.E. of the church.
b(10). Keeper's Cottage, 20 yards S. of (9), has a later addition at the N. end. It contains large and small panelled cupboards of c. 1700.
b(11). Cottage, 100 yards N. of (4), retains some original windows.
b(12). High Winder, house 670 yards S.S.E. of (4), has an early 18th-century addition on the W. By an outbuilding S. of the house is a square boundary-stone with the initials L., M. and L.
a(13). Moorend, house 1,400 yards S.W. of the church, has an 18th-century addition on the N. Inside the building is an original newel-staircase and a panelled cupboard of the local type with simple enrichments.
a(14). Hole House, 660 yards S.W. of (13), has some original windows and a doorway with embattled enrichment on the lintel and the date and initials 1693 R. and M.N. The main fireplace has corbelled jambs, square head and cornice.
a(15). Bowerbank, cottage, 360 yards S.S.E. of (14).
a(16). Cracoe, house 300 yards E. of (15), has been largely re-built but retains a panel with the date and initials 1687 A. and S.S.
a(17). The Bank, house on the S. side of the road at Pooley Bridge 1½ m. S.S.W. of the church, retains some original windows.
a(18). Barn, now carpenter's shop, 10 yards N. of (17), has the initials and date W.P. 1708 on the doorlintel.
c(19). Elderbeck, house and barn 2 m. S.S.W. of the church. The House has been much altered, but retains a doorway with moulded jambs, square head and cornice. The Barn, N.W. of the house, has an original doorway with a four-centred head and the initials and date T.W. 1681. There is a similar doorway in the N. wall.
e(20). Woodside, house 700 yards S. of (19), is of two storeys with attics. Some of the original windows have been altered. Inside the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams and a fireplace with a moulded surround of c. 1700. The roof of the main block is of three bays with curved principals. N.W. of the house is a late 17th-century barn.
c(21). Parkhouse, 220 yards S.S.W. of (20), has a later E. wing. The house retains some original windows and a large open fireplace in the E. wing with a three-centred head.
c(22). Waterside House, on the E. bank of the lake 1 m. S.S.W. of Pooley Bridge, has some original windows and a doorway with a panelled and enriched lintel, the initials and date T. and E.D. 1694 and a moulded cornice. There are several original panelled doors. The Barn, N.E. of the house, is of six bays.
c(23). Cross Dormont, house 570 yards S. of (22), retains a doorway with the initials and date T.W. 1682. The outbuildings, attached to the house, retain some original windows.
c(24). Crookdyke, house 630 yards S. of (23).
c(25). Thwaitehill, house 300 yards S.W. of (24), has been much altered in the 18th century.
c(26). Auterstone, house at the S. end of the parish, contains a panelled and enriched cupboard of the local type, with the initials and date C. and S.L. 1659. A barn, S.W. of the house, retains a roof-truss of crutch-form.
c(27). Earthwork, called Crannog on the O.S., on the E. bank of Ullswater ¾ m. S.S.W. of Pooley Bridge, consists of an area enclosed by the lake on the N. and W. and by the remains of a ditch on the E. and S. The ditch on the E. retains a slight outer bank, but the S. arm has been filled in except for a length of scarp near the S.E. angle. In the S.W. corner of the enclosure is a small hill or mound, probably natural. The work is perhaps of the homestead-moat type.
c(28). The Cockpit, remains of a circular stone structure on the N. part of Barton Fell and on the S. side of High Street, over 1½ m. S.E. of Pooley Bridge. The work consists of what appears to be the remains of two concentric rings of stones (internal diameter 84–6 ft.) probably representing the inner and outer faces of a rough enclosing wall; most of the stones have fallen, but some thirty still remain standing on the inner line. On the line of the ring, on the E. side, are remains of what may have been a cairn or possibly a dwelling; there are two other collections of stones on the W. side of the ring.
c and d(29). Mounds, about ¼ m. N. of (28) and either side of the track from Pooley Bridge. (a) Mound on the N. side of the track 350 yards N.W. of Ketley Gate, is about 12 ft. in diameter and 1¼ ft. high. (b) Two low mounds on either side of the track 270 yards W.N.W. of (a) are about 15 ft. in diameter.
e(30). Stone Circle on Barton Fell, near the source of Swarth Beck and 2½ m. S.W. of (28), is about 57 ft. in diameter. Some 65 stones are left, but only one of these remains standing, about 3½ ft. high.
See also under Askham (46).